WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic control equipment

  1. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  2. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  3. Thermal control of electronic equipment by heat pipes; Controle thermique de composants electroniques par caloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Schneider, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Sartre, V.; Chaker Zaghdoudi, M.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Upresa CNRS

    1998-05-01

    In the frame of the BRITE-EURAM european programme (KHIEPCOOL project), a literature survey on the main beat pipe and micro heat pipe technologies developed for thermal control of electronic equipment has been carried out. The conventional heat pipes are cylindrical, flat or bellow tubes, using wicks or axial grooves as capillary structures. In the field of micro heat pipes, the component interconnection substrate. The best performances were achieved with Plesch`s axially grooved flat miniature heat pipe, which is able to transfer a heat flux of about 60 W.cm{sup -2}. Theoretical models have shown that the performance of micro heat pipe arrays increase with increasing tube diameter, decreasing tube length and increasing heat pipe density. The heat pipe technologies are classified and compared according to their geometry and location in the system. A list of about 150 references, classified according to their subjects, is presented. (authors) 160 refs.

  4. A Decoupling Control Strategy for Multilayer Register System in Printed Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Register accuracy is an important index to evaluate the quality of electronic products printed by gravure printed electronic equipment. However, the complex relationships of multilayer register system make the problem of decoupling control difficult to be solved, which has limited the improvement of register accuracy for the gravure printed electronic equipment. Therefore, this paper presents an integrated decoupling control strategy based on feedforward control and active disturbance rejection control (ADRC to solve the strong coupling, strong interference, and time-delay problems of multilayer register system. First of all, a coupling and nonlinear model is established according to the multilayer register working principle in gravure printing, and then a linear model of the register system is derived based on the perturbation method. Secondly, according to the linear model, a decoupling control strategy is designed based on feedforward control and ADRC for the multilayer register system. Finally, the results of computer simulation show that the proposed control methodology can realize a decoupling control and has good control performance for multilayer register system.

  5. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  6. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  7. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    appear to be best suited for electronic-cooling applications are the silicons, fluorinated organics, and the ethylene - glycnl-water solution. The...with power dissipa- tion of 30 watts frui each transistor. The SMximsi allowable Junction teaperature of the transistors is given as tj - 135*C

  8. A comprehensive review of rollover accidents involving vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E; Scheibe, Robert R; Eyges, Vitaly E

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present.

  9. New electronic control equipment for doubly fed induction motors of high rating

    CERN Document Server

    Dirr, R; Schluter, W; Waldmann, H

    1972-01-01

    Modern data processing systems and power electronics have made it possible to replace the auxiliary machine used hitherto for controlling doubly fed induction machines by static electronic circuits. A brief outline of the mode of operation of the doubly fed induction machine is followed by a description of the automatic control system chosen and of the direct static frequency convertor used as the final control element in solving the special problem involved by way of example of the motor of the impulsing m.g. set for the new power supply of the CERN magnetics. (6 refs).

  10. The design of the automated control system for warehouse equipment under radio-electronic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Chemidov, I. V.; Kazantsev, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, the aspects of design, development and implementation of the automated control system for warehousing under the manufacturing process of the radio-electronic enterprise JSC «Radiosvyaz» are discussed. The architecture of the automated control system for warehousing proposed in the paper consists of a server which is connected to the physically separated information networks: the network with a database server, which stores information about the orders for picking, and the network with the automated storage and retrieval system. This principle allows implementing the requirements for differentiation of access, ensuring the information safety and security requirements. Also, the efficiency of the developed automated solutions in terms of optimizing the warehouse’s logistic characteristics is researched.

  11. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans and the env...... and the environment, as well as many metals that have the potential of being recycled and reused. This makes the waste fraction (WEEE) very interesting as it is a problematic waste as well as an important secondary resource.......Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing special waste types with an estimated growth of 3–5% per year (Cui and Forssberg, 2003). WEEE is a very heterogeneous waste type that contains many compounds that are considered to be harmful to both humans...

  12. Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

    2014-03-01

    This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used

  13. Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gramatyka; R. Nowosielski; P. Sakiewicz

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the current status of waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling anddisposal in Europe, and its impact on the environment, human health and the economy.Design/methodology/approach: The production of electric and electronic equipment is one of the fastestgrowing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of WEEE. Increased recycling of WEEE issupposed to limit the total quantity of waste going to final disposal.Findings: Based on comprehensive bi...

  14. Electronic Equipment Cooling by Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, COOLING, HEAT TRANSFER, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, HIGH ALTITUDE, DENSITY, THERMAL STRESSES, AIR, COOLING AND VENTILATING EQUIPMENT, FLUIDS, COOLANTS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, WATER, MASS TRANSFER .

  15. Safety and Health Evaluation - Command, Control Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Electronic Warfare Equipment. Change 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    19. Is wiring protected when passing through openings, near sharp edges, and near hot surfaces? 20. Is suitable strain relief provided for...access to wiring that carries hazardous voltage/current, does the wiring have a 2nd barrier of protection ( jacketed cord, conduit, etc.) 22. Are...74. Are switches and other electrical components adequately protected against water entry due to rain or equipment wash down? 75. Is the

  16. 47 CFR 15.118 - Cable ready consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. 15... Unintentional Radiators § 15.118 Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. (a) All consumer electronics TV... provisions of this section. Consumer electronics TV receiving equipment that includes features intended for...

  17. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Prades Costa, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  18. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Soo; Moon, Byung Soo; Hong, Suk Boong; Kim, Yong Keun; Kim, Jung Bok

    2000-12-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the data processing system of RMS, and modified the cyclic box and IND100 using PLCs which are a facility for airborne monitoring in radiation area and lamp control modules of radiation monitoring control panel respectively. And also, a gamma-ray densitometer for KNGR has been designed and fabricated.

  19. Electronic business in the home medical equipment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, June; Graham, Michael J; Liu, Lai C

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at developing electronic business solutions to increase value for the home medical equipment industry. First, an electronic strategic value chain model was developed for the home medical equipment industry. Second, electronic business solutions were mapped from this model. Third, the top 20 dominant companies in the home medical equipment industry were investigated to see the current adoption patterns of these electronic business solutions. The solutions will be beneficial to decision-makers in the information technology adoptions in the home medical equipment industry to increase the business values.

  20. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  1. Electronic Technology in Home Medical Equipment in Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mincheng

    2016-01-01

    Home medical equipment has been an emerging industry in recent years, possessing small bulk, agile operation and relative inexpensive price. In the essay, the principle and classification of home medical equipment are introduced through the principle and structure of four types of essential home medical equipment: pulse oximeter, electronic sphygmomanometer, electronic thermometer and glucose meter. Then the application of photodiode, pressure sensor, biosensor, temperature sensor, amplifiers...

  2. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Eun; Moon, Byung Soo; Hong, Suk Boong; Kim, Jung Bok

    1999-12-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the data processing system of RMS, and also modified the cyclic box using PLC which is a facility for airborne monitoring in radiation area. (author)

  3. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myeong Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have imposed the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 15 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 18 tabs., 17 figs., 13 refs. (Author) .new.

  5. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Chung, Chong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Boong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok

    1996-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. (author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hienonen, R.; Karjalainen, M.; Lankinen, R. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). ProTechno

    1997-12-31

    The project `Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment` studied the methodology to be followed in the verification of thermal design of electronic equipment. This project forms part of the `Cool Electronics` research programme funded by TEKES, the Finnish Technology Development Centre. This project was carried out jointly by VTT Automation, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Nokia Research Center and ABB Industry Oy VSD-Technology. The thermal design of electronic equipment has a significant impact on the cost, reliability, tolerance to different environments, selection of components and materials, and ergonomics of the product. This report describes the method for verification of thermal design. It assesses the goals set for thermal design, environmental requirements, technical implementation of the design, thermal simulation and modelling, and design qualification testing and the measurements needed. The verification method covers all packaging levels of electronic equipment from the system level to the electronic component level. The method described in this report can be used as part of the quality system of a corporation. The report includes information about the measurement and test methods needed in the verification process. Some measurement methods for the temperature, flow and pressure of air are described. (orig.) Published in Finnish VTT Julkaisuja 824. 22 refs.

  7. Robust control investigations for equipment loaded panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Langley, R.S.; Rogers, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a modelling technique for equipment load panels which directly produces (adequate) models of the underlying dynamics on which to base robust controller design/evaluations. This technique is based on the use of the Lagrange's equations of motion and the resulting models...

  8. GEECS (Generalized Equipment and Experiment Control System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-12

    GEECS (Generalized Equipment and Experiment Control System) monitors and controls equipment distributed across a network, performs experiments by scanning input variables, and collects and stores various types of data synchronously from devices. Examples of devices include cameras, motors and pressure gauges. GEEKS is based upon LabView graphical object oriented programming (GOOP), allowing for a modular and scalable framework. Data is published for subscription of an arbitrary number of variables over TCP. A secondary framework allows easy development of graphical user interfaces for a combined control of any available devices on the control system without the need of programming knowledge. This allows for rapid integration of GEECS into a wide variety of systems. A database interface provides for devise and process configuration while allowing the user to save large quantities of data to local or network drives.

  9. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2014-01-01

    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  10. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Electronics Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... consumer electronics equipment for most subscribers. At the same time, however, we recognize that some... Act), Congress recognized that compatibility problems between cable service and consumer electronics...

  11. Assessment of the quantities of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszty, Katalin; Murchison, Colin; Baird, Jim; Jamnejad, Gholam

    2003-06-01

    The EC Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and on the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in electrical and electronic equipment forms the basis of legislative control over the ultimate recovery and disposal of electronic and electrical products. Understanding the quantities and composition of WEEE arising will be critical in the development of an appropriate collection and recovery infrastructure to meet the requirements of the directive. However in advance of implementation of the directive only limited information is currently available. This paper reviews recent estimates of WEEE arisings, considers the results of trial collection schemes, and presents the findings of the authors own analysis of WEEE arisings in Scotland. The results cover the period of 1998-2008 and suggest that the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment will increase until 300,000-350,000 metric tons per annum is reached.

  12. Electromagnetic interference of endodontic equipments with cardiovascular implantable electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalti, Manoela Teixeira de Sant'Anna; da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo Alves; de Araújo, Marcos César Pimenta; de Moraes, Luis Gustavo Belo; Risso, Patrícia de Andrade

    2016-03-01

    Assess the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of endodontic equipment with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and related factors. The laser device, electronic apex locators (EAL), optical microscope, endodontic rotary motors, gutta-percha heat carrier (GH), gutta-percha gun and ultrasonic device were tested next to CIEDs (Medtronic and Biotronik) with varied sensitivity settings and distances. CIEDs were immersed in a saline solution to simulate the electrical resistence of the human body. The endodontic equipment was tested in both horizontal and vertical positions in relation to the components of the CIED. The tests were performed on a dental chair in order to assess the cumulative effect of electromagnetic fields. It was found no EMI with the Biotronik pacemaker. EALs caused EMI with Medtronic PM at a 2 cm distance, with the NSK(®) EAL also affecting the Medtronic defibrillator. GH caused EMI at 2 cm and 5 cm from the Medtronic defibrillator. EMI occurred when devices were horizontally positioned to the CIED. In the majority of the cases, EMI occurred when the pacemaker was set to maximum sensitivity. There was cumulative effect of electromagnetic fields between GH and dental chair. EALs and GH caused EMI which ranged according to type and sensitivity setting of the CIEDs and the distance. However, no endodontic equipment caused permanent damage to the CIED. The use of GH caused a cumulative effect of electromagnetic fields. It suggests that during the treatment of patients with CIEDs, only the necessary equipments should be kept turned on. Patients with CIEDs may be subject to EMI from electronic equipment used in dental offices, as they remain turned on throughout the treatment. This is the first article assessing the cumulative effect of electromagnetic fields. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of tantalum recycling from waste of electrical and electronic equipment was investigated. Study was carried out using basic physical and chemical methods, ie. mechanical separation via crushing, leaching of silver layer in diluted HNO3, grinding and oxidation of anodes and thermic reduction with metallic reducing agent. A recovery rate of anodes was determined at 96%, and recycling efficiency of tantalum to pure form was determined more than 50%. Also was made mass balance.

  14. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  15. Illegal traficking of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the problem of used and discarded electrical and electronic devices is increasingly in the focus of governments', NGOs' and the media's attention. In addition to concerns about the volume of waste and the potential risks to human health and the environment from improper management, a topic that has caused the most concern is the cross-border movement of discarded electrical and electronic equipment and their placement in underdeveloped countries and developing countries. This attention has resulted in regulations at the local, national, regional and international levels, including provisions relating to the collection, treatment and export of electronic products. Illegal trade and disposal is particularly dangerous if it is taken into account that these illegal activites are often linked to organized crime in connection with other serious crimes against health, environment and economy.

  16. Influence of pulse electromagnetic fields on electronic equipment and systems in smart buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Paś

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the impact of electromagnetic fields’ impulses on technical infrastructure of electronic equipment and systems in intelligent buildings. The use of modern technical solutions in intelligent building management, i.e., human resources control and automation systems, efficient building space management, requires a large number of integrated electronic systems. Impulse interference, lightning or electricity as natural phenomena are among the most responsible for the occurrence of interference in buses, transmission lines systems, electrical installations, equipment and electronic systems used in intelligent buildings. To a large extent, it is associated with catastrophic damages that may occur in electronic devices or in completed systems such as intelligent building, e.g. ICT, security, etc. under the influence of induced voltages and interfering signals’ currents. Keywords: noise, static electricity, lightning

  17. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  18. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we comprehensively map and estimate the flows of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and the corresponding waste (WEEE) in Denmark. The quantitative analysis is supplemented with a thorough diagnosis of the WEEE management system. Dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) is used...... in 2015. In terms of the PoM quantity, the EEE market is found saturated, and can be expected to remain largely unchanged over the next decade. Consequently, there will not be any significant increase in WEEE quantities. Denmark has a well-established WEEE management system that has been performing...... adequately against the WEEE Directive. However, the new set of legislations means a need for recalibration of the performance indicators for the system. A more robust and systematic documentation of the flows will support the WEEE management system in achieving higher resource recovery....

  19. 48 CFR 552.238-70 - Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. 552.238-70 Section 552.238-70... Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. As prescribed in 538.273(a)(1), insert the following clause: Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped (SEP...

  20. AUTOMATED REMOTE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the hardware and software implementation of automated remote management system of laboratory equipment for studying fundamentals of electronics and circuit technology. This system gives the possibility to create the virtual model of a real stand. The original software has enabled to compare information from the memory of microcontroller keeping in laboratory stands with etalon model, and reveal discrepancies of set connections and template data. Graphical interface allows for operation control of students and correction of studying process. Automation of configuring and the following checking procedures has accelerated the work and decreased error frequency, made it possible to improve the quality of learning, increase efficiency of laboratory researches and control accuracy, intensify the check procedure and use self-checking in case of independent execution of tasks.

  1. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  2. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, N; Guignot, S; van Houwelingen, J A

    2013-03-01

    Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink-float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC-ABS, PS and rest product. The fractions were characterised by using the methodology described in this paper. The results show that the grade and liberation degree of the plastic products ABS, PC-ABS and PS are close to 100%. Sink-float separation and infrared plastic identification equipment confirms the high plastic quality. On the basis of these findings, a global

  3. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  4. Electronic Equipment Maintenance Training (EEMT) System: System Definition Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    3.1.1.7-- Selectiv - ity and Bandwidth (FM). He obtains the proper generic equipment subassembly and disk. The instructor is preparing a lecture... aborting the problem. If the technician incorrectly claims the equipment is restored, he is advised to continue troubleshooting, unless he is in a test

  5. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Performance test of nutrient control equipment for hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurhaidar; Kuala, S. I.; Tribowo, R. I.; Anggara, C. E. W.; Susanti, N. D.

    2017-11-01

    Automatic control equipment has been made for the nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants. Automatic control equipment with CCT53200E conductivity controller to nutrient content in irrigation water for hydroponic plants, can be used to control the amount of TDS of nutrient solution in the range of TDS numbers that can be set according to the range of TDS requirements for the growth of hydroponically cultivated crops. This equipment can minimize the work time of hydroponic crop cultivators. The equipment measurement range is set between 1260 ppm up to 1610 ppm for spinach plants. Caisim plants were included in this experiment along with spinach plants with a spinach plants TDS range. The average of TDS device is 1450 ppm, while manual (conventional) is 1610 ppm. Nutrient solution in TDS controller has pH 5,5 and temperature 29,2 °C, while manual is pH 5,6 and temperature 31,3 °C. Manually treatment to hydroponic plant crop, yields in an average of 39.6 grams/plant, greater than the yield of spinach plants with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 24.6 grams / plant. The yield of caisim plants by manual treatment is in an average of 32.3 grams/crop, less than caisim crop yields with TDS control equipment, which is in an average of 49.4 grams/plant.

  7. Equipment to Support Development of Neuronal Network Controlled Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    Equipment to Support Development of Neuronal Network Controlled Robots With this award, our team purchased an ALA 2-channel stimulus generator, an...34 laser cutter, and a Rethink Robotics Baxter Robot . This equipment supported two ARO awards, a DARPA award and two NSF-funded projects. The views...Controlled Robots Report Title With this award, our team purchased an ALA 2-channel stimulus generator, an ALA 60-channel amplifier with pre-filter

  8. Temperature controlling system using embedded equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, R.; Tirian, G. O.; Panoiu, C.

    2017-01-01

    Present paper describes the functionality of a temperature controlling system using PIC 18F45K22 microcontroller. The ambient temperature is acquired with LM35 analogue sensor. The microcontroller program is realized with MikroC compiler and it is able to control the speed of a cooling fan with dc motor. The speed can be increased in functioning with the increasing of the ambient temperature.

  9. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Routinely calibrate, inspect, or check the equipment to ensure proper performance. Your quality control... operations are approved by quality control personnel and instituted only by authorized personnel; and (e... intended use. These controls must be approved by quality control personnel. ...

  11. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um controlador eletrônico para equipamentos de aplicação de insumos Development and evaluation of electronic control system in equipments for application of fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio K. Umezu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se o desenvolvimento e avaliação de um sistema de controle para compensar a variação na rotação de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizantes sólidos de um equipamento para formulação, dosagem e aplicação de fertilizantes sólidos no sulco, a taxas variáveis, em função da alteração da temperatura do óleo hidráulico. Desenvolveram-se controladores do tipo PID, para assegurar a manutenção precisa das rotações desejadas nos motores hidráulicos de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizante. O equipamento foi testado em laboratório, utilizando-se sinais de testes padronizados, onde foi avaliado o seu comportamento em função do aquecimento do óleo hidráulico. Os testes realizados mostraram que o sistema de controle de rotação implementado foi adequado, mantendo inalterado o comportamento do sistema hidráulico, mesmo na ocorrência de variação da temperatura do óleo hidráulico.The objective of this research was the development and evaluation of a control system used to compensate variation on angular speed of dosers in an equipment for formulation, dosing and application of solid fertilizers in the furrow, at variable rates, by monitoring the hydraulic oil temperature changes. PID controllers were designed to guarantee the desired angular speed of the hydraulic motors dosing shaft. The equipment was tested in laboratory using standard signal tests procedure, being able to analyze the machine behavior as a function of the hydraulic oil temperature variations. The accomplished tests showed that the implemented control system was suitable and exhibited a steady behavior even during hydraulic oil temperature changes.

  12. Analysis of noise control measures on outdoor machinery using EQUIP+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a

  13. Use of Industrial Components in SL/BT Equipment Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E

    1999-01-01

    The control system of all SPS target stations, beam absorbers and other aperture limiting devices is presently being refurbished, using solely standard industrial hardware and software components. SIEMENS Simatic S7-300 programmable logic controllers serve as equipment controllers. They are connected through Profibus to a WinNT front-end running the SIEMENS WinCC SCADA package which acts as local controller and gateway for remote access. A variant configuration, where the PLCs are directly linked to Ethernet, has been used for controlling the SPS Q measurement kickers. These and some other SL/BT projects will be reviewed where fully off-the-shelf components have been successfully integrated into the SL accelerator controls infrastructure. The arguments leading to the various technical choices will be laid down including a report of the experience gained. Finally, the presentation will address the perspective and current ideas for using industrial components in controlling SL/BT equipment during the LHC era.

  14. Management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment: The case of television sets and refrigerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loizidou, M; Moustakas, K; Rousis, K; Papadopoulos, A; Stylianou, M

    2008-01-01

    Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) constitutes one of the most complicated solid waste streams, in terms of its composition, and, as a result, it is difficult to be effectively managed...

  15. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei A. Margun; Konstantin A. Zimenko; Dmitry N. Bazylev; Alexei A. Bobtsov; Artem S. Kremlev; Denis D. Ibraev; Martin Cech

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model o...

  16. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  17. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integration of Industrial Equipment and Distributed Control Systems into the Control Infrastructure at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lauckner, R J

    1997-01-01

    CERN Accelerators and Services have an existing large investment in control networks, fieldbuses, front-end process computers, workstations, system software and application programs. Increasingly, industrial equipment and complete Distributed Control Systems (DCS) are being installed to rejuvenate old and obsolete systems and new projects for LHC are taking shape. The object of this paper is to report experience of CERNs control engineers on integration of industrial equipment and systems. Several projects are described covering a vast area of applications. The paper presents several interfacing issues such as network connection of industrial equipment, software integration, homogeneous equipment access and alarm retrieval compatible with the existing Accelerators and Services Control System.

  19. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  20. Design of tension control system for fiber placement equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie CHANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the tension control requirements of automatic fiber placement equipments and the problems of traditional tension control system, the hammer tension control system is designed. The hammer is used as a buffer unit in the system, and the tension can be indirectly controlled by the position of the hammer. The system adopts the motion controller as the core element of the system, the AC servo motor as the actuator and the laser position sensor as the detector. The fuzzy PID control algorithm is used for the position control of hammer, which can avoid tension fluctuation by full consideration of the acceleration of the hammer. Prototype experimental results show that this system can avoid the problems of disconnection and relaxation of fiber, meanwhile, the static difference ratio and fluctuation ratio can meet the requirements of engineering practice.

  1. Technology and equipment for processing diamond materials of modern electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityagin A. Yu.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of selection and sorting of diamonds according to their physical properties by modern physical methods of the analysis are developed, as well as the technologies of precision laser cutting of diamonds, their processing on a basis of thermochemical reactions in gas environment. The experimental installation for polishing and grinding of diamond plates, installation for slicing, installation for plasma-chemical processing are created. The techniques of surface roughness measurement of the processed plates and control of roughness parameters are developed. Some experimental results are given.

  2. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  3. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  4. Current trends in small vocabulary speech recognition for equipment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    2017-09-01

    Speech recognition systems allow human - machine communication to acquire an intuitive nature that approaches the simplicity of inter - human communication. Small vocabulary speech recognition is a subset of the overall speech recognition problem, where only a small number of words need to be recognized. Speaker independent small vocabulary recognition can find significant applications in field equipment used by military personnel. Such equipment may typically be controlled by a small number of commands that need to be given quickly and accurately, under conditions where delicate manual operations are difficult to achieve. This type of application could hence significantly benefit by the use of robust voice operated control components, as they would facilitate the interaction with their users and render it much more reliable in times of crisis. This paper presents current challenges involved in attaining efficient and robust small vocabulary speech recognition. These challenges concern feature selection, classification techniques, speaker diversity and noise effects. A state machine approach is presented that facilitates the voice guidance of different equipment in a variety of situations.

  5. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savi, Daniel, E-mail: d.savi@umweltchemie.ch [Dipl. Environmental Sci. ETH, büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Kasser, Ueli [Lic. Phil. Nat. (Chemist), büro für umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland); Ott, Thomas [Dipl. Phys. ETH, Institute of Applied Simulation, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We’ve analysed data on the dismantling of electronic and electrical appliances. • Ten years of mass balance data of more than recycling companies have been considered. • Percentages of dismantled batteries, capacitors and PWB have been studied. • Threshold values and benchmarks for batteries and capacitors have been identified. • No benchmark for the dismantling of printed wiring boards should be set. - Abstract: The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given.

  6. Spectral Changes in Metal Halide and High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Equipped with Electronic Dimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Sargis, Raman; Wilson, David

    1995-01-01

    Electronic dimming of high-intensity discharge lamps offers control of Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF) but is often characterized as causing significant spectral changes. Growth chambers with 400-W Metal Halide (MH) and High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps were equipped with a dimmer system using Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as high-speed switches. Phase control operation turned the line power off for some period of the alternating current cycle. At full power, the electrical input to HPS and MH lamps was 480 W (root mean squared) and could be decreased to 267 W and 428 W, respectively, before the arc was extinguished. Concomitant with this decrease in input power, PPF decreased by 60% in HPS and 50% in MH. The HPS lamp has characteristic spectral peaks at 589 and 595 nm. As power to the HPS lamps was decreased, the 589-nm peak remained constant while the 595-nm peak decreased, equaling the 589-nm peak at 345-W input, and 589-nm peak was almost absent at 270-W input. The MH lamp has a broader spectral output but also has a peak at 589 nm and another smaller peak at 545 nm. As input power approached 428 W, the 589-nm peak shifted to 570 nm. While the spectrum changed as input power was decreased in the MH and HPS lamps, the phytochrome equilibrium ratio (P(sub ft):P(sub tot)) remains unchanged for both lamp types.

  7. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  8. Research on Architecture of the Prosthesis Shaping Equipment Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a high speed and high accuracy prosthesis shaping equipment (PSE control system, this paper proposes a new software-hardware architecture of a five-axis high performance NC system. The software part of the proposed architecture follows the rules of the hierarchy and modularity. The inheritance, scalability, and stability are ensured on the whole system and local parts. According to the idea of modular design, the framework uses the client-server mode in the communication and scheduling level. With this way, the reliability of the module management is ensured. The hardware part of the proposed architecture consists of two main parts: the controller and I/O module. The controller is based on FPGA and uses PCI bus and IPC interface. The I/O module is based on ARM + CPLD and uses CAN bus to communicate with the controller. This paper also studies some key problems such as the driving signal producing mechanism. The results of prosthesis shaping equipment prototype show that the system which uses the proposed architecture can reach the positioning accuracy up to 0.02 mm and 3D typical surface cutting accuracy up to 0.02 mm, and this accuracy level already leads similar products in market.

  9. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  10. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, R. E.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Richter, D.; Rothe, S.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-12-01

    With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The system contributes to four key aspects of RILIS operation: equipment monitoring, machine protection, automated self-reliance, and collaborative data acquisition. The overall concept, technologies used, implementation status and recent applications during the 2012 on-line operation period will be presented along with a summary of future developments.

  11. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the risk associated with accidents involving aircraft with carbon fiber composite structural components is examined. The individual fiber segments cause electrical and electronic equipment to fail under certain operating conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model was used to computer the risk. Aircraft accidents with fire, release of carbon fiber material, entrainment of carbon fibers in a smoke plume transport of fibers downwind, transfer of some fibers/into the the interior of buildings, failures of electrical and electronic equipment, and economic impact of failures are discussed. Risk profiles were prepared for individual airports and the Nation. The vulnerability of electrical transmission equipment to carbon fiber incursion and aircraft accident total costs is investigated.

  12. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, R.E., E-mail: ralf.erik.rossel@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Design Informatik Medien, Wiesbaden (Germany); Fedosseev, V.N.; Marsh, B.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Richter, D. [Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Design Informatik Medien, Wiesbaden (Germany); Rothe, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Wendt, K.D.A. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The requirements for continuous and automated RILIS operation are outlined. • Laser wavelength, power, beam position and pulse timing are continuously monitored. • A network-extended LabVIEW-based equipment operation framework was developed. • The system serves as a foundation for collaborative laser spectroscopy data acquisition. • Example applications have been successfully tested with ISOLDE experiment setups. -- Abstract: With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The system contributes to four key aspects of RILIS operation: equipment monitoring, machine protection, automated self-reliance, and collaborative data acquisition. The overall concept, technologies used, implementation status and recent applications during the 2012 on-line operation period will be presented along with a summary of future developments.

  13. How Experts and Nonexperts Operate Electronic Equipment from Instructions. Technical Report No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.; And Others

    Three questions were addressed in a Navy experiment in which subjects followed instructions to complete tasks involving several pieces of electronic equipment. First, two instructional formats were compared; a hierarchical menu format containing natural chunks of instruction was not superior overall to a simple step-by-step instructional format.…

  14. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  15. 21 CFR 111.117 - What quality control operations are required for equipment, instruments, and controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for equipment, instruments, and controls? 111.117 Section 111.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.117 What quality control operations...

  16. Chassis, and control systems and equipment; Shashi / sharyo seigyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukai, N. [Honda Technical Inst Tochigi (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Particularly noticeable items out of the suspension, steering system, braking system of automobiles announced in 1996 were outlined. No new particular system was adopted for the suspension, and the mainstream was improvement and reinforcement of the conventional methods. In the area of steering, expansion of the adoption of rack and pinion system and simplification of the power steering system were noted. In the area of the bracking system, anti-lock braking systems (ABS) were employed more as the standard equipment, and cost reduction and decrease in the size and weight were attempted. In the control system, a system of improving the turning performance of the car was employed which detects front and rear G, side G, car speed, steering angle, and yaw rate to control the distribution of driving force for the right and left wheels. Toyota adopted VSC (vehicle stability control) system for Crown and Mark 2 cars. GM installed ICCS to Cadillac. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Metallographic examination of fire damages in electronic equipment; Metallographische Untersuchung von Brandschaeden in der Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Katja; Puls, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Siliziumtechnologie, Itzehoe (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Defects in electronic components and defects caused by electronic components are a frequent cause of fire damage. 35 % of examined cases of fire damage are found to be caused by electrical equipment or by the handling of electricity. Fire damage caused by electronic elements and in electronic assemblies may have a multitude of causes. Minor damages occurring during the manufacture of electronic components and assemblies can lead to operational disruptions in electronic devices and to life-threatening situations. In order to reconstruct a fire damage, a complex failure analysis and comprehensive knowledge of the principle of operation of the devices is required. Metallographic target preparation serves to detect and describe faults. Some damage patterns taken from practice are presented and analyzed here.

  18. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated and posted near the operator's station. A mechanical... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations shall be designed, utilized, maintained, and/or tested as necessary to control the well in foreseeable...

  20. Development of controller strategies for a robotized filament winding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Edgar; Machado, José; Mendonça, João P.

    2013-10-01

    The composites reinforced with continuous fibers of polymeric material are increasingly used in applications where it is essential to reduce weight, mainly due to their high ratio of strength/weight and rigidity/weight. A conventional application are pressure vessels, used for storing liquids or gases subjected to low or high pressure, where the tape continuous fiber-reinforced polymeric matrix material is wound around a mandrel defining the final geometry. In this context the filament winding process is a very attractive process for the production of composite components. For optimal structural performance, and greater weight saving, an optimal path should be adopted, resulting only in axial tension in the longitudinal direction (slip). Such path is the geodesic winding and diverse equipment may be used to guarantee the process automation of the winding. This work herein presented is focused on the study and development of the controller program for a robotized filament winding equipment, taking into account customization of possible trajectories controlling filament winding. The automation of the custom path according to user needs increases exponentially the capabilities, where the use of a robotized solution increases process flexibility and repeatability.

  1. Analysis of performance reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of car-tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko О.Р.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operational reliability of electrical and electronic equipment of vehicles, trucks Mercedes-Benz Actros 1844 LS and Volvo FH 1242, conducting international cargo transportation is performed. It is established that the equipment is reliable, which meets modern requirements, but where there is a violation of the resolution. The reason for repair work is constructive and operational factors. Distribution of efficiency and overall performance of operational reliability is retrieved. Items with more bounce are found. Common factors of violation of efficiency cars, trucks in operation, are largely different stages in warranty runs are obtained.

  2. submitter Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Oleniuk, P; Kasampalis, V; Nisbet, D; Todd, B; Uznański, S

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary s...

  3. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleniuk, P.; Di Cosmo, M.; Kasampalis, V.; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-04-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  4. Photovoltaic System Equipped with Digital Command Control and Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV, equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT, charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a microcontroller that has capabilities and functions to the reliability of PV systems (signal generation Pulses Width Modulation (PWM, speed etc.. Concerning the MPPT control operation, we improved the accuracy and reliability of research by improving the search algorithm “Hill Climbing” taking into account the optimal operation of PV panels depending on weather conditions (temperature and light.The experiment of each block shows that the MPPT control converges instantly the operating point of the PV panels around the maximum power point, independently of sudden changes of the illumination or the load. The control blocks charge/discharge battery and sun tracking show good control of charge/discharge lead acid batteries and the need of sun tracker to increase the power supplied by the PV panel. By using the improved MPPT control, loss of power supplied by the PV panels are very low (below 5%.

  5. Digital control in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buso, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the reader, whether an electrical engineering student in power electronics or a design engineer, a selection of power converter control problems and their basic digital solutions, based on the most widespread digital control techniques. The presentation is primarily focused on different applications of the same power converter topology, the half-bridge voltage source inverter, considered both in its single- and three-phase implementation. This is chosen as the test case because, besides being simple and well known, it allows the discussion of a significant spectrum of the mo

  6. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations... Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The following requirements apply during all well-workover operations with the tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  7. Data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring for ISOLDE RILIS

    CERN Document Server

    Rossel, R E; Richter, D; Wendt, K D A; Rothe, S; Marsh, B A

    2013-01-01

    With a steadily increasing on-line operation time up to a record 3000 h in the year 2012, the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is one of the key components of the ISOLDE on-line isotope user facility at CERN. Ion beam production using the RILIS is essential for many experiments due to the unmatched combination of ionization efficiency and selectivity. To meet the reliability requirements the RILIS is currently operated in shift duty for continuous maintenance of crucial laser parameters such as wavelength, power, beam position and timing, as well as ensuring swift intervention in case of an equipment malfunction. A recent overhaul of the RILIS included the installation of new pump lasers, commercial dye lasers and a complementary, fully solid-state titanium:sapphire laser system. The framework of the upgrade also required the setup of a network-extended, LabVIEW-based system for data acquisition, remote control and equipment monitoring, to support RILIS operators as well as ISOLDE users. The syst...

  8. Depollution benchmarks for capacitors, batteries and printed wiring boards from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Daniel; Kasser, Ueli; Ott, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The article compiles and analyses sample data for toxic components removed from waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) from more than 30 recycling companies in Switzerland over the past ten years. According to European and Swiss legislation, toxic components like batteries, capacitors and printed wiring boards have to be removed from WEEE. The control bodies of the Swiss take back schemes have been monitoring the activities of WEEE recyclers in Switzerland for about 15 years. All recyclers have to provide annual mass balance data for every year of operation. From this data, percentage shares of removed batteries and capacitors are calculated in relation to the amount of each respective WEEE category treated. A rationale is developed, why such an indicator should not be calculated for printed wiring boards. The distributions of these de-pollution indicators are analysed and their suitability for defining lower threshold values and benchmarks for the depollution of WEEE is discussed. Recommendations for benchmarks and threshold values for the removal of capacitors and batteries are given. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling electronics boards with PVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of implementing a control system for electronics boards in order to perform remote Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming, hardware configuration, register control, and monitoring, as well as interfacing it to an expert system. The paper presents an implementation, using the Distributed Information Management (DIM) package and the industrial SCADA system PVSS II from ETM, in which the access mechanisms to the board resources are completely generic and in which the device prescription and the handling of mapping between functional parameters and physical registers follow a common structure independent of the board type. The control system also incorporates mechanisms by which it may be controlled from a finite state machine based expert system. Finally the paper suggests an improvement in which the mapping between logical parameters and physical registers is represented by descriptors in the device description such that the translation can be handled by a common m...

  10. Multifunctional TEM-specimen holder equipped with a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro; Murakami, Yasukazu; Yamazaki, Kazuya; Ikeda, Yuuta; Fukuda, Tomohisa

    2013-08-01

    The charging effect due to electron irradiation in an electron microscope has been studied so far with incident electrons. Here we report on a new specimen holder to control the charging effect by using electrons emitted from an irradiation port in the holder while maintaining a constant intensity of the incident electron beam. Details of the charging effect, such as electric field variation, are expected to be investigated by electron holography. The new specimen holder was developed by modifying a double-probe piezodriving specimen holder to introduce an electron irradiation port in one of its two arms. As a result, the new modified specimen holder consists of a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port, both of which can be controlled in three dimensions, using piezoelectric elements and micrometers. We demonstrate that variations in the charging effect for epoxy resin and surface contamination can be observed by electron holography.

  11. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  12. What Institutional Dynamics Guide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Refurbishment and Reuse in Urban China?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    For over two decades China has faced a veritable e-waste challenge due to the continuous increase in quantities of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) coming from foreign and domestic sources. Over more than a decade, the government’s response has been focussed on developing large-scale recycling facilities so as to recover the valuable materials within WEEE. Simultaneously, China is home to a vast, informal segment, which engages in the collection, refurbishment, and processing ...

  13. Design for remanufacturing in China: A case study of electrical and electronic equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Gillian D.; Ijomah, Winifred L.; Windmill, James F. C.

    2013-01-01

    As global demand for consumer goods continues to rise, the problem of waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) increases. E-waste is of particular concern to the world's governments and environmentalists alike, not just because of the sheer quantity that is being produced annually, but also because e-waste often contains both hazardous materials and scarce or valuable materials. Much research is now focused upon how this waste can be treated safely, economically, and in an envir...

  14. Search for the optimal size of printed circuit boards for mechanical structures for electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a method, an algorithm and a program, designed to determine the optimal size of printed circuit boards (PCB of mechanical structures and different kinds of electronic equipment. The PCB filling factor is taken as an optimization criterion. The method allows one to quickly determine the dependence of the filling factor on the size of the PCB for various components.

  15. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts Management and Control Requirements for Space Flight Hardware and Critical Ground Support Equipment...aka... The NASA EEE Parts Standard, NASA-STD 8739.10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewicz, Peter; Sampson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Describes development and content of a new NASA Standard for Electrical Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts. This Standard reflects current practices, instead of changing them. Most NASA Centers utilize local documents, but there is minimal consistency across the Agency. A gap analysis clearly shows the differences that exist among the different centers and with respect to the NASA Parts Policy. Once approved, the new standard can be referenced in contracts and agreements with organizations outside of NASA.

  16. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  17. Control of equipment isolation system using wavelet-based hybrid sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shieh-Kung; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2017-04-01

    Critical non-structural equipment, including life-saving equipment in hospitals, circuit breakers, computers, high technology instrumentations, etc., is vulnerable to strong earthquakes, and on top of that, the failure of the vibration-sensitive equipment will cause severe economic loss. In order to protect vibration-sensitive equipment or machinery against strong earthquakes, various innovative control algorithms are developed to compensate the internal forces that to be applied. These new or improved control strategies, such as the control algorithms based on optimal control theory and sliding mode control (SMC), are also developed for structures engineering as a key element in smart structure technology. The optimal control theory, one of the most common methodologies in feedback control, finds control forces through achieving a certain optimal criterion by minimizing a cost function. For example, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) was the most popular control algorithm over the past three decades, and a number of modifications have been proposed to increase the efficiency of classical LQR algorithm. However, except to the advantage of simplicity and ease of implementation, LQR are susceptible to parameter uncertainty and modeling error due to complex nature of civil structures. Different from LQR control, a robust and easy to be implemented control algorithm, SMC has also been studied. SMC is a nonlinear control methodology that forces the structural system to slide along surfaces or boundaries; hence this control algorithm is naturally robust with respect to parametric uncertainties of a structure. Early attempts at protecting vibration-sensitive equipment were based on the use of existing control algorithms as described above. However, in recent years, researchers have tried to renew the existing control algorithms or developing a new control algorithm to adapt the complex nature of civil structures which include the control of both structures and non

  18. Estimation Methods for Grid-Voltage Sensorless Control of Converters Equipped with an LCL Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkola, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    Grid-connected three-phase power electronic converters, equipped with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter, are widely used in energy production and consumption. The LCL filter effectively attenuates the switching harmonics of the converter; however, a drawback of the filter is its resonating behavior. The resonance can be damped by means of converter control, and the damping becomes easier and more effective, if the states of a dynamic full-order LCL-filter model are known (measured o...

  19. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) estimation: A case study of Ahvaz City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Babaei, Aliakbar; Takdastan, Afshin; Bagheri, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    The development of new technologies and the increasing consumption of electronic and electrical equipment have led to increased generation of e-waste in the municipal waste streams. This waste due to the presence of hazardous substances in its composition needs specific attention and management. The present study was carried out in Ahvaz metropolis using a survey method in 2011. For estimating the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) generated, the "use and consumption" method was used. In order to determine the amounts of the electrical and electronic equipment that were used and their lifetime, and for investigating the current status of e-waste management in Ahvaz, an appropriate questionnaire was devised. In 2011, the total number of discarded electronic items was 2,157,742 units. According to the average weight of the equipment, the total generation of e-waste was 9952.25 metric tons per year and was 9.95 kg per capita per year. The highest e-waste generated was related to air conditioners, with 3125.36 metric tons per year, followed by the wastes from refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, and televisions. The wastes from desktop computers and laptops were 418 and 63 metric tons/year, respectively, and the corresponding values per capita were 0.42 and 0.063 kg, respectively. These results also showed that 10 tons fixed phones, 25 tons mobile phones, and by considering an average lifetime of 3 years for each lamp about 320 tons lamps were generated as e-waste in Ahvaz in the year 2011. Based on this study, currently there is not an integrated system for proper management of WEEE in Ahvaz, and this waste stream is collected and disposed of with other municipal waste. Some measures, including a specific collection system, recycling of valuable substances, and proper treatment and disposal, should be done about such waste. Ahvaz is one of the most important economic centers of Iran, and to the best of our knowledge, no study has been

  20. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The application of ISO 9000 quality control system in the medical equipment management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Sun

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of medical treatment, and to make standardized, scientific and systematic medical equipment management. According to ISO9000 standard quality management system and the actual situation in the hospital, designed three sets of procedural documentation "medical equipment repair and maintenance procedures", "Control procedures for the purchase of equipment" and "Control procedures for surveillance and measuring devices" and improved management quality system of Medical equipment. Elements of system were under control. The implementation of ISO9000 series standard standardizes the management of hospital medical equipment and improved management of medical equipment. The management and improvement ensures the medical equipment safe, accurate and effective, improves the effectiveness of medical equipment for the hospital to create a higher interest.

  3. Safety of information in electronic equipment influenced by the charged space particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Gennad’evna Sizova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A version of the existing evaluation method of electronic equipment to the influence of charged space particles causing single event effects for the purpose of improving the accuracy of calculation in the field of information safety is suggested. On the basis of the existing and modified methods radiation tolerance of real payload spacecraft responsible for the security of transmitted information are defined. The results of comparison are introduced. Significant differences not only in quantitative but also in qualitative character of tolerance indicators are revealed. It is demonstrated that the modified method allows to take into account the functional complexity of the hardware and the application efficiency of the sophisticated single event effects protection tools. To confirm the applicability of the modified method of equipment tolerance evaluation method to the influence of charged space particles causing single event effects proposals to the procedure of ground tests of the payload and the space experiment are developed.

  4. ECOLOGICAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERWATER VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TITINSCHNEIDER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The excess of aquatic submerse vegetation development carries to the reduction of the real rearing area for the piscicultural material from the production farms and allow nestling of the ichthyophages bird species that decrease the fish production. Aquatic submerse vegetation stumble the utilization of aquatic zones for recreation and also wright function of basins utilized for the electric energy production, of micro electricity works through obstruction of the dams grid. The control of the aquatic submerse vegetation development, for Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ceratophyllum submersum, Urticularia vulgaris, Potamogeton natans, Nimphoides peltata species it is accomplish through the removing of some parts of these, preferably with all the stump system. Usually, these its accomplish with the floating equipments fit up with the thermic engines and the propulsion and governating elements who have harm over the fish and some others aquatic organisms through the noise, the displacing a large quality of water caused of propulsion systems and through the noxes elimination (flue, carburant trails, etc.. These technologies reside from the evacuation of the aquatic submerse vegetation and the stump systems of these with the help of an adjustable rake, hang up from the coast by a rope, wrapped to a drummer, who is trained by a motto-propeller group with a small installed power.

  5. RoHS regulated substances in mixed plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Schluep, Mathias; Müller, Esther; Gloor, Rolf

    2012-01-17

    The disposal and recovery of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are of considerable importance, both from an environmental and an economic perspective. This paper presents the results of a study investigating current concentrations of hazardous substances in mixed plastics from WEEE and their implications for an environmentally sound recovery. The study included 53 sampling campaigns for mixed plastics from WEEE. The samples were analyzed with regard to heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead) and flame retardants (PentaBDE, OctaBDE, DecaBDE, DecaBB) regulated in the RoHS Directive. Besides these substances, other brominated flame retardants known to occur in electronics (HBCD, TBBPA) as well as the total bromine and phosphorus contents were considered. Results show that no mixed plastics fraction from WEEE is completely free from substances regulated in the RoHS Directive. The lowest number and average concentrations were found in flat screen monitors. The highest concentrations were found in mixed plastics from CRT monitors and TVs. Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of heavy metals originate from the treatment of small household appliances (cadmium), ICT equipment (lead), and consumer equipment (lead). Mixed plastics fractions with high average concentrations of brominated flame retardants mainly originate from the treatment of small household appliances for high temperature applications (DecaBDE), CRT monitors (OctaBDE and DecaBDE) and consumer equipment (DecaBDE), in particular CRT TVs (DecaBDE). To avoid a dissipation of hazardous substances into plastics and the environment, it is recommended that mixed plastics from WEEE are subject to a strict quality management.

  6. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Local control approach to ultrafast electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia [Departamento de Química Física, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Meier, Christoph [Laboratoire Colisions, Agrégats et Reactivité, UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Université Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Sola, Ignacio R., E-mail: isola@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Física, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-20

    We study ultrafast electron transfer between separated nuclei using local control theory. By imposing electron ionization and electron transport through the continuum, different local control formulations are used to increase the yield of retrapping the electron at the desired nuclei. The control mechanism is based on impulsive de-excitation. Both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear arrangements are analyzed, as well as the role of the nuclear motion.

  8. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  9. Compensation of Reactive Power from Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1996-01-01

    that the supply line must deliver the reactive current with ensuing losses, the strong variation also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and reduce the losses and voltage....... Commissioning of the compensator is planned to January 1997. The compensator is a result of an EU-project with participation of SIEMENS (D), who is constructing the compensator, ELSAM (DK), SH (DK), UMIST (UK) and DTU (DK)....

  10. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  11. Plasma arc welding, equipment, installation and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuershbach, P. W.

    1985-02-01

    The plasma arc welding (PAW) process can achieve the highest power density of all the conventional arc welding processes and has advantages over laser beam welding (LBW) and electron beam welding (EBW). Power density is an independent variable which can be precisely controlled. The combination of high orifice gas flowrates and arc current pulsation increases weld penetration for thin section partial penetration PAW welds. Contaminants (i.e., oxygen, water vapor) in the orifice gas system are important for stable operation of the pilot arc as is the concentric alignment of the electrode within the nozzle bore. Due to a refractory oxide skin, high heat input is necessary to weld aluminum with conventional arc processes. LBW has not proven practical. Low current ac PAW with 0.035 in. thick aluminum produced small welds with a good depth-to-width ratio.

  12. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  13. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment and Related Items the President... articles the President determines no longer warrant control under Category IX (Military Training Equipment... President determines, as part of the Administration's Export Control Reform Initiative, no longer warrant...

  14. Report: recycling of flame-retarded plastics from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Leitner, Thomas; Spruzina, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Shredder residues produced in plants processing waste electric and electronic equipment are excluded from material recycling due to a variety of polymeric materials and the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFR), which might contain banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers or toxic polybrominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F). Herein we present a technological approach to transfer a significant portion of the shredder residue into recycled polymers. The technological approach consists of a density-based enrichment of styrenics, which are subjected to a solvolysis process (CreaSolv process) in a second stage. This stage allows the elimination of non-target polymers and extraction of BFR and PBDD/F. Pilot processing of 11.5 and 50 kg shredder residues indicated a material yield of about 50% in the density stage and 70-80% in the CreaSolv process, and an effective removal of BFR additives. The recycled products were proved to comply with threshold values defined by the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) and the German Chemikalienverbotsverordnung. Mechanical material properties exhibited high tensile and flexural modules as well as slight impact strength, which qualify the products for applications in new electronic equipment.

  15. Management and Control of the Furniture and Equipment Inventory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, John R., Jr.; Brown, William W.

    The furniture and equipment inventory system of the Montgomery County Public Schools is examined in this report. Following a summary, comments provided by the Office of the Associate Superintendent for Supportive Services relating to recommendations made in the report are presented. The first chapter provides an introduction, background, program…

  16. Controlling Electronics Boards with PVS

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    - Introduction - Control System Architecture - Device Description - FPGA Programming - Register Control - Data Subscription - Examples of Graphics User Interfaces - Parameter - Register Translation - Application on the LHCb Timing Fast Control System

  17. 77 FR 70945 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 RIN 0694-AF64 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic Equipment and Related Items the President Determines No... which they are currently controlled are: Military electronics (Category XI) and certain cryogenic and...

  18. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  19. Electronic control of magnonic and spintronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.; Gieraltowski, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanometric magnonic and spintronic devices need magnetic field control in addition to conventional electronic control. In this work we review ways to replace magnetic field control by an electronic one in order to circumvent appearance of stray magnetic fields or the difficulty of creating large magnetic fields over nanometric distances. Voltage control is compared to current control and corresponding devices are compared from their energetic efficiency point of view.

  20. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  1. Effective solutions for monitoring the electrostatic separation of metal and plastic granular waste from electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senouci, Khouira; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2013-02-01

    The variability of the quantity and purity of the recovered materials is a serious drawback for the application of electrostatic separation technologies to the recycling of granular wastes. In a series of previous articles we have pointed out how capability and classic control chart concepts could be employed for better mastering the outcome of such processes. In the present work, the multiple exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart is introduced and shown to be more effective than the Hotelling T2 chart for monitoring slow varying changes in the electrostatic separation of granular mixtures originating from electric and electronic equipment waste. The operation of the industrial process was simulated by using a laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator and granular samples resulting from shredded electric cable wastes. The 25 tests carried out during the observation phase enabled the calculation of the upper and lower control limits for the two control charts considered in the present study. The 11 additional tests that simulated the monitoring phase pointed out that the MEWMA chart is more effective than Hotelling's T(2) chart in detecting slow varying changes in the outcome of a process. As the reverse is true in the case of abrupt alterations of monitored process performances, simultaneous usage of the two control charts is strongly recommended. While this study focused on a specific electrostatic separation process, using the MEWMA chart together with the well known Hotelling's T(2) chart should be applicable to the statistical control of other complex processes in the field of waste processing.

  2. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decentralised cooling of electronic equipment using the thermal conversion of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P.; Lecuona, A.; Venegas, M.; Sardina, M.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Lopez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Madrid, (SP); Izquierdo, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Madrid (SP)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the application of solar energy in electronic equipment cooling is evaluated. The whole facility including thermal load, an absorption cooling machine, a gas driven boiler and a thermal solar system composed by 50 m2 of flat collectors, heat exchanger, 2 m3 storage tank and pumps, is simulated. Real environmental data corresponding to several extremely hot summer days in Madrid including solar radiation, ambient temperature and humidity and wind velocity and direction, were measured and applied in the system performance evaluation. For model validation, a 50 m2 flat thermal solar panels system in the UC3M, were monitored with temperature and water flow sensors. The absorption cooling machine was also monitored. Experimental data were taken at 2 seconds acquisition rate, saving averaged values over 10 minutes. Thermal environmental and electrical load daily fluctuation was also simulated using a communication wireless real equipment specifications. With the assistance of simulation, the effect of storage tank dimensioning on the system operating time is analyzed. Finally, a comparison with a conventional mechanical compressor driven cooling machine is performed. The environmental impact reduction is also computed and results are shown and discussed.

  4. RoHS directive: restriction of the use of lead in electronic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, restricts the use of lead in the manufacture of electronic equipment. This has many consequences for the manufacture of printed circuit boards and assemblies, from their design and repair to the purchase of components. If you have any questions on this subject, we invite you to attend a training session which will be held at CERN from 1.30 to 5.30 p.m. on 21st June. All the details, including the course contents and instructions on how to register for it, can be found here. Please note that the session will be held in French.

  5. RoHS directive: restriction of the use of lead in electronic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which entered into force on 1st July 2006, restricts the use of lead in the manufacture of electronic equipment. This has many consequences for the manufacture of printed circuit boards and assemblies, from their design and repair to the purchase of components. If you have any questions on this subject, we invite you to attend a training session which will be held at CERN from 1.30 to 5.30 to p.m. on 21st June. All the details, including the course contents and instructions on how to register for it, can be found here Please note that the session will be held in French.

  6. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  7. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Carnevale, D., E-mail: carnevaledaniele@gmail.com [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Granucci, G. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Martin-Solis, J.R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes-Madrid (Spain); Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Varano, G. [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ. de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-10-15

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed.

  8. Corrections of magnification and focusing in a cathode lens-equipped scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobacová, J; Zobac, M; Oral, M; Müllerová, I; Frank, L

    2006-01-01

    One of the well-proven and efficient methods of obtaining a very low-energy impact of primary electrons in the scanning electron microscope is to introduce a retarding field element below the pole piece of the objective lens (OL). It is advantageous to use the specimen alone as the negatively biased electrode (i.e., cathode of the cathode lens). The optical power of the cathode lens modifies some of the standard parameters of the image formation such as relation of working distance to OL excitation or magnification to the scanning coils current, the impact angle of primary electrons, and so forth. In computer-controlled electron microscopes these parameters, particularly with regard to focusing and magnification, can be corrected automatically. Derivation of algorithms for such corrections and their experimental verifications are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a more accurate analytical expression for the focal length of an aperture lens is derived.

  9. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  11. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-10-15

    The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (TCd=69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.

    2014-01-01

    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  13. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. Characterisation of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Mäurer, Andreas; Wolz, Gerd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2007-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This is mainly due to high recycling and recovery quotas set by the European WEEE directive, which can only be fulfilled by including the plastic fraction in recycling and recovery approaches. Previous studies identified a high material diversity and various contaminants in WEEE plastics, including heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as well as polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F). These substances are regulated by European directives that limit their levels in marketable products. Consequently, both material diversity and contaminants are strong arguments against material recycling and point to hazardous waste treatment. However, recent developments in the production of flame retardants and electrical and electronic goods aimed to reduce contaminants and material diversity. Thus, the present study summarises updated contaminant levels of plastic fractions of European WEEE, as well as data on materials in waste housing polymers. Material characterisation revealed housing fractions to be interesting sources for polymer recycling, which however has to implement potent material separation and/or bromine elimination techniques. With respect to contaminants, our data indicate an effective phase-out of PBB, but still high levels of PBDE and PBDD/F are found. Sources and implications for the material recycling and thermal recovery approaches are discussed in detail.

  15. Periodic Control of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Danwei, Wang; Yang, Yongheng

    Advanced power electronic converters convert, control and condition electricity. Power converters require control strategies for periodic signal compensation to assure good power quality and stable power system operation. This comprehensive text presents the most recent internal model principle...... based periodic control technology, which offers the perfect periodic control solution for power electronic conversion. It also provides complete analysis and synthesis methods for periodic control systems, and plenty of practical examples to demonstrate the validity of proposed periodic control...... technology for power converters. It proposes a unified framework for housing periodic control schemes for power converters, and provides a general proportional-integral-derivative control solution to periodic signal compensation in extensive engineering applications. Periodic Control of Power Electronic...

  16. Electron gun control of smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, John A.; Nelson, George C.; Martin, Jeffrey W.

    1998-07-01

    Smart material patches are currently an impractical choice in applications requiring fine spatial resolution or control of complex areas. The static nature of electrodes, the conventional choice for control signal application to many smart materials, makes them unsuitable in these instances. To address this issue the use of electron guns as charge sources for smart material control is investigated in this paper. In the electron gun control method the need for separate electrodes and wire leads is eliminated by depositing the control charges directly on the surface of the piezoelectric material. Since piezoelectric materials are dielectrics the charges remain where deposited by the electron gun. The spatial resolution of this control method is as small as the spot size of the electron beam, which in a focused beam can be as small as tens of microns. Large areas can be covered by a single electron gun simply by scanning the beam using deflection plates. Some practical aspects of electron gun control are presented in this paper. A description of an experimental test bed assembled to evaluate electron gun control of PZT-5H is presented, as are results and conceptual models of the system behavior.

  17. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  18. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  19. 7 CFR 1717.613 - RUS approval of data processing and system control equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment. 1717.613 Section 1717.613 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED... system control equipment. If a borrower's mortgage or loan contract requires the borrower to obtain...

  20. Environmental Policy Coordination in ASEAN: The Case of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ibitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous environmental challenges in the ASEAN region, the rapid growth of volumes of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste has increasingly drawn international attention. Economies face huge demands for electrical and electronic products, while governments are confronted with difficulties dealing with mounting volumes of e-waste. Furthermore, lucrative transnational shipment of discarded electric and electronic devices calls for a regional response to the issue. While ASEAN has failed to come up with a common policy response, certain member states have pushed ahead with their own legislation in an attempt to address this urgent issue. This study sets out to identify the determining factors which have disabled ASEAN in terms of agreeing on a common policy response in the case of dealing with e-waste. Based on the assumption that states act according to expected gains, the study applies a game theoretical approach to analyse the developments. ----- Die Bewältigung der rasant anwachsenden Menge an Elektroschrott zählt zu den großen umweltpolitischen Herausforderungen der ASEAN-Staaten. Während sich die Volkswirtschaften einer immer größer werdenden Nachfrage nach elektrischen und elektronischen Geräten gegenübergestellt sehen, vermögen es die meisten Länder nicht adäquate Entsorgungswege für Altgeräte aufzubauen. Zusätzlich zur inländischen Produktion gilt es auch mit oftmals als Gebrauchtprodukt getarntem, importiertem Elektroschrott umzugehen. Eine dringend notwendige regionale Koordinierung wurde von ASEAN noch nicht in Angriff genommen. Diese Studie geht der Frage nach, warum auf Ebene von ASEAN keine Lösungsansätze zu dieser Problematik zu erwarten sind. Zur Analyse der Entwicklungen bedient sich die Arbeit eines spieltheoretischen Ansatzes.

  1. Research on Modularized Design and Allocation of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na

    2017-06-01

    For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375-382).

  2. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  3. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are amended to control military items that do not warrant USML controls, the U.S... Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 RIN 0694-AF64 Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic Equipment and Related Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant...

  4. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management in Botswana: Prospects and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Li'ao, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The management of waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) is a major challenge in developing and transition countries. The paper investigates recent strategies to manage this waste stream in an environmentally sound way. Obsolete electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) are a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. Many countries and regions in the world are undertaking extensive scientific research to plan and develop effective collection and treatment systems for end-of-life EEE. In developing countries such as Botswana, effective strategies that cover all stages throughout the lifecycle of products, particularly at the end-of-life, still lag behind. Infrastructure, pre-processing, and end-processing facilities and innovative technologies for end-of-life management of e-waste are noticeably absent due to lack of investment and high costs of its management. The objective of the paper is to present the e-waste situation in Botswana, highlighting (a) measures taken in the form of legislative and policy regulations; (b) existing practices to manage e-waste; and (c) effective solutions for e-waste management in emerging economies. Studies from other countries on e-waste management issues provided insights on the "best" technical and logistical pre-processing and end-processing strategies to treat hazardous waste. The paper also highlights key societal factors that affect successful implementation of cost-effective collection and value recovery of end-of-life EEE. These include unavailability of national "e-waste policy," absence of formal take-back system, absence of financing and subsidies, inadequate source separation programmes, absence of technical and logistical integration of pre-processing and end-processing facilities, and limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. Effective strategies such as an "integrated approach" (mixed options), access to technologies, establishment of pre-processing and

  5. Control and Management of Energy in a PV System Equipped with Batteries Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirech, Kamal; Melhaoui, Mustapha; Kassmi, Khalil; Malek, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage...

  6. Metallurgical use of glass fractions from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Sina; Samuelsson, Caisa

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union, it is estimated that between 8 and 9 million tons of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) arises annually, of which television sets and computers account for an important part. Traditionally, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) have been used for TVs and computer monitors, but are rapidly being replaced by flat-screen technology. Only part of the discarded CRT glass is being recycled. Primary smelters use large amounts of silica flux to form iron-silicate slag, and can, in most cases, tolerate lead input. Use of discarded CRT glass in copper smelting is a potential alternative for utilization of the glass. The mineralogical composition of a slag sampled during ordinary slag praxis has been compared with that of a mixture of slag and CRT glass when re-melted and slowly cooled. Slag (iron-silicate slag) from Boliden Mineral AB, Sweden, was used for the experiments. Slag and glass have been mixed in various proportions: pure slag, pure glass, 90% slag-10% glass and 65% slag-35% glass, and heated in an inert atmosphere up to 1400 degrees C in a Netzsch Thermal Analysis (TA) instrument. The re-melted material has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in mineralogical composition after mixing with glass. The results show that the main mineralogical component of the slag is fayalite; the CRT glass is amorphous. The main crystalline phases of the slag do not change with addition of glass. An amorphous phase appears when the addition of glass is increased, which gives the sample a different structure.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF THE HOME-STREET AND MANAGING EXECUTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doshenko G.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management have been developed, which is characterized by high reliability and comparatively low cost. Due to the improvement of the analog circuit it is ensured to increase the speed of the developed device and its reliability. Practical recommendations for the manufacture of a home-street temperature control device and executive equipment management are presented

  8. Bathymetry mapping using a GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat: Application in waste stabilisation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Liah; Ghadouani, Anas; Ghisalberti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, bathymetry mapping of ponds, lakes and rivers have used techniques which are low in spatial resolution, sometimes subjective in terms of precision and accuracy, labour intensive, and that require a high level of safety precautions. In waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) in particular, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, are commonly measured using a sludge judge (a clear plastic pipe with length markings). A remote control boat fitted with a GPS-equipped sonar unit can improve the resolution of depth measurements, and reduce safety and labour requirements. Sonar devices equipped with GPS technology, also known as fish finders, are readily available and widely used by people in boating. Through the use of GPS technology in conjunction with sonar, the location and depth can be recorded electronically onto a memory card. However, despite its high applicability to the field, this technology has so far been underutilised. In the case of WSP, the sonar can measure the water depth to the top of the sludge layer, which can then be used to develop contour maps of sludge distribution and to determine sludge volume. The coupling of sonar technology with a remotely operative vehicle has several advantages of traditional measurement techniques, particularly in removing human subjectivity of readings, and the sonar being able to collect more data points in a shorter period of time, and continuously, with a much higher spatial resolution. The GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat has been tested on in excess of 50 WSP within Western Australia, and has shown a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.98) between spot readings taken with the sonar compared to a sludge judge. This has shown that the remote control boat with GPS-sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution, while greatly reducing profiling time. Remotely operated vehicles, such as the one built in this study, are useful for not only determining sludge

  9. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery.......Highlights • Electronic stability control can substitute studded tyres. • This makes it easier to discourage the use of studded tyres. • A certain level of use of studded tyres makes roads less slippery....

  10. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in two EU countries: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Ragazzi, Marco [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Istrate, Irina Aura [Department of Energy Production and Use, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Rada, Elena Cristina [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review on data regarding WEEE management in Italy and in Romania. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems that countries that will enter in the EU will have to solve facing with the WEEE management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot experiences useful for the awareness campaign of the population. - Abstract: The paper presents some data regarding waste electrical and electronic (WEEE) management in one of the founding countries of the EU, Italy, and in a recent entry into the EU, Romania. The aim of this research was to analyze some problems that countries entering the EU will have to solve with respect to WEEE management. The experiences of Italy and Romania could provide an interesting reference point. The strengths and weaknesses that the two EU countries have encountered can be used in order to give a more rational plan for other countries. In Italy the increase of WEEE collection was achieved in parallel with the increase of the efficiency of selective Municipal Solid Waste collection. In Romania, pilot experiences were useful to increase the awareness of the population. The different interests of the two populations towards recyclable waste led to a different scenario: in Romania all types of WEEE have been collected since its entrance into the EU; in Italy the 'interest' in recycling is typically related to large household appliances, with a secondary role of lighting equipment.

  11. Development of new materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment: Characterization and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Freitas, P E; Almeida, L D; Rosmaninho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application. In this work, WEEE was thermally modified to generate materials that were extensively characterized. Raman spectrum for WEEE after thermal treatment showed two carbon associated bands. SEM images showed a metal nanoparticles distribution over a polymeric and ceramic support. After characterization, WEEE materials were applied in ethanol steam reforming reaction. The system obtained at higher temperature (800°C) exhibited the best activity, since it leads to high conversions (85%), hydrogen yield (30%) and H 2 /CO ratio (3,6) at 750°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muddasar; Miles, Nicholas J; Hall, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  14. Recovery of gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Andrea; López, Maria Esperanza; Serna, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). Gold was recovered as a fine coating using substrate oxidation without shredding or grinding process. The WEEE sample was characterized giving values of Au: 1.05g/kg, Fe: 86.00g/kg, Ni: 73.64g/kg, Cu: 26.65g/kg. The effect of (NH4)2S2O8 concentration (0.22-1.10M), oxygen (0.0-1.4L/min) and L/S ratio (10-30mL/g) on the main responses (substrate oxidation and Au recovery) was investigated implementing response surface methodology with numerical optimization. A quadratic model was developed and quantities greater than 98% of Au were recovered. The findings presented suggest that, optimized quantities of ammonium persulfate in aqueous highly oxygenated media could be used to extract superficial gold from WEEE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GREEN ECONOMY AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Silva Marins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the way globally accepted for economic growth representation of evolution of a country related to the findings of non consideration of environmental assets and liabilities as a measure of occupancy in the economy of the countries, this study suggests a paradigm shift in the operation of the world economy with the implementation of the Green Economy concept seeking the achievement of environmental goals necessary to a level considered optimal in terms of pollution at lower cost to society. The focus of the study is given to the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, particularly in the reverse logistics of WEEE as a potential tool for economic growth maintenance condition with sustainability. A diagnosis on the use of reverse logistics of WEEE in the world is also presented based on research conducted in countries on five continents. At the end of the study it was concluded that the application of reverse logistics in the world is still incipient with no evidence of the use of economic instruments that give opportunity for growth and sustainability. Accordingly, it is emphasized that the management of WEEE practiced in most countries has shown motivation solely on financial profit based on the export / import of waste in a kind of ruse coated green taking into account the environmental and health risks of the population in developing countries or in development, which are the main final destination of WEEE.

  16. Characterisation and materials flow management for waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics from German dismantling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Dagmar; Schlummer, Martin; Mäurer, Andreas; Markowski, Jens; Wagenknecht, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment is a complex waste stream and treatment options that work for one waste category or product may not be appropriate for others. A comprehensive case study has been performed for plastic-rich fractions that are treated in German dismantling centres. Plastics from TVs, monitors and printers and small household appliances have been characterised extensively. Based on the characterisation results, state-of-the-art treatment technologies have been combined to design an optimised recycling and upgrade process for each input fraction. High-impact polystyrene from TV casings that complies with the European directive on the restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) was produced by applying continuous density separation with yields of about 60%. Valuable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene/polycarbonate can be extracted from monitor and printer casings by near-infrared-based sorting. Polyolefins and/or a halogen-free fraction of mixed styrenics can be sorted out by density separation from monitors and printers and small household appliances. Emerging separation technologies are discussed to improve recycling results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  18. Electron dynamics controlled via self-interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tamburini, Matteo; Di Piazza, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of an electron in a strong laser field can be significantly altered by radiation reaction. This usually results in a strongly damped motion, with the electron losing a large fraction of its initial energy. Here we show that the electron dynamics in a bichromatic laser pulse can be indirectly controlled by a comparatively small radiation reaction force through its interplay with the Lorentz force. By changing the relative phase between the two frequency components of the bichromatic laser field, an ultrarelativistic electron bunch colliding head-on with the laser pulse can be deflected in a controlled way, with the deflection angle being independent of the initial electron energy. The effect is predicted to be observable with intensities available at upcoming laser facilities.

  19. Integrated aeroelastic and control analysis of wind turbine blades equipped with microtabs

    OpenAIRE

    MacQuart, Terence; Maheri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the performance of different controllers in active load control of wind turbine blades equipped with microtabs. A bang–bang (BB) controller, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) a proportional integral derivative (PID) and a sliding mode controller (SMC) are synthesised for load alleviation. The performance of the synthesised controllers in load alleviation is evaluated by employing WTAC (Wind Turbine Aeroelastic and Control), a wind turb...

  20. Electronic beam control for advanced laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorschner, Terry A.; Lambert, Larry Q.; Smith, Irl W.; Harris, Clarke E.

    1999-05-01

    The recent development of optical phased arrays (OPAs) enables practical, electronically programmable, control of laser beams for laser radar and other advanced optical sensors. OPAs are the direct analog of microwave phased array antennas; they are electronically programmable optical elements that control the phase distribution on an optical aperture in order to control beam direction and shape. Operating principles and construction of OPAs are briefly described and current and potential performance capabilities are summarized. An OPA supports spatial-domain beam control such as agile or continuous scanning patterns, adaptive electronic focus control, and far-field beam shape control, as well as the generation of multiple beams from a single input beam (pattern generation, or fanout). OPAs also support time-domain beam control, including precision time delay or positioning of short pulses, pulse compression and expansion, and the generation of dense pulse bursts from a single pulse. All of these functions are software controllable, which enables mission-flexible and mission-adaptive optical systems, including so-called 'smart' optical systems with autonomous alignment and calibration capabilities. These and other electronically programmable capabilities are discussed. As a concrete example of an advanced sensor enabled by the OPA, the potential for an adaptable-format, high-resolution, multi-beam laser radar with no moving parts is discussed.

  1. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovering metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment by a novel vibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Muddasar, E-mail: muddasar77@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Miles, Nicholas J.; Hall, Philip [Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Taikang East Road, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► This work focuses on demonstrating a new scaled up technology to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. ► PCBs comminuted to <1 mm in size resulted in metallic grade concentration of 95% in some of the recovered products. ► Good separation was observed at 40 mm particle bed height due to the formation of well-structured global convection currents. ► The work reported here contributes to the development of a new approach to dry, fine particle separation. - Abstract: The need to recover and recycle valuable resources from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is of growing importance as increasing amounts are generated due to shorter product life cycles, market expansions, new product developments and, higher consumption and production rates. The European Commission (EC) directive, 2002/96/EC, on WEEE became law in UK in January 2007 setting targets to recover up to 80% of all WEEE generated. Printed Wire Board (PWB) and/or Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an important component of WEEE with an ever increasing tonnage being generated. However, the lack of an accurate estimate for PCB production, future supply and uncertain demands of its recycled materials in international markets has provided the motivation to explore different approaches to recycle PCBs. The work contained in this paper focuses on a novel, dry separation methodology in which vertical vibration is used to separate the metallic and non-metallic fractions of PCBs. When PCBs were comminuted to less than 1 mm in size, metallic grades as high as 95% (measured by heavy liquid analysis) could be achieved in the recovered products.

  3. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  4. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  6. An efficient and fast analytical procedure for the bromine determination in waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurino, R; Cannio, M; Mafredini, T; Pozzi, P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was used, in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy, for a fast determination of bromine concentration and then of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) compounds in waste electrical and electronic equipments. Different samples from different recycling industries were characterized to evaluate the sorting performances of treatment companies. This investigation must be considered of prime research interest since the impact of BFRs on the environment and their potential risk on human health is an actual concern. Indeed, the new European Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS 2011/65/EU) demands that plastics with BFRs concentration above 0.1%, being potential health hazards, are identified and eliminated from the recycling process. Our results show the capability and the potential of Raman spectroscopy, together with XRF analysis, as effective tools for the rapid detection of BFRs in plastic materials. In particular, the use of these two techniques in combination can be considered as a promising method suitable for quality control applications in the recycling industry.

  7. INCREASING OF ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF WORN EQUIPMENT BY PARTIAL UPDATES. ANALYTICAL AND CONTROL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Voinova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of worn industrial equipment and the resulting low performance indicators of its functioning, in particular, low environmental friendliness, are considered. It is shown that the normalization of the complex situation that has developed in production is an acute problem, the solution of which should begin with the implementation of a program for the partial renewal of worn equipment. It is pointed out that there is a high potential for improving the technological, including ecological, efficiency of functioning of the upgraded equipment. It is pointed out that the partial renewal is highly efficient, because of the small specific investments in it. The significant influence of the quality of control of the setting and implementation of the renewal program on its effectiveness was noted. It is shown that the process of renewal of worn-out equipment, ultimately, has an environmental focus, increases the environmental friendliness of the updated technical facility.

  8. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  9. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  10. Improved Electronic Control for Electrostatic Precipitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitators remove particulate matter from smoke created by burning refuse. Smoke exposed to electrostatic field, and particles become electrically charged and migrate to electrically charged collecting surfaces. New microprocessor-based electronic control maintains precipitator power at maximum particulate-collection level. Control automatically senses changes in smoke composition due to variations in fuel or combustion and adjusts precipitator voltage and current accordingly. Also, sensitive yet stable fault detection provided.

  11. Controlled dissemination of Electronic Medical Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Noordende, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon a security analysis of the Dutch electronic patient record system, this paper describes an approach to construct a fully decentralized patient record system, using controlled disclosure of references to medical records. This paper identifies several paths that can be used to disclose

  12. Improvement of remote control system of automatic ultrasonic equipment for inspection of reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, H. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, K. M.; Hyung, H.; Sim, C. M.; Gong, U. S.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. P.; Rhoo, H. C.; Kim, M. S.; Ryoo, S. K.; Choi, C. H.; Oh, K. I

    1999-12-01

    One of the important issues related to the nuclear safety is in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel (RPV). A remote controlled automatic ultrasonic method is applied to the inspection. At present the automatic ultrasonic inspection system owned by KAERI is interrupted due to degradation of parts. In order to resume field inspection new remote control system for the equipment was designed and installed to the existing equipment. New ultrasonic sensors and their modules for RPV inspection were designed and fabricated in accordance with the new requirements of the inspection codes. Ultrasonic sensors were verified for the use in the RPV inspection. (autho0008.

  13. Model based design of electronic throttle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Fenin; Ranjan, Ashish; Bhowmick, Pathikrit; Rammohan, A.

    2017-11-01

    With the advent of torque based Engine Management Systems, the precise control and robust performance of the throttle body becomes a key factor in the overall performance of the vehicle. Electronic Throttle Control provides benefits such as improved air-fuel ratio for improving the vehicle performance and lower exhausts emissions to meet the stringent emission norms. Modern vehicles facilitate various features such as Cruise Control, Traction Control, Electronic Stability Program and Pre-crash systems. These systems require control over engine power without driver intervention, which is not possible with conventional mechanical throttle system. Thus these systems are integrated to function with the electronic throttle control. However, due to inherent non-linearities in the throttle body, the control becomes a difficult task. In order to eliminate the influence of this hysteresis at the initial operation of the butterfly valve, a control to compensate the shortage must be added to the duty required for starting throttle operation when the initial operation is detected. Therefore, a lot of work is being done in this field to incorporate the various nonlinearities to achieve robust control. In our present work, the ETB was tested to verify the working of the system. Calibration of the TPS sensors was carried out in order to acquire accurate throttle opening angle. The response of the calibrated system was then plotted against a step input signal. A linear model of the ETB was prepared using Simulink and its response was compared with the experimental data to find out the initial deviation of the model from the actual system. To reduce this deviation, non-linearities from existing literature were introduced to the system and a response analysis was performed to check the deviation from the actual system. Based on this investigation, an introduction of a new nonlinearity parameter can be used in future to reduce the deviation further making the control of the ETB more

  14. Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of electronic stability control on single-vehicle accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) on single-vehicle injury accidents while controlling for a number of confounders influencing the accident risk. Methods: Using police-registered injury accidents from 2004 to 2011 in Denmark with cars...... the following were significant. For the driver: Age, gender, driving experience, valid driving license, and seat belt use. For the vehicle: Year of registration, weight, and ESC. For the accident surroundings: Visibility, light, and location. Finally, for the road: Speed limit, surface, and section...... characteristics. Results: The present study calculated the crude odds ratio for ESC-equipped cars of getting in a single-vehicle injury accident as 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.47) and the adjusted odds ratio as 0.69 (95% CI, 0.54-0.88). No difference was found in the effectiveness of ESC across...

  16. Inspection of nuclear pressure equipment: principles, issues and perspectives; Le controle des equipements sous pression nucleaires: principes, enjeux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, S. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Dir. des Equipements sous Pression Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-02-15

    French regulations about nuclear pressure equipment (like steam generators and the reactor pressure vessel) take into account hazards due to the energy contained in the equipment but also add specific requirements due for instance to the radioactivity or safety for instance. ASN is in charge of the conformity assessment of the most important equipment and monitors the licensee who is responsible of in service inspection and maintenance. Because of the internationalization of nuclear component manufacturing, and consequently new comers in this area, a careful monitoring of subcontractors is needed. The major anomalies detected in steam generator over the past few years showed the necessity of being careful and humble towards degradation mechanisms. Nuclear pressure equipment regulations enables ASN to perform an efficient oversight of licensees and component manufacturer in a context of international manufacturing and licence renewal. (author)

  17. Design of Controls, Monitoring and a Energy Storage System for a Energy Harvesting Gymnasium Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruchelvam V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy harvesting development was to monitor, control and optimize the output power from the gym equipment. The designed utilized Arduino and LabVIEW based Battery Energy Storage System (BESS that incorporated switchover capability according to the load power. The manual gears-shifting mechanism was improved with the aid of a DC geared motor and L298N controller to be automatically controlled by the user’s input via a keypad.

  18. ELECTRONIC BALLAST POWER CONTROL WITH MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED COIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim BÖREKCİ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic ballasts have several advantages over magnetic ballasts such as providing higher efficacy, better illumination quality, longer lamp life and smaller size. In this study, magnetically controlled inductor controls the florescent lamp power by changing the ballast impedance and resonant frequency and the proposed topology is implemented on self-oscillating push pull electronic ballast. In the proposed ballast power control technique, zero voltage switching (ZVS is accomplished. The topology is also simulated in order to compare the results. Both simulation and experimental results have good agreement.

  19. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes are controlled, of each train operating in automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal territory shall be...

  20. Optimal Active Power Control of A Wind Farm Equipped with Energy Storage System based on Distributed Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Distributed Model Predictive Control (D-MPC) of a wind farm equipped with fast and short-term Energy Storage System (ESS) for optimal active power control using the fast gradient method via dual decomposition. The primary objective of the D-MPC control of the wind farm...... is independent from the wind farm size and is suitable for the real-time control of the wind farm with ESS....

  1. Industry subsector analysis Australia: Air pollution control equipment. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The market survey covers the air pollution control equipment market in Australia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Australian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  2. An electronically controlled automatic security access gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. ENOKELA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The security challenges being encountered in many places require electronic means of controlling access to communities, recreational centres, offices, and homes. The electronically controlled automated security access gate being proposed in this work helps to prevent an unwanted access to controlled environments. This is achieved mainly through the use of a Radio Frequency (RF transmitter-receiver pair. In the design a microcontroller is programmed to decode a given sequence of keys that is entered on a keypad and commands a transmitter module to send out this code as signal at a given radio frequency. Upon reception of this RF signal by the receiver module, another microcontroller activates a driver circuitry to operate the gate automatically. The codes for the microcontrollers were written in C language and were debugged and compiled using the KEIL Micro vision 4 integrated development environment. The resultant Hex files were programmed into the memories of the microcontrollers with the aid of a universal programmer. Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM version 7.7. A scaled-down prototype of the system was built and tested. The electronically controlled automated security access gate can be useful in providing security for homes, organizations, and automobile terminals. The four-character password required to operate the gate gives the system an increased level of security. Due to its standalone nature of operation the system is cheaper to maintain in comparison with a manually operated type.

  3. General Purpose Electronic Test Equipment (GPETE) Acquisition Considerations for Automated Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    in the number of young men from which the Navy can recruit (figure 1.1) and increasing lucrative private sector opportunities for skilled slectronics...8217 , ,, *.’ . ." ..’..’ -.-... . ’- . . . . .- ’ cousists primrily of off-the-shelf (OTS) comercial test equipment (rE), is listed in MIL-STD-1364 (Navy) as preferred for procurement- and is

  4. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  5. An overview of control system for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purohit, D.; Bigelow, T.; Billava, D.; Bonicelli, T.; Caughman, J.; Darbos, C.; Denisov, G.; Gandini, F.; Gassmann, T.; Henderson, M.; Journeux, J. Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Nazare, C.; Oda, Y.; Omori, T.; Rao, S. L.; Rasmussen, D.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Sakamoto, K.; Sartori, F.; Takahashi, K.; Temkin, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) system having capability of up to 26 MW generated power at 170 GHz is being procured by 5 domestic agencies via 10 procurement arrangements. This implies diverse types of equipment and complex interface management. It also places a challenge on control system

  6. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for Ralstonia solanacearum control in water, storage and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot or bacterial wilt caused by bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is the main limiting factor in potato production. Quarantine measures are necessary to avoid spread of disease to disease-free areas. R. solanacearum has been shown to contaminate watercourses from which crop irrigation is then prohibited causing further potential losses in yield and quality. The bacteria also spread via surfaces that diseased seed potatoes come into contact with. This study showed bactericidal activity of chlorine dioxide (CIO2 on R. solanacearum for disinfection of water, surface and equipment. The results showed that CIO2 solution at concentration of 2 ppm at 30 minutes of exposure time had bactericidal effect for disinfection of water. For surface and equipment disinfection, concentration of 50 ppm showed total efficacy at 30 min and 5 sec exposure time, respectively. Results suggest that use of CIO2 as a disinfectant has a potential for control of brown rot pathogen in water, storage and equipment.

  8. Electron transfer control in soluble methane monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixue; Iacob, Roxana E; Luoh, Rebecca P; Engen, John R; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-07-09

    The hydroxylation or epoxidation of hydrocarbons by bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) requires the interplay of three or four protein components. How component protein interactions control catalysis, however, is not well understood. In particular, the binding sites of the reductase components on the surface of their cognate hydroxylases and the role(s) that the regulatory proteins play during intermolecular electron transfer leading to the hydroxylase reduction have been enigmatic. Here we determine the reductase binding site on the hydroxylase of a BMM enzyme, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). We present evidence that the ferredoxin domain of the reductase binds to the canyon region of the hydroxylase, previously determined to be the regulatory protein binding site as well. The latter thus inhibits reductase binding to the hydroxylase and, consequently, intermolecular electron transfer from the reductase to the hydroxylase diiron active site. The binding competition between the regulatory protein and the reductase may serve as a control mechanism for regulating electron transfer, and other BMM enzymes are likely to adopt the same mechanism.

  9. Web Application for Annual Reporting of Waste Collection and Managment of Electrical and Electronic Equipments(RAEE)

    OpenAIRE

    Semira Catapang, Jazzey

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto trata de gestionar un tipo de residuos llamado RAEE (Residuos de Aparatos Eléctricos y Electrónicos). El objetivo principal de este proyecto es dar solución a la nueva legislación de la UE sobre la trazabilidad de la recogida y documentación de los RAEE a través de una aplicación web. This project is about a type of waste called RAEE(Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste). The main objective of this project is to give solution to the new EU legislation on traceability and...

  10. The Design and Implementation of the Remote Centralized-Monitoring System of Well-Control Equipment Based on RFID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, in domestic for the management of well control equipment continue to the traditional way of nameplates identifies and paper-based registration, there are many issues like the separation of data information of device, easy lose, difficult query, confused management and many other problems, which will make the problem device into the well field, and then resulting in well control runaway drilling accident. To solve the above problems, this paper put forward to the integrated remote centralized-monitoring management mode of the well-control equipment. Taking the advantages of IOT technology, adopting the RFID technology, and combining with the remote transmission, this paper designs the remote centralized-monitoring system of well-control equipment based on RFID, which realizes the intelligent management of well-control equipment and meets the actual demand of the well-control equipment safe use and timely scheduling, and it has the ability of field application.

  11. Performance of a resistive plate chamber equipped with a new prototype of amplified front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisone, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. At forward rapidity a muon spectrometer detects muons from low mass mesons, quarkonia, open heavy-flavor hadrons as well as weak bosons. A muon selection based on transverse momentum is made by a trigger system composed of 72 resistive plate chambers (RPCs). For the LHC Run 1 and the ongoing Run 2 the RPCs have been equipped with a non-amplified FEE called ADULT. However, in view of an increase in luminosity expected for Run 3 (2021-2023) the possibility to use an amplified FEE has been explored in order to improve the counting rate limitation and to prevent the aging of the detector, by reducing the charge per hit. A prototype of this new electronics (FEERIC) has been developed and tested first with cosmic rays before equipping one RPC in the ALICE cavern with it. In this talk the most important performance indicators - efficiency, dark current, dark rate, cluster size and total charge - of an RPC equipped with this new FEE will be r...

  12. Q-Pro: a quality control management system for medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitsi, Z; Bliznakov, J; Gueorguieva-Bliznakova, K; Theodorakos, Y; Pallikarakis, N

    2000-01-01

    Q-Pro is an application for quality control (QC) and inspection of medical equipment. The system has been designed on the basis of a broad requirements analysis, contributed by clinical engineers from several European countries and with a focus on current and forthcoming regulatory requirements concerning the quality control and risk management for medical equipment. Q-Pro comprises a generalized application, providing the necessary flexibility to accommodate the different degrees of difficulty and specialization in creating or customizing QC protocols, carrying out inspections and managing collected data. The system incorporates a tool library for QC protocol design, widely used multimedia as well as a local database for protocol and inventory data archiving. The paper presents a detailed account of the system context of use, design and functionality.

  13. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, T.; Lee, S.

    1992-08-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  14. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  15. Could ESC (Electronic Stability Control) change the way we drive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Jenkins, Richard W; Whitehead, Tanya; Burns, Peter C

    2009-08-01

    ESC (Electronic Stability Control) is a crash avoidance technology that reduces the likelihood of collisions involving loss of control. Although past and emerging research indicates that ESC is effective in reducing collision rates and saving lives, and its inclusion in all vehicle platforms is encouraged, drivers may demonstrate behavioral adaptation or an overreliance on ESC that could offset or reduce its overall effectiveness. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether behavioral adaptation to ESC is likely to occur upon the widespread introduction of ESC into the Canadian vehicle fleet. Secondary objectives were to confirm the results of a previous ESC public survey and to generate a baseline measure for the future assessment of planned and ongoing ESC promotional activities in Canada. Two separate telephone surveys evaluated drivers' perceptions and awareness of ESC. The first surveyed 500 randomly selected owners/drivers of passenger vehicles. The second surveyed 1017 owners/drivers of 2006-2008 ESC-equipped passenger vehicles from the provinces of Quebec and British Columbia, Canada. Though ESC drivers were much more likely than drivers of other vehicles to be aware of ESC (77% vs. 39%) and that their own vehicle was equipped with it (63% vs. 8%), 23 percent had never heard of it. Ninety percent of drivers who knew that their vehicle was equipped with ESC believed that ESC had made it safer to drive and reported being confident that ESC would work in an emergency. Twenty-three percent of ESC owners who knew their vehicle had ESC reported noticing long-lasting changes in their driving behavior since they began driving the vehicle. Collectively, results suggest that behavioral adaptation to ESC is likely in certain drivers; however, its proven effectiveness in reducing the likelihood of being involved in a serious crash probably outweighs any potential increases in unsafe driving. To fully benefit from ESC, vehicle manufacturers are

  16. An in-depth literature review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment context: trends and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is continuously increasing worldwide and, consequently, so is the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) it generates at its end-of-life. In parallel to this growth, legislation related to this issue has been passed in different countries with the aim of improving the management of WEEE. In order to raise awareness about the situation in which the generation, composition, management or final treatment of this kind of waste currently finds itself, an extensive number of articles have been published around the world. The aim of this paper is to define and analyse the main areas of research on WEEE by offering a broader analysis of the relevant literature in this field published between 1992 and August 2014. The literature researched comprises 307 articles, which are analysed according to the topic they focus on (WEEE management, WEEE generation, WEEE characterisation, social aspects of WEEE, re-use of EEE or economic aspects of WEEE). In addition, a deeper analysis is also presented, which takes into account the temporal evolution (globally and by topic), location of the study, categories and subcategories analysed, etc. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. 21 CFR 11.200 - Electronic signature components and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic signature components and controls. 11.200 Section 11.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.200 Electronic...

  18. 77 FR 67290 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... lower rates for subscribers. 14. Reduction of Theft and Piracy. Another benefit of basic tier encryption... less susceptible to piracy. 15. Regulatory Parity. Several commenters emphasized that the proposed rule... on them. These subscribers explain that they rely on clear-QAM tuners in their electronic devices...

  19. Spatially controlled amyloid reactions using organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Hammarström, Per; Berggren, Magnus; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2010-10-04

    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

  20. The Coincidence Tracker: Electronic Equipment for a Time-of-Flight Wind-Speed Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Christian

    1982-01-01

    The electronic part of a laser-beam measuring system for wind velocity is described. Pulses of light scattered from aerosols are treated, first in a pair of adaptive filters, then in a tracker that calculates the wind velocity on-line while applying some knowledge about the velocity to be expected...... on the basis of preceding measurements. Practical measurements with the system are compared with traditional technique....

  1. RSFQ electronics for controlling superconducting polarity switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandel, O.; Wetzstein, O.; May, T.; Toepfer, H.; Ortlepp, T.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2012-12-01

    Superconducting radiation sensors are of particular interest for imaging applications in the sub-mm wavelength band because of their extraordinary sensitivity. The rising number of sensors integrated in one array entails the requirement of multiplexing techniques in order to reduce the number of wires leading into the cryogenic stage and thus reduce the thermal losses. One kind of promising code division multiplexing technique is based on a current steering switch (CSS), which is composed of two identical superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in parallel current paths. One of them is switched from the superconducting into the normal state controlled by the applied magnetic flux. In this way the signal path can be altered and they can act as a polarity switch for analogue signals. We pursue this concept to use rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics for controlling these switches. As a first step, the SQUIDs of the CSS are inductively coupled to the storing loops of two delay flip flops (DFFs). Thus, one is able to toggle the polarity of the analogue switch by controlling the state of the DFF by RSFQ control signals. The results of simulations and measurements and also margin analyses are discussed.

  2. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...... power ancillary service to the overhead power system. In that sense, when the active power is not being extracted from the grid, FESS provides the power required to sustain the continuous charging process of PEV battery. A key characteristic of the whole control system is that it is able to work without...

  3. Development of Built-in System for Constructing a Students Experimental Equipment of Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Tetsuya; Oda, Kazuhiro; Morino, Kazuhiro; Jiang, Zhongwei

    This paper presents a built-in system to construct an experimental tool for aiding to learn control engineering in a students experiment. The proposing system is ease to install to a commercial product has some actuators. Also, we developed a software application to control the modified product by the proposing system. Some of the functions of it are to edit, compile and execute a control algorithm written in C language, to show control process parameters on a real-time basis with a graph and to simulate the behavior of the experimental equipment. Using the system, we not only made an experimental tool from a radio control helicopter but also built the curriculum guidelines of the students experiment. They were performed at Tokuyama College of Technology and the result was evaluated from a questionnaire by students.

  4. Investigations for the improvement of space shuttle main engine electron beam welding equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smock, R. A.; Taylor, R. A.; Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the testing, evaluation, and correction of MSFC's 7.5 kW electron beam welder in support of space shuttle main engine component welding is summarized. The objective of this project was to locate and correct the deficiencies in the welder. Some 17 areas were deficient in the 7.5 kW ERI welding system and the associated corrective action was taken to improve its operational performance. An overall improvement of 20 times the original reliability was obtained at full rated capacity after the modifications were made.

  5. Design consideration for Tohoku light source storage ring equipped with UV free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, H. E-mail: hama@lns.tohoku.ac.jp; Hinode, F.; Shinto, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Tanaka, T

    2004-08-01

    An integrated photon source facility has been planed at Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University. A 1.5 GeV main ring designed as a synchrotron light source of VUV and soft X-ray region contains straight sections with very low beta function to accept high field superconducting wigglers for X-ray. One of two 8-m long straight sections is allocated for storage ring free electron laser (SRFEL) in the UV region. The beam property in the ring is evaluated and then the beam quality for the SRFEL oscillation is also discussed including possibility of coherent higher harmonic generation by showing results of numerical simulation.

  6. Controlling electron energy distributions for plasma technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The basic function of low temperature plasmas in society benefiting technologies is to channel power into specific modes of atoms and molecules to excite desired states or produce specified radicals. This functionality ultimately depends on the ability to craft an electron energy distribution (EED) to match cross sections. Given electric fields, frequencies, gas mixtures and pressures, predicting EEDs and excitation rates can in large part be reliably done. The inverse problem, specifying the conditions that produce a given EED, is less well understood. Early strategies to craft EEDs include adjusting gas mixtures, such as the rare gas-Hg mixtures in fluorescent lamps, and externally sustained discharges, such as electron-beam sustained plasmas for molecular lasers. More recent strategies include spiker-sustainer circuitry which produces desired EEDs in non-self-sustained plasmas; and adjusting frequency in capacitively coupled plasmas. In this talk, past strategies for customizing EEDs in low pressure plasmas will be reviewed and prospects for improved control of plasma kinetics will be discussed using results from 2-dimensional computer models.

  7. Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit boards of various end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment for beneficiation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu Priya; Hait, Subrata

    2018-02-14

    Comprehensive characterization of printed circuit board (PCB) of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is obligatory for prospective profitable beneficiation. In this study, beneficiation oriented comprehensive characterization of two brands of PCBs each of 16 end-of-life EEE was conducted in terms of their physicochemical characteristics with special emphasis on the content of 16 general elements, 2 precious metals and 15 rare earth elements (REEs). General elements and their highest weight percent composition found in different PCBs of the EEEs were Cu (23% in laptop), Al (6% in computer), Pb (15% in DVD player) and Ba (7% in TV). The high abundant of precious metals such as Au (316 g/ton) and Ag (636 g/ton) in mobile phone and laptop, respectively coupled with rapid obsolescence age makes waste PCBs of information technology and telecommunication equipment the most potent resource reservoir. Additionally, most of the waste PCBs were observed to contain REEs in considerable quantity with Sc up to 31 g/ton and Ce up to 13 g/ton being the major constituents. Comprehensive characterization of waste PCBs therefore will systematically help towards better understanding of e-waste recycling processes for beneficiation purpose and sustainable resource circulation and conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Aguirre, Miguel; Hidalgo, Montserrat; Canals, Antonio; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Pereira-Filho, Edenir R

    2013-12-15

    This study shows the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) investigation. Several emission spectra were obtained for 7 different mobiles from 4 different manufacturers. Using the emission spectra of the black components it was possible to see some differences among the manufacturers and some emission lines from organic elements and molecules (N, O, CN and C2) led to the highest contribution for this differentiation. Some polymeric internal parts in contact with the inner pieces of the mobiles and covered with a special paint presented a strong emission signal for Cr. The white pieces presented mainly Al, Ba and Ti in their composition. Finally, this study developed a procedure for LIBS emission spectra using chemometric strategies and suitable information can be obtained for identification of manufacturer and counterfeit products. In addition, the results obtained can improve the classification for establishing recycling strategies of e-waste. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Suggestions for Designers of Navy Electronic Equipment. Revision A. 1985 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    34 ." intrducs pobles o aditioal•ost sizeweigh, an comp xit (mor com -"-’. ’ ’_’£ 2, ,Z ’..’-’Lr".. -C,.,,,’ :,.L- -"• - - "", -" .•ponents . ". .. . -to...from the output sec - tion within the receiver case. 77. To prevent rf energy from entering the case from the output lead, use a simply bypass...associated systems such as launcher controls and fire control systems. Refer to MIL-STD-454 6 1~~,* Requirement 61, MIL-STD-1399 400 series sec - 4

  10. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  12. Flexible, AAV-equipped Genetic Modules for Inducible Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin K Dogbevia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling gene expression in mammalian brain is of utmost importance to causally link the role of gene function to cell circuit dynamics under normal conditions and disease states. We have developed recombinant adeno-associated viruses equipped with tetracycline-controlled genetic switches for inducible and reversible control of gene expression in a cell type specific and brain subregion selective manner. Here, we characterize a two-virus approach to efficiently and reliably switch gene expression on and off, repetitively, both in vitro and in vivo. Our recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-Tet approach is highly flexible and it has great potential for application in basic and biomedical neuroscience research and gene therapy.

  13. Electrochemical Recovery of Gold from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment Using Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T.; Ali, U. F. M.; Ridwan, F. M.; Ibrahim, N.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of electrochemical process recovery involving low reactant concentrations of metal requires electrodes with high mass transport rates and specific surface areas. This is essential to increase cross-sectional current densities whilst optimizing the capital and operating costs. Experimental results demonstrated that Circulating Particulate Bed Reactor (CPBE) is suitable for the recovery of low concentrations of gold from aqueous chloride solution containing {{AuCl}}4- and {{AuCl}}2- of less than 0.5 mol m-3(deposits were achieved with CPBE for Au deposition under mass transport control at 0.20 V (SCE).

  14. Warranty-Guarantee Application Guidelines for Air Force Ground Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    user’s performing an operational test. The contractor is permitted to observe this test to assure his sat - isfaction with its conduct. From the test data...atr Sat in:cludy~d ,S’Wh] c . ’Pe[ts tcat (anO[t su~ted ) A- IIn *Lai Table A-2. (continued) NPCO. Number of P-coded items (organic maintenance...i for Control of Government Owne,! Property in op ;, SLC . - ontrictor . g) When a i cuir.ment geners te n the field, the It,-m Manager hal[ I empt

  15. FUEL SUPPLY IN ACCUMULATOR DIESEL SYSTEMS WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROL AT STARTING REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains review and analysis of fuel supply process in accumulator diesel systems with electronic control at starting regime. The necessity has been shown to  develop and use programs of mathematic simulation pertaining to fuel supply processes with the purpose to decrease number of bench tests and time period required for a fuel system adaptation. The paper cites results of practical investigations on starting engines  equipped with the mentioned-above systems.

  16. The Design and Implementation of the Remote Centralized-Monitoring System of Well-Control Equipment Based on RFID Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bin Luo; Jiarui Liu; Junlan Li; Haibo Liang

    2017-01-01

    At present, in domestic for the management of well control equipment continue to the traditional way of nameplates identifies and paper-based registration, there are many issues like the separation...

  17. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Vol III, Performance of a string or cluster of ACC-equipped cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report is one element of a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). It addresses the operation of a serial string or dense cluster of passenger cars equipped with a new...

  18. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  19. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tostar, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.tostar@chalmers.se [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal [Department of Material and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R. St. J. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • We have proposed a method to recover antimony from electronic plastics. • The most efficient acid solution was sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide. • Gamma irradiation did not influence the antimony leaching ability. - Abstract: There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5 M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23 °C and heated to ca. 105 °C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed.

  20. Automated control of electronic equipment in intelligent buildings; Control automatizado de equipo electrico en edificios inteligentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Electrica Integral, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper pretends to call the attention of the audience and of the readers of it on the great importance that on a national level the programs on primary energy as well as on secondary energy saving and conservation have. Even more if we take into account that in our country by constitutional decree, the public service of electric power is reserved to the nation through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) which is a decentralized organization of the federal Mexican government, therefore subjected to, among many others, the Budgeting Law, Accountancy Law and Public Expenditure Law. We who know CFE, know the great difficulty, always raising, of getting resources for infrastructure works, among which we can cite: power plants, substations, transmission lines and distribution lines. Because of this, the energy saving and conservation programs represent for the electric sector the possibility or deferring the required investments to guarantee the energy offer. On the other hand, the users of the electric public service the implementation into its operational policies energy saving and conservation programs, undoubtedly will result into economical benefits and will improve the ratio kWh/Unit of the terminated product. Finally, in a country like ours, where 66% of generated electric power by the national electric sector comes from fossil fuel power plants, the generalized implementation of saving programs will diminish the need of generating kWh, and consequently, the emission of harmful pollutants to the environment such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide and suspended particles. [Espanol] En este trabajo se pretende llamar la atencion de la audiencia y de los lectores del mismo, de la gran importancia que a nivel nacional tienen los programas de ahorro y conservacion de energeticos, tanto primarios como secundarios. Maxime si tomamos en cuenta que en nuestro pais, por disposicion constitucional, la prestacion del servicio publico de energia electrica esta reservada a la nacion a traves de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). La cual es un organismo descentralizado del Gobierno Federal y por ende, sujeta entre muchas otras a la Ley de Presupuesto, Contabilidad y Gasto Publico. Quienes conocemos CFE sabemos de la gran dificultad, siempre creciente, de allegarse recursos para financiar sus obras de infraestructura, entre las que podemos citar: centrales electricas, subestaciones, lineas de transmision y redes de distribucion. Por lo anterior, los programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia representan para el sector electrico nacional la posibilidad de diferir las inversiones requeridas para garantizar la oferta de energia. Por otra parte, a los usuarios del servicio publico de energia, el instituir dentro de sus politicas operativas programas de ahorro y conservacion de la energia, indudablemente les redundara en beneficios economicos y se mejorara el indice de kWh/Unidad de producto terminado. Finalmente, en un pais como el nuestro en donde el 66% de la energia generada por el sector electrico nacional proviene de centrales termoelectricas que usan para su operacion combustibles fosiles, la implementacion generalizada de programas de ahorro de energia disminuira la necesidad de generar kWh, y en consecuencia, la emision de contaminantes agresivos al medio ambiente tales como oxidos de nitrogeno y de azufre, bioxido de carbono y particulas suspendidas.

  1. CONTROL DE MALEZA EN DISTRITOS DE RIEGO CON EQUIPOS LIGEROS WEED CONTROL IN IRRIGATION DISTRICTS WITH LIGHT WEIGHT EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Lomelí Villanueva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En México el control mecánico de maleza, tradicionalmente se realizaba con maquinaria inadecuada lo cual provocaba daños en los taludes y modificaciones de la sección hidráulica. Para resolver este problema, actualmente se utilizan los equipos ligeros que permiten el desarrollo de una cubierta vegetal, que no interfiere con el flujo del agua y su sistema radical retiene el suelo, lo cual reduce la erosión y mantiene en condiciones estables los taludes. El presente trabajo aborda los aspectos relativos a características y criterios para la selección de los implementos y la secuencia para su utilización. El costo de las operaciones para el control de maleza en canales, drenes y caminos se ha reducido un 39,21% con respecto a utilizar maquinaria inadecuada. La versatilidad de los equipos ligeros permite emplear el implemento más adecuado para cada tipo de maleza. En México, el inventario actual es de 263 equipos ligeros que tienen un potencial de aplicación para el control de la maleza, en la totalidad de los caminos, el 90% de canales y el 70% de drenes de los Distritos de Riego.In Mexico, the mechanical weed control was traditionally carried out with inadequate equipment which caused damage to the slopes and changes in the hydraulic section. In order to solve this problem, light weight equipment is currently being used to allow the development of a vegetation cover to retain soil with no interference with water flow, reducing erosion and maintaining stable conditions in the slopes. This paper addresses aspects related to characteristics and criteria for selecting and sequencing tools for use. The costs of weed control in irrigation channels, drains and roads have been reduced 39.21% compared to using inadequate equipment. The versatility of light weight equipment allows the use of the most appropriate implement for each weed. In Mexico, the current inventory includes 263 light weight devices with which a potential weed control of 90

  2. Two-pulse laser control of nuclear and electronic motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We discuss an explicitly time-dependent two-pulse laser scheme for controlling where nuclei and electrons are going in unimolecular reactions. We focus on electronic motion and show, with HD+ as an example, that one can find non-stationary states where the electron (with some probability) oscilla......We discuss an explicitly time-dependent two-pulse laser scheme for controlling where nuclei and electrons are going in unimolecular reactions. We focus on electronic motion and show, with HD+ as an example, that one can find non-stationary states where the electron (with some probability...

  3. A Distributed Digital Control Architecture for Power Electronics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Celanovic, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel approach to power electronics system design that is based on the open-architecture distributed digital controller and modular power electronics building blocks (PEBBs). The proposed distributed digital controller partitions the controller in three levels of control authority. The power stage controller, designated as hardware manager, is responsible for low-level hardware oriented tasks; the high level controller, designated as applications manager, performs high...

  4. Non-contact electron gun control of piezoelectric polymer thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey William

    2001-07-01

    This paper summarizes research into the interaction of piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) structures with electron gun control. The experimental apparatus specific to the electron gun control of this structure is explained in detail. Equipment developed for the remote examination of the bimorph surface profile is also outlined. Experiments performed to determine the optimum electron beam characteristics for control are summarized. Clearer boundaries on the control output capabilities of the bimorph are resolved as well as the closed loop response. Further controllability analysis of the bimorph is outlined. In this research the bimorph response is tested through a matrix of control inputs of varying current, frequency, and amplitude. The results of these analyses are then examined. Research has shown that electron gun control can be used to make macro and nano control adjustments for PVDF structures. The control response and hysteresis are more linear for a small range of energy levels. Current levels needed for optimum control are established. The generalized controllability of a PVDF bimorph structure is shown.

  5. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavior of urban residents toward the discarding of waste electrical and electronic equipment: a case study in Baoding, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Ren, Junshu; Duan, Huabo; Zheng, Lixia

    2012-11-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is growing rapidly worldwide, making its management difficult; therefore, this should be improved as a matter of urgency. WEEE includes both essential household appliances [including televisions, refrigerators, and washing machines; but not air conditioners, where the consumption mode is more like information, communication and technology (ICT)] ICT equipment (also called high-tech household appliances). In the present study, Baoding, a medium-sized, prefecture-level city in north central China with a population of 11 million, including 1.1 million urban residents, was selected as a representative city for an investigation of recycling behaviors. A valid sample size of 346 households in Baoding was investigated, and categorized into various income and educational levels. The results showed that the major reason for discarding WEEE was malfunction of the appliance, accounting for 52% of disposals. Surveyed households with either high income or good education were more likely to consume high-tech household appliances, attracted by advanced technology, versatile functions or flexibility of use. Personal computer ownership rates were highest in households with a high income and good education-1.2 and 0.9 per home respectively. WEEE was most often sold to peddlers or hawkers from where the WEEE flowed into the second-hand market to be refurbished or repaired, and then re-sold. However, 56.3% of residents in the college community were in support of charging consumers for disposal and 61.7% were in support of including a disposal surcharge in the purchase price of new products-a percentage approximately three times that for high-income residents. Thus, high educational level appears to be currently the most important factor in raising the potential of a household's willingness to pay for WEEE treatment cost. The findings of this study can be used to develop sound recycling systems for WEEE in mainland China.

  7. High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, W.; Boccardi, A.; Zamantzas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance

  8. SCTE: An open-source Perl framework for testing equipment control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Luiz C.; Frigori, Rafael B.; Ruchko, Leonid; Galvão, Ricardo M. O.

    2012-07-01

    SCTE intends to provide a simple, yet powerful, framework for building data acquisition and equipment control systems for experimental Physics, and correlated areas. Via its SCTE::Instrument module, RS-232, USB, and LAN buses are supported, and the intricacies of hardware communication are encapsulated underneath an object oriented abstraction layer. Written in Perl, and using the SCPI protocol, enabled instruments can be easily programmed to perform a wide variety of tasks. While this work presents general aspects of the development of data acquisition systems using the SCTE framework, it is illustrated by particular applications designed for the calibration of several in-house developed devices for power measurement in the tokamak TCABR Alfvén Waves Excitement System. Catalogue identifier: AELZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 811 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 743 709 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl version 5.10.0 or higher. Computer: PC. SCPI capable digital oscilloscope, with RS-232, USB, or LAN communication ports, null modem, USB, or Ethernet cables Operating system: GNU/Linux (2.6.28-11), should also work on any Unix-based operational system Classification: 4.14 External routines: Perl modules: Device::SerialPort, Term::ANSIColor, Math::GSL, Net::HTTP. Gnuplot 4.0 or higher Nature of problem: Automation of experiments and data acquisition often requires expensive equipment and in-house development of software applications. Nowadays personal computers and test equipment come with fast and easy-to-use communication ports. Instrument vendors often supply application programs capable of controlling such devices, but are very restricted in terms of

  9. Obtention and application of recovery coefficients in SUV values to quality control in PET equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Sá, Lídia V. de; Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Mamede, Marcelo; Silva, Teógenes A. da, E-mail: cassio.miri@unifesp.br, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Departmento de Diagnose por Imagem; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The functional imaging technique Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer tumors. However, the standard uptake values (SUV) quantification of a 'lesion' or a hot spot is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This is particularly important for evaluating solid tumour response to therapy, where SUV quantification could indicate treatment efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correction in two image quantification modes (SUVmaximum and SUVmedium) through recovery coefficients (RC) application. The NEMA/IEC Body Phantom simulator was used and tested for an activity ratio lesion to background of 4:1, and at different acquisition times. The images quantification was performed with OsiriX® software. The obtained RCs were applied to the phantom images. The obtained SUVmedium values corrected by RCs presented satisfactory results, demonstrating small differences (1.1% a 2.3%) in relation to previously known SUVreference values. This did not occur for corrected SUVmaximum values where differences of up to 27.0% were observed between these and SUVreference values. These results demonstrate that the PVE correction by SUVmedium can more adequate to evaluate tumor's uptake. Therefore, this parameter should be used for equipment quality control in order to evaluate the response and degree of agreement between equipment. (author)

  10. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  11. Longitudinal Control of a Platoon of Road Vehicles Equipped with Adaptive Cruise Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Memon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automotive vehicle following systems are essential for the design of automated highway system. The problem associated with the automatic vehicle following system is the string stability of the platoon of vehicles, i.e. the problem of uniform velocity and spacing errors propagation. Different control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon are discussed based on different spacing policies, communication link among the vehicles of a platoon, and the performance of a platoon have been analysed in the presence of disturbance (noise and parametric uncertainties. This paper presented the PID (Proportional Integral Derivative feedback control algorithm for the longitudinal control of a platoon in the presence of noise signal and investigates the performance of platoon under the influence of sudden acceleration and braking in severe conditions. This model has been applied on 6 vehicles moving in a platoon. The platoon has been analysed to retain the uniform velocity and safe spacing among the vehicles. The limitations of PID control algorithm have been discussed and the alternate methods have been suggested. Model simulations, in comparison with the literature, are also presented.

  12. Metals control efficiency test at a dry-scrubber and baghouse-equipped hazardous-waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.; Holloway, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste is developing regulations to control emissions of toxic metals from hazardous waste incinerators. As part of an effort to gather data on control efficiencies that can be achieved by hazardous waste incineration facilities, equipped with various types of air pollution control devices, a test was performed at Unit No. 4 in Sauget, Illinois.

  13. Electronic Equipment Maintainability Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Organizational or Flight Line Intermediate or Shop Level Depot or Plant Level 6-9 The repair levels considered are: Remove and Replace Minor Repairs...00254 ACTIVE ELEMENT COUNT HIBRID ICS 00009 TUBES 00000 LINEAR/INTERFACE ICS 00079 DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS 00008 SSI/MSI DIGITAL ICS 00166 HYBRID ICS

  14. Buying, supporting, maintaining software and equipment an IT manager's guide to controlling the product lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon-Byrne, Gay

    2014-01-01

    INITIAL PRODUCT ACQUISITIONEquipment and Application AcquisitionIntroductionApplication Selection Dictates Hardware Selection     Background     Application License Acquisition     Going Naked     Operating System AcquisitionAcquisition Model: Direct from the Original Equipment Manufacturer     Platforms as Monopolies     Multiyear Commitments     Operating System and Machine Code License Lock-Ins     Strategic Partnerships     The Win Room     Credible CompetitionAcquisition Model: Channel Partners and Authorized Resellers     Competition between Partner or Channel Sources     Controlling Dis

  15. Generation of domestic waste electrical and electronic equipment on Fernando de Noronha Island: qualitative and quantitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Dhiego Raphael Rodrigues; de Oliveira, José Diego; Selva, Vanice Fragoso; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Santos, Simone Machado

    2017-08-01

    The accelerated growth trajectory of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a matter of concern for governments worldwide. In developing countries, the problem is more complex because municipal waste management is still a challenge for municipalities. Fernando de Noronha Island, an environmentally protected area, has a transfer station for solid waste before it is sent to the final destination abroad, which is different waste management model to most urban areas. In order to check the specifics of management of WEEE, this study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the generation of this type of waste on the main island of Fernando de Noronha, taking into consideration aspects related to consumption habits and handling of waste. During the in situ research, a questionnaire was applied to a sample of 83 households. The results provide a picture of the generation of WEEE for a period of 1 year, when a production of 1.3 tons of WEEE was estimated. Relationships between education level and monthly income and between education level and number of plasma/LCD TVs and washing machines were confirmed. Another important result is that only two socioeconomic variables (monthly income and education level) are related to two recycling behavior variables. In addition, the population and government treat WEEE as ordinary waste, ignoring its contaminant potential. Despite the existence of relevant legislation concerning the treatment and disposal of WEEE, additional efforts will be required by the government in order to properly manage this type of waste on the island.

  16. Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DecaBDE) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan: Stock, Emission, and Substitution Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Zhou, Liang; Kojima, Naoya; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2017-11-21

    DecaBDE has been widely used as flame retardant in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). It has recently been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention. The time series flow, stock, and emission of DecaBDE in EEE in Japan were quantified. On this basis, a risk/risk trade-off analysis of substituting DecaBDE with triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) that is one possible phosphorus-based alternative was conducted. The stock of DecaBDE reached a maximum of ∼42 000 t in 1995. Even though the demand flow was negligible in 2030, the stock was modeled to be still ∼470 t. The outflow of DecaBDE, from the use phase to the disposal phase, peaked at ∼4500 t/yr. in 2001. The DecaBDE emission to atmosphere was mainly derived from the production phase before 1990. The use phase became the largest contributor to the total emission from 1995 to 2000. Whereas the disposal phase dominated the total emission from 2000 onward. In the substitution analysis, a trade-off between human and ecological health effect was revealed in case of replacing DecaBDE with TPhP. This study attempted to give an overall picture of DecaBDE application at national level providing insights into relevant environmental policy making.

  17. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-05-15

    Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36mm, with preferable conditions being 400rpm rotation speed, 5min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of brominated flames retardants used in plastics from end of life electric-electronic equipment; Identificacion de retardadores a la llama bromados en plasticos de equipos electricos y electronicos al final de su vida util

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Laboa, G.; Pinedo, C.

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is the qualitative and semi-quantitative identification of the most common brominated flame retardants used in some relevant plastics from End of life Electric-Electronic Equipment, in order to obtain a reliable recycled materials regarding the tendencies of the Draft WEEE (Wastes from Electric and Electronic Equipment) and the Draft RoHS (Restriction of certain hazardous substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment) Directives. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. Control and management of energy in a PV system equipped with batteries storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Hirech

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a work concerning the conception, implementation and testing of a photovoltaic system that is equipped with a new concept of control and manage the energy in a PV system with a battery storage. The objective is to exploit the maximum of power using Hill climbing improved algorithm that considers optimal electrical characteristics of PV panels regardless of the system perturbation, to manage the energy between blocs of PV system in order to control the charge/discharge process and inject the energy surplus into the grid and also to estimate the state of charge with precision. Moreover, the system guarantees the acquisition and presentation of results on computer, supervision and so on. The results obtained show the robustness of the PV system, good control and protection of batteries under the maximum of energy provided by the PV panels. The state of charge estimation is evaluated by using measured parameters in real time; it shows an improvement of around 5% compared to the conventional technique.

  1. Electron-beam deflection controlled by digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, J. R.

    1965-01-01

    Electron-beam deflection in electronic image converters is controlled by a tapped magnetic deflection yoke and a series of current generators. The generators supply equal current to each tap through digitally controlled switches, thereby increasing the inherent accuracy of the system.

  2. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, L., E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  3. Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for NASA space flight programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document establishes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts management and control requirements for contractors providing and maintaining space flight and mission-essential or critical ground support equipment for NASA space flight programs. Although the text is worded 'the contractor shall,' the requirements are also to be used by NASA Headquarters and field installations for developing program/project parts management and control requirements for in-house and contracted efforts. This document places increased emphasis on parts programs to ensure that reliability and quality are considered through adequate consideration of the selection, control, and application of parts. It is the intent of this document to identify disciplines that can be implemented to obtain reliable parts which meet mission needs. The parts management and control requirements described in this document are to be selectively applied, based on equipment class and mission needs. Individual equipment needs should be evaluated to determine the extent to which each requirement should be implemented on a procurement. Utilization of this document does not preclude the usage of other documents. The entire process of developing and implementing requirements is referred to as 'tailoring' the program for a specific project. Some factors that should be considered in this tailoring process include program phase, equipment category and criticality, equipment complexity, and mission requirements. Parts management and control requirements advocated by this document directly support the concept of 'reliability by design' and are an integral part of system reliability and maintainability. Achieving the required availability and mission success objectives during operation depends on the attention given reliability and maintainability in the design phase. Consequently, it is intended that the requirements described in this document are consistent with those of NASA publications

  4. Attosecond Control of Photoabsorption Through Manipulating the Electron-Electron Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.

    2014-05-01

    This talk reports on studies of photoabsorption control by manipulating the electron -electron correlation in a double-ionization process with an attosecond extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulse. Electron correlation plays an essential role in a wide range of fundamentally important many-body phenomena in modern physics and chemistry. An example is the importance of electron-electron correlation in multiple ionization of multielectron atoms and molecules exposed to intense laser pulses. Manipulating the dynamic electron correlation in such photoinduced processes is a crucial step toward the coherent control of chemical reactions and photobiological processes. We will show for the first time, from full-dimensional ab initio calculations of double ionization of helium in intense laser pulses (λ = 780 nm), that the electron-electron interactions can be instantaneously tuned using a time-delayed attosecond EUV pulse. Consequently, the probability of producing energetic electrons from excessive photoabsorption can be enhanced by an order of magnitude through the attosecond control of electron-electron correlation. This work was partially supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award No. DE-NA0001944, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Computations have been conducted utilizing the ``Kraken'' Supercomputer at NICS.

  5. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  6. Experimental Study of the Power Profile Airfoil Equipped with Plasma Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Libin; Jacob, Jamey

    2013-11-01

    This presentation discusses results from an experimental study of the power profile airfoil at low Reynolds number. The power profile airfoil was developed by AMO Smith and consists of a blunt trailing edge shape with two wall jets near the trailing edge. The replacement of streamlining with properly designed blowing is used to prevent flow separation and additionally offers potential applications as a powered high-lift system, propulsive system, or low inertia control device. The 2D wind-tunnel model consists of the 22.5% thick power profile airfoil equipped with a movable trailing edge plug to direct flow along the trailing edge streamline. Compressed air was passed into the model via a plenum with flow conditioning devices to create pressure backdrop to allow uniform blowing at the trailing edge. The effects of varying jet momentum coefficient and trailing edge positioning on the aerodynamic characteristics are observed with both wake surveys and PIV. The impact of plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJA) placed along the trailing edge of the power profile airfoil is also discussed. PSJA operation is compared to the baseline power profile airfoil both alone and working with the blowing to provide additional control authority.

  7. Development of the graphic design and control system based on a graphic simulator for the spent fuel dismantling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the graphic design system is developed for designing the spent fuel rod consolidation and the dismantling processes. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. Also, the real-time control system of the rod extracting equipment is developed. This system utilizes the graphic simulator which simulates the motion of the equipment in real time by synchronously connecting the control PC with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. The developed system is expected to be used as an effective tool in designing the process equipment for the spent fuel management. And the real-time graphic control system can be effectively used to enhance the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process.

  8. Polymers in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) contain PBDD/F in the ppb-range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, M.; Brandl, F.; Maeurer, A.; Gruber, L.; Wolz, G. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV), Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) consists of metals (60%), polymers (20%) and residual materials as wood or glass (20%). Whereas state-of the art-technologies are able to recover most of the metals present, recovery rates for polymers and residuals are negligible low. Primarily, this is due to low disposal costs, which refers to landfill or incineration depending on geographic circumstances. The European WEEE directive, which assesses material recovery rates above 70%, and changes in the German disposal regulation, which will prohibit the landfill of organic materials starting 2005, currently alter the legislative conditions. This leads to an increased interest in polymer recovery strategies. Approaches discussed include polymer recycling and pyrolysis-based material recovery, both characterised by temperatures below 240 C or 600 C, respectively. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and/or diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in these waste streams complicate waste treatment techniques, since they are known to form brominated dioxins and furans (PBDD/F) under thermal stress, either in polymer recyclates or in pyrolysis products. Additionally, polymer recycling is affected by European directive 2003/11/EC, restricting the distribution of products containing more than 0.1% of octa- or pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, respectively. Aim of this study was to determine concentration levels of polybrominated compounds including PBDD/F and brominated flame retardants in polymers from WEEE. Both, mixed polymer waste and pre-sorted polymer fractions consisting mainly of monitors, TV-sets or telecommunication housings, were examined. Furthermore, the dependency of PBDD/F concentrations on waste source, pre-treatment and flame retardant system was investigated, implication on waste treatment alternatives are discussed.

  9. Reduction of heavy metals in residues from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment before incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Hu, Li-Fang [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The highest metal reduction occurs at a 2.36 mm sieving size. • Washing promotes heavy metal recycling without secondary pollution. • Sieving and washing are environmentally friendly pretreatments for WEEE wastes. - Abstract: Residues disposal from the dismantling of waste electrical and electronic equipment are challenging because of the large waste volumes, degradation-resistance, low density and high heavy metal content. Incineration is advantageous for treating these residues but high heavy metal contents may exist in incinerator input and output streams. We have developed and studied a specialized heavy metal reduction process, which includes sieving and washing for treating residues before incineration. The preferable screen aperture for sieving was found to be 2.36 mm (8 meshes) in this study; using this screen aperture resulted in the removal of approximately 47.2% Cu, 65.9% Zn, 26.5% Pb, 55.4% Ni and 58.8% Cd from the residues. Subsequent washing further reduces the heavy metal content in the residues larger than 2.36 mm, with preferable conditions being 400 rpm rotation speed, 5 min washing duration and liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1. The highest cumulative removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd after sieving and washing reached 81.1%, 61.4%, 75.8%, 97.2% and 72.7%, respectively. The combined sieving and washing process is environmentally friendly, can be used for the removal of heavy metals from the residues and has benefits in terms of heavy metal recycling.

  10. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, P A; Hischier, R; Eugster, M

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of metering and control equipment in district heating house substations. Smaller, smarter and unchangingly robust; Mess- und Regelungstechnik fuer Fernwaermehausstationen im Wandel der Zeit. Kleiner, intelligenter, unveraendert robust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Wolfgang; Hilbig, Thomas [Samson AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The technical evolution of house substations in hot water networks reflects the trend towards greater efficiency. Changes are to be seen above all in the requirements placed on the measurement and control technology used in the energy management functions of the electronic district heating controller as well as on safety equipment. Here DDC (Direct Digital Control) technology has created possibilities for optimising energy consumption. The authors relate the evolution of drinking water heating, self-operated regulators, electrical actuators and of electronic district heating controllers.

  13. Recoveries of rare elements Ga, Ge, In and Sn from waste electric and electronic equipment through secondary copper smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Yliaho, Simon; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-01-01

    The recycling and recovery of valuable metals from waste materials is one of the key issues in maintaining the sustainability of base and rare metals. Especially WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment) can be considered as a high potential resource for a number of valuable and critical metals like gallium, germanium and indium. During the mechanical processing of WEEE, these metals are primary separated into the non-ferrous scrap fractions, including copper fraction. As a consequence, the behavior of these valuable metals and the possibility of their recycling in secondary copper smelting are of great interest. This study experimentally investigates the distribution behavior of indium, gallium, germanium and tin between metallic copper and lime-free / lime-containing alumina iron silicate slags (L Cu/s [Me] = [Me] Copper /(Me) Slag ), as well as between solid Al-Fe spinel and slags (L sp/s [Me] = {Me} spinel /(Me) slag ). Moreover, the copper-slag-spinel equilibrium systems are examined. The experiments were executed simulating high alumina-bearing copper scrap smelting in typical black copper smelting conditions of pO 2  = 10 -10 -10 -5 atm (1 atm = 1.01325 × 10 5  Pa) and T = 1300 °C. The experimental technique employed utilized a highly advanced equilibration-rapid quenching method followed by Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA). The results show that tin and indium can be efficiently recovered into the copper phase in reducing process conditions (pO 2 below 10 -7  atm), whereas gallium dissolved preferentially into the solid spinel phase in all conditions examined. Gallium dissolution into slag and spinel was found to occur as GaO 1.5 , whereas indium in spinel was determined to be as InO 1.5 . In addition, germanium was seen to distribute preferentially into the copper phase with L Cu/s [Ge] = 2-4, although its concentrations in all phases present were relatively low. Thus, the main route for germanium can be considered to

  14. Measurement and control techniques for electric equipment development; Tecnicas de medicion y control para el desarrollo de equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In broad outlines the measuring and control techniques that are used in the electric equipment development in the short circuit laboratories, are described. In this article the utilization criteria of the traditional and modern (analogical and digital) instruments are described as well as the tendency towards the system`s integration for the automation of the measurement and control processes. Also, mention is made of the systems currently being developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to be applied at the Short Circuit Laboratories of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and of the IIE. [Espanol] Se describen a grandes rasgos las tecnicas de medicion y control que se emplean para el desarrollo de equipos electricos en los laboratorios de corto circuito. En este articulo se describen los criterios de utilizacion de los instrumentos tradicionales y modernos (analogicos y digitales), asi como la tendencia hacia la integracion de sistemas para la automatizacion de los procesos de medicion y control. Tambien se mencionan los sistemas que actualmente se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para aplicarlos en los Laboratorios de Corto Circuito de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Instituto.

  15. Development of an interface for an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system and an electronic servo-control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Charles; Williamson, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center sponsors a research program for the investigation of Intelligent Flight Control Actuation systems. The use of artificial intelligence techniques in conjunction with algorithmic techniques for autonomous, decentralized fault management of flight-control actuation systems is explored under this program. The design, development, and operation of the interface for laboratory investigation of this program is documented. The interface, architecturally based on the Intel 8751 microcontroller, is an interrupt-driven system designed to receive a digital message from an ultrareliable fault-tolerant control system (UFTCS). The interface links the UFTCS to an electronic servo-control unit, which controls a set of hydraulic actuators. It was necessary to build a UFTCS emulator (also based on the Intel 8751) to provide signal sources for testing the equipment.

  16. Interface controlled electronic variations in correlated heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, K.; Moshnyaga, V.; Samwer, K.; Lebedev, O. I.; Verbeeck, J.; Kirilenko, D.; van Tendeloo, G.

    2010-09-01

    An interface modification of (LaCa)MnO3-BaTiO3 superlattices was found to massively influence magnetic and magnetotransport properties. Moreover it determines the crystal structure of the manganite layers, changing it from orthorhombic (Pnma) for the conventional superlattice (cSL), to rhombohedral (R3¯c) for the modified one (mSL). While the cSL shows extremely nonlinear ac transport, the mSL is an electrically homogeneous material. The observations go beyond an oversimplified picture of dead interface layers and evidence the importance of electronic correlations at perovskite interfaces.

  17. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  18. Electronic control/display interface technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  19. Aerodynamic forces acting on a passive flow control equipped airfoil in turbulent inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampers, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim; Hölling, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines work within turbulent atmospheric flows, with their well known challenging features of intermittent two point statistics. These intermittent statistics have a big impact on wind turbines, concerning fluctuating mechanical loads. Flow control is a promising approach for the reduction of these fluctuations. In this project, an airfoil profile is equipped with mechanically coupled flexible leading and trailing edge flaps, enabling to passively adapt its camber. We expose the profile to different reproducible turbulent inflow conditions, generated with an active grid in a wind tunnel and study the profile's ability to alleviate lift fluctuations. The first experiment is concerned with repeated mexican hat shaped inflow gusts. The corresponding lift reactions of the profile show, that the adaptive camber mechanism is able to alleviate lift fluctuations caused by the inflow gust. In the second experiment, we use different grid excitations to vary the flatness of the inflow angle increments and study the influence of the statistics at different angles of attack. We propose a stochastic Langevin approach to decompose the lift dynamics into a deterministic response and a stochastic part, allowing for a quantitative analysis of the response dynamics. Funded by the German Research Foundation, Ref. No. PE 478/15-1.

  20. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  1. The Controlling Parameters for EMIC Wave Scattering of Relativistic Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bortnik, J.

    2016-12-01

    Although there is growing support for relativistic electron losses due to precipitation from electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave scattering, this mechanism is yet to be quantified. Such a quantification has been difficult in the past, because equatorial electron measurements simultaneous with EMIC waves have been limited, due to the highly localized presence of EMIC waves in the magnetosphere. In this study, we examine parameters controlling characteristics of EMIC wave induced relativistic (0.3-6 MeV) electron scattering, directly based on simultaneous wave and particle measurements from Van Allen Probes. We first present a case study when relativistic electrons respond differently during two intervals of intense ( 1 nT) EMIC wave observations: one with no scattering signature and one with efficient electron losses at >1.8 MeV. Based on the observed EMIC wave spectra and background plasma conditions, we calculate the wave diffusion rates and model the evolution of electron pitch angle distributions. By comparing the modeled results with local observations of pitch angle distributions, we demonstrate that fpe/fce is critical in controlling the effectiveness of EMIC waves in scattering multi-MeV electrons. We then expand our analysis to explore the conditions (such as fpe/fce, wave frequency spectra, and ring current ion temperature and anisotropy levels) favorable for EMIC wave scattering multi-MeV electrons through multi-event analyses. Our study is important for accurately modeling relativistic electron loss processes in radiation belt electron forecasts.

  2. Precise control of lycopene production to enable a fast-responding, minimal-equipment biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Monica P; Styczynski, Mark P

    2017-09-01

    Pigmented metabolites have great potential for use in biosensors that target low-resource areas, since sensor output can be interpreted without any equipment. However, full repression of pigment production when undesired is challenging, as even small amounts of enzyme can catalyze the production of large, visible amounts of pigment. The red pigment lycopene could be particularly useful because of its position in the multi-pigment carotenoid pathway, but commonly used inducible promoter systems cannot repress lycopene production. In this paper, we designed a system that could fully repress lycopene production in the absence of an inducer and produce visible lycopene within two hours of induction. We engineered Lac, Ara, and T7 systems to be up to 10 times more repressible, but these improved systems could still not fully repress lycopene. Translational modifications proved much more effective in controlling lycopene. By decreasing the strength of the ribosomal binding sites on the crtEBI genes, we enabled full repression of lycopene and production of visible lycopene in 3-4h of induction. Finally, we added the mevalonate pathway enzymes to increase the rate of lycopene production upon induction and demonstrated that supplementation of metabolic precursors could decrease the time to coloration to about 1.5h. In total, this represents over an order of magnitude reduction in response time compared to the previously reported strategy. The approaches used here demonstrate the disconnect between fluorescent and metabolite reporters, help enable the use of lycopene as a reporter, and are likely generalizable to other systems that require precise control of metabolite production. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron Gun for Computer-controlled Welding of Small Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2-3 (2001), s. 159-164 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Electron beam-welding machine * Electron gun * Computer- control led beam Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2001

  4. Survey and analysis on environmental and electromagnetic effect on instrumentation and control equipment of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Young; Cha, Kyung Ho

    2001-03-01

    As the instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment suppliers tend to provide digital components rather than conventional analog type components for instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants(NPPs), it is unavoidable to adopt digital equipment for safety I and C systems as well as non-safety systems. However, the full introduction of digital equipment for I and C systems of nuclear power plants raises several concerns which have not been considered in conventional analog I and C equipment. The two major examples of the issues of digital systems are environmental/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and software reliability. This report presents the survey and research results on environmental and electromagnetic effect on I and C equipment of nuclear power plants to give a guideline for aging management and design process. Electromagnetic site surveys were conducted to be used as a part of technical basis to demonstrate that I and C systems are compatible with the ambient electromagnetic noise in Korean nuclear power plants.

  5. Automatic system of tests for control equipment in combined cycle power stations; Sistema automatico de pruebas para equipos de control en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Flores L, Zenon; Delgadillo V, Miguel A; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This article deals on the Automatic System of Tests, denominated PROBADOR, used by the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)for the accomplishment of dynamic tests in laboratory, to the systems of acquisition and control developed with the electronic line SAC-IIE that are installed in the Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC) of Dos Bocas, Veracruz and Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Also the architecture, the functions that are carried out in the equipment of the System of Acquisition and control (SAC) and in the personal computer (PC) that conforms it are described, as well as the methodology used for the development of the tests. The PC constitutes Interface Man-Machine (IMM) and in the SAC equipment the simulation of the processes is made (by means of the execution of algebraic-differential equations) in the compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, heat recuperators, steam turbines and condenser equipment that integrate a CTCC. The equations that are used are based in the thermodynamics, flow dynamics and heat transfer; they become attached to the real process with a margin of error that is estimated in 10%. Finally, the tendencies of the PROBADOR and the technical and economic advantages are described that it has provided for the improvement in the performance of the control systems, before different situations, with no need to have the real process. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre el Sistema Automatico de Pruebas, denominado PROBADOR, utilizado por la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para la realizacion de pruebas dinamicas en laboratorio, a los sistemas de adquisicion y control desarrollado con la linea electronica SAC-IIE que estan instalados en las Centrales Termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC) de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Tambien se describen la arquitectura, las funciones que se llevan

  6. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  7. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozański, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  8. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  9. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  10. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): A follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waeger, P.A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, R.; Eugster, M.

    2011-04-15

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15 years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. - Research Highlights: {yields} Comprehensive

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  12. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was

  13. Inventory control program for laboratory equipment written in the C programming language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishman, J.L.; Shipp, S.G.

    1986-10-01

    A property inventory package has been written in the C programming language to keep track of general laboratory equipment. All functions which would be expected for a master inventory database are available including add, delete, edit, and find. The package was developed on a Digital Equipment Corporation LSI 11/73 computer using the ULTRIX-11 operating system, and can be adapted for use on any UNIX based system, or any operating system with a C compiler.

  14. ISAUr : an integrated tool for modeling the noise impact of urban traffic control equipments

    OpenAIRE

    PICAUT, Judicaël; LECLERCQ, Ludovic; LELONG, Joël; CHERVET, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Urban traffic facilities like roundabouts, limited speed areas, and zigzag are used in urban areas mainly for road traffic flow management and for safety reasons. In many cases, it is considered that such equipments may produce noise abatement, while sometimes it is observed an increase of noise due to modifications of traffic flow characteristics. In order to evaluate the noise impact of such equipments, a numerical tool (ISAUr) was developed. The simulation program is based on the coupling ...

  15. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  16. Features of the national export control on international transfers of nuclear materials, equipment and technologies in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Anokhin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available National export control system of Ukraine is analyzed in the context of the current state of solving problems related to non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The legal framework and structure of the system, the foundations of the organization and implementation of national export control in Ukraine are described. The features of the national control lists of equipment, materials and dual-use technologies in connection with the prospect of transition to a new single control list, based on the structure of the European Union control list, are considered.

  17. The Design and Realization of Multimedia Textbook The Equipment of Ship’s Command and Control(C2) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Based on the powerful multimedia interactive integration platform of Director, the paper designs to make a multimedia textbook The Equipment of Ship’s Command and Control(C2) System with reference to the characteristics of the equipment, while making use of various image and sound editing software like Photoshop and Video Studio who are rich in functions. It attempts to solve problems in the teaching of the course, such as unitary teaching mode, outmoded course content, unsatisfactory teaching result, the lack of fitted textbook, etc.

  18. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  19. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  20. Peptide-equipped tobacco mosaic virus templates for selective and controllable biomineral deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Altintoprak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coating of regular-shaped, readily available nanorod biotemplates with inorganic compounds has attracted increasing interest during recent years. The goal is an effective, bioinspired fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites and robust, miniaturized technical devices. Major challenges in the synthesis of applicable mineralized nanorods lie in selectivity and adjustability of the inorganic material deposited on the biological, rod-shaped backbones, with respect to thickness and surface profile of the resulting coating, as well as the avoidance of aggregation into extended superstructures. Nanotubular tobacco mosaic virus (TMV templates have proved particularly suitable towards this goal: Their multivalent protein coating can be modified by high-surface-density conjugation of peptides, inducing and governing silica deposition from precursor solutions in vitro. In this study, TMV has been equipped with mineralization-directing peptides designed to yield silica coatings in a reliable and predictable manner via precipitation from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS precursors. Three peptide groups were compared regarding their influence on silica polymerization: (i two peptide variants with alternating basic and acidic residues, i.e. lysine–aspartic acid (KDx motifs expected to act as charge-relay systems promoting TEOS hydrolysis and silica polymerization; (ii a tetrahistidine-exposing polypeptide (CA4H4 known to induce silicification due to the positive charge of its clustered imidazole side chains; and (iii two peptides with high ZnO binding affinity. Differential effects on the mineralization of the TMV surface were demonstrated, where a (KDx charge-relay peptide (designed in this study led to the most reproducible and selective silica deposition. A homogenous coating of the biotemplate and tight control of shell thickness were achieved.

  1. Advanced and intelligent control in power electronics and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodríguez, José

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and variable frequency drives are continuously developing multidisciplinary fields in electrical engineering, and it is practically not possible to write a book covering the entire area by one individual specialist. Especially by taking account the recent fast development in the neighboring fields like control theory, computational intelligence and signal processing, which all strongly influence new solutions in control of power electronics and drives. Therefore, this book is written by individual key specialist working on the area of modern advanced control methods which penetrates current implementation of power converters and drives. Although some of the presented methods are still not adopted by industry, they create new solutions with high further research and application potential. The material of the book is presented in the following three parts: Part I: Advanced Power Electronic Control in Renewable Energy Sources (Chapters 1-4), Part II: Predictive Control of Power Converters and D...

  2. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  3. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2018-01-30

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  4. Development of Thermal Stress Test Profile for Class 1E Equipment in Main Control Room of a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Ki; Park, Je Yun; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hee Jun [Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The primary objective of an equipment qualification (EQ) is to demonstrate with reasonable assurance that Class 1E equipment for which a qualified life or condition has been established can perform its safety function without experiencing common-cause failures before, during, and after applicable design basis events (DBEs). For the environmental test of Class 1E equipment installed in the main control room (MCR) of a research reactor, the thermal stress test profile should be developed based on normal and abnormal environmental conditions of the MCR. A thermal stress test profile for Class 1E equipment located in the MCR of a research reactor is developed based on an engineering justification. A set of thermal stress test conditions including temperature, test duration, and number of test cycles is defined considering the specific characteristics of the targeted research reactor. The method used in this study can be applied to develop a thermal stress test profile used for the EQ test to qualify Class 1E equipment installed in the MCR of various research reactors.

  5. Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.

  6. Development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the design, construction, and test of an electronic signal controller for urban vehicular traffic control. The design is based on a series of fixed-time signal plans for different time zones of the day and can accommodate sixty-four signal plans. Finite state machine concept was used in the design of the signal ...

  7. Progress in sub-femtosecond control of electron localization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Recent advances in controlled generation of intense, ultrashort laser pulses in the femtosecond and attosecond time-scales have pushed new avenues of research in the coherent control of ... We discuss the origin of the idea and various mechanisms to achieve electron localization in small molecules.

  8. Determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with collision-reaction interface technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirian C. [Grupo de Espectrometria Atomica, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cadore, Solange, E-mail: cadore@iqm.unicamp.br [Grupo de Espectrometria Atomica, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} New procedures for determination of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in WEEE are required considering both recent legislation and instrumentation. {yields} It is shown here how an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with a collision-reaction interface can be used for this analytical task. {yields} Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by ICP-MS measurements are fully described and discussed. - Abstract: A procedure based on the use of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) for control of spectral overlap interferences was developed for simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The injection of H{sub 2} and He (80 and 60 mL min{sup -1}, respectively) into the sampled plasma, colliding and reacting with potentially interfering polyatomic ions, allows interference-free determination of chromium via its isotopes {sup 52}Cr and {sup 53}Cr that are freed from overlap due to the occurrence of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +}, {sup 36}S{sup 16}O{sup +} or {sup 1}H{sup 36}S{sup 16}O{sup +}. Cadmium, Hg and Pb were directly determined via their isotopes {sup 110}Cd, {sup 111}Cd, {sup 112}Cd, {sup 199}Hg, {sup 200}Hg, {sup 201}Hg, {sup 202}Hg, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, and {sup 208}Pb, without using CRI. The CRI can be quickly activated or deactivated before each analyte measurement. Limits of detection for {sup 52}Cr were 0.04 or 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} with He or H{sub 2} injected in CRI. Cadmium and Pb have LODs between 0.02 and 0.08 {mu}g L{sup -1} and Hg had 0.93-0.98 {mu}g L{sup -1}, without using CRI. Analyte concentrations for samples varied from 16 to 43, 1 to 11, 4 to 12, and 5 to 13 mg kg{sup -1} for Cr, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  9. 46 CFR 130.320 - Electronic position-fixing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position-fixing device. 130.320 Section 130... CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.320 Electronic position-fixing device. Each vessel must be equipped with an electronic position-fixing device satisfactory for...

  10. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Muller, Edson I. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, 96900-010 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH{sub 4}OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k—low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g{sup −1} for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g{sup −1} for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO{sub 3} and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb

  11. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  12. Proceedings of the Electronic Test Equipment Division’s Annual Program Review of ’Electronic Test Equipment Industry Response to Emerging Defense Requirements’ Held in Arlington, VA on 10-11 May 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    symbols (like the Olympic torch ); we are very straight forward and we’re not subjected to political pressures; and we’re not a large...Katzman, very diplomatically, suggested this topic," Navy Bid Sample Evaluation." Navy bid sample evaluation is unlike the Olympics ...sample test procedures, and Current procurement considerations for Navy test equipment. 59 First, Let me relay a real life, horror story

  13. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  14. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission

  15. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of utilizing the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and the Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment for Spacelab payload instrumentation was determined. Representative shuttle sortie payloads were analyzed for applicability and commonality. Modification of NIM/CAMAC equipment was analyzed for its suitability in Spacelab environments and to determine the cost. NIM/CAMAC equipment usage requirements for Spacelab payloads were converted to pool size requirements and time-phased equipment procurement requirements. A programmatic estimate of the pool equipment costs and a management plan were prepared for the pool concept. The implementation and impact of CAMAC software were assessed.

  16. Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 Aug 13 to 13 Feb 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals ...dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials for the realization of novel quantum electronic states. We employed molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) combined with...junctions that allowed to study transport across the van der Waals interface between the conductor and superconductor. Our observation of gate tunable

  17. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  18. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  19. The use of fuzzy logic in quality control testing of automotive and tractor equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobko А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relevance of the research topics, defines goals and objectives, subject and object of research. On the basis of the literature analysis, the following eduction was made: not all the test methods in road and agricultural vehicles (tractors contribute to the effective implementation of the requirements of normative documents including international, inter-laboratory comparative tests. The approach in laboratory testing to the synthesis adaptive system of metrological assurance the use of fuzzy logic is proposed. These labs conduct testing of automotive and tractor equipment. The decision is under risk. The scheme of metrological assurance system covers all parties to ensure the necessary accuracy of measurements and tests; the necessary normative-technical documentation is provided; availability of measuring instruments and test equipment, standards and reference measures; availability of qualified personnel; the assurance that test results are accurate (correct and precision; provides effective decisions based on objective information.

  20. Controlling stress corrosion cracking in mechanism components of ground support equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of materials for mechanism components used in ground support equipment so that failures resulting from stress corrosion cracking will be prevented is described. A general criteria to be used in designing for resistance to stress corrosion cracking is also provided. Stress corrosion can be defined as combined action of sustained tensile stress and corrosion to cause premature failure of materials. Various aluminum, steels, nickel, titanium and copper alloys, and tempers and corrosive environment are evaluated for stress corrosion cracking.

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  2. An easy, fast and "low-tech"-equipment-requiring alternative method to optimize immunolabelling conditions for pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopy and to correlate light and electron microscopical immunogold labelling results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiwal, Shweta; Kiefer, Gabriele; Schmitz, Frank; Schwarz, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Correlating light microscopic immunolabelling results with electron microscopic data is of great interest in many fields of biomedical research but typically requires very specialized, expensive equipment and complex procedures which are not available in most labs. In this technical study, we describe an easy and "low-tech"-equipment-requiring pre-embedding immunolabelling approach that allows correlation of light microscopical immunolabelling results with electron microscopic (EM) data as demonstrated by the example of immunolabelled synaptic ribbons from retinal rod photoreceptor synapses. This pre-embedding approach does not require specialized embedding devices but only commonly available equipment. The cryostat section-based procedure allows optimization of the pre-embedding immunolabelling conditions at the less laborious and time-consuming light microscopic (LM) level before the ultrastructural analyses of the immunolabelled structures can be performed on the same sample after ultrathin sectioning without further modification. The same photoreceptor synapse that has been first studied at the light microscopic level can be subsequently analyzed with this approach at the electron microscopic level at individual ultrathin sections or serial ultrathin sections from individual, identical synapses. Higher resolution EM analyses of the immunolabelled synapses can be performed with only minor modifications of the combined LM/EM procedure. The detergent-free procedure is applicable even for weakly fixed cryostat sections which is a relevant aspect for many antibodies that do not work with more strongly fixed biological samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  4. Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Heather R; Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  6. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  7. Progress in sub-femtosecond control of electron localization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Abstract. Recent advances in controlled generation of intense, ultrashort laser pulses in the ... We discuss the origin of the idea and various ..... generation. 2.3 Electron localization using a combination of many-cycle IR pulse and an attosecond pulse train. Unlike both the above techniques which required ...

  8. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved.

  9. Spatial Control of Laser Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Behm, K.; Zhao, T.; Joglekar, A. S.; Hussein, A.; Nees, J.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Elle, J.; Lucero, A.; Samarin, G. M.; Sarry, G.; Warwick, J.

    2017-10-01

    The laser wakefield experiments to study and control spatial properties of electron beams were performed using HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan at power of 100 TW. In the first experiment multi-electron beam generation was demonstrated using co-propagating, parallel laser beams with a π-phase shift mirror and showing that interaction between the wakefields can cause injection to occur for plasma and laser parameters in which a single wakefield displays no significant injection. In the second experiment a magnetic triplet quadrupole system was used to refocus and stabilize electron beams at the distance of 60 cm from the interaction region. This produced a 10-fold increase in remote gamma-ray activation of 63Cu using a lead converter. In the third experiment measurements of un-trapped electrons with high transverse momentum produce a 500 mrad (FWHM) ring. This ring is formed by electrons that receive a forward momentum boost by traversing behind the bubble and its size is inversely proportional to the plasma density. The characterization of divergence and charge of this electron ring may reveal information about the wakefield structure and trapping potential. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  10. Externally Controlled Injection of Electrons by a Laser Pulse in a Laser Wakefield Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Szu Yuan; Chen Wei Ting; Chien, Ting-Yei; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Wang, Jyhpyng

    2005-01-01

    Spatially and temporally localized injection of electrons is a key element for development of plasma-wave electron accelerator. Here we report the demonstration of two different schemes for electron injection in a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SM-LWFA) by using a laser pulse. In the first scheme, by implementing a copropagating laser prepulse with proper timing, we are able to control the growth of Raman forward scattering and the production of accelerated electrons. We found that the stimulated Raman backward scattering of the prepulse plays the essential role of injecting hot electrons into the fast plasma wave driven by the pump pulse. In the second scheme, by using a transient density ramp we achieve self-injection of electrons in a SM-LWFA with spatial localization. The transient density ramp is produced by a prepulse propagating transversely to drill a density depression channel via ionization and expansion. The same mechanism of injection with comparable efficiency is also demonstrated wi...

  11. Advance of Mechanically Controllable Break Junction for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Xiang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Molecular electronics stands for the ultimate size of functional elements, keeping up with an unstoppable trend over the past few decades. As a vital component of molecular electronics, single molecular junctions have attracted significant attention from research groups all over the world. Due to its pronounced superiority, the mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) technique has been widely applied to characterize the dynamic performance of single molecular junctions. This review presents a system analysis for single-molecule junctions and offers an overview of four test-beds for single-molecule junctions, thus offering more insight into the mechanisms of electron transport. We mainly focus on the development of state-of-the-art mechanically controlled break junctions. The three-terminal gated MCBJ approaches are introduced to manipulate the electron transport of molecules, and MCBJs are combined with characterization techniques. Additionally, applications of MCBJs and remarkable properties of single molecules are addressed. Finally, the challenges and perspective for the mechanically controllable break junctions technique are provided.

  12. ASIL determination for motorbike's Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) mulfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Rokhani, Fakhrul; Rahman, Muhammad Taqiuddin Abdul; Ain Kamsani, Noor; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Khair Hassan, Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Electronics Throttle Control System (ETCS) is the principal electronic unit in all fuel injection engine motorbike, augmenting the engine performance efficiency in comparison to the conventional carburetor based engine. ETCS is regarded as a safety-critical component, whereby ETCS malfunction can cause unintended acceleration or deceleration event, which can be hazardous to riders. In this study, Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment, an ISO26262 functional safety standard analysis has been applied on motorbike's ETCS to determine the required automotive safety integrity level. Based on the analysis, the established automotive safety integrity level can help to derive technical and functional safety measures for ETCS development.

  13. Control Chaotic Diffusion in a Single Pass Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniazzi, A

    2005-01-01

    We apply an innovative strategy to control chaotic diffusion in conservative systems to the case of a single pass Free Electron Laser. The core of our approach is a small apt modification of the system which channels chaos by building barriers to diffusion. By confining the electrons in phase space and limiting the oscillations of the dense core, we aim at stabilizing the laser intensity. Calculations are perfomed within the framework of a simplified Hamiltonian picture. Further extensions and future experimental applications are also discussed.

  14. Attitude of the stakeholders involved in the repair and second-hand sale of small household electrical and electronic equipment: Case study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    The European legal framework for Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (Directive 2012/19/EU) prioritises reuse strategies against other valorisation options. Along these lines, this paper examines the awareness and perceptions of reusing small household EEE from the viewpoint of the different stakeholders involved in its end-of-life: repair centres, second-hand shops and consumers. Direct interviews were conducted in which an intended survey, designed specifically for each stakeholder, was answered by a representative sample of each one. The results obtained from repair centres show that small household EEE are rarely repaired, except for minor repairs such as replacing cables, and that heaters, toasters and vacuum cleaners were those most frequently repaired. The difficulty of accessing cheap spare parts or difficulties during the disassembly process are the commonest problems observed by repair technicians. The results obtained from second-hand shops show that irons, vacuum cleaners and heaters are the small household EEE that are mainly received and sold. The results according to consumers indicate that 9.6% of them take their small household EEE to be repaired, while less than 1% has ever bought a second-hand small household EEE. The main arguments for this attitude are they thought that the repair cost would be similar to the price of a new one (for repairs), and hygiene and cleaning reasons (for second-hand sales). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Internet of things and Big Data as potential solutions to the problems in waste electrical and electronic equipment management: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Ma, Buqing; Guo, Jianfeng; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Management of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a vital part in solid waste management, there are still some difficult issues require attentionss. This paper investigates the potential of applying Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data as the solutions to the WEEE management problems. The massive data generated during the production, consumption and disposal of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) fits the characteristics of Big Data. Through using the state-of-the-art communication technologies, the IoT derives the WEEE "Big Data" from the life cycle of EEE, and the Big Data technologies process the WEEE "Big Data" for supporting decision making in WEEE management. The framework of implementing the IoT and the Big Data technologies is proposed, with its multiple layers are illustrated. Case studies with the potential application scenarios of the framework are presented and discussed. As an unprecedented exploration, the combined application of the IoT and the Big Data technologies in WEEE management brings a series of opportunities as well as new challenges. This study provides insights and visions for stakeholders in solving the WEEE management problems under the context of IoT and Big Data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  17. Speed Control of General Purpose Engine with Electronic Governor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Umerujan; Tohti, Gheyret; Takigawa, Buso; Tsuji, Teruo

    This paper presents a general purpose engine speed control system with an electronic governor in order to improve the current system with a mechanical governor which shows unstable characteristics by change of mecanical friction or A/F ratio (Air/Fuel ratio). For the control system above, there are problems that the feedback signal is only a crank angle because of cost and the controlled object is a general purpose engine which is strongly nonlinear. In order to overcome these problems, the system model is shown for the dynamic estimation of the amount of air flow and the robust controller is designed. That is, the proposed system includes the robust sliding-mode controller by the feedback signal of only a crank angle where Genetic Algorithm is applied for the controller design. The simulation and the experiments by MATLAB/Simulink are performed to show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  18. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design.

  19. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  20. Control systems for power electronics a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the book covers most of the aspects as a primer on power electronics starting from a simple diode bridge to a DC-DC convertor using PWM control. The thyristor-bridge and the mechanism of designing a closed loop system are discussed in chapter one, two and three. The concepts are applied in the fourth chapter as a case study for buck converter which uses MOSFETs as switching devices and the closed loop system is elaborated in the fifth chapter. Chapter six is focused on the embedded system basics and the implementation of controls in the digital domain. Chapter seven is a case study of application of an embedded control system for a DC motor. With this book, the reader will find it easy to work on the practical control systems with microcontroller implementation. The core intent of this book is to help gain an accelerated learning path to practical control system engineering and transform control theory to an implementable control system through electronics. Illustrations are provided for most of...

  1. Control of electronic transport in graphene by electromagnetic dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, K; Kibis, O V; Morina, S; Shelykh, I A

    2016-02-03

    We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the electron energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) electronic transport in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control electronic properties of graphene with light.

  2. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 3: Tasks 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The modifications for the Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment, designed for ground based laboratory use, that would be required to permit its use in the Spacelab environments were determined. The cost of these modifications were estimated and the most cost effective approach to implementing them were identified. A shared equipment implementation in which the various Spacelab users draw their required complement of standard NIM and CAMAC equipment for a given flight from a common equipment pool was considered. The alternative approach studied was a dedicated equipment implementation in which each of the users is responsible for procuring either their own NIM/CAMAC equipment or its custom built equivalent.

  3. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  4. Mechanical design of an electronic control unit using axiomatic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If the engine of the car can be considered as the heart, then the E.C.U’s represents the brain of the car. Electronic control units (E.C.U’s are electronic devices which control the way different components of a car (engine, windows, airbags, etc. react in some situations (overheating, button pressed by a passenger, crash, etc.. Axiomatic design is a set of principles that theorizes the act of conceiving a new project. Based on two axiom this method comes into designers help, giving them the option to reach in a short period of time a fully functional and compliant product without supporting the design of the product on chance, past experiences or “try and fail” principle.

  5. First steps in quality control equipment MRI; Primeros pasos en el control de calidad de equipos de imagen por resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, M.; Castaneda Arronte, M. J.; Ferreiros Vazquez, N.; Sanchez Merino, G.

    2011-07-01

    The present work aims to develop the initial stages of a program of quality control of nuclear magnetic resonance equipment. Not intended to conduct a comprehensive study covering all aspects of quality control, but gather the steps are followed and the most common problems they are encountering during the development of this program. It has been claimed that the work will be helpful to others facing the same task. Have been studied the compatibility of mannequins and procedures for the various teams. Ideally, such controls should be independent of the procedures and mannequins own commercial houses.

  6. Thermal control system for SSF sensor/electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akau, R. L.; Lee, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal control system was designed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) sensor/electronics box (SSTACK). Multi-layer insulation and heaters are used to maintain the temperatures of the critical components within their operating and survival temperature limits. Detailed and simplified SSTACK thermal models were developed and temperatures were calculated for worst-case orbital conditions. A comparison between the two models showed very good agreement. Temperature predictions were also compared to measured temperatures from a thermal-vacuum test.

  7. Controlling time scales for electron transfer through proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot Wherland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron transfer processes within proteins constitute key elements in biological energy conversion processes as well as in a wide variety of biochemical transformations. Pursuit of the parameters that control the rates of these processes is driven by the great interest in the latter reactions. Here, we review a considerable body of results emerging from investigation of intramolecular electron transfer (ET reactions in two types of proteins, all done by the use of the pulse-radiolysis method: first are described results of extensive studies of a model system, the bacterial electron mediating protein azurin, where an internal ET between the disulfide radical ion and the Cu(II is induced. Impact of specific structural changes introduced into azurin on the reaction rates and the parameters controlling it are discussed. Then, the presentation is extended to results of investigations of intra-protein ET reactions that are part of catalytic cycles of multi-copper containing enzymes. Again, the rates and the parameters controlling them are presented and discussed in the context of their efficacy and possible constraints set on their evolution.

  8. 78 FR 14007 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...: Effective April 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert C. Jones, FAA, Propulsion and Mechanical... flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by... ventilation air. Mobility is rapid movement of the smoke into and out of the occupied area. In no case should...

  9. General Attitude Control Algorithm for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...... realized on an integrated circuit. This paper considers two issues: slew maneuver with a feature of avoiding direct exposure of the camera's CCD chip to the Sun %, three-axis attitude control and optimal control torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized...... applying the energy shaping technique, where the desired potential function is carefully designed using a physical insight into the nature of the problem. The system stability is thoroughly analyzed and the control performance simulated...

  10. Slew Maneuver Control for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2005-01-01

    torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized applying the energy shaping technique, where the desired potential function is carefully designed using a physical insight into the nature of the problem. The system stability is thoroughly analyzed and the control......A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...

  11. A cost and utility analysis of NIM/CAMAC standards and equipment for shuttle payload data acquisition and control systems. Volume 2: Tasks 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A representative set of payloads for both science and applications disciplines were selected that would ensure a realistic and statistically significant estimate of equipment utilization. The selected payloads were analyzed to determine the applicability of Nuclear Instrumentation Modular (NIM)/Computer Automated Measurement Control (CAMAC) equipment in satisfying their data acquisition and control requirements. The analyses results were combined with the comparable results from related studies to arrive at an overall assessment of the applicability and commonality of NIM/CAMAC equipment usage across the spectrum of payloads.

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmm of... - Control Requirements for Items of Equipment That Meet the Criteria of § 63.1362(k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Control Requirements for Items of Equipment That Meet the Criteria of § 63.1362(k) 4 Table 4 to Subpart MMM of Part 63 Protection of... Part 63—Control Requirements for Items of Equipment That Meet the Criteria of § 63.1362(k) Item of...

  13. Control electronics for large mosaics of SIDECAR ASIC driven detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Markus; Cheng, Edward; Lohr, James; Mott, Brent; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna

    2012-07-01

    Several of the next generation instruments require high-resolution visible or infrared focal plane arrays that can only be achieved by building large mosaics of individual detector arrays. A significant step towards enabling these mosaics has been the introduction of the SIDECAR ASIC by Teledyne Imaging Sensors, a single chip for generating biases and clocks to the image sensor, and for digitizing up to 36 sensor outputs. To support large detector mosaics, we have developed a new control electronics approach that operates up to 32 SIDECAR ASIC / HxRG detectors in parallel. Important properties of the electronics include separately programmable voltage supplies for each ASIC with programmable over-current and over-voltage protection, synchronized operation of all ASICs, and support for post-processing of science data like co-adding of frames, sample-up-the-ramp processing, or centroiding. All ASIC and detector modes are supported, including window/guide mode operation. The electronics uses a full mode CameraLink interface to provide 680 MBytes/s of sustained bandwidth. In this paper, we present an overview of the electronics architecture, including the general computer infrastructure for data acquisition, storage and sharing. We will discuss benefits and features of the chosen approach, and present data captured using a SIDECAR ASIC and H2RG detector. The effort was funded by NASA's WFIRST project as part of an initial technology demonstration for large space-based detector mosaics.

  14. REDUCTION IN CUTS SPEED AT THE BEGINNING OF A SORTING SIDINGS, EQUIPPED WITH QUASI-CONTINUOUS SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Clear and uninterrupted operation of humps depends on the quality of technical equipment and control technology of cuts speed. Technology of interval and purposive regulation of cuts speed is used at most humps. The article discusses ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings equipped with quasi-continuous speed control system. Methodology. It proposed three fundamentally different ways to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding. The analysis of the ways to reduce cuts rolling speed to a safe level at the beginning of the sorting sidings was conducted using simulation the process of cuts rolling from humps equipped with quasi-continuous speed control. Findings. As a result of analysis, the inappropriateness of opposite elevation using on the roll-out part of the hump after the last separation switch point. Spot regulators of cars speed can be used to reduce the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding, but this leads to a division conditions deterioration on the last separating switch points of long cuts with the following after them short cuts. Reducing the cuts rolling speed at the beginning of the sorting siding can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite simple. All produce should be unhooked from it at a safe speed. If the accuracy of the implementation of the set speed output to unhook from the park brake position is low, it is possible to eliminate the error of point regulators cars speed. Originality. The question where to start location point of wagon retarders zone to reduce speed to cut level requires additional research. Reducing rolling cut the speed at the beginning of the sorting sidings can be carried out using the beam on a stationary wagon retarders park brake position. Practical value. Control Algorithm park brake position is quite

  15. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for Transactive Control of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-29

    This report seeks to characterize the opportunities and challenges that arise in developing a transactive control strategy for grid-EVSE integration in various use-case scenarios in a way that provides end-user, energy market, grid, and societal benefits. A detailed review provides information about EVSE integration market trends and stakeholder activities. This is followed by an exploration of value proposition for transactive control of EVSE at both the home scale and the building/campus scale. This report will serve as a reference guide for stakeholders in the grid-EVSE integration area, illustrate potential implementations, and identify a high-value research project for overcoming the barriers and unlocking the benefits of transactive controls of EVSE. While it is not intended to specify the technical details of the transactive control solution, the report contains a list of use cases describing potential applications of transactive control of EVSE, barriers to implementing these applications, and research and development (R&D) opportunities to overcome the barriers. The use cases of transactive control of EVSE are listed in Table ES1.

  17. Two-Year Operational Evaluation Of A Consumer Electronics-Based Data Acquisition System For Equipment Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoy, Blake W. [ORNL; Phillips, Larry D. [ORNL; Wetherington Jr, G Randall [ORNL; Damiano, Brian [ORNL; Green, Craig [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed a two-year evaluation of the performance of an in-house developed consumer electronics-based data acquisition system (DAS). The main advantage of this approach compared to conventional instrumentation grade systems is cost; instrument grade data acquisition systems average costs range from $800 to $2,000 per channel compared to a range of $200 - $400 per channel for a consumer electronics-based system. The DAS is operated as a full-time in-situ vibration monitor. The resulting data stream is streamed over the ORNL network, at an aggregate rate of approximately 2 megabytes/s, to a Linux server. The server includes the capability to implement event-triggered data stores, as well as real-time files for the implementation of continuous display monitoring of the spectra. Detailed spectral analysis is performed post event. The DAS is installed on a large industrial chiller and cooling water pump associated with ORNL’s Titan supercomputer. These mechanical systems include rotating components that operate at fundamental frequencies within the range of 30 Hz to over 3 KHz. Evaluation of the DAS data over a two-year operating period leads to the conclusion that for many industrial processes this system could form the basis for a cost effective means of obtaining operating health data in real time from rotating machinery. The deployment has also shown that the DAS technology is reliable. Furthermore, because the cost of the DAS is low, the other significant advantage of this approach is that the DAS can be deployed in a dedicated manner and operated on a full-time basis.

  18. Precise in situ etch depth control of multilayered III−V semiconductor samples with reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Kleinschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS equipment is applied to monitor dry-etch processes (here specifically reactive ion etching (RIE of monocrystalline multilayered III–V semiconductors in situ. The related accuracy of etch depth control is better than 16 nm. Comparison with results of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS reveals a deviation of only about 4 nm in optimal cases. To illustrate the applicability of the reported method in every day settings for the first time the highly etch depth sensitive lithographic process to form a film lens on the waveguide ridge of a broad area laser (BAL is presented. This example elucidates the benefits of the method in semiconductor device fabrication and also suggests how to fulfill design requirements for the sample in order to make RAS control possible.

  19. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  20. Improvement of the Koradi parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics and application to the economic organization and optimization of recycling costs of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; Queiruga, D.

    2005-09-01

    A parallel algorithm for molecular dynamics, MD, the Koradi point-centered decomposition algorithm, especially designed for inhomogeneous systems, is improved and applied to the organization and optimization of recycling costs of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE, and also to systems of atoms. This organization requires the numbers and locations of storage centers and recycling plants of the WEEE that minimize the recycling cost. The Koradi algorithm finds these optimal numbers and locations, dealing very fast with large numbers of data, in contrast with other methods. The changes of the original algorithm (different ways of generating the initial centers and especially the requirement of location convergence) improve its performance for this economic problem and also for MD simulations.

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction for qualitative and quantitative determination of brominated flame retardants in styrenic plastic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Francisco; Ribes-Greus, Amparo; Karlsson, Sigbritt

    2009-04-15

    A fast method for the determination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in styrenic polymers using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) was developed. Different extraction parameters (extraction temperature and time, type of solvent, particle size) were first optimised for standard high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) samples containing known amounts of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE). Complete extraction of TBBPA was achieved using a combination of polar/non-polar solvent system (isopropanol/n-hexane) and high extraction temperatures (130 degrees C). Lower extraction yields were, however, obtained for Deca-BDE, due to its high molecular weight and its non-polar nature. The developed method was successfully applied to the screening of BFRs in standard plastic samples from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE); TBBPA could be fully recovered, and Deca-BDE could be identified, together with minor order polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners.

  2. Analysis of flame retardant additives in polymer fractions of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by means of HPLC-UV/MS and GPC-HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, Martin; Brandl, Fritz; Mäurer, Andreas; van Eldik, Rudi

    2005-01-28

    An HPLC-UV/MS method has been developed to identify and quantify flame retardants in post-consumer plastics from waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation spectra of 15 brominated and phosphate-based flame retardants were recorded and interpreted. The method was applied to detect flame retardant additives in polymer extracts obtained from pressurised liquid extraction of solid polymers. In addition, a screening method was developed for soluble styrene polymers to isolate a flame retardant fraction through the application of gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This fraction was transferred to an online-coupled HPLC column and detected by UV spectroscopy, which allowed a reliable qualitative and quantitative analysis of brominated flame retardants in the polymer solutions.

  3. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  4. 77 FR 75071 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Electrical/Electronic Equipment Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert C. Jones, FAA, Propulsion and Mechanical Systems Branch... rudder, controlled by the pilot or copilot sidestick. The Model EMB-550 airplane has electrical... ventilation air. Mobility is rapid movement of the smoke into and out of the occupied area. In no case should...

  5. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  6. Why are important the quality control measurements in x-ray equipment; Por que sao importantes as medicoes de controle de qualidade em equipamentos de raios X ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Rodrigues, B.B., E-mail: bbdrodrigues@gmail.com [Secretaria de Saude do Distrito Federal, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Engenharia Clinica e Equipamentos Medicos. Supervisao de Radioprotecao; Oliveira da Silva, M.W.; Canevaro, L.V., E-mail: luciacanevaro@yahoo.com, E-mail: maurowilson@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    In this work tests were used for quality control fluoroscopic units dedicated to interventional cardiology in three institutions of Rio de Janeiro. We evaluated four equipment, two belonging to a public hospital and two other to private hemodynamic services. The results obtained during the tests to assess the field size and the rate of air kerma at the entrance of the patient are presented. All devices evaluated showed the size of the field within the limits except an equipment of national fabrication of a public institution. The recommended values for air kerma rate at the entrance of the patient were also exceeded in institutions evaluated. This work shows the importance of maintaining the X-ray tube as far as possible the patient to maintain a constant focus distance - intensifier. In addition to dose reduction and obtaining adequate image quality it is necessary to submit the fluoroscopic equipment to a program of quality control. It is essential to educate professionals in the sense that the methods of protection of the patient almost always result in decreased doses of professionals.

  7. Potential and limitations of modern equipment for real time control of urban wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campisano, A.; Cabot Ple, J.; Muschalla, D.

    2013-01-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) has become an accepted technique for improving the performance of Urban Drainage Systems (UDS) due to its flexibility and sustainability. Numerous implementations of RTC have been reported during the last decades. At the same time, guideline documents and state-of-the-art ...

  8. Equipment for Nonlinear Photonics Research - Light Control and Image Transmission in Specially-Designed Photonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    instability in stripe solitons by one- dimensional lattices, linear and nonlinear control of optical beams in optical periodic structures. In particular...during propagation even under nonlinearity. We generate experimentally and observe directly these large- angle bending beams in colloidal suspensions of...Physical Review Letters. 3. Elimination of transverse instability in stripe solitons by one-dimensional lattices In collaboration with AFOSR

  9. A Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Approach for the Dynamic Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Equipped with Electromechanical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changle Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinatively controlling the engine and several motor/generators (MGs during a dynamic process is a challenging problem because they are coupled together by the electromechanical transmission (EMT system and all of them have strong nonlinear characteristics. We develop a novel nonlinear optimal control approach based on the multiobjective dynamic optimization model of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, which is equipped with an EMT system. In this approach, the current states of the components are obtained by using the state observation algorithm based on Kalman filtering; the future states of the components and the feasible region of the control variables are estimated by using the dynamic prediction algorithm based on the nonlinear model of the EMT system. Then, the control variables are achieved by using the optimal decision algorithm based on the hierarchical optimization and nonlinear programming, and the influence of the model error and the external disturbance are modified by using the feedback compensation algorithm. The simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed control approach, and the test results verify its real-time performance.

  10. A preliminary study on the development of electronic pump system using Arduino controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Mohd Sharil; Miskon, Azizi; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    The implications of treatment using hemodialysis machine and equipment remain speculative. Most studies, case reviews and medical surveys have shown statistics of side effects of hypertension while undergo a treatment using hemodialysis machine. Therefore, a specific action must be taken to prevent the effects of hypertension during treatment especially using hemodialysis machine. In order to reduce this matter in terms of frequency of hypertension while undergo hemodialysis treatment, many approach have been undertaken for improvement. For the beginning, this project reviews the technique of controlling instantaneous blood pressure for normal and hypertension stage and describe the challenges faced by a researcher during experiment to match human stability. The methodology used in this project is to develop one electronics pump system using Arduino controller for transferring liquid (a tap water) from a tank to another tank. The liquid flow rate was measured by using flow sensor where it located at input and output part. This project has decided to focus on flow rate range from 300 mL/min to 900 mL/min. Results shows an efficiency for speed 30 is 97.96%, speed 50 is 100.15%, speed 130 is 99.54% and speed 200 is 99.87%. A range of efficiency for this preliminary study on the development of Electronic Pump System are from 97.96% to 100.15%. In addition, analysis and simulation of the system delivers a better performance efficiency.

  11. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D.; Reardon, Robert F.; Sweeney, James D.; Miner, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans. Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three), simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK), and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs) before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge. Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers. Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. PMID:20411076

  12. Iterative learning control for synchronization of reticle stage and wafer stage in step-and-scan lithographic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-lan; Hu, Song; Zhao, Li-xin; Ma, Ping

    2013-08-01

    Lithographic equipments are highly complex machines used to manufacture integrated circuits (ICs). To make larger ICs, a larger lens is required, which, however, is prohibitively expensive. The solution to this problem is to expose a chip not in one flash but in a scanning fashion. For step-and-scan lithographic equipment (wafer scanner), the image quality is decided by many factors, in which synchronization of reticle stage and wafer stage during exposure is a key one. In this paper, the principle of reticle stage and wafer stage was analyzed through investigating the structure of scanners, firstly. While scanning, the reticle stage and wafer stage should scan simultaneously at a high speed and the speed ratio is 1:4. Secondly, an iterative learning controller (ILC) for synchronization of reticle stage and wafer stage is presented. In the controller, a master-slave structure is used, with the wafer stage acting as the master, and the reticle stage as the slave. Since the scanning process of scanner is repetitive, ILC is used to improve tracking performance. A simple design procedure is presented which allows design of the ILC system for the reticle stage and wafer stage independently. Finally, performance of the algorithm is illustrated by simulated on the virtual stages (the reticle stage and wafer stage).The results of simulation experiments and theory analyzing demonstrate that using the proposed controller better synchronization performance can be obtained for the reticle stage and wafer stage in scanner. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable and efficient.

  13. Electron beam optics and trajectory control in the Fermi free electron laser delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Mitri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam optics (particle betatron motion and trajectory (centroid secular motion in the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser (FEL are modeled and experimentally controlled by means of the elegant particle tracking code. This powerful tool, well known to the accelerator community, is here for the first time fully integrated into the Tango-server based high level software of an FEL facility, thus ensuring optimal charge transport efficiency and superposition of the beam Twiss parameters to the design optics. The software environment, the experimental results collected during the commissioning of FERMI@Elettra, and the comparison with the model are described. As a result, a matching of the beam optics to the design values is accomplished and quantified in terms of the betatron mismatch parameter with relative accuracy down to the 10^{-3} level. The beam optics control allows accurate energy spread measurements with sub-keV accuracy in dedicated dispersive lines. Trajectory correction and feedback is achieved to a 5  μm level with the implementation of theoretical response matrices. In place of the empirical ones, they speed up the process of trajectory control when the machine optics is changed, avoid particle losses that may occur during the on-line computation of experimental matrices, and confirm a good agreement of the experimental magnetic lattice with the model.

  14. Controlling electron-electron correlation in frustrated double ionization of triatomic molecules with orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Kling, M. F.; Emmanouilidou, A.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the control of electron-electron correlation in frustrated double ionization (FDI) of the two-electron triatomic molecule D3 + when driven by two orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. We employ a three-dimensional semiclassical model that fully accounts for the electron and nuclear motion in strong fields. We analyze the FDI probability and the distribution of the momentum of the escaping electron along the polarization direction of the longer wavelength and more intense laser field. These observables, when considered in conjunction, bear clear signatures of the prevalence or absence of electron-electron correlation in FDI, depending on the time delay between the two laser pulses. We find that D3 + is a better candidate than H2 for demonstrating also experimentally that electron-electron correlation indeed underlies FDI.

  15. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  16. [Recommendations on the metrology and the control of the quality of the critical equipments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunizeau, A

    2013-06-01

    Metrology resumes activities which allow the management of results measurement quality. In this paper, we present basic principles of metrology applied to the activities of laboratory medicine. We successively treat general concepts useful for laboratory staff, the interest in the definition of a metrological function and its activities field, the applications in measuring instruments necessary for the exams of medical biology, and the specific documentation control needed.

  17. Optimal positioning of protection and remote control equipment in medium voltage networks; Optimale Positionierung von Schutz- und Fernwirktechnik in Mittelspannungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeders, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). IAEW; Lewtschenko, Daniel [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Since 2012 the introduced German quality regulation provides an economic incentive for network operators to realize cost-efficient measures that improve supply reliability. The use of protection and remote control devices in medium-voltage stations has rarely been considered as a measure to increase supply reliability. Falling prices for digital control and protection devices enhance the economic competitiveness of these measures against conventional network structure expansion. While many existing computer-based methods approach the optimization of network structure in the medium-voltage level, equipping medium-voltage stations with additional protection and remote control devices is rarely considered. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new computer-based method that optimizes the use of protection and remote control devices in medium-voltage stations considering the quality regulation. The developed method performs an optimization based on a genetic algorithm and is applicable to all typical medium-voltage network structures. A case study illustrates the operational capability of the developed method with an urban medium-voltage network. (orig.)

  18. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  19. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  20. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  1. Free Electron Laser Pulse Control by Acousto Optic Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Kanai, T; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, S

    2005-01-01

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Osaka University can be continuously varied in the range of 5.0-20.0 μm. A FEL has a double pulse structure. The structure consists of a train of macropulses of the pulse width 15 μs, and each macropulse contains a train of 330 micropulses of the pulse width 5 ps. The tunability and short pulse afford new medical applications such as investigation of protein dynamics and ablation of soft tissues. Precise control of micropulse train is very important for medical applications using FEL because macropulse with long pulse duration sometimes leads to undesirable thermal effects. FEL pulse control system using an acousto optic modulators (AOM) was developed in order to investigate of non-thermal effect between the FEL and tissue. This system provide a very good efficiency (~60 %) and a fast switching speed (>200 ns). A phosphorylated protein was irradiated with FEL that controlled the pulse. These result confirmed that the thermal effect is controlled by pulse durat...

  2. Low power RF beam control electronics for the LEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestha, L.K.; Mangino, J.; Brouk, V.; Uher, T.; Webber, R.C.

    1993-05-01

    Beam Control Electronics for the Low Energy Booster (LEB) should provide a fine reference phase and frequency for the High Power RF System. Corrections applied on the frequency of the rf signal will reduce dipole synchrotron oscillations due to power supply regulation errors, errors in frequency source or errors in the cavity voltage. It will allow programmed beam radial position control throughout the LEB acceleration cycle. Furthermore the rf signal provides necessary connections during, adiabatic capture of the beam as injected into the LEB by the Linac and will guarantee LEB rf phase synchronism with the Medium Energy Booster (MEB) rf at a programmed time in the LEB cycle between a unique LEB bucket and a unique MEB bucket. We show in this paper a design and possible interfaces with other subsystems of the LEB such as the beam instrumentation, High Power RF Stations, global accelerator controls and the precision timing system. The outline of various components of the beam control system is also presented followed by some test results.

  3. Experimental investigation of different active noise control concepts applied to a passenger car equipped with an active windshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misol, M.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2012-05-01

    The main purpose of this work is the implementation and experimental investigation of different active structural acoustic control (ASAC) concepts for the reduction of interior noise in an automobile passenger compartment. For the control experiments, a medium-class test car was used, which had been equipped with an active windshield. The active windshield consists of the serial-production laminated glass pane augmented with piezoceramic patch-transducers applied to the blackened rim of the windshield. A multi-reference test provided measurement data for the identification of a local discrete-time state-space model (SSM). The subsequent acquisition of frequency response functions (FRF) by way of using the same actuators but measuring on a much finer grid provided the database for the formulation of a least-squares problem to derive a global system model. Based on the local and global discrete-time SSMs, different controllers were designed and experimentally realized. The comparison of the vibration levels in open- and closed-loop showed a global reduction of 5-7 dB in the acoustically relevant frequency band containing the second and third structural resonance of the windshield system. The occurrence of complex operational deflection shapes (ODS) was identified as the main limitation concerning the disturbance rejection of the active system. The acoustic performance of the ASAC system is reflected in a reduction up to 15 dB in sound pressure level (SPL).

  4. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawes, Donald M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Law enforcement and military personnel use electronic control devices to control non-compliant and actively resistive subjects. The TASER® Shockwave is a new electronic control device designed specifically as an area denial device capable of delivering multiple simultaneous discharges. This is the first study to examine the effects of multiple simultaneous device discharges in humans.Methods: Volunteers were exposed to multiple (two to three, simultaneous 5-second discharges from the Shockwave device to the chest, back, chest to abdomen, or thighs. Blood was analyzed before and after discharge for pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK, and troponin. Continuous spirometry was performed before, during, and after the discharge. In addition, electrocardiograms (ECGs before and after discharge were recorded, and echocardiography was used to determine the rhythm during discharge.Results: Small elevations of lactate occurred. Moderate increases in CK at 24 hours occurred and appeared to be related to the number of simultaneous discharges. There was a trend to a decrease in minute ventilation in the volunteers exposed to two simultaneous discharges, but it did not reach statistical significance. ECG changes only reflected an increase in vagal tone, and there was no evidence of capture by echocardiography. Five-second, simultaneous, multiple exposures to the TASER Shockwave device were reasonably tolerated by our human volunteers.Conclusion: Our study suggests that this device may have a reasonable risk/benefit ratio when used to protect an area from a threat. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:49-56].

  5. The Electronic Control of the Employer in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Coelho Moreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The way the work is made has been suffering in the last years countless changes related with the huge increase and development of the use of new information and communication technologies in the work relationship. The theme of privacy and surveillance of the employer have been turning in a matter of considerable interest and surrounded of great controversy in the last years all around the world and Portugal is no exception.The technological innovation allows, through several instruments as the use of video surveillance, GPS, RFID, control of electronic communications, control of online social networks or the internet, the continuous surveillance and monitoring of the workers and new questions arise in the horizon. These new forms of control constitute powerful means of surveillance and of memorization, but also of analysis and of interference in the people’ privacy, and one of the major challenges put today is the regulation of this new forms of control in the workplace because the advancement of modern technology has made it possible to collect and store information on a seemingly limitless scale, while also facilitating access to it. The question that arises before the use of this technology is to know what limits should be established. And the answer is related, it seems, with the principles of data protection, mainly, in Portugal, articles 20, 21 and 22 of Portuguese Labour Code and also the Portuguese Data Protection Act, Law number 67/98, from 26th October, and, most of all, the legitimate principle, the proportionality principle and the transparency principle.This as led to a new form of control much more intrusive and that controls almost everything even the way the worker thinks.

  6. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's...

  7. Nitrogen as a carrier gas for regime control in focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachter Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID using a custom built gas injection system (GIS equipped with nitrogen as a gas carrier. We have deposited cobalt from Co2(CO8, which is usually achieved by a heated GIS. In contrast to a heated GIS, our strategy allows avoiding problems caused by eventual temperature gradients along the GIS. Moreover, the use of the gas carrier enables a high control over process conditions and consequently the properties of the synthesized nanostructures. Chemical composition and growth rate are investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and atomic force microscopy (AFM, respectively. We demonstrate that the N2 flux is strongly affecting the deposit growth rate without the need of heating the precursor in order to increase its vapour pressure. Particularly, AFM volume estimation of the deposited structures showed that increasing the nitrogen resulted in an enhanced deposition rate. The wide range of achievable precursor fluxes allowed to clearly distinguish between precursor- and electron-limited regime. With the carrier-based GIS an optimized deposition procedure with regards to the desired deposition regime has been enabled

  8. THERMOELECTRIC HEAT REMOVAL SYSTEM FOR THE OPERATIONAL STABILISATION OF HEAT PIPES IN A SYSTEM FOR PROVIDING THE THERMAL REGIME OF RADIO ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Peredkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to conduct an analysis of thermophysical processes in a thermoelectric system used for  providing the thermal regime of electronic equipment located in a cabinet. A cabinet design and thermoelectric system for efficient  heat removal from the condensing part of the heat pipe are  proposed. An additional advantage of the proposed design is the  obviation of significant additional power consumption requirement  for regulating the temperature of radio electronic equipment stored  in the cabinet.A distinctive feature of the constructive realisation is  the presence of an intermediate heat removal.Methods. The three-dimensionality of the problem and mixed boundary conditions lead to the need to develop a calculation  of heat transfer in the elements of the construction of the  thermoelectric system. The numerical calculation method is based on the method of energy balances. The analysis of the heat regimes of  the intermediate heat removal is performed on the basis of a mathematical model for a locally-heated and -cooled restricted plate.Results. A cabinet design and a thermoelectric system for efficient  heat removal from the condensing part of the heat pipe are  proposed. A distinctive feature of the constructive realisation is the  presence of an intermediate heat removal.Conclusion.The capacity of the intermediate heat removal for given dimensions and temperature of the source is weakly affected by its  thickness (in constructively reasonable limits, as well as the  temperature and area of the absorbing side of the thermoelectric  module; the total heat output from the heat source is determined by the dimensions and heat exchange conditions on the free surface of the intermediate heat removal, as well as by the temperature and dimensions of the heat absorbing side of the thermoelectric module. The use of an intermediate heat removal can significantly reduce the thermal load on

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  10. Centrifuge pump control: valves or electronic driving?; Controle de bombas centrifugas: valvulas ou acionamento eletronico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoni, Edson da Costa [UNESP, Guaratingueta (Brazil); Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Silva, Benedito Claudio da [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil)

    1998-10-01

    A methodology to estimate the energy economy potential is presented, resultant of the utilization, in the flow control in pumping systems of variable-speed electronic driving in place of throttling valves. The procedure comprehends the determination and analysis of the pump and installation curves, providing reliable data for a economical feasibility analysis.

  11. Equipment repaired is equipment gained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Srinivasan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, at any one time, around 50 per cent of medical equipment in low- and middle-income countries cannot be used because of lack of maintenance or spare parts. We have found that unwillingness or inability to repair equipment and put it back in use is also a major cause.

  12. Design of equipment for the detection of nickel-63 source of the gc-2010 electron capture detector; Diseno de equipo para la deteccion de la fuente de niquel-63 del detector de captura de electrones gc-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez O, A.

    2016-07-01

    It is necessary to design a system that is able to detect the presence of the radioactive source nickel-63, located within the electron capture detector gc- 2010 through the use of Arduino technology, presence sensors and motion This in turn It must be interfaced with a system of tracking and tracing , so collectively be mounted inside the mobile laboratory for research and technological development of systems and equipment for measuring radiation , gases and particles. The program has a structure reading sensors, processing the acquired data and execution of an action if necessary. The system does this by receiving data autonomously, the data is processed and at the end, determines whether the source is in normal operating conditions, if subjected to movements that may cause undesired operation if being handled, or has it has been extracted. (Author)

  13. A Stochastic Programming Approach with Improved Multi-Criteria Scenario-Based Solution Method for Sustainable Reverse Logistics Design of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the increased public concern about sustainable development and more stringent environmental regulations have become important driving forces for value recovery from end-of-life and end-of use products through reverse logistics. Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE contains both valuable components that need to be recycled and hazardous substances that have to be properly treated or disposed of, so the design of a reverse logistics system for sustainable treatment of WEEE is of paramount importance. This paper presents a stochastic mixed integer programming model for designing and planning a generic multi-source, multi-echelon, capacitated, and sustainable reverse logistics network for WEEE management under uncertainty. The model takes into account both economic efficiency and environmental impacts in decision-making, and the environmental impacts are evaluated in terms of carbon emissions. A multi-criteria two-stage scenario-based solution method is employed and further developed in this study for generating the optimal solution for the stochastic optimization problem. The proposed model and solution method are validated through a numerical experiment and sensitivity analyses presented later in this paper, and an analysis of the results is also given to provide a deep managerial insight into the application of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  14. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  16. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Shchavlev; Anatoliy Piskunov; Aleksandr Abdullin; Vladimir Belenkiy; Georgy Mladenov; Dmitriy Trushnikov

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which sub...

  17. Evaluation of electronic stability control effectiveness in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Jim; Newstead, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) is an in-vehicle technology aimed at improving primary safety by assisting the driver in avoiding loss of control of the vehicle. The aim of this study was to use available crash data from Australia and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing crash risk and to establish whether benefits estimated from overseas studies have translated to the Australian and New Zealand environments. The sample analysed included 7699 crashed vehicles fitted with ESC which comprised of 90 different models. Poisson regression was used to test whether the differences in the observed and expected crash counts for ESC fitted vehicles were significant, with exposure being induced from counts of rear end impacts. It was found that ESC reduced the risk of single vehicle crashes in which the driver was injured by 68% for 4WDs compared with 27% for passenger cars. The effect of ESC on multiple vehicle crashes in Australia and New Zealand was not clear. The long-term benefits of fitting ESC to all vehicles in Australia were also investigated based on the estimated single vehicle crash reductions.

  18. 27 CFR 73.11 - What are the required components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... components and controls for acceptable electronic signatures? 73.11 Section 73.11 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES; ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION OF FORMS Electronic Signatures § 73.11...

  19. Selection and control principle of smoke control equipment%防排烟设备选用及控制原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛垂平; 邢智力

    2012-01-01

    介绍了防排烟设备的种类、原理、适用场合,重点介绍了防火阀、排烟阀、排烟口、多叶排烟口等设备的功能异同.分析了防排烟阀门与消防控制模块、排烟风机控制箱之间的信号传递关系.根据典型排烟系统的特点,设计了控制原理图.%Presents the types, principle and applicability of smoke control equipment, and emphasizes the similarity and dissimilarity in the function of fire dampers, smoke extraction valves, exhaust smoke outlets and multi-blade smoke exhaust outlets. Analyses the signal transfer relationship among smoke control valves, the fire control console and the ventilator control box. Prepares the control principle drawing based on the characteristics of typical smoke exhaust systems.

  20. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department's Excess Weapons Inventories and Selected Sensitive Equipment used by Protective Forces"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the Department of Energy has, on several occasions, revised its security posture based on identified threats and adversaries. These revisions in security posture have driven Departmental sites to upgrade their defensive and tactical equipment. Subsequent changes in the perceived threats have, in some cases, led to a reduction in the need for certain types of weapons, thus creating a pool of surplus equipment. These surplus weapons could potentially be used by other Department sites and Federal law enforcement agencies. Recent Office of Inspector General reports have raised concerns with the adequacy of controls related to defensive and tactical equipment. For example, our report on Management Controls Over Defense Related High Risk Property (OAS-M-08-06, April 2008) found that administrative controls over certain defense related high risk property were not sufficient for providing accountability over these items. Because of prior reported weaknesses in controls over defensive and tactical equipment, we initiated this audit to determine whether the Department and its contractors were properly managing excess weapons inventories and selected sensitive equipment used by protective forces. Our review disclosed that the Department was not always properly managing its inventories of excess weapons and selected sensitive equipment. We identified issues with the retention of unneeded weapons at many locations and with the identification and tracking of sensitive items. More specifically: Sites maintained large inventories of weapons that were no longer needed but had not been made available for use by either other Departmental sites or other Federal law enforcement agencies. For instance, at six of the locations included in our review we identified a total of 2,635 unneeded weapons with a total acquisition value of over $2.8 million that had not been officially declared as excess - an action that would have made them available for others to use

  1. 46 CFR 108.701 - Sounding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding equipment. 108.701 Section 108.701 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.701 Sounding equipment. Each self-propelled unit must have a mechanical or electronic sounding apparatus. ...

  2. Hybrid Electronic Tongues Applied to the Quality Control of Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gutiérrez-Capitán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislation of food industry is becoming increasingly strict with regard to the quality of food products. Therefore, the market is demanding for automatic systems of analysis that allow fast and accurate monitoring of the evolution of quality parameters in agrofood products or permit obtaining information to optimize production processes. In this context, sensors and more specifically microsensors play an important role since they allow fast and reproducible measurement of a large number of quality parameters with good reliability and can be implemented in portable systems. This paper presents a review of the results obtained with an electronic tongue based on different kinds of microsensors applied to wine analysis by the team of IMB-CNM. This multisensor system allows on one hand classifying the wine according to its features like grape variety, geographic origin, year, and organoleptic characteristics and on the other hand quantifying some parameters of interest in quality control, such as alcoholic degree, pH, ions, total acidity, glycerol, and color.

  3. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1003 - Equipment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment identification. 63.1003...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1003 Equipment identification. (a) General equipment identification. Equipment subject to this subpart shall be identified. Identification of...

  5. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  6. Enclosing and Mounting an Electronic Component on Articulated Haulers : A proposition on how to protect, and where to place, an intelligent node on the environmentally harsh exterior of construction equipment with respect to multiple parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sintorn, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As is the case with many other manufacturers of vehicles, Volvo Construction Equipment has a constantly increasing amount of electric and electronic equipment in their articulated haulers. These are of great use in modern machines, bringing functions, and safety that were not possible before, but they also bring more cables to handle. In the case of the articulated haulers a quite thick cable harness of about 15 meters in length reaches from the driver’s cabin in the front to the components i...

  7. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.

  8. Structure Optimization Design of the Electronically Controlled Fuel Control Rod System in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ride comfort and shorter clutch life span are the key factors restricting the commercialization of automated manual transmission (AMT. For nonelectrically controlled engines or AMT where cooperative control between the engine and the transmission is not realizable, applying electronically controlled fuel control rod systems (ECFCRS is an effective way to solve these problems. By applying design software such as CATIA, Matlab and Simulink, and MSC Adams, a suite of optimization design methods for ECFCRS drive mechanisms are developed here. Based on these new methods, design requirements can be analyzed comprehensively and the design scheme can be modified easily, thus greatly shortening the design cycle. The bench tests and real vehicle tests indicate that the system developed achieves preferable engine speed following-up performance and engine speed regulating performance. The method developed has significance as a reference for developing other vehicle systems.

  9. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two did not have a significant effect

  10. First-principles electron dynamics control simulation of diamond under femtosecond laser pulse train irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yanping; Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Lu, Yongfeng

    2012-07-11

    A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional is applied to simulate the nonlinear electron-photon interactions during shaped femtosecond laser pulse train ablation of diamond. Effects of the key pulse train parameters such as the pulse separation, spatial/temporal pulse energy distribution and pulse number per train on the electron excitation and energy absorption are discussed. The calculations show that photon-electron interactions and transient localized electron dynamics can be controlled including photon absorption, electron excitation, electron density, and free electron distribution by the ultrafast laser pulse train.

  11. Solar Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  12. Quality control in dental diagnostic radiology : anomalous in the use of radiological equipment; Control de Calidad en radiologia dental intraoral: anomalias en el funcionamiento de los equipos radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Jodar, S.; Velasco, E.; Garcia-Vera, M. C.

    2004-07-01

    7,176 official quality control reports on dental diagnostic radiology were studied, relating to dental clinics located in 37 Spanish provinces covering 16 different autonomous Regions. The reports were issued as a result of the entry into force of Royal Decree 2071/1995 on quality control in General Diagnostic Radiology facilities, this Royal Decree was replaced by R. D. 1976/1999. The reports were writen by the UTPR (Technical Unit of Radiological Protection) Agsigma S. A. L., a company approved by the Nuclear Safety Council, and they correspond with the official reports issued during 1996-2001. This meants that a 5-year period has been monitored in order to observe the impacts of the establlishment of this legislation on quality control in intraoral dental diagnostic radiology facilities. The results show that 72.79% of the reports checked in 2001 would comply with the European Union's official recommendation (70 kVp, 8 mA> 1.5 mm of Al and 20 cm collimator length). Significant alterations have detected in a third (30.59%) of the radiological equipment. (Author) 36 refs.

  13. Coherent single electron spin control in a slanting Zeeman field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokura, Yasuhiro; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Obata, Toshiaki; Tarucha, Seigo

    2006-01-01

    We consider a single electron in a 1D quantum dot with a static slanting Zeeman field. By combining the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of the electron, an effective quantum two-level (qubit) system is defined. This pseudospin can be coherently manipulated by the voltage applied to the gate

  14. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and size control by electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, K A; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2006-07-14

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by irradiating solutions, prepared by mixing AgNO{sub 3} and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), with 6 MeV electrons. The electron-irradiated solutions and the thin coatings cast from them were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. During electron irradiation, the process of formation of the silver nanoparticles appeared to be initiated at an electron fluence of {approx}2 x 10{sup 13} e cm{sup -2}. This was evidenced from the solution, which turned yellow and exhibited the characteristic plasmon absorption peak around 455 nm. Silver nanoparticles of different sizes in the range 60-10 nm, with a narrow size distribution, could be synthesized by varying the electron fluence from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. Silver nanoparticles of sizes in the range 100-200 nm were also synthesized by irradiating an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution with 6 MeV electrons.

  15. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  16. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    da Luz Maurício Antônio; Costa Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni Ana Carolina Taccolini; de Oliveira Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral Cristina Maria Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a bli...

  17. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher; Howe, Colin; Laugesen, Murray; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Williman, Jonathan; Walker, Natalie

    2013-11-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit. We did this pragmatic randomised-controlled superiority trial in Auckland, New Zealand, between Sept 6, 2011, and July 5, 2013. Adult (≥18 years) smokers wanting to quit were randomised (with computerised block randomisation, block size nine, stratified by ethnicity [Māori; Pacific; or non-Māori, non-Pacific], sex [men or women], and level of nicotine dependence [>5 or ≤5 Fagerström test for nicotine dependence]) in a 4:4:1 ratio to 16 mg nicotine e-cigarettes, nicotine patches (21 mg patch, one daily), or placebo e-cigarettes (no nicotine), from 1 week before until 12 weeks after quit day, with low intensity behavioural support via voluntary telephone counselling. The primary outcome was biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months (exhaled breath carbon monoxide measurement e-cigarettes, 295 to patches, and 73 to placebo e-cigarettes) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7·3% (21 of 289) with nicotine e-cigarettes, 5·8% (17 of 295) with patches, and 4·1% (three of 73) with placebo e-cigarettes (risk difference for nicotine e-cigarette vs patches 1·51 [95% CI -2·49 to 5·51]; for nicotine e-cigarettes vs placebo e-cigarettes 3·16 [95% CI -2·29 to 8·61]). Achievement of abstinence was substantially lower than we anticipated for the power calculation, thus we had insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e-cigarettes to patches or to placebo e-cigarettes. We identified no significant differences in adverse events, with 137 events in the nicotine e-cigarettes group, 119 events in the patches group, and 36 events in the placebo e-cigarettes group. We noted no evidence of an association between adverse events and study

  18. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  19. Free-electron-laser-induced shock-wave control and mechanistic analysis using pulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Taizo; Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Sachiko; Awazu, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    The wavelength of the free electron laser (FEL) in Osaka University can be continuously varied in the range of 5.0-20.0 microm. The FEL has a double-pulse structure, consisting of a train of macropulses of pulse duration 12 micros. Each macropulse contains a train of 330 micropulses of pulse duration 5 ps. The tunability and picosecond pulses afford new medical and biological applications. However, a macropulse of long pulse duration leads to undesirable secondary effects. Precise control of the macropulse duration is essential for the high-precision applications of the FEL. An FEL pulse control system using acousto-optic modulators has been developed to investigate mechanical (shock-wave) effects of the FEL on living tissues. With this system, we have controlled photoinduced shock waves and determine the mechanism of interaction during FEL-induced tissue ablation.

  20. Catalysts under Controlled Atmospheres in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    microscope, and since its invention by Ernst Ruska, the idea of imaging samples under gaseous atmospheres was envisioned. However, microscopes have traditionally been operated in high vacuum due to sensitive electron sources, sample contamination, and electron scattering off gas molecules resulting in loss...... of resolution. Using suitably clean gases, modified pumping schemes, and short pathways through dense gas regions, these issues are now circumvented. Here we provide an account of best practice using environmental transmission electron microscopy on catalytic systems illustrated using select examples from...

  1. Trends in Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which...... by means of power electronics are changing the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have...

  2. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.; Bork, R.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Use of beam deflection to control an electron beam wire deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for controlling an electron beam process wherein a wire is melted and deposited on a substrate as a molten pool comprises generating the electron beam with a complex raster pattern, and directing the beam onto an outer surface of the wire to thereby control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool. Directing the beam selectively heats the outer surface of the wire and maintains the position of the wire with respect to the molten pool. An apparatus for controlling an electron beam process includes a beam gun adapted for generating the electron beam, and a controller adapted for providing the electron beam with a complex raster pattern and for directing the electron beam onto an outer surface of the wire to control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool.

  4. Advantages of a program of quality control in the nuclear medicine equipment; Ventajas de un programa de control de calidad en los equipos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Z, F.E.; Argumosa, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Tlalpan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Herrera R, M.R. [Hospital Infantil de Mexico ' Federico Gomez' , Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In Nuclear Medicine more 90% of the entirety of the carried out procedures its are with diagnostic ends where it is acquired one or several images. This makes indispensable to have an appropriate operation of the dedicated equipment to produce images and also of those non former images, as the activity caliper, to assure an appropriate quality diagnoses not from the images and the correct dose administration to the patient. In this work the main calibrations that should be carried out and an example of the program of quality control of a gamma camera mark Siemens and model E.CAM are presented. Considerations that should take as for the radiological protection are exposed. Comments on the parameters that correct the required calibrations and the images taken place by an operation or inadequate calibrations are included. In conclusion, the necessity of a program that it contains as minimum the quality control of the gamma cameras and of the activity caliper, having as main advantages a good image quality diagnoses and to minimize the dose imparted the patient are exposed. (Author)

  5. Reversing the Literacy Decline by Controlling the Electronic Demons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Harriet

    1985-01-01

    Computer games, rock video, television, and movies are robbing teenagers of time they should be using to develop their minds. However, the electronic media do have a positive potential. A 10-item reference list is provided. (Author/DCS)

  6. Power electronics and control for wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...... renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the electrical network....

  7. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  8. An Educational Laboratory for Digital Control and Rapid Prototyping of Power Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Saeedifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new educational power electronics laboratory that was developed primarily to reinforce experimentally the fundamental concepts presented in a power electronics course. The developed laboratory combines theoretical design, simulation studies, digital control, fabrication, and verification of power-electronic circuits based on…

  9. Development of an application to control the dose delivered by digital radiology equipment; Elaboracion de una aplicacion para el control de la dosis impartida por equipos de radiologia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres Rodriguez, C.; Torres Cabrera, R.; Aguila Otero, M.; Hernando Gonzalez, I.

    2011-07-01

    One of the advantages associated with the incorporation of digital X-ray equipment in diagnostic imaging services is the ability to access the vast amount of information stored in the header of the images themselves. This work shows the experience in the development of an application to the calculation and control of the dose given to patients by general radiology digital equipment from such information.

  10. A hybrid approach to modeling and control of vehicle height for electronically controlled air suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    The control problems associated with vehicle height adjustment of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) still pose theoretical challenges for researchers, which manifest themselves in the publications on this subject over the last years. This paper deals with modeling and control of a vehicle height adjustment system for ECAS, which is an example of a hybrid dynamical system due to the coexistence and coupling of continuous variables and discrete events. A mixed logical dynamical (MLD) modeling approach is chosen for capturing enough details of the vehicle height adjustment process. The hybrid dynamic model is constructed on the basis of some assumptions and piecewise linear approximation for components nonlinearities. Then, the on-off statuses of solenoid valves and the piecewise approximation process are described by propositional logic, and the hybrid system is transformed into the set of linear mixed-integer equalities and inequalities, denoted as MLD model, automatically by HYSDEL. Using this model, a hybrid model predictive controller (HMPC) is tuned based on online mixed-integer quadratic optimization (MIQP). Two different scenarios are considered in the simulation, whose results verify the height adjustment effectiveness of the proposed approach. Explicit solutions of the controller are computed to control the vehicle height adjustment system in realtime using an offline multi-parametric programming technology (MPT), thus convert the controller into an equivalent explicit piecewise affine form. Finally, bench experiments for vehicle height lifting, holding and lowering procedures are conducted, which demonstrate that the HMPC can adjust the vehicle height by controlling the on-off statuses of solenoid valves directly. This research proposes a new modeling and control method for vehicle height adjustment of ECAS, which leads to a closed-loop system with favorable dynamical properties.

  11. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  12. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    + + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998......I corresponding to electron transfer between Na and I. The electronic motion is introduced via nuclear motion, more specifically, through nonadiabatic curve crossing and the electronic motion is here on the same time scale as the nuclear motion. We show that the branching ratio between the channels Na + I and Na...

  13. Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M H; Zumft, Walter G

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have...... been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime...... example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions....

  14. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Maurício Antônio; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro, Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni, Ana Carolina Taccolini; Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2014-05-01

    The Pilates method has been widely used to treat patients with chronic low back pain. Pilates exercises can be performed in 2 ways: by using specific equipment or without it (also known as mat Pilates). There are no studies, however, that have compared the effectiveness of mat Pilates with that of equipment-based Pilates. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mat Pilates and equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. A 2-arm randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was conducted. The study was conducted at a private physical therapy clinic in Brazil. Eighty-six patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain participated. The patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: a mat Pilates group (n=43) and an equipment-based Pilates group (n=43). The participants in both groups attended 12 Pilates sessions over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability. The secondary outcomes were global perceived effect, patient's specific disability, and kinesiophobia. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. After 6 months, there was a statistically significant difference for disability (mean difference=3.0 points, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.6 to 5.4), specific disability (mean difference=-1.1 points, 95% CI=-2.0 to -0.1), and kinesiophobia (mean difference=4.9 points, 95% CI=1.6 to 8.2) in favor of equipment-based Pilates. No differences were found for the remaining outcomes. Equipment-based Pilates was superior to mat Pilates in the 6-month follow-up for the outcomes of disability and kinesiophobia. These benefits were not observed for pain intensity and global perceived effect in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

  15. Control system of a high-power infrared free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Gorniker, E I; Kondakov, A A; Kurkin, G Ya

    2001-01-01

    The control system of the high power infrared FEL is built on the of a two-level distributed system.The system includes the operator interface at the upper level and Input/Output Controllers under supervision of the real time operating system at the lower level.All hardware for the control system of the FEL is produced by our institute,which solves several problems of hard real time and reduces cost of equipment.

  16. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  17. Gate-Controlled Electron Spin Resonance in a GaAs/AlGaAs Heterostructure

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, H. W.; Yablonovitch, E.

    2001-01-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) of two-dimensional electrons is investigated in a gated GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We found that the ESR resonance frequency can be turned by means of a gate voltage. The front and back gates of the heterostructure produce opposite g-factor shift, suggesting that electron g-factor is being electrostatically controlled by shifting the equilibrium position of the electron wave function from one epitaxial layer to another with different g-factors.

  18. Control circuits in power electronics practical issues in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Control circuits are a key element in the operation and performance of power electronics converters. This book describes practical issues related to the design and implementation of these control circuits, and is divided into three parts - analogue control circuits, digital control circuits, and new trends in control circuits.

  19. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  20. Electron-induced dissociation of doubly protonated betaine clusters: controlling fragmentation chemistry through electron energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feketeová, Linda; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2009-10-30

    The [M21+2H]2+ cluster of the zwitterion betaine, M = (CH3)3NCH2CO2, formed via electrospray ionisation (ESI), has been allowed to interact with electrons with energies ranging from >0 to 50 eV in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The types of gas-phase electron-induced dissociation (EID) reactions observed are dependent on the energy of the electrons. In the low-energy region up to 10 eV, electrons are mainly captured, forming the charge-reduced species, {[M21+2H]+*}*, in an excited state, which stabilises via the ejection of an H atom and one or more neutral betaines. In the higher energy region, above 12 eV, a Coulomb explosion of the multiply charged clusters is observed in highly asymmetric fission with singly charged fragments carrying away more than 70% of the parent mass. Neutral betaine evaporation is also observed in this energy region. In addition, a series of singly charged fragments appears which arise from C-X bond cleavage reactions, including decarboxylation and CH3 group transfer. These latter reactions may arise from access of electronic excited states of the precursor ions. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dynamics and Control of Switched Electronic Systems Advanced Perspectives for Modeling, Simulation and Control of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Iannelli, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The increased efficiency and quality constraints imposed on electrical energy systems have inspired a renewed research interest in the study of formal approaches to the analysis and control of power electronics converters. Switched systems represent a useful framework for modeling these converters and the peculiarities of their operating conditions and control goals justify the specific classification of “switched electronic systems”. Indeed, idealized switched models of power converters introduce problems not commonly encountered when analyzing generic switched models or non-switched electrical networks. In that sense the analysis of switched electronic systems represents a source for new ideas and benchmarks for switched and hybrid systems generally. Dynamics and Control of Switched Electronic Systems draws on the expertise of an international group of expert contributors to give an overview of recent advances in the modeling, simulation and control of switched electronic systems. The reader is provided...

  2. Implementation to spanish protocol of quality control of accelerators to daily control of electron beams; Implementacion del protocolo espanol de control de calidad de aceleradores al control diario de haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Diaz Fuente, R.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A revised procedure for daily control of the electron beams to make measurements more meaningful physically, having a better reproducibility and more in line with the recommendations of the Spanish Protocol for Quality Control in Electron Linear Accelerators Clinical Use. The daily quality control beams of high energy electrons that had been done so far was the finding that the record of a series of measures (symmetry, uniformity, stability, energy, beam central dose) were within tolerance values established. The amendment is to check the beam quality by directly measuring changes in absorption depth at which the dose is reduced to half its maximum value, R50.

  3. Ultrafast Control of Electron Dynamics in 3D Topological Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar Oliaei Motlagh, S.; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Apalkov, Vadym; Stockman, Mark I.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the coherent dynamics of Dirac fermions at the surface of a 3D topological insulator (Bi2Se3) in the field of an ultrafast laser pulse. In the presence of the ultrafast pulse, which has a femtosecond time scale that is less than the characteristic electron scattering time in these materials, the electron dynamics is coherent. Because of the gapless dispersion relation, the electrons dynamics is highly irreversible, which is dramatically different from dielectrics (fused silica, quartz, and sapphire). Due to irreversibility, finite conduction band population does exist after the pulse ends. Within two-band k.p Hamiltonian, which includes cubic momentum hexagonal warping terms, the residual conduction band (RCB) population in the reciprocal space is highly anisotropic. The distribution of RCB population in the reciprocal space strongly depends on the polarization of the ultrafast laser pulse.

  4. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  5. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... special condition is proposed to ensure appropriate mode recognition by the flight crew for events which significantly change the operating mode of the electronic flight control system. Discussion of Proposed Special...

  6. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... needed to ensure appropriate mode recognition by the flight crew for events which significantly change the operating mode of the electronic flight control system. Discussion of Comments Notice of proposed...

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 2, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  8. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hyun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyung Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changmoon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances.

  9. Modeling and Control of a teletruck using electronic load sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Iversen, Asger Malte; Jensen, Mads Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    the controller design for the ELS system, a complete model of the teletruck’s articulated arm and fluid power system is developed. To show the feasibility, a preliminary control structure for the ELS system is developed. The controller is tested on the machine, validating that features such as pump pressure...

  10. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  11. The inspection of equipment in the Amazon region: from ACFM to electronic PIG in Urucu; A inspecao de equipamentos na Amazonia: do ACFM ao pig instrumentado em Urucu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac-Culloch, Joao Nazareth Lafayette de Mello [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servicos de Sondagem Auto-Elevatoria; Beuren, Jair; Quadrado, Flavio Emir; Dunham, Paulo Cezar da Costa Lino [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Negocio da Bacia do Solimoes

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the historical evolution of the activity of equipment inspection of the PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL, in which the developments of a motivation program of the personnel from the effort developed for the certification of inspectors since the techniques more known most modern for the examination of installations and equipment was of great importance. PETROBRAS was introduced in the ACFM by TSC-Technical Software Consultants, during NDT (Non Destructive Test) Congress in 1994. PETROBRAS/UN-BSOL was the first unit to acquire the last equipment, called Amigo. In 2002 has qualified three professionals to ACFM level I. Nowadays, five inspectors level I and one level II and the technique has been used through inspections in several equipment with very well satisfactory. The Duto de Coleta de oleo de LUC de 10in and the Duto de Coleta de gas de LUC de 14in had been inspected with the PIG using the technique of Magnetic flux leakage (MFL), being that in the first one it was used Quantitative Smart PIG (High Resolution) and in as it was used Qualitative Smart PIG (Low Resolution). The results show that, despite the raised cost of the High Resolution PIG, this still is indicated for in-line inspection of pipelines of the UN-BSOL. (author)

  12. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  13. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  14. Methodology for the accelerated simulation of the deterioration that by atmospheric corrosion appears in electronic equipment; Metodologia para la simulacion acelerada del deterioro que por corrosion atmosferica se presenta en equipo electronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prado, A.; Schouwenaars, R.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of systems and electronic parts which are designed to work in atmospheric conditions have been tested for decades; some of these methods were the Cyclic Humidity Test, Field Tests and Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, the latter was one of the most popular methods. However, the salt spray test and most of the other existing methods do not show strong relationships with the real conditions of service. For this reason, it is necessary to develop appropriated methods and equipment for the accelerated simulation of real atmospheric corrosion phenomena. This article seeks to demonstrate the need to develop a test and the necessary equipment to reproduce the damage in electronic systems and equipment by atmospheric corrosion. [Spanish] Para la evaluacion de la resistencia a la corrosion de sistemas y equipo electronico que trabajaran bajo condiciones de deterioro generadas por el medio ambiente, se han aplicado una serie de ensayos, donde el mas popular es el de camara de niebla salina. Sin embargo, este y otros que se han elaborado para tal efecto no tienen ninguna relacion con las condiciones reales de servicio, por lo que es necesario un metodo de evaluacion que permita simular de forma acelerada los fenomenos de deterioro por efectos ambientales. Este articulo pretende demostrar la necesidad de desarrollar una prueba, que en forma acelerada, reproduzca el dano que sufre el material por efecto de la atmosfera; el cual se orienta a la evaluacion de equipo electrico y electronico.

  15. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, it lacks flexibility when modifications to system operation are required. The microprocessor/micro-controller option, at the other extreme, offers the maximum flexibility since it operates under software control. However, the relative high cost of hardware/software development facilities and support chips required in ...

  16. 46 CFR 153.484 - Prewash equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prewash equipment. 153.484 Section 153.484 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.484 Prewash equipment. Unless the ship operator shows that the prewash...

  17. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of programmable logic controllers and fieldbus equipment

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and fieldbus equipment for the CERN accelerators, technical services and experiments. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (FR) and SIEMENS SUISSE (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply of PLCs and fieldbus equipment for an estimated total amount covering both contracts not exceeding 2 000 000 Swiss francs per year for a period of three years. The firms have indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: - SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC: FR-100%, - SIEMENS SUISSE: DE-100%.

  18. Transient torque determination in controlled drives. Contribution to the development of an equipment for dynamic operation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargallo, R.; Llaverias, J.; Martin, H. [Dept. Electrotecnia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    After the work developed on parameter determination of saturated induction machines, now it is considered the estimation of not measurable variables such as flux and electromagnetic torque. Flux recursive estimation including parameter determination of saturated systems, leads to a torque observer that allows its evaluation. Torque measurement in dynamic operation is difficult and expensive. Here it is presented the implementation of an equipment for drive testing, which allows to generate arbitrary torque variations on the shaft of the driven machine, and also to measure and calculate electromechanical or load torques, by means of state observers. This work represents a previous step to the obtainment of an instant torque measurer-calibrator system. (orig.)

  19. Electron Beam Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-06-01

    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  20. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Shchavlev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam welding (EBW shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  1. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  2. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Maurício Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j

  3. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Maurício Antônio; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro, Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni, Ana Carolina Taccolini; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2013-01-09

    Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j.

  4. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  5. Vibrationally mediated control of single-electron transmission in weakly coupled molecule-metal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We propose a mechanism which allows one to control the transmission of single electrons through a molecular junction. The principle utilizes the emergence of transmission sidebands when molecular vibrational modes are coupled to the electronic state mediating the transmission. We will show that i....... As an example we perform a density-functional theory analysis of a benzene molecule between two Au(111) contacts and show that exciting a particular vibrational mode can give rise to transmission of a single electron....

  6. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  7. Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) Flight Evaluation in an F-15 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Flight evaluation in an F-15 aircraft by digital electronic engine control (DEEC) was investigated. Topics discussed include: system description, F100 engine tests, effects of inlet distortion on static pressure probe, flight tests, digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation, flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control, augmentor transient capability of an F100 engine, investigation of nozzle instability, real time in flight thrust calculation, and control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems. It is shown that the DEEC system is a powerful and flexible controller for the F100 engine.

  8. Temperature control of electronic components using fluidised beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R.

    1981-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of fluidized bed cooling applied to electronic systems. It is shown that, when fluidized with air, the cooling efficiency and the pumping power are principally dependent on particle characteristics; in particular the mean diameter should not be less than 100 microns. Design rules are developed and applied to two types of fluid-bed systems: (1) a small bed of alumina particles cooling single devices of 40 W power dissipation where the fluidizing air is the main heat transporting medium, and (2) a large bed of cenospheres with a simple integrated heat exchanger to extract more than 1 KW of heat from complete sub-rack assemblies of up to 40 printed circuit boards, for a fluidizing power of about 3 W. The effect of board spacing on the overall thermal performance is considered, and a minimum spacing of 10-20 mm is shown to be required to maintain cooling efficiency.

  9. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  10. Ultrafast Electronic Band Gap Control in an Excitonic Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Selene; Herzog, Marc; Golež, Denis; Werner, Philipp; Eckstein, Martin; Katayama, Naoyuki; Nohara, Minoru; Takagi, Hide; Mizokawa, Takashi; Monney, Claude; Stähler, Julia

    2017-08-25

    We report on the nonequilibrium dynamics of the electronic structure of the layered semiconductor Ta_{2}NiSe_{5} investigated by time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We show that below the critical excitation density of F_{C}=0.2  mJ cm^{-2}, the band gap narrows transiently, while it is enhanced above F_{C}. Hartree-Fock calculations reveal that this effect can be explained by the presence of the low-temperature excitonic insulator phase of Ta_{2}NiSe_{5}, whose order parameter is connected to the gap size. This work demonstrates the ability to manipulate the band gap of Ta_{2}NiSe_{5} with light on the femtosecond time scale.

  11. Modeling and Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Wind Generating Units Equipped with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators in Presence of Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the modeling of wind turbines equipped with direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generators for fundamental frequency power system simulations. Specifically, a procedure accounting for the system active power losses to initialize the simulation starting from the load flow results is proposed. Moreover, some analytical assessments are detailed on typical control schemes for fully rated wind turbine generators, thereby highlighting how active power losses play a fundamental role in the effectiveness of the wind generator control algorithm. Finally, the paper proposes analytical criteria to design the structure and the parameters of the regulators of the wind generator control scheme. Simulations performed with Digsilent Power Factory validated the proposed procedure, highlighting the impact of active power losses on the characterization of the initial steady state and that the simplifying assumptions done in order to synthesize the controllers are consistent with the complete modeling performed by the aforementioned power system simulator.

  12. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  13. Integrated optical transceiver with electronically controlled optical beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2017-08-22

    A beam-steering optical transceiver is provided. The transceiver includes one or more modules, each comprising an antenna chip and a control chip bonded to the antenna chip. Each antenna chip has a feeder waveguide, a plurality of row waveguides that tap off from the feeder waveguide, and a plurality of metallic nanoantenna elements arranged in a two-dimensional array of rows and columns such that each row overlies one of the row waveguides. Each antenna chip also includes a plurality of independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters, each configured to produce a thermo-optical phase shift in a respective row. Each antenna chip also has, for each row, a row-wise heating circuit configured to produce a respective thermo-optic phase shift at each nanoantenna element along its row. The control chip includes controllable current sources for the independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters and the row-wise heating circuits.

  14. Using an Integrated Script Control Unit (ISCU) to Assist the Power Electronics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Gao; Qi Lu

    2017-01-01

    An integrated script control unit (ISCU) is invented to work as the digital controller in power electronics educations. The ISCU mainly consists of two parts, a control board and computer software. The computer software enables college students to write specific scripts, which can be compiled and saved on the control board, to design the control flow and algorithms. The processor on the board will realize the algorithms that are designed by the user. All of the variables can be monitored by t...

  15. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  16. Audit-Based Access Control for Electronic Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Gadducci, F.

    Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e.before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori

  17. Atomic-Scale Control of Electron Transport through Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. F.; Kroger, J.; Berndt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-phthalocyanine molecules adsorbed on Ag(111) were contacted with the tip of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. Orders-of-magnitude variations of the single-molecule junction conductance were achieved by controllably dehydrogenating the molecule and by modifying the atomic structure...

  18. Audit-Based Access Control for Electronic Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e. before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori

  19. Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh

    There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.

  20. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ..., hospitals, and practitioners with the ability to use modern technology for controlled substance.... Moreover, they will help both pharmacies and hospitals to integrate prescription records into other medical... information technology provisions of the Recovery Act are primarily found in Title XIII, Division A, Health...

  1. Development of precision numerical controlled high vacuum electron beam welding machine

    CERN Document Server

    Li Shao Lin

    2002-01-01

    The structure, main technical parameters and characteristics of the precision numerical controlled high vacuum electron beam welding machine are introduced. The design principle, some features and solutions to some key technique problems of this new type machine are described

  2. Interface engineering for oxide electronics: tuning electronic properties by atomically controlled growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop a controlled growth with atomic precision for the realization of artificial perovskite structures, to exploit the exceptional physical properties of complex oxide materials such as high-temperature superconductors and conducting interfaces between band

  3. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  4. Attainment of 40.5 pm spatial resolution using 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with fifth-order aberration corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Ishikawa, Ryo; Kohno, Yuji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-12-22

    The achievement of a fine electron probe for high-resolution imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy requires technological developments, especially in electron optics. For this purpose, we developed a microscope with a fifth-order aberration corrector that operates at 300 kV. The contrast flat region in an experimental Ronchigram, which indicates the aberration-free angle, was expanded to 70 mrad. By using a probe with convergence angle of 40 mrad in the scanning transmission electron microscope at 300 kV, we attained the spatial resolution of 40.5 pm, which is the projected interatomic distance between Ga-Ga atomic columns of GaN observed along [212] direction. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Optimization and control of electron beams from laser wakefield accelerations using asymmetric laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K.; Gupta, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Optimization and control of electron beam quality in laser wakefield acceleration are explored by using a temporally asymmetric laser pulse of the sharp rising front portion. The temporally asymmetric laser pulse imparts stronger ponderomotive force on the ambient plasma electrons. The stronger ponderomotive force associated with the asymmetric pulse significantly affects the injection of electrons into the wakefield and consequently the quality of the injected bunch in terms of injected charge, mean energy, and emittance. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we report to generate a monoenergetic electron beam with reduced emittance and enhanced charge in laser wakefield acceleration using an asymmetric pulse of duration 30 fs.

  6. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  7. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  8. Electronics in vehicle systems. Control, regulation and communication systems; 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeugwesen. Steuerungs-, Regelungs- und Kommunikationssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walliser, G.; Oberhauser, M.; Vetter, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Esslingen (Germany). Fachbereich Fahrzeugbau; Abroell, M. [Honda Deutschland GmbH, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Acker, B. [Daimler Benz AG, Esslingen (Germany); Darenberg, W.; Diesner, K.; Fruehauf, F.; Kuehner, T.; Leiber, H.; Neumann, H.; Noecker, G.; Paulsen, L.; Widmann, H.G. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Gall, H. [Berufsakademie Stuttgart, Horb (Germany); Gloeckler, O.; Huber, W.; Loehr, D.; Mathony, H.J.; Suchowerskyj, W. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany); Gruener, R.; Waldeyer, F.; Zuckmantel, E. [Hella KG Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany); Guenther, U. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Reutlingen (Germany); Kaesser, J. [Blaupunkt-Werke GmbH, Hildesheim (Germany); Kirschner, M.; Koch-Duecker, H.J. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Maurer, G.; Mausner, E.; Schneider, E. [VDO Adolf Schindling AG, Schwalbach (Germany); Meyer-Staufenbiel, H. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nemec, D. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Plochingen (Germany); Rist, G.P. [Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Ueberwachungsverein e.V. (DEKRA), Stuttgart (Germany); Schaefer, P. [Porsche (F.) AG Entwicklungszentrum Weissach (Germany); Scheid, G. [Siemens AG, Regensburg (Germany); Thomson, B. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany); Wallentowitz, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen (IKA); Weible, R.; Zeiss, M. [VDO Adolf Schindling AG, Babenhausen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The book gives a comprehensive picture of the present state of development and gives a survey of vehicle electronics of the future and controllable and regulable vehicle components and possible electronic solutions. The book is divided into the following groups of subjects: 1. Control and regulation in vehicles - integrated circuits specific to vehicles - communication between control equipments - CADROC, computer-aided design and production of controllers - the build-up of electronic control equipment for vehicles. Drive unit: Control for petrol engines - diesel engine regulation - drive unit control for commercial vehicles - electronic controls of commercial vehicle automatic gearboxes. 2. Safety: Active vehicle safety systems - commercial vehicle braking plants - airbag initiation - tyre pressure control - the regulation of lamp beam width - spacing warning/spacing regulated - security systems against theft on vehicles - servicing concept for own diagnosis evaluation - sensors for monitoring vehicle functioning. 3. Comfort: Regulated drive systems - no load regulation with adaptive behaviour - driving speed regulation - heating and air conditioning regulation - modern central locking systems - active springing for private cars - inductive tracking control - automatic gearboxes as mechatronic systems - electronic gearbox control - mechanical load transmission and actuators. 4. Communication: Guide and information systems - display techniques for showing information in the vehicle - the car radio - mobile communication, trends in technology and process changes. (orig./AKF) 571 figs., 256 refs. [Deutsch] Das Buch vermittelt umfassend den aktuellen Entwicklungstand, gibt einen Ausblick in die KFZ-Elektronik der Zukunft und Fahrzeugkomponenten und dem Nichtelektroniker elektronische Loesungsmoeglichkeiten vor. Das Buch ist in folgenden Themen-Bloecke aufgeteilt: 1. Steuern und Regeln im Kraftfahrzeug - KFZ-spezifische integrierte Schaltungen - Kommunikation zwischen

  9. Web application for the control and management of radioprotection equipment in the Cadarache centre; Application WEB pour le controle et la gestion des appareils de radioprotection sur le centre de Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    The author describes a web 2-type application which has been developed for the periodic calibration controls of radioprotection equipment in Cadarache. This application aims at offering an easy and immediate and even remote access to information, at selecting information with respect to uses (radioprotection department, administrator, and so on), at securing and safeguarding homogeneous data, at editing control statistics. The different functionalities are briefly presented with their displayed interface

  10. Redox control of enzymatic functions: The electronics of life's circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L; Hart, Peter C; Mao, Mao; de Abreu, Andre Luelsdorf Pimenta; Master, Alyssa M

    2014-03-26

    The field of redox biology has changed tremendously over the past 20 years. Formerly regarded as bi-products of the aerobic metabolism exclusively involved in tissue damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognized as active participants of cell signaling events in health and in disease. In this sense, ROS and the more recently defined reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are, just like hormones and second messengers, acting as fundamental orchestrators of cell signaling pathways. The chemical modification of enzymes by ROS and RNS (that result in functional enzymatic alterations) accounts for a considerable fraction of the transient and persistent perturbations imposed by variations in oxidant levels. Upregulation of ROS and RNS in response to stress is a common cellular response that foments adaptation to a variety of physiologic alterations (hypoxia, hyperoxia, starvation, and cytokine production). Frequently, these are beneficial and increase the organisms' resistance against subsequent acute stress (preconditioning). Differently, the sustained ROS/RNS-dependent rerouting of signaling produces irreversible alterations in cellular functioning, often leading to pathogenic events. Thus, the duration and reversibility of protein oxidations define whether complex organisms remain "electronically" healthy. Among the 20 essential amino acids, four are particularly susceptible to oxidation: cysteine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Here, we will critically review the mechanisms, implications, and repair systems involved in the redox modifications of these residues in proteins while analyzing well-characterized prototypic examples. Occasionally, we will discuss potential consequences of amino acid oxidation and speculate on the biologic necessity for such events in the context of adaptative redox signaling. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 2014. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Tuning the electron energy by controlling the density perturbation position in laser plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Brijesh, P; Phuoc, K T; Corde, S; Lambert, G; Malka, V; Mangles, S P D; Bloom, M; Kneip, S

    2012-01-01

    A density perturbation produced in an underdense plasma was used to improve the quality of electron bunches produced in the laser-plasma wakefield acceleration scheme. Quasi-monoenergetic electrons were generated by controlled injection in the longitudinal density gradients of the density perturbation. By tuning the position of the density perturbation along the laser propagation axis, a fine control of the electron energy from a mean value of 60 MeV to 120 MeV has been demonstrated with a relative energy-spread of 15 +/- 3.6%, divergence of 4 +/- 0.8 mrad and charge of 6 +/- 1.8 pC.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  13. Pulse energy control through dual loop electronic feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Cobus

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available What is Pulse Energy Control: • Reliability & Repeatability • Accuracy & Stability • Programmability head2righthead2rightWhy do we need it: • Protection against component & subject damage • Micromachining with irregular pulse rate • Safer/improved laser....0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 Q-switched Pulse Repetition Rate [Hz] P u l s e E n e r g y [ m J ] Sources of Instability Reliability & Repeatability Programmability Reliability & Repeatability Accuracy & Stability Pump...

  14. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  15. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  17. Quality control for the equipment of Nuclear medicine: experience of the H.U. de la Princesa; Control de calidad del equipamiento en Medicina Nuclear. Experiencia enel H.U. de la Princesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, M.L.; Gracia, A.; Prieto, C.; Lopez F, P. [Servicio de ProteccionRadiologica. Hospital Universitario de la Princesa C/ Diego de Leon 62, 28006Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The quality control of the equipment used in a nuclear medicine service is a fundamental aspect in the Quality Assurance Program that in the present time is starting in our hospital. the objective of this work is to present the internal protocol used, its problematic associated with its starting, and the results obtained in the quality control as of the gamma camera as of the activimeter. In addition to the equipment own to the nuclear medicine service it has been used a Cs-137 source and puppets for several purposes. The results obtained demonstrated the stability of the controlled parameters which has led us to a restating of the established periodicities in our internal protocol, over all for some constancy tests. (Author)

  18. Bridges and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    the Trilateral Design and Test Code, paragraph 4.2.11, refers to a 15-percent impact factor for bending moment and deflection for crossing vehicle...speeds of 25 km/hr (15 mph). Since the BCS is equipped with both strain and load control features, the impact factor of each vehicle load and speed...can be determined. BCS testing to date has revealed that wheeled vehicle impact factors are approximately 10 percent and tracked vehicle impact

  19. Installation test involving two cryomagnets. A short straight section is positioned next to a cryodipole using a remote-controlled Transfer Equipment Set provided by the Slovakian company ZTS VVU Kosice.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2004-01-01

    Installation test involving two cryomagnets. A short straight section is positioned next to a cryodipole using a remote-controlled Transfer Equipment Set provided by the Slovakian company ZTS VVU Kosice.

  20. Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J; Rechatin, C; Norlin, A; Lifschitz, A; Glinec, Y; Malka, V

    2006-12-07

    In laser-plasma-based accelerators, an intense laser pulse drives a large electric field (the wakefield) which accelerates particles to high energies in distances much shorter than in conventional accelerators. These high acceleration gradients, of a few hundreds of gigavolts per metre, hold the promise of compact high-energy particle accelerators. Recently, several experiments have shown that laser-plasma accelerators can produce high-quality electron beams, with quasi-monoenergetic energy distributions at the 100 MeV level. However, these beams do not have the stability and reproducibility that are required for applications. This is because the mechanism responsible for injecting electrons into the wakefield is based on highly nonlinear phenomena, and is therefore hard to control. Here we demonstrate that the injection and subsequent acceleration of electrons can be controlled by using a second laser pulse. The collision of the two laser pulses provides a pre-acceleration stage which provokes the injection of electrons into the wakefield. The experimental results show that the electron beams obtained in this manner are collimated (5 mrad divergence), monoenergetic (with energy spread electron bunch durations shorter than 10 fs. We anticipate that this stable and compact electron source will have a strong impact on applications requiring short bunches, such as the femtolysis of water, or high stability, such as radiotherapy with high-energy electrons or radiography for materials science.

  1. Molecular control of electron and hole transfer processes: Theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Cave, R.J. [Harvey Mudd Coll., Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    Recent decades have seen remarkable advances in microscopic understanding of electron transfer (ET) processes in widely ranging contexts, including solid-state, liquid solution, and complex biological assemblies. The primary goal of this chapter is to report recent advances in the modeling, calculation, and analysis of electronic coupling in complex molecular aggregates, thereby allowing an assessment of current progress toward the goal of molecular-level control and design. The control of electron transfer kinetics (i.e., enhancing desired processes, while inhibiting others) involves, of course, system energetics (especially activation and reorganization energies) as well as electronic coupling, which is most directly relevant only after the system has reached the appropriate point (or region) along the reaction coordinate. Nevertheless, to focus the discussion in this chapter, the authors will consider such energetics, and the associated molecular and solvent coordinates which control then, only to the extent that they bear on the analysis of the electronic coupling. In the following sections they first discuss the formulation of basic ET models, including the definition of initial and final states, the role of orbitals and 1-particle models in a many-electron context, the utility of various effective Hamiltonians, and the role of vibronic as well as purely electronic effects. With these theoretical tools in hand, they then examine very recent applications to complex molecular systems using the techniques of computational quantum chemistry, followed by detailed analysis of the numerical results. They then conclude with some comments regarding the current ``state of the art`` and remaining challenges.

  2. The use of a new PMOS monolithic integrated circuit for the electronic equipment of a large multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Bareyre, P; Borgeaud, P; Poinsignon, J

    1975-01-01

    A new monolithic 8-channel PMOS integrated circuit has been developed for an experiment to be carried out on the CERN 300 GeV accelerator. The circuit, read-out electronics and tests performed on 12 large MWPCs (total of 48000 channels) are described and the results are presented. (3 refs).

  3. 22 CFR 62.71 - Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control and production of the electronic Form DS-2019. 62.71 Section 62.71 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.71 Control and...

  4. Adaptive Backstepping Sliding-Mode Control of the Electronic Throttle System in Modern Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern automobiles, electronic throttle is a DC-motor-driven valve that regulates air inflow into the vehicle’s combustion system. The electronic throttle is increasingly being used in order to improve the vehicle drivability, fuel economy, and emissions. Electronic throttle system has the nonlinear dynamical characteristics with the unknown disturbance and parameters. At first, the dynamical nonlinear model of the electronic throttle is built in this paper. Based on the model and using the backstepping design technique, a new adaptive backstepping sliding-mode controller of the electronic throttle is developed. During the backstepping design process, parameter adaptive law is designed to estimate the unknown parameter, and sliding-mode control term is applied to compensate the unknown disturbance. The proposed controller can make the actual angle of the electronic throttle track its set point with the satisfactory performance. Finally, a computer simulation is performed, and simulation results verify that the proposed control method can achieve favorable tracking performance.

  5. Controlled direct electron transfer kinetics of fructose dehydrogenase at cup-stacked carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, K; Huang, J; Mizushima, N; Ko, S; Tatsuma, T; Sakai, Y

    2017-10-18

    Graphene edge sites not only facilitate heterogeneous electron transfer reactions of redox species because of localization of electrons, but also allow sensitivities and selectivities to be tuned by controlling the atomic oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio. Here, we immobilized fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) onto the surface of cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), which provide highly ordered graphene edges with a controlled O/C ratio, and investigated the direct electron communication with FDH. As the O/C ratio decreased at the CSCNF surface, the negative zeta potential was mitigated and the electrochemical communication with FDH was facilitated. This is likely due to improved orientation of FDH molecules on the CSCNF surface. CSCNFs with a controlled O/C ratio could be applied to FDH-based d-fructose biosensors with tunable dynamic range and fructose biofuel cells with a controlled maximum current.

  6. Portable electron beam weld chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Dimino, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of portable vacuum chamber for skate type electron beam welding are discussed. Construction and operational details of equipment are presented. Illustrations of equipment are provided.

  7. Electronic control of gene expression and cell behaviour in Escherichia coli through redox signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; McKay, Ryan; Ueda, Hana; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Pottash, Alex Eli; Zargar, Amin; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2017-01-17

    The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has transformed our ability to record and actuate biological function. Synthetic biology offers the potential to expand communication 'bandwidth' by using biomolecules and providing electrochemical access to redox-based cell signals and behaviours. While engineered cells have transmitted molecular information to electronic devices, the potential for bidirectional communication stands largely untapped. Here we present a simple electrogenetic device that uses redox biomolecules to carry electronic information to engineered bacterial cells in order to control transcription from a simple synthetic gene circuit. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional regulator SoxR and transcription from the PsoxS promoter allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals. Further, induction of bacterial motility and population based cell-to-cell communication demonstrates the versatility of our approach and potential to drive intricate biological behaviours.

  8. Electronic control of gene expression and cell behaviour in Escherichia coli through redox signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Tanya; Kim, Eunkyoung; McKay, Ryan; Ueda, Hana; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Pottash, Alex Eli; Zargar, Amin; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to interconvert information between electronic and ionic modalities has transformed our ability to record and actuate biological function. Synthetic biology offers the potential to expand communication `bandwidth' by using biomolecules and providing electrochemical access to redox-based cell signals and behaviours. While engineered cells have transmitted molecular information to electronic devices, the potential for bidirectional communication stands largely untapped. Here we present a simple electrogenetic device that uses redox biomolecules to carry electronic information to engineered bacterial cells in order to control transcription from a simple synthetic gene circuit. Electronic actuation of the native transcriptional regulator SoxR and transcription from the PsoxS promoter allows cell response that is quick, reversible and dependent on the amplitude and frequency of the imposed electronic signals. Further, induction of bacterial motility and population based cell-to-cell communication demonstrates the versatility of our approach and potential to drive intricate biological behaviours.

  9. Controlled Betatron X-ray radiation from tunable optically injected electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Fitour, R; Faure, J; Tafzi, A; Goddet, J P; Malka, V; Rousse, A

    2011-01-01

    The features of Betatron X-ray emission produced in a laser-plasma accelerator are closely linked to the properties of the relativistic electrons which are at the origin of the radiation. While in interaction regimes explored previously the source was by nature unstable, following the fluctuations of the electron beam, we demonstrate in this Letter the possibility to generate X-ray Betatron radiation with controlled and reproducible features, allowing fine studies of its properties. To do so, Betatron radiation is produced using monoenergetic electrons with tunable energies from a laser-plasma accelerator with colliding pulse injection [J. Faure et al., Nature (London), 444, 737 (2006)]. The presented study provides evidence of the correlations between electrons and X-rays, and the obtained results open significant perspectives toward the production of a stable and controlled femtosecond Betatron X-ray source in the keV range.

  10. Controlled Betatron X-Ray Radiation from Tunable Optically Injected Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Fitour, R; Faure, J; Tafzi, A; Goddet, J P; Malka, V; Rousse, A

    2011-01-01

    The features of Betatron x-ray emission produced in a laser-plasma accelerator are closely linked to the properties of the relativistic electrons which are at the origin of the radiation. While in interaction regimes explored previously the source was by nature unstable, following the fluctuations of the electron beam, we demonstrate in this Letter the possibility to generate x-ray Betatron radiation with controlled and reproducible features, allowing fine studies of its properties. To do so, Betatron radiation is produced using monoenergetic electrons with tunable energies from a laser-plasma accelerator with colliding pulse injection [J. Faure et al., Nature (London) 444, 737 (2006)]. The presented study provides evidence of the correlations between electrons and x-rays, and the obtained results open significant perspectives toward the production of a stable and controlled femtosecond Betatron x-ray source in the keV range.

  11. Quantum control via a genetic algorithm of the field ionization pathway of a Rydberg electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum control of the pathway along which a Rydberg electron field ionizes is experimentally and computationally demonstrated. Selective field ionization is typically done with a slowly rising electric field pulse. The (1/n*)4 scaling of the classical ionization threshold leads to a rough mapping between arrival time of the electron signal and principal quantum number of the Rydberg electron. This is complicated by the many avoided level crossings that the electron must traverse on the way to ionization, which in general leads to broadening of the time-resolved field ionization signal. In order to control the ionization pathway, thus directing the signal to the desired arrival time, a perturbing electric field produced by an arbitrary wave-form generator is added to a slowly rising electric field. A genetic algorithm evolves the perturbing field in an effort to achieve the target time-resolved field ionization signal.

  12. Driver electronics design and control for a total artificial heart linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Kristin; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Pelletier, Benedikt; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2018-01-27

    For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces. Based on calculations for minimal power losses Lorentz force was distributed to the actor's four coils. The distribution was determined as ratio of effective magnetic flux through each coil, which was captured by a force test rig. Static and dynamic measurements under physiological conditions analyzed interaction of control and hardware and all efficiencies were over 89%. In conclusion, the designed electronics, optimized control strategy and applied current distribution create the required motor force and perform optimal under physiological conditions. The developed driver electronics and control offer optimized size and efficiency for any implantable or portable device with multiple independent motor coils. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Richard T.; Barysauskas, Constance M.; Rundensteiner, Elke A.; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background.  The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods.  A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medica...

  14. Assessment of an electronic voting system within the tutorial setting: A randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN54535861

    OpenAIRE

    De Young Neville J; Devitt Peter G; Palmer Edward J; Morris David

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Electronic voting systems have been used in various educational settings with little measurement of the educational impact on students. The goal of this study was to measure the effects of the inclusion of an electronic voting system within a small group tutorial. Method A prospective randomised controlled trial was run at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, a teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. 102 students in their first clinical year of medical school participated in the...

  15. A New Vibration Measurement Procedure for On-Line Quality Control of Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Revel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of experimentally testing the mechanical reliability of electronic components for quality control is approached. In general, many tests are performed on electronic devices (personal computers, power supply units, lamps, etc., according to the relevant international standards (IEC, in order to verify their resistance to shock and vibrations, but these are mainly “go no-go” experiments, performed on few samples taken from the production batches.

  16. Controlling the electronic properties of the graphene nanoflakes by BN impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed H.

    2018-01-01

    Electronic properties of the graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) can be controlled by using chemical doping method. First-principle of the density functional theory (DFT) method, which is implemented in the Gaussian 09W program are used to investigate the electronic properties, such as electronic band gap, DOS, total energy, dipole moment, HOMO, and LOMO energies of the GNFs with and without various concentrations of the BN impurities in various sites. There are very significant results. My founding results show that these properties of the GNFs depend on the concentrations of BN impurities and the geometrical pattern of the BN impurities in the GNFs. By increasing the distance between these impurities, the electronic band gap and the shape of the DOS are reduced and altered, respectively. So, the results offer that the electronic band gap value depends on the concentrations of BN impurities and sites of these impurities in the GNFs. The electronic dipole moments value is increased by increased the concentrations of the BN impurities. All structures became more stable due to the total energy is increased, excepted B, BN and B2N impurities, which is reduced and make GNFs structure unstable. Then, GNFs can be used in various applications because the electronic properties of the GNFs are controlled and modified with BN impurities.

  17. Quantum computers based on electron spins controlled by ultrafast off-resonant single optical pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-27

    We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency.

  18. From nanofabrication to self-fabrication--tailored chemistry for control of single molecule electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Single molecule electronics is a field of research focused on the use of single molecules as electronics components. During the past 15 years the field has concentrated on development of test beds for measurements on single molecules. Bottom-up approaches to single molecule devices are emerging...... the electronic properties of a single molecule by chemical design....... as alternatives to the dominant top-down nanofabrication techniques. One example is solution-based self-assembly of a molecule enclosed by two gold nanorod electrodes. This article will discuss recent attempts to control the self-assembly process by the use of supramolecular chemistry and how to tailor...

  19. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  20. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.