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Sample records for electron-driven processes scientific

  1. Electron Driven Processes; Scientific Challenges and Technical Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron induced processes are prevalent in many disparate areas of science and technology. In this paper we review some of the recent developments in our understanding of electron driven processes with particular attention to electron interactions with biomolecules

  2. Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2000-09-01

    This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

  3. Function of TiO2 Lattice Defects toward Photocatalytic Processes: View of Electronic Driven Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanan Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen vacancies and Ti-related defects (OTDs are the main lattice defects of TiO2, which have great influence on its photocatalytic activity. To understand the relationship between the defects and photocatalytic activities, detailed discussions based on the electronic driven force provided by these defects are carried out during the three commonly accepted processes in photocatalytic reactions. It is found that these defects inevitably (i influence the energy structure of the pristine TiO2 as the isolate acceptor/donor level or hybrid with the original orbital, (ii provide a disordered short-range force that confuses the charge carriers transferring to surface active sites, (iii act not only as the surface active sites for trapping the charge carriers but also as the main chemisorption sites for O2, H2O, and organic species. These effects of the defects make them one of the key factors that determine the efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis. Clarifying the role of the defects will further facilitate the exploration and the construction of high-performance photocatalysts for practical applications.

  4. Electron Driven Chemistry In Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of novel process windows by the combination of atmospheric pressure plasmas with microreaction technology. In the first chapter, recent literature on microreactor technology and non-equilibirum microplasma chemistry is discussed. The focus is on microplasmas in

  5. Improving the scientific misconduct hearing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D M

    The overturning and withdrawal of several of the Office of Research Integrity's (ORI's) findings of scientific misconduct have called its role into question. The contested findings of scientific misconduct that have been tried before the hearing body have been based on lengthy and expensive ORI investigations. How could ORI have failed to prove its findings of scientific misconduct after the commitment of substantial resources that far exceed those devoted during institutional investigations? One reason may be that the current hearing process makes it difficult or impossible for ORI, institutions, or individuals to prove scientific misconduct. The hearing process has been criticized by discouraged whistleblowers who believe that their allegations of scientific misconduct should have been upheld, and by the accused for the expensive and protracted nature of the proceedings. The following article examines problems in the scientific misconduct hearing process and suggests that the process could be improved by letting administrative law judges, patent attorneys, and a scientific majority decide these cases.

  6. Accelerating the scientific exploration process with scientific workflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas, Ilkay; Barney, Oscar; Cheng, Zhengang; Critchlow, Terence; Ludaescher, Bertram; Parker, Steve; Shoshani, Arie; Vouk, Mladen

    2006-01-01

    Although an increasing amount of middleware has emerged in the last few years to achieve remote data access, distributed job execution, and data management, orchestrating these technologies with minimal overhead still remains a difficult task for scientists. Scientific workflow systems improve this situation by creating interfaces to a variety of technologies and automating the execution and monitoring of the workflows. Workflow systems provide domain-independent customizable interfaces and tools that combine different tools and technologies along with efficient methods for using them. As simulations and experiments move into the petascale regime, the orchestration of long running data and compute intensive tasks is becoming a major requirement for the successful steering and completion of scientific investigations. A scientific workflow is the process of combining data and processes into a configurable, structured set of steps that implement semi-automated computational solutions of a scientific problem. Kepler is a cross-project collaboration, co-founded by the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center, whose purpose is to develop a domain-independent scientific workflow system. It provides a workflow environment in which scientists design and execute scientific workflows by specifying the desired sequence of computational actions and the appropriate data flow, including required data transformations, between these steps. Currently deployed workflows range from local analytical pipelines to distributed, high-performance and high-throughput applications, which can be both data- and compute-intensive. The scientific workflow approach offers a number of advantages over traditional scripting-based approaches, including ease of configuration, improved reusability and maintenance of workflows and components (called actors), automated provenance management, 'smart' re-running of different versions of workflow instances, on-the-fly updateable parameters, monitoring

  7. Bringing Kids into the Scientific Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Sabine; Knight, Robert T

    2017-01-04

    Frontiers for Young Minds puts kids in charge of scientific publications by having them control the review process. This provides kids the ability to shape the way science is taught and to better understand the scientific method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond Scientific Workflows: Networked Open Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushing, R.; Bubak, M.; Belloum, A.; de Laat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The multitude of scientific services and processes being developed brings about challenges for future in silico distributed experiments. Choosing the correct service from an expanding body of processes means that the the task of manually building workflows is becoming untenable. In this paper we

  9. Problem Based Learning and the scientific process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Daniel Shaner

    This research project was developed to inspire students to constructively use problem based learning and the scientific process to learn middle school science content. The student population in this study consisted of male and female seventh grade students. Students were presented with authentic problems that are connected to physical and chemical properties of matter. The intent of the study was to have students use the scientific process of looking at existing knowledge, generating learning issues or questions about the problems, and then developing a course of action to research and design experiments to model resolutions to the authentic problems. It was expected that students would improve their ability to actively engage with others in a problem solving process to achieve a deeper understanding of Michigan's 7th Grade Level Content Expectations, the Next Generation Science Standards, and a scientific process. Problem based learning was statistically effective in students' learning of the scientific process. Students statistically showed improvement on pre to posttest scores. The teaching method of Problem Based Learning was effective for seventh grade science students at Dowagiac Middle School.

  10. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  11. The relationship between Turkish primary school students’ scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Godek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills of primary school students. It was carried out with 24 students in the 6th grade, 21 students in the 7th grade and 25 students in the 8th grade, aggregating to a total of 70 students participating in this research. According to the results, the 7th grade students’ scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills were higher than for the other grades. For all grades, no significant difference was found between the scientific literacy levels and scientific process skills of students. Furthermore, a highly positive and meaningful relationship between the scores of scientific process skills and scientific literacy levels has been registered.

  12. Scientific Skills and Processes in Curriculum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joe

    2017-11-01

    Increasingly, the science education community has recognized the need for curriculum resources that support student development of authentic scientific practices, rather than focusing exclusively on content knowledge. This paper proposes a tool for teachers and researchers to assess the degree to which certain curriculum resources and lessons achieve this goal. After describing a method for reflecting on and categorizing curriculum resources, I apply the method to highlight differences across three teaching methods: Modeling Instruction, Physics Union Mathematics, and a traditional, lecture-based approach.

  13. Scientific challenges underlying production document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Field of Document Recognition is bipolar. On one end lies the excellent work of academic institutions engaging in original research on scientifically interesting topics. On the other end lies the document recognition industry which services needs for high-volume data capture for transaction and back-office applications. These realms seldom meet, yet the need is great to address technical hurdles for practical problems using modern approaches from the Document Recognition, Computer Vision, and Machine Learning disciplines. We reflect on three categories of problems we have encountered which are both scientifically challenging and of high practical value. These are Doctype Classification, Functional Role Labeling, and Document Sets. Doctype Classification asks, "What is the type of page I am looking at?" Functional Role Labeling asks, "What is the status of text and graphical elements in a model of document structure?" Document Sets asks, "How are pages and their contents related to one another?" Each of these has ad hoc engineering approaches that provide 40-80% solutions, and each of them begs for a deeply grounded formulation both to provide understanding and to attain the remaining 20-60% of practical value. The practical need is not purely technical but also depends on the user experience in application setup and configuration, and in collection and groundtruthing of sample documents. The challenge therefore extends beyond the science behind document image recognition and into user interface and user experience design.

  14. Electronically-driven orthorhombic distortion in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew; Davies, Nathaniel; Haghighirad, Amir; Narayanan, Arjun; Kim, Timur; Hoersch, Moritz; Blake, Samuel; Coldea, Amalia

    2015-03-01

    FeSe is structurally the simplest of Fe-based superconductors, and exhibits a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition at ~ 90 K, but no long-range magnetism at any temperature. We report measurements of the resistivity anisotropy in FeSe above Ts finding a large and divergent response to an applied strain, with a comparable magnitude and temperature-dependence to measurements in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2, but opposite sign. We compare this data with literature reports on NMR and our own ARPES data, which taken together indicate that the structural transition is electronically-driven with orbital degrees of freedom playing a central role. This work was supported by EPSRC, UK (EP/I004475/1) and Diamond Light Source.

  15. Swarm Data Processing and First Scientific Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which...... will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. Each of the three Swarm satellites provides high-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation......, accelerometer, plasma and electric field measurements. These observations will be distributed by ESA as Level-1b data, which are the calibrated and formatted time series of e.g. the magnetic field measurements taken by each of the three Swarm satellites. The talks presents a first scientific validation of Swarm...

  16. ARTISTIC AND SCIENTIFIC CREATION PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Tudor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural creation is not ex nihilo, but a conversion of old “material” into a new form or a re-signifying, or a new combination of preexisting elements. Art, as well as science, has been characterized as acts of dominating and transforming nature. In art, the process is real and in science it is virtual. This process is characterized by an efficient management of the means of expression which must be subordinated to the message that the piece of art wants to transmit and the scientist exploits facts in order to make them significant as support, expression and exemplification of the laws of nature. There is also an ontogenesis of management: individual evolution which takes place by virtue of a program, thanks to devices with self-regulating capabilities. This aspect may be particularly interesting for cyberneticists. In contemporary civilization the transfer of certain aspects of the creation process to automated machines implies programming, algorithms. Man is an algorithmic being.

  17. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  18. Electron Driven Reactions in Complexes Embedded in Superfluid Helium Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Ribeiro Ferreira da

    The research work performed under the course of this thesis at the Nano-Bio Physics Group of the Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, deals exclusively with electron driven reactions in complexes embedded in helium nanodroplets. Helium nanodroplets provide a special and exotical environment that is not reachable with other techniques. The cold environment of the helium nanodroplets (0.38K), is a perfect tool to study complex systems in their ro-vibrational ground state. Dopants are added to the helium nanodroplets in a pick up cell allowing to control accurately the growing of clusters' size in helium droplets. The research activities described in this thesis cover the interaction of low and intermediate energies (0-100 eV) electrons with a wide range of simple and complex molecules in a very cold environment. Electron impact ionisation and free electron attachment to different systems were studied. Different halogenated molecules were used to study the size of solvated cations and anions. Clusters of the rare gas argon were also investigated and compared with argon cluster ions formed upon electron impact of pure neutral argon clusters. Several biomolecules and molecules with biological interest have been studied, these including: some amino acids as Glycine, L-alanine and L-serine embedded in helium nanodroplets. Several features were assigned as helium solvation and fragmentation. In the case of L-serine, a magic octamer S8H+ cluster was observed and identified. Free electron attachment experiments to L-serine shows very rich chemistry observed here for the first time in amino acids embedded in helium nanodroplets. Positively and negatively charged ions from He nanodroplets doped with acetic acid were also investigated. Chemistry triggered by low energy electrons was discuss and compared with previous studies especially with single, gas phase molecules. Preliminary studies on L-valine show strong indication for peptide bond

  19. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  20. Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

  1. Processes Utilized by High School Students Reading Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinger, Alicia Farr

    2014-01-01

    In response to an increased emphasis on disciplinary literacy in the secondary science classroom, an investigation of the literacy processes utilized by high school students while reading scientific text was undertaken. A think-aloud protocol was implemented to collect data on the processes students used when not prompted while reading a magazine…

  2. Tools for Observation: Art and the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Coryell-Martin, M.; Maisch, K.

    2015-12-01

    Art can support the scientific process during different phases of a scientific discovery. Art can help explain and extend the scientific concepts for the general public; in this way art is a powerful tool for communication. Art can aid the scientist in processing and interpreting the data towards an understanding of the concepts and processes; in this way art is powerful - if often subconscious - tool to inform the process of discovery. Less often acknowledged, art can help engage students and inspire scientists during the initial development of ideas, observations, and questions; in this way art is a powerful tool to develop scientific questions and hypotheses. When we use art as a tool for communication of scientific discoveries, it helps break down barriers and makes science concepts less intimidating and more accessible and understandable for the learner. Scientists themselves use artistic concepts and processes - directly or indirectly - to help deepen their understanding. Teachers are following suit by using art more to stimulate students' creative thinking and problem solving. We show the value of teaching students to use the artistic "way of seeing" to develop their skills in observation, questioning, and critical thinking. In this way, art can be a powerful tool to engage students (from elementary to graduate) in the beginning phase of a scientific discovery, which is catalyzed by inquiry and curiosity. Through qualitative assessment of the Girls on Ice program, we show that many of the specific techniques taught by art teachers are valuable for science students to develop their observation skills. In particular, the concepts of contour drawing, squinting, gesture drawing, inverted drawing, and others can provide valuable training for student scientists. These art techniques encourage students to let go of preconceptions and "see" the world (the "data") in new ways they help students focus on both large-scale patterns and small-scale details.

  3. Agriscience Student Engagement in Scientific Inquiry: Representations of Scientific Processes and Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Julie R; Dolan, Erin L; Glasson, George E

    2010-01-01

    Students' experiences with science integrated into agriscience courses contribute to their developing epistemologies of science. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the implementation of scientific inquiry in an agriscience classroom. Also of interest was how the tenets of the nature of science were reflected in the students' experiments. Participants included an agriscience teacher and her fifteen students who were conducting plant experiments to gain insight into the role of a gene disabled by scientists. Data sources included classroom observations, conversations with students, face-to-face interviews with the teacher, and students' work. Analysis of the data indicated that the teacher viewed scientific inquiry as a mechanical process with little emphasis on the reasoning that typifies scientific inquiry. Students' participation in their experiments also centered on the procedural aspects of inquiry with little attention to scientific reasoning. There was no explicit attention to the nature of science during the experiments, but the practice implied correct, incorrect, and underdeveloped conceptions of the nature of science. Evidence from the study suggests a need for collaboration between agriscience and science teacher educators to design and conduct professional development focused on scientific inquiry and nature of science for preservice and practicing teachers.

  4. Software quality and process improvement in scientific simulation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosiano, J.; Webster, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the quest to develope better simulation code quality through process modeling and improvement. This study is based on the experience of the authors and interviews with ten subjects chosen from simulation code development teams at LANL. This study is descriptive rather than scientific.

  5. Scientific assessments: Matching the process to the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Scholes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science–policy interface process – known as a ‘scientific assessment’ – has risen to prominence in the past few decades. Complex assessments are appropriate for issues which are both technically complicated, multifaceted and of high societal interest. There is increasing interest from the research community that studies biological invasions to undertake such an assessment. Objectives: Providing the relevant background and context, the article describes key principles and steps for designing, planning, resourcing and executing such a process, as well as providing evidence of high-impact assessments enhancing scientific careers. Method: Experience from international and national assessments, most recently the South African scientific assessment for the Shale Gas Development in the Central Karoo, was used to develop this guiding generic template for practitioners. Analyses of researcher publication performances were undertaken to determine the benefit of being involved in assessments. Results: The key success factors for assessments mostly relate to adherence to ‘process’ and ‘governance’ aspects, for which scientists are sometimes ill-equipped. As regards publication outputs, authors involved in assessment processes demonstrated higher H-indices than their environmental scientist peers. We have suggested causal explanations for this. Conclusion: Effectively designed and managed assessments provide the platform for the ‘co-production of knowledge’ – an iterative and collaborative process involving scientists, stakeholders and policymakers. This increases scientific impact in the society–policy domain. While scientists seem concerned that effort directed towards assessments comes at the detriment of scientific credibility and productivity, we have presented data that suggest the opposite.

  6. Embedding Scientific Integrity and Ethics into the Scientific Process and Research Data Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting climate change, developing resources sustainably, and mitigating natural hazard risk are complex interdisciplinary challenges in the geosciences that require the integration of data and knowledge from disparate disciplines and scales. This kind of interdisciplinary science can only thrive if scientific communities work together and adhere to common standards of scientific integrity, ethics, data management, curation, and sharing. Science and data without integrity and ethics can erode the very fabric of the scientific enterprise and potentially harm society and the planet. Inaccurate risk analyses of natural hazards can lead to poor choices in construction, insurance, and emergency response. Incorrect assessment of mineral resources can bankrupt a company, destroy a local economy, and contaminate an ecosystem. This paper presents key ethics and integrity questions paired with the major components of the research data life cycle. The questions can be used by the researcher during the scientific process to help ensure the integrity and ethics of their research and adherence to sound data management practice. Questions include considerations for open, collaborative science, which is fundamentally changing the responsibility of scientists regarding data sharing and reproducibility. The publication of primary data, methods, models, software, and workflows must become a norm of science. There are also questions that prompt the scientist to think about the benefit of their work to society; ensuring equity, respect, and fairness in working with others; and always striving for honesty, excellence, and transparency.

  7. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  8. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research, addressing the full cleanup life-cycle, offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing (1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, (2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, (3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and (4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The

  9. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Poloski, A.P.; Vienna, J.D.; Moyer, B.A.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; McIlwain, M.; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, S.; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research addressing the full cleanup life-cycle offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing 1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, 2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, 3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and 4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DoE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The overall

  10. Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO 3 ) 3 is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500 0 C to yield a purified PuO 2 product

  11. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Hobbs, David T.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.; Mcilwain, Michael; Moyer, Bruce A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Subramanian, K.; Vienna, John D.; Wilmarth, B.

    2008-07-18

    Cleaning up the nation’s nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as contracting strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term, specific clean-up goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research focused on the full cleanup life-cycle offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing 1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, 2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, 3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, 4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes.

  12. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie

    2016-01-01

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology,…

  13. Magnetic insights on seismogenic processes from scientific drilling of fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, E. C.; Chou, Y. M.; Aubourg, C. T.; Li, H.; Doan, M. L.; Townend, J.; Sutherland, R.; Toy, V.

    2017-12-01

    Modern investigations through scientific drilling of recently seismogenic faults have provided remarkable insights on the physics of rupture processes. Following devastating earthquakes, several drilling programs focused since 1995 on the Nojima, Chelungpu, San Andreas, Wenchuan, Nankai Trough, Japan Trench and New Zealand Alpine faults. While these efforts were all crowned with success largely due to the multidisciplinarity of investigations, valuable insights were gained from rock magnetism and paleomagnetism and deserve to be highlighted. Continuous logging of magnetic properties allows detection of mineralogical and chemical changes in the host rock and fault zone particularly in slip zones, whether these are caused by frictional melting, elevation of temperature, ultracataclasis, or post-seismic fluid rock interaction. Further magnetic experiments on discrete samples including magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, hysteresis properties, isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and first order reversal curves, provide additional constrains on the nature, concentration and grain size of magnetic carriers. These experiments typically also inform on magnetization processes by thermal, chemical, or electrical mechanisms. Magnetic fabrics are generally not investigated on fault rocks from drill cores primarily in an effort to conserve the recovered core. However, recent methodological developments now would allow chemically non-destructive anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements to be performed on small 3.5 mm cubes. The mini-AMS method could provide crucial information on the kinematics of frictional melts produced during recent or ancient earthquakes and therefore would constrain the corresponding focal mechanisms. Finally, demagnetization experiments of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) are one of the most powerful items in the magnetic toolkit because they provide chronological constrains on magnetization processes

  14. GRID Prototype for imagery processing in scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Ionel; Zgura, Ion Sorin; Haiduc, Maria; Valeanu, Vlad; Giurgiu, Liviu

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of our study which is part of the InGRID project. This project is supported by ROSA (ROmanian Space Agency). In this paper we will show the possibility to take images from the optical microscope through web camera. The images are then stored on the PC in Linux operating system and distributed to other clusters through GRID technology (using http, php, MySQL, Globus or AliEn systems). The images are provided from nuclear emulsions in the frame of Becquerel Collaboration. The main goal of the project InGRID is to actuate developing and deploying GRID technology for images technique taken from space, different application fields and telemedicine. Also it will create links with the same international projects which use advanced Grid technology and scalable storage solutions. The main topics proposed to be solved in the frame of InGRID project are: - Implementation of two GRID clusters, minimum level Tier 3; - Adapting and updating the common storage and processing computing facility; - Testing the middelware packages developed in the frame of this project; - Testbed production of the prototype; - Build-up and advertise the InGRID prototype in scientific community through current dissemination. InGRID Prototype developed in the frame of this project, will be used by partner institutes as deploying environment of the imaging applications the dynamical features of which will be defined by conditions of contract. Subsequent applications will be deployed by the partners of this project with governmental, nongovernmental and private institutions. (authors)

  15. Effect of Scientific Argumentation on the Development of Scientific Process Skills in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Nejla; Kilic, Ziya

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the differences in integrated scientific process skills (designing experiments, forming data tables, drawing graphs, graph interpretation, determining the variables and hypothesizing, changing and controlling variables) of students (n = 17) who were taught with an approach based on scientific…

  16. Design optimization and fatigue testing of an electronically-driven mechanically-resonant cantilever spring mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheng, Lim Boon; Kean, Koay Loke; Gitano-Briggs, Horizon

    2010-01-01

    A light scanning device consisting of an electronically-driven mechanically-resonant cantilever spring-mirror system has been developed for innovative lighting applications. The repeated flexing of the cantilever spring during operation can lead to premature fatigue failure. A model was created to optimize the spring design. The optimized spring design can reduce stress by approximately one-third from the initial design. Fatigue testing showed that the optimized spring design can operate continuously for over 1 month without failure. Analysis of failures indicates surface cracks near the root of the spring are responsible for the failures.

  17. Rapid development of scalable scientific software using a process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Vinter, Brian

    2011-01-01

    such as locks, conditions and monitors is completely hidden in the PyCSP library. We show the three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to scale well on multi-processing, cluster computing and grid computing platforms using PyCSP. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------......Scientific applications are often not written with multiprocessing, cluster computing or grid computing in mind. This paper suggests using Python and PyCSP to structure scientific software through Communicating Sequential Processes. Three scientific applications are used to demonstrate the features...

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH-BASED PHYSICS LEARNING MODEL WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO DEVELOP STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC PROCESSING SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmeldi Usmeldi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physics learning in SMA N 2 Padang was implemented through theory and practicum for verifying the theories. The results of the initial survey showed that the physics teachers had not yet applied the research-based learning. Supporting facilities such as physics lab and its equipment has been already available, but it has not been utilized optimally. Research-based learning is a model that can improve scientific processing skills and learning outcomes of students. The research aimed to produce a valid, practical, and effective research-based physics learning model and devices. This research was a research and development using the 4D model of Thiagarajan. The instrument of this research are interview guides, observation sheets, sheet of validation of model and learning tools, questionnaire for both teachers’ and learners’ responses, assessment sheets for scientific processing skills, and achievement test. The results showed that the developed model and the learning devices according to the assessment of experts were declared valid. Model and learning devices were practical based on the observation and the questionnaires. The application of research-based physics learning could effectively improve scientific skills and learning outcomes of students. This model is suggested to physics teachers in high school in regard with implementing research-based learning.

  19. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Rigakos, Bessie

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. © 2016 K. J. Wilson and B. Rigakos. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Enhancing the Scientific Process with Artificial Intelligence: Forest Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Daniel L. Schmoldt; H. Michael Rauscher

    1991-01-01

    Forestry, as a science, is a process for investigating nature. It consists of repeatedly cycling through a number of steps, including identifying knowledge gaps, creating knowledge to fill them, and organizing, evaluating, and delivering this knowledge. Much of this effort is directed toward creating abstract models of natural phenomena. The cognitive techniques of AI...

  1. Undergraduate Journal Club as an Intervention to Improve Student Development in Applying the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Conner I.; Gordy, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We developed and implemented a series of workshops and seminars in an undergraduate journal club targeted at improving student development in applying the scientific process. Students were surveyed before and after participating in the club about their confidence in accessing, analyzing, and reporting scientific research. Post-club, the students…

  2. AUTOMATION OF CONTROL OF THE BUSINESS PROCESS OF PUBLISHING SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Sakaliuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider business process automation publishing scientific journals. It describes the focal point of publishing houses Odessa National Academy of Food Technology and the automation of business processes. A complex business process models publishing scientific journals. Analyzed organizational structure of Coordinating Centre of Scientific Journals' Publishing ONAFT structure and created its model. A process model simulation conducted business process notation eEPC and BPMN. Also held database design, creation of file structure and create AIS interface. Implemented interaction with the webcam. Justification feasibility of software development, and the definition of performance based on the results petal chart, it is safe to say that an automated way to much more efficient compared to manual mode. The developed software will accelerate the development of scientific periodicals ONAFT, which in turn improve the academy ratings at the global level, improve its image and credibility.

  3. Direction-division multiplexed holographic free-electron-driven light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brendan P.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a free-electron-driven light source with a controllable direction of emission. The source comprises a microscopic array of plasmonic surface-relief holographic domains, each tailored to direct electron-induced light emission at a selected wavelength into a collimated beam in a prescribed direction. The direction-division multiplexed source is tested by driving it with the 30 kV electron beam of a scanning electron microscope: light emission, at a wavelength of 800 nm in the present case, is switched among different output angles by micron-scale repositioning of the electron injection point among domains. Such sources, with directional switching/tuning possible at picosecond timescales, may be applied to field-emission and surface-conduction electron-emission display technologies, optical multiplexing, and charged-particle-beam position metrology.

  4. Correlation among science process skill, concept comprehension, and scientific attitude on regulation system materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, P. M.; Sudargo, F.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the correlation between science process skill and concept comprehension as well as scientific attitude. The research method was a descriptive correlational. The research population consisted of all students in class XI in one of senior high school in West Sumatra with a total population of 100 students. The sample consisted of 26 students which were taken by a cluster random sampling. The instrument consisted of a science process skills test, concept comprehension test, and scientific attitude scale. The data were analyzed using linear regression test. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between science process skill and concept comprehension. In addition, there was a significant correlation between concept comprehension and scientific attitude. Nevertheless, there was not a significant correlation between science process skill and scientific attitude.

  5. Chemiclearance of food irradiation process: Its scientific basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation can facilitate preservation and distribution of food; it can reduce the need for chemical additives and pesticides; and it can reduce the overall use of energy. Often, industry must make changes because of seasonal variation in supply. Application of food irradiation will be difficult, therefore, unless industry can adjust to these changes, which require a broad clearance, or that food irradiation be cleared as a process. Basic to such broad clearance is a thorough understanding of the changes that take place so that the results of animal feeding studies can be extrapolated to foods similar to those used in the animal feeding studies. Such extrapolation is sometimes called chemiclearance. The extensive research on the safety of irradiated foods is summarized and the following major categories discussed: (a) theory of interaction of radiation with food; (b) chemical analysis of the radiolytic products and measurements of their yields as a function of the chemical composition of the food, temperature, dose, and dose-rates; (c) toxicological evaluation of the radiolytic compounds; and (d) toxicological evaluation of short-term and long-term animal feeding studies, mutagenicity studies, teratogenicity studies, and anti-metabolite studies. (author)

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF AIS FOR CONTROL OF THE BUSINESS PROCESS OF PUBLISHING SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Sakaliuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider business process automation publishing scientific journals. It describes the focal point of publishing houses Odessa National Academy of Food Technology and the automation of business processes. A complex business process models publishing scientific journals. Analyzed organizational structure of Coordinating Centre of Scientific Journals' Publishing ONAFT structure and created its model. Software “CCSJP Manager” was analyzed and found in it "weak areas." Automated information system was modernized. The economic feasibility of the software development was substantiated, and the definition of efficiency. The developed software will accelerate the development of scientific periodicals ONAFT, which in turn improve the academy ratings at the global level, improve its image and credibility.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF AIS FOR CONTROL OF THE BUSINESS PROCESS OF PUBLISHING SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexiy Sakaliuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider business process automation publishing scientific journals. It describes the focal point of publishing houses Odessa National Academy of Food Technology and the automation of business processes. A complex business process models publishing scientific journals. Analyzed organizational structure of Coordinating Centre of Scientific Journals' Publishing ONAFT structure and created its model. Software “CCSJP Manager” was analyzed and found in it "weak areas." Automated information system was modernized. The economic feasibility of the software development was substantiated, and the definition of efficiency. The developed software will accelerate the development of scientific periodicals ONAFT, which in turn improve the academy ratings at the global level, improve its image and credibility.

  8. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  9. A Review of the Scientific Misconduct Inquiry Process, Ankara Chamber of Medicine, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçay, Banu; Arda, Berna

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to review the inquiry process used in scientific misconduct cases in the Ankara Chamber of Medicine between the years 1998 and 2012. The violations of the "Disciplinary Regulations of the Turkish Medical Association" have been examined by keeping the names of the people, institutions, associations and journals secret. In total, 31 files have been studied and 11 of these files have been identified as related to scientific misconduct. The methods of inquiry, the decisions about the need for an investigation process, the types of scientific misconduct, and the adjudication processes have all been reported. Furthermore, the motives of researchers who made allegations, the study approaches of investigators, and the objections to the decisions about guilt and innocence have also been examined. Based on the findings obtained, the reasons for scientific misconduct and the distribution of responsibilities among the people in the inquiry process have been discussed. A major conclusion is the need to standardize the process of conducting inquiries about scientific misconduct cases for the regional chambers of medicine in Turkey.

  10. The Scientific Method and the Creative Process: Implications for the K-6 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Amanda J.; Stephens, April H.

    2013-01-01

    Science and the arts might seem very different, but the processes that both fields use are very similar. The scientific method is a way to explore a problem, form and test a hypothesis, and answer questions. The creative process creates, interprets, and expresses art. Inquiry is at the heart of both of these methods. The purpose of this article is…

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Fast-electron Driven Beta-induced Alfven eigenmode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junyi; Zhang, Wenlu; Lin, Zhihong; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    The fast-electron driven beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (e-BAE) has been routinely observed in HL-2A tokamak. We study e-BAE for the first time using global gyrokinetic GTC simulations, where the fast electrons are described by the drift kinetic model. Frequency chirping is observed in nonlinear simulations in the absence of sources and sinks, which provides a new nonlinear paradigm beyond the standard ``bump-on-tail'' model. Analysis of nonlinear wave-particle interactions shows that the frequency chirping is induced by the nonlinear evolution of the coherent structures in the fast electron phase space, where the dynamics of the coherent structure is controlled by the formation and destruction of phase space islands in the canonical variables. Furthermore, we put forward a new theory frame to demonstrate that the evolution of chirping phenomenon is essentially induced by balance and destruction of net shear flow in the toroidal direction combined by the background shear flow and perturbed shear flow, which provides a novel and clear physical image.

  12. [Scientific medical forum as important source of scientific-information provision for innovation processes in the healthcare sector of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V

    2013-12-01

    The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.

  13. Electrostatic models of electron-driven proton transfer across a lipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Mourokh, Lev G [Department of Physics, Queens College, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We present two models for electron-driven uphill proton transport across lipid membranes, with the electron energy converted to the proton gradient via the electrostatic interaction. In the first model, associated with the cytochrome c oxidase complex in the inner mitochondria membranes, the electrostatic coupling to the site occupied by an electron lowers the energy level of the proton-binding site, making proton transfer possible. In the second model, roughly describing the redox loop in a nitrate respiration of E. coli bacteria, an electron displaces a proton from the negative side of the membrane to a shuttle, which subsequently diffuses across the membrane and unloads the proton to its positive side. We show that both models can be described by the same approach, which can be significantly simplified if the system is separated into several clusters, with strong Coulomb interaction inside each cluster and weak transfer couplings between them. We derive and solve the equations of motion for the electron and proton creation/annihilation operators, taking into account the appropriate Coulomb terms, tunnel couplings, and the interaction with the environment. For the second model, these equations of motion are solved jointly with a Langevin-type equation for the shuttle position. We obtain expressions for the electron and proton currents and determine their dependence on the electron and proton voltage build-ups, on-site charging energies, reorganization energies, temperature, and other system parameters. We show that the quantum yield in our models can be up to 100% and the power-conversion efficiency can reach 35%.

  14. Documenting the use of expert scientific reasoning processes by high school physics students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lynn Stephens

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a methodology for identifying evidence for the use of three types of scientific reasoning. In two case studies of high school physics classes, we used this methodology to identify multiple instances of students using analogies, extreme cases, and Gedanken experiments. Previous case studies of expert scientists have indicated that these processes can be central during scientific model construction; here we code for their spontaneous use by students. We document evidence for numerous instances of these forms of reasoning in these classes. Most of these instances were associated with motion- and force-indicating depictive gestures, which we take as one kind of evidence for the use of animated mental imagery. Altogether, this methodology shows promise for use in highlighting the role of nonformal reasoning in student learning and for investigating the possible association of animated mental imagery with scientific reasoning processes.

  15. Effects of a Training Intervention to Foster Argumentation Skills While Processing Conflicting Scientific Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefter, Markus H.; Berthold, Kirsten; Renkl, Alexander; Riess, Werner; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation skills play a crucial role in science education and in preparing school students to act as informed citizens. While processing conflicting scientific positions regarding topics such as sustainable development in the domain of ecology, argumentation skills such as evaluating arguments or supporting theories with evidence are…

  16. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  17. A Way of Processing the Information in Scientific Textbooks and its Influence on Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Carranza

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Students who can meet the demands of academic discourse develop cognitive and metacognitive skills with which to understand the information they get from reading scientific texts, and thus establish their learning. In this work, a group of university students were evaluated concerning their competencies and deficiencies in the reading comprehension of a fragment of a scientific text used in one of their courses. The results allowed us to assess the most frequent difficulties in processing information and in understanding what they read. The group was made up of a few students skilled in reading comprehension skills, plus several inexpert readers with little capacity to monitor and assess their own understanding.

  18. VII International scientific conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the collection there are the reports of the VII International scientific conference and the VII All-Russian school-conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials which were conducted on October 2-10, 2010, in Tomsk. The reports deal with new developments of charged particles high-intensity beam sources, high-temperature metrology of high-current beams and work materials, radiation-thermal stimulated effects and processes in inorganic materials, physical basics of technological processes, radiation-thermal technologies and equipment for their realization, allied branches of science and technology, specifically, nanotechnologies [ru

  19. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  20. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  1. Interactive, Online, Adsorption Lab to Support Discovery of the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, K. C.; Ulery, A. L.; Chamberlin, B.; Dettmer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Science students require more than methods practice in lab activities; they must gain an understanding of the application of the scientific process through lab work. Large classes, time constraints, and funding may limit student access to science labs, denying students access to the types of experiential learning needed to motivate and develop new scientists. Interactive, discovery-based computer simulations and virtual labs provide an alternative, low-risk opportunity for learners to engage in lab processes and activities. Students can conduct experiments, collect data, draw conclusions, and even abort a session. We have developed an online virtual lab, through which students can interactively develop as scientists as they learn about scientific concepts, lab equipment, and proper lab techniques. Our first lab topic is adsorption of chemicals to soil, but the methodology is transferrable to other topics. In addition to learning the specific procedures involved in each lab, the online activities will prompt exploration and practice in key scientific and mathematical concepts, such as unit conversion, significant digits, assessing risks, evaluating bias, and assessing quantity and quality of data. These labs are not designed to replace traditional lab instruction, but to supplement instruction on challenging or particularly time-consuming concepts. To complement classroom instruction, students can engage in a lab experience outside the lab and over a shorter time period than often required with real-world adsorption studies. More importantly, students can reflect, discuss, review, and even fail at their lab experience as part of the process to see why natural processes and scientific approaches work the way they do. Our Media Productions team has completed a series of online digital labs available at virtuallabs.nmsu.edu and scienceofsoil.com, and these virtual labs are being integrated into coursework to evaluate changes in student learning.

  2. Scientifically based process improvement in health care with statistical process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Rožman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: For better performance, it is crucial to continuously improve quality and patient safety based on the science of quality and patient safety and the usage of appropriate tools such as statistical process control. The aim of this article is to describe statistical process control in the continuous improvement of healthcare processes.Methods: Patient falls and surgical site infections were studied using a run chart, u-chart, and g-chart.Results: In the case of patient falls special causes of variation were depicted.However, these are only statistical conclusions, whereas the content of the causes can be found only by those who work in the process of fall prevention.In the case of surgical site infection, the use of a new wound covering material was abandoned because the g-chart showed failure to improve the process. The g-chart showed that a different type of preparation of the surgical site with hair cutting instead of shaving showed a decrease in infection rates.Conclusion: Statistical process control can differentiate between common and special causes of process variability. The importance of this distinction is in the employment of different strategies for process improvement.

  3. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  4. FunImageJ: a Lisp framework for scientific image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kyle I S; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2018-03-01

    FunImageJ is a Lisp framework for scientific image processing built upon the ImageJ software ecosystem. The framework provides a natural functional-style for programming, while accounting for the performance requirements necessary in big data processing commonly encountered in biological image analysis. Freely available plugin to Fiji (http://fiji.sc/#download). Installation and use instructions available at http://imagej.net/FunImageJ. kharrington@uidaho.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Historic survey of scientific computing for process design at PETROBRAS; Computacao cientifica (area de processo): historico na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Carlos Alberto Dantas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Engenharia de Projetos]. E-mail: cadmoura@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    This paper retrieves the history of the development of scientific computation at PETROBRAS in the area of Process Engineering since 1965 up to the in-house Refining and Petrochemical Process Simulator called PETROX. (author)

  6. Scientific activity within the targeted research project: Metallic, ceramic and organic nanomaterials: processing - structure - properties - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kurzydlowski, K.

    2003-01-01

    In november 2000 Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) launched a Targeted Research Project 'Metallic, ceramic and organic nanomaterials: processing - structure - properties - applications'. The structural materials, covered by the project, comprise analysis of the suitability of heavy deformation routes for nanocrystallization of metals and alloys, Al-based glass-ceramics, ceramic matrix nanocomposites, gradient materials. Also surface engineering methods and polymer matrix nanocomposites are studied. Novel methods for the processing and compacting of nanomaterials are also researched. Among functional materials: materials for batteries soft and hard magnetic materials and nanomaterials, giant magnetoresistance and light emitting materials are studied. Basic phenomena such as mechanics of superplastic deformation of ceramics, demagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanomaterials, transport processes in ionic conductivity materials are also investigated. Overview of the main research direction and selected achievements of the project are presented. (author)

  7. Parallel processing is good for your scientific codes...But massively parallel processing is so much better

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.; Domain, Ch.; Souffez, Y.; Eon-Duval, P.

    1998-01-01

    Harnessing the power of many computers, to solve concurrently difficult scientific problems, is one of the most innovative trend in High Performance Computing. At EDF, we have invested in parallel computing and have achieved significant results. First we improved the processing speed of strategic codes, in order to extend their scope. Then we turned to numerical simulations at the atomic scale. These computations, we never dreamt of before, provided us with a better understanding of metallurgic phenomena. More precisely we were able to trace defects in alloys that are used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(TradeMark)(MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many countries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its real strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbox. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using symbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language form (command interface) is similar with well known programming languages such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define classes in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most of the essential constructs of a higher programming language. MatLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful to perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We believe there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and analysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applications. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientific problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabular format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed.

  9. The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann L; Vitale, Anne; Brownell, Elise; Scicinski, Jan; Kearns, Mary; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use. The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published, peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online. Thirteen scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms. Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (www.centerforreikiresearch.org), together with an overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research: The Touchstone Process determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality. There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area.

  10. The role of independent scientific and engineering analyses in the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, Wesley C.; Sagar, Budhi

    2005-01-01

    Since it was established in 1987 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) has assisted NRC in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act related to a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and interim storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. CNWRA attributes have assured its success in assisting NRC. These attributes include clearly defined roles and responsibilities, which encompass independent scientific and engineering analyses. Examples illustrate how these analyses have enhanced the regulatory process. (author)

  11. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  12. Examining an online microbiology game as an effective tool for teaching the scientific process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Kristi G; Klisch, Yvonne; Wang, Shu; Beier, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of the online Flash game Disease Defenders in producing knowledge gains for concepts related to the scientific process. Disease Defenders was specifically designed to model how the scientific process is central to a variety of disciplines and science careers. An additional question relates to the game's ability to shift attitudes toward science. Middle school classes from grades six to eight were assigned to the experimental group (n = 489) or control group (n = 367) and asked to participate in a three-session intervention. The sessions involved completing a pretest, a game play session, and taking a posttest. Students in the experimental group played Disease Defenders while students in the control group played an alternative science game. Results showed a significant increase in mean science knowledge scores for all grades in the experimental group, with sixth grade and seventh grade students gaining more knowledge than eighth grade students. Additionally, results showed a significant positive change in science attitudes only among sixth graders, who also rated their satisfaction with the game more favorably than students in higher grades. No differences in mean test scores were found between genders for science knowledge or science attitudes, suggesting that the game is equally effective for males and females.

  13. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  14. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  15. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Matos, Sérgio; Oliveira, José L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/.

  16. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Scientific and Technology Part II : Nuclear Chemistry; Process Technology and Radioactive Waste Management; Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Endang-Supartini

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) for monitoring the research activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment. This proceeding is the second part from two part which published in series. There are 61 articles which have separated index

  17. Integration of educational and scientific-technological areas during the process of education of aerospace engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorova, Vera

    2011-09-01

    test-beds for quick and affordable trial-and-test of new technologies and design solutions in aerospace followed by implementation of selected efficiencies in the industry; development and improvement of ground control infrastructure based in the university, which includes the Mission Control Center and the Earth Remote Sensing Center; development of cooperative partnerships with international partners in the field of microsatellite technologies with the goal of sharing experience, uniting efforts in preparing and running scientific and educational experiments and creating next-generation spacecraft by multi-national student groups. Such approaches allow creating seamless environment that unites educational, scientific and innovative processes. This allows students to develop high professionalism, modern engineering thinking and stable engineering skills at an early stage of education at the university.

  18. "Getting Our Story Straight: Taking the scientific process out of science communication"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschland, M.

    2011-12-01

    Conveying the implications and applications of our science is becoming more, not less difficult. With media and policy debates around scientific issues fraught with gridlock, misinformation and confusion, we must recognize that the scientific process itself often contributes more noise than clarity. For science to occupy more of a privileged and influential place in the public and policy discourse, this must change. From the perspective of a communications professional, this presentation offers solutions. Efforts to remedy this have disproportionately focused on training scientists to be "better" communicators. While this is necessary, it is far from sufficient in building the type of public trust and authority that really moves the credibility needle and our impact. By itself, a train the scientist approach actually complicates the issue by unleashing hoards of trained "science communicators", trumpeting disconnected, qualified, and sometimes contradictory messages. The result, from the public's perspective, is a focus on the sausage making elements of science, rather than the sausages - or the real consensus messages resulting from our work. What is required is much better coordination in terms of framing and amplifying clear messages and findings around areas where real consensus exists, and a similar focus on deemphasizing those that occupy the opinion tails. Other sectors including government, corporates and medical sciences understand and practice this to better effect in building public consensus. The correctives to this are threefold: -Recognize that the scientific process, while excellent for doing science, is an awful way to communicate clearly. Publicly airing out the debates that are part and parcel of a healthy scientific discourse is a sure recipe for confusion. -Create and bolster better coordination mechanisms for consensus message building and delivery. Professional associations can and must play a more central convening and shaping role when it

  19. Students' Reasoning Processes in Making Decisions about an Authentic, Local Socio-Scientific Issue: Bat Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung; Grace, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Education for scientific literacy entails the development of scientific knowledge and the ability to apply this knowledge and value judgments to decisions about real-life issues. This paper reports an attempt to involve secondary level biology students in making decisions about an authentic socio-scientific issue--that of bat conservation--through…

  20. The influence of the pre-scientific and scientific belief system of both counsellor and client on the success of the narrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luyt

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate to what extent the belief system of both counsellor and client plays a role in counselling. It is generally accepted that beliefs play a central role in the life of all people. This article applies this notion, as described by, among others, Wright, Watson and Bell (1986, to the field of pastoral care and more specifically to the narrative approach within it. The narrative approach is an important instrument that helps people to understand how their life stories have been shaped by their beliefs about themselves. Throughout the article the researcher attempts to indicate how the counsellor, client and counselling process are influenced by their respective scientific and pre-scientific roots and development, as well as by their system of belief in general.

  1. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colson, Steven D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laufer, Allan H [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences; Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  2. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(R) (MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many cou ntries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its re al strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbo x. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using s ymbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language fo rm (command interface) is similar with well known programming languag es such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define c lasses in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most ofthe essential constructs of a higher programming language. M atLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful t o perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We belie ve there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and ana lysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applicati ons. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientifi c problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabu lar format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed. The presentation will emphasize creating

  3. Electronically driven adsorbate excitation mechanism in femtosecond-pulse laser desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per; Heinz, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    a systematic theoretical treatment of this coupling process in the language of an electronic friction, which generates Langevin noise in the adsorbate center-of-mass degrees of freedom, while the electronic degrees of freedom are at a high temperature. Starting from an influence-functional path......-integral description, a simple formula for the electronic friction is defined which is valid at all electronic temperatures. At low temperatures the formalism makes contact with the electronic friction appearing in the theory of adsorbate vibrational damping, whereas at high temperatures comparable with the adsorbate...... electronic excitation energies the friction becomes strongly temperature dependent due to dominance by virtual excitations between different adsorbate potential energy surfaces. The former regime is related to the electronic friction model for the desorption process, and the latter to the desorption induced...

  4. International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The International Scientific Conference on 'Radiation-Thermal Effects and Processes in Inorganic Materials' is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of fundamental problems of radiation physics and its technical applications. The first nine conferences were held four times in Tomsk, then in Ulan-Ude (Russia), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Tashkent (Uzbekistan), Sharm El Sheikh (Egypt), and the island of Cyprus. The tenth conference was held in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the Conference covers a wide range of technical areas and modern aspects of radiation physics, its applications and related matters. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Physical and chemical phenomena in inorganic materials in radiation, electrical and thermal fields; • Research methods and equipment modification states and properties of materials; • Technologies and equipment for their implementation; • The use of radiation-thermal processes in nanotechnology; • Adjacent to the main theme of the conference issues The conference was attended by leading scientists from countries near and far abroad who work in the field of radiation physics of solid state and of radiation material science. The School-Conference of Young Scientists was held during the conference. The event was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects № 14-38-10210 and № 14-02-20376. (introduction)

  5. RE-ENGINEERING THE SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING PROCESS FOR THE "INTERNETWORKED" GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    B.C. Björk; Z. Turk; B. Martens

    2002-01-01

    The SciX (Open, self organising repository for scientific information exchange) project is funded by the European Commission in order to demonstrate the feasibility of new alternative models of scientific publishing made possible by the Internet. The project builds upon the previous experience of some of the partners in running an electronic peer reviewed journal and in setting up an e-prints archive. The project includes both theoretical work in making a formal model of the scientific publi...

  6. Problems Encountered during the Scientific Research Process in Graduate Education: The Institute of Educational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyürek, Erkan; Afacan, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the problems faced by graduate students when conducting scientific research and to make suggestions for solving these problems. The research model was a case study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in the study with questions about the problems encountered during scientific research…

  7. Process Materials Scientific Data for Intelligent Service Using a Dataspace Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, materials scientific data come from lab experiments, simulations, individual archives, enterprise and internet in all scales and formats. The data flood has outpaced our capability to process, manage, analyze, and provide intelligent services. Extracting valuable information from the huge data ocean is necessary for improving the quality of domain services. The most acute information management challenges today stem from organizations relying on amounts of diverse, interrelated data sources, but having no way to manage the dataspaces in an integrated, user-demand driven and services convenient way. Thus, we proposed the model of Virtual DataSpace (VDS in materials science field to organize multi-source and heterogeneous data resources and offer services on the data in place without losing context information. First, the concept and theoretical analysis are described for the model. Then the methods for construction of the model is proposed based on users’ interests. Furthermore, the dynamic evolution algorithm of VDS is analyzed using the user feedback mechanism. Finally, we showed its efficiency for intelligent, real-time, on-demand services in the field of materials engineering.

  8. Problem-based learning for professionalism and scientific integrity training of biomedical graduate students: process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nancy L; Peiffer, Ann M; Lambros, Ann; Eldridge, J Charles

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a process evaluation to (a) assess the effectiveness of a new problem-based learning curriculum designed to teach professionalism and scientific integrity to biomedical graduate students and (b) modify the course to enhance its relevance and effectiveness. The content presented realistic cases and issues in the practice of science, to promote skill development and to acculturate students to professional norms of science. We used 5-step Likert-scaled questions, open-ended questions, and interviews of students and facilitators to assess curricular effectiveness. Both facilitators and students perceived course objectives were achieved. For example, respondents preferred active learning over lectures; both faculty and students perceived that the curriculum increased their understanding of norms, role obligations and responsibilities of professional scientists. They also reported an increased ability to identify ethical situations and felt that they had developed skills in moral reasoning and effective group work. These data helped to improve course implementation and instructional material. For example, to correct a negative perception that this was an 'ethics' course, we redesigned case debriefing activities to reinforce learning objectives and important skills. We refined cases to be more engaging and relevant for students, and gave facilitators more specific training and resources for each case. The problem-based learning small group strategy can stimulate an environment whereby participants are more aware of ethical implications of science, and increase their socialisation and open communication about professional behaviour.

  9. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,p), and (γ,n). In the second part, the parent

  10. Radioactive isotope production for medical applications using Kharkov electron driven subcritical assembly facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an accelerator driven subcritical assembly. The main functions of the subcritical assembly are the medical isotope production, neutron thereby, and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. Reactor physics experiments and material research will be carried out using the capabilities of this facility. The United States of America and Ukraine have started collaboration activity for developing a conceptual design for this facility with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. Different conceptual designs are being developed based on the facility mission and the engineering requirements including nuclear physics, neutronics, heat transfer, thermal hydraulics, structure, and material issues. Different fuel designs with LEU and reflector materials are considered in the design process. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. The facility is configured to accommodate future design improvements and upgrades. This report is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Activity within this collaboration for developing and characterizing the subcritical assembly conceptual design. In this study, the medical isotope production function of the Kharkov facility is defined. First, a review was carried out to identify the medical isotopes and its medical use. Then a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Finally, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and irradiation location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes were considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,p), and ({gamma},n). In the second part

  11. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  12. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  13. Process skills approach to develop primary students’ scientific literacy: A case study with low achieving students on water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti; Ibrahim, M.; Lede, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    The results of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study on the scientific literacy of Indonesian students since the year 2000 have been still far below the international average score of 500. This could also be seen from the results of the science literacy test of 5th-grade students of primary school in Indonesia which showed that 60% of students are still at level ≤ 3 (value literacy skills need to be improved by applying learning with a process skills approach. This study aims to describe the findings of classroom action research using a process skills approach to the science literacy level of primary students (n = 23). This research was conducted in 2 cycles with stages of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Students’ ability in scientific literacy was measured by using description and subjective tests of context domains, knowledge, competencies, and attitudes. In this study, researchers found an improvement in students’ science literacy skills when learning using a process skills approach. In addition, students’ scientific attitude is also more positive. In activities for learning science, students should be challenged as often as possible so that they have more practice using their scientific knowledge and skills to solve problems presented by teachers in the classroom.

  14. Scientists in the making: An ethnographic investigation of scientific processes as literate practice in an elementary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Teresa Jo

    This study explored the issue of literacy in science by examining how the social and academic literate practices in an elementary classroom formed the basis for learning across the curriculum, with a specific focus on the disciplinary field of science. Through the study of classroom interaction, issues related to student knowledge and ability were addressed as they pertain to scientific literacy in the context of science education reform. The theoretical framework guiding this study was drawn from sociocultural studies of scientific communities and interactional ethnography in education. To investigate the literate practices of science in a school setting, data were collected over a two-year period with the same teacher in her third grade and then her fourth/fifth grade classroom. Data were collected through participant observation in the form of fieldnotes, video data, interviews, and various artifacts (e.g., writings, drawings, teaching protocols). Using ethnographic and sociolinguistic methods of analysis this work examined classroom members' discursive practices to illustrate the role that discourse plays in creating opportunities for engagement in, and access to, scientific knowledge. These analyses revealed that the discursive actions and practices among members of this classroom shaped a particular type of learning environment that was process-oriented and inquiry based. It was shown that this learning environment afforded opportunities for students to engage in the processes of science outside the official, planned curriculum, often leading to whole class scientific investigations and discussions. Additionally, within this classroom community students were able to draw on multiple discourses to display their knowledge of scientific concepts and practices. Overall, this study found that the literate practices of this classroom community, as they were socially constructed among members, contributed to opportunities for students to practice science and

  15. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  16. Abstracts of the CGU Annual Scientific Meeting : Geospatial Processes : Integrating Pedosphere, Lithosphere and Hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebes, E.S.; Buttle, J.

    2006-01-01

    This annual scientific meeting of the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) was held jointly with the annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Soil Science (CSSS). The CGU sessions addressed topical issues such as hydrology; geoelectromagnetics; geodesy and geodynamics; earthquakes and natural hazards; environment and climate systems; geocomputations and visualization; glaciology; and general geophysics. The CSSS sessions addressed topical issues such as soil water; problem soils; northern issues; climate change; nutrient management; forest soils and management; land reclamation and remediation; and general soil science. The conference featured 311 oral presentations, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  17. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  18. Proceedings of the international symposium NUCEF 2001. Scientific bases for criticality safety, separation process and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    These proceedings contain 94 papers presented at NUCEF2001, that was held on October 31 - November 2, 2001, in Tokai-mura, Japan. NUCEF2001 is the 3rd international symposium of the series. The subtitle of NUCEF2001 was Scientific Bases for Criticality Safety, Separation Process and Waste Disposal'. The papers were presented in oral and poster sessions on the research fields: Criticality Safety, Separation Process, Radioactive Waste Disposal and TRU Chemistry. The 94 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  20. The Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bowen, Kit H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordan, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C W.; Meisel, D.; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai S.; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactions, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered

  1. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N

    2017-03-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an "off-the-shelf," open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community.

  2. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K.; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an “off-the-shelf,” open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community. PMID:27899692

  3. Scientific data products and the data pre-processing subsystem of the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xu; Liu Jian-Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Feng Jian-Qing; Ren Xin; Wang Fen-Fei; Yan Wei; Zuo Wei; Wang Xiao-Qian; Zhang Zhou-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission is China's first exploration mission on the surface of the Moon that uses a lander and a rover. Eight instruments that form the scientific payloads have the following objectives: (1) investigate the morphological features and geological structures at the landing site; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of minerals and chemical compositions; (3) integrated exploration of the structure of the lunar interior; (4) exploration of the lunar-terrestrial space environment, lunar surface environment and acquire Moon-based ultraviolet astronomical observations. The Ground Research and Application System (GRAS) is in charge of data acquisition and pre-processing, management of the payload in orbit, and managing the data products and their applications. The Data Pre-processing Subsystem (DPS) is a part of GRAS. The task of DPS is the pre-processing of raw data from the eight instruments that are part of CE-3, including channel processing, unpacking, package sorting, calibration and correction, identification of geographical location, calculation of probe azimuth angle, probe zenith angle, solar azimuth angle, and solar zenith angle and so on, and conducting quality checks. These processes produce Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2 data. The computing platform of this subsystem is comprised of a high-performance computing cluster, including a real-time subsystem used for processing Level 0 data and a post-time subsystem for generating Level 1 and Level 2 data. This paper describes the CE-3 data pre-processing method, the data pre-processing subsystem, data classification, data validity and data products that are used for scientific studies

  4. Image Processing for Teaching: Transforming a Scientific Research Tool into an Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Image Processing for Teaching (IPT) project which provides digital image processing to excite students about science and mathematics as they use research-quality software on microcomputers. Provides information on IPT whose components of this dissemination project have been widespread teacher education, curriculum-based materials…

  5. RAISING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES COMPETENCE OF SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL EMPLOYEES - A KEY REQUIREMENT OF THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia V. Morze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was analyzed one of the basic conditions of providing the quality of higher education according to the system of internal quality assurance standards ESG (European quality assurance standards and guidelines to increase the ICT competence of scientific-pedagogical staff of the University. It was described the modular system of training for scientific and pedagogical staff of the Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Special attention is paid to the description of the system of raising the level of formation the ICT competence as one of the key competences of the modern teacher. The system of professional development, which is based on creating mixed studying and technology of "flipped classroom", formative assessment, innovative educational and ICT technologies according to the specially designed informative module "Informational and communication technologies", which allows scientific-pedagogical staff to use modern ICT and educational technologies effectively for their further applying in the provision of educational services and the development of quality of open educational content and open educational e-environment available to the student at any convenient time, which will significantly improve the quality of the educational process.

  6. Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Donaldson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

  7. How to Write an Effective Referee Report and Improve the Scientific Review Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, DA; Berk, J; Harvey, C

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights of current and past editors of top economics and finance journals, we provide guidelines for reviewers in preparing referee reports and cover letters for journals. Peer review is fundamental to the progress of science and we believe that fundamental changes in reviewing practices are needed to improve the integrity, quality, and efficiency of the publication process. Such changes will also allow scholars to reallocate time from navigating the publication process to develop...

  8. The role of personnel marketing in the process of building corporate social responsibility strategy of a scientific unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarosławska-Sobór

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss the significance of human capital in the process of building the strategy of social responsibility and the role of personnel marketing in the process. Dynamically changing social environment has enforced a new way of looking at non-material resources. Organizations have understood that it is human capital and social competences that have a significant impact on the creation of an organization’s value, generating profits, as well as gaining competitive advantage in the 21st century. Personnel marketing is now a key element in the process of implementation of the CSR concept and building the value of contemporary organizations, especially such unique organizations as scientific units. In this article you will find a discussion concerning the basic values regarded as crucial by the Central Mining Institute in the context of their significance for the paradigm of social responsibility. Such an analysis was carried out on the basis of the experiences of Central Mining Institute (GIG in the development of strategic CSR, which takes into consideration the specific character of the Institute as a scientific unit.

  9. Sustainable Ammonia Synthesis – Exploring the scientific challenges associated with discovering alternative, sustainable processes for ammonia production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nørskov, Jens [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); ; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, Raul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science; Stack, Robert [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2016-02-18

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential to all life on our planet. Until about 100 years ago, NH3 produced by reduction of dinitrogen (N2) in air came almost exclusively from bacteria containing the enzyme nitrogenase.. DOE convened a roundtable of experts on February 18, 2016. Participants in the Roundtable discussions concluded that the scientific basis for sustainable processes for ammonia synthesis is currently lacking, and it needs to be enhanced substantially before it can form the foundation for alternative processes. The Roundtable Panel identified an overarching grand challenge and several additional scientific grand challenges and research opportunities: -Discovery of active, selective, scalable, long-lived catalysts for sustainable ammonia synthesis. -Development of relatively low pressure (<10 atm) and relatively low temperature (<200 C) thermal processes. -Integration of knowledge from nature (enzyme catalysis), molecular/homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. -Development of electrochemical and photochemical routes for N2 reduction based on proton and electron transfer -Development of biochemical routes to N2 reduction -Development of chemical looping (solar thermochemical) approaches -Identification of descriptors of catalytic activity using a combination of theory and experiments -Characterization of surface adsorbates and catalyst structures (chemical, physical and electronic) under conditions relevant to ammonia synthesis.

  10. On the radiation safety studies of space nuclear sources at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroteev, A.S.; Gafarov, A.A.; Bakhtin, B.I.; Kosov, A.V. (The Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes, 8, Onezhskaya, Moscow, 125438 (SU))

    1991-01-01

    The main directions and some results of the theoretical and experimental studies, carried out at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes on the radiation safety (RS) problem of the space nuclear power sources (SNPS), are stated. The experimental base for SNPS aerodynamic heating and breakup research is described. Some results of studies on the development of RS system for SNPS of Cosmos-954''-type satellites and SNPS Topaz'' are represented. The main directions and results of research on the RS problem of radioisotope SNPS is showen. Some aspects of SNPS possible collisions with space debris in near-earth orbits is examined.

  11. Validity and reliability of the scientific review process in nursing journals - time for a rethink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Melanie; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-06-01

    As pressure to publish increases in the academic nursing world, journal submission numbers and rejection rates are soaring. The review process is crucial to journals in publishing high quality, cutting-edge knowledge development, and to authors in preparing their papers to a high quality to enable the nursing world to benefit from developments in knowledge that affect nursing practice and patient outcomes and the development of the discipline. This paper does not intend to contribute to the debate regarding the ethics of reviewing, but rather seeks to explore notions of how the quality of the reviewing process can be enhanced to benefit authors, the reviewers, and the state of nursing knowledge. Furthermore, a call is made to editors to devise strategies for aiding reviewers to attain higher validity and reliability within the reviewing process by establishing clear standards and expectations and to ensure published work is judged against industry norms for quality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The link between inequalities in science and the scientific evaluation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Unlike the "out of the box", innovative and unconventional way of thinking we would like to cultivate in our science, the academic system tends to be very conservative in the way by which it performs academic evaluations. In the case of hiring and promotion processes, the traditional way may imply the "like attracts like" rule in which the same dominant subset of the population (with respect to culture, nation and gender) preserves its hegemony on the expense of equality and diversity. Being aware of such biases is a good start. Forcing diversity in the hiring and promoting processes is even better.

  13. Managing organizational change in an international scientific network: A study of ICES reform processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, K.; Olssen, P.; Österblom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations involved in the governance of natural resources are challenged to adjust to the call for more holistic management approaches. This often necessitates organizational change. Here change processes in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) during the years

  14. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynick, Victoria C; Thrash, Todd M; LeFew, Michael C; Moldovan, Emil G; Kieffaber, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than "perspiration" (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important-but different-roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas "fire the soul," such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  15. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  16. Differential Influences of Family Processes for Scientifically Talented Individuals' Academic Achievement along Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee; Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    Differential influences of various family processes for students of science talent and students in general education from Grades 4 to 12 and Science Olympians in Korea were examined by administering Korean Inventory of Parental Influence. Korean Science Olympians were additionally interviewed about their family and school experiences. Family…

  17. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific entities and…

  18. Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in solving the most important issues of globalization process'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.

  19. Processes in scientific workflows for information seeking related to physical sample materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.

    2014-12-01

    The majority of State Geological Surveys have repositories containing cores, cuttings, fossils or other physical sample material. State surveys maintain these collections to support their own research as well as the research conducted by external users from other organizations. This includes organizations such as government agencies (state and federal), academia, industry and the public. The preliminary results presented in this paper will look at the research processes of these external users. In particular: how they discover, access and use digital surrogates, which they use to evaluate and access physical items in these collections. Data such as physical samples are materials that cannot be completely replaced with digital surrogates. Digital surrogates may be represented as metadata, which enable discovery and ultimately access to these samples. These surrogates may be found in records, databases, publications, etc. But surrogates do not completely prevent the need for access to the physical item as they cannot be subjected to chemical testing and/or other similar analysis. The goal of this research is to document the various processes external users perform in order to access physical materials. Data for this study will be collected by conducting interviews with these external users. During the interviews, participants will be asked to describe the workflow that lead them to interact with state survey repositories, and what steps they took afterward. High level processes/categories of behavior will be identified. These processes will be used in the development of an information seeking behavior model. This model may be used to facilitate the development of management tools and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure related to physical samples.

  20. The Scientific Definition of Social Stratification, as a Historical Process Objective

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Costandachi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the author defines the nature of social stratification and social classes, and the main concepts associated with this process, as well. The work describes the concept of “social stratification” from the point of view of some classic economists and sociologists. In the work is described a contemporary interpretation of the social stratification. Also is given a qualitative assessment in the Republic of Moldova and the attached well-known classification of social stratification in...

  1. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  2. Can rasch analysis enhance the abstract ranking process in scientific conferences? Issues of interrater variability and abstract rating burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Lannin, Natasha A; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract ranking processes for scientific conferences are essential but controversial. This study examined the validity of a structured abstract rating instrument, evaluated interrater variability, and modeled the impact of interrater variability on abstract ranking decisions. Additionally, we examined whether a more efficient rating process (abstracts rated by two rather than three raters) supported valid abstract rankings. Data were 4016 sets of abstract ratings from the 2011 and 2013 national scientific conferences for a health discipline. Many-faceted Rasch analysis procedures were used to examine validity of the abstract rating instrument and to identify and adjust for the presence of interrater variability. The two-rater simulation was created by the deletion of one set of ratings for each abstract in the 2013 data set. The abstract rating instrument demonstrated sound measurement properties. Although each rater applied the rating criteria consistently (intrarater reliability), there was significant variability between raters. Adjusting for interrater variability changed the final presentation format for approximately 10-20% of abstracts. The two-rater simulation demonstrated that abstract rankings derived through this process were valid, although the impact of interrater variability was more substantial. Interrater variability exerts a small but important influence on overall abstract acceptance outcome. The use of many-faceted Rasch analysis allows for this variability to be adjusted for. Additionally, Rasch processes allow for more efficient abstract ranking by reducing the need for multiple raters. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  3. Improving the peer-review process and editorial quality: key errors escaping the review and editorial process in top scientific journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M Àngels

    2016-01-01

    We apply a novel mistake index to assess trends in the proportion of corrections published between 1993 and 2014 in Nature, Science and PNAS. The index revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of corrections published in these three high-quality journals. The index appears to be independent of the journal impact factor or the number of items published, as suggested by a comparative analyses among 16 top scientific journals of different impact factors and disciplines. A more detailed analysis suggests that the trend in the time-to-correction increased significantly over time and also differed among journals (Nature 233 days; Science 136 days; PNAS 232 days). A detailed review of 1,428 errors showed that 60% of corrections were related to figures, authors, references or results. According to the three categories established, 34.7% of the corrections were considered mild, 47.7% moderate and 17.6% severe, also differing among journals. Errors occurring during the printing process were responsible for 5% of corrections in Nature, 3% in Science and 18% in PNAS. The measurement of the temporal trends in the quality of scientific manuscripts can assist editors and reviewers in identifying the most common mistakes, increasing the rigor of peer-review and improving the quality of published scientific manuscripts.

  4. Improving the peer-review process and editorial quality: key errors escaping the review and editorial process in top scientific journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Mª Àngels

    2016-01-01

    We apply a novel mistake index to assess trends in the proportion of corrections published between 1993 and 2014 in Nature, Science and PNAS. The index revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of corrections published in these three high-quality journals. The index appears to be independent of the journal impact factor or the number of items published, as suggested by a comparative analyses among 16 top scientific journals of different impact factors and disciplines. A more detailed analysis suggests that the trend in the time-to-correction increased significantly over time and also differed among journals (Nature 233 days; Science 136 days; PNAS 232 days). A detailed review of 1,428 errors showed that 60% of corrections were related to figures, authors, references or results. According to the three categories established, 34.7% of the corrections were considered mild, 47.7% moderate and 17.6% severe, also differing among journals. Errors occurring during the printing process were responsible for 5% of corrections in Nature, 3% in Science and 18% in PNAS. The measurement of the temporal trends in the quality of scientific manuscripts can assist editors and reviewers in identifying the most common mistakes, increasing the rigor of peer-review and improving the quality of published scientific manuscripts. PMID:26893961

  5. Badlands: Regolith, Forms and Processes. A review of the scientific research in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Badlands are usually defined as 'intensely dissected natural landscapes where vegetation is sparse or absent and which are useless for agriculture' (Bryan and Yair, 1982). Badlands are widerspread around the world (Nadal-Romero, 2007; Dickie and Parsons, 2012; Haregeweyn et al., 2012). In Spain due to the climatic and geological conditions badlands are widespread. Badlands research has national and foreign pioneers (Harvey, 1982; Clotet et al., 1988; Alexander and Calvo, 1990; Calvo et al., 1991; Alexander et al., 1994). Almería, Granada, Murcia, Alicante, the Ebro Valley, and the Pyrenees are good examples of the variety and diversity of badlands in Spain (García-Ruiz and López-Bermúdez, 2009). The research on badlands paid attention to the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1999a), piping (Romero-Diaz et al., 2011), the role of parent material on the regolith morphology (Regués, 1995; Cerdà, 1998b) and the soil development (Regués, 1993), and the interaction of the vegetation and soil erosion (Cerdà and García Fayos, 1997; Solé et al., 1997) vegetation varied, whereas the percentage of studies on erosion rates increased steadily over time. During the 90s badlands research was flowering and research on badlands developments, forms and soil physical properties influence was done. The 00's were a period with research focused on processes (infiltration, runoff and erosion) but in general the interest on badland decreased. However, badlands are intensively researched in the Ebro Valley (Nadal-Romero et al., 2007; 2008; Nadal-Romero and Regués; 2009; 2010) and new research is being developed on degraded soils following the knowledge found on badlands (Cerdà, 2007; García Fayos et al., 2010). The future is moving to study vegetation dynamics and badlands reclamation, the effect of climatic change in badland areas, and erosion processes and rates (Nadal-Romero et al., 2013). The use of new non-invasive technologies (remote sensing, Terrestrial Laser

  6. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  7. THE EFFECT OF MODEL SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY USING MEDIA PhET TOWARD SKILLS PROCESS OF SCIENCE VIEWED FROM CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Safarati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research to analyse: the science process skills that are taught in a model of scientific inquiry using the media PhET better than students taught by learning direct instruction, science process skills of physics students who has the critical thinking skills using a model of scientific inquiry than average -rata better than students who have critical thinking skills using a direct model of instruction above average, the interaction of scientific inquiry learning model using PhET media with critical thinking skills of students in improving students' science process skills. This research is quasi experimental. Technique that used to gain a sample is random cluster sampling. The instrument used is the science process skills test and test critical thinking skills. The results of this study concluded that: the science process skills of students who are taught by the model of scientific inquiry using the media PhET better than students taught by learning direct instruction, science process skills of physics students who have the critical thinking skills using a model of scientific inquiry over average better than students who have critical thinking skills using a direct model of instruction above average, there is interaction scientific inquiry model using the media PhET with critical thinking skills of students in improving students' science process skills.

  8. Conservation Process Model (cpm): a Twofold Scientific Research Scope in the Information Modelling for Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, D.; Acierno, M.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction) field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014). In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management) with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.

  9. CONSERVATION PROCESS MODEL (CPM: A TWOFOLD SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SCOPE IN THE INFORMATION MODELLING FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fiorani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014. In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.

  10. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  11. A complex process - transforming scientific research into regulatory rules for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.J.; Goss, D.; Huffman, A.

    2002-01-01

    The protection of isolated wetlands from consumptive use withdrawals has been a policy in the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) for over 15 years. A guideline for protecting isolated wetlands was established in the mid-1980's for the consumptive water use permitting program administered by the SFWMD. The guideline specifies groundwater drawdown criteria associated with well field pumpage. In 1994, the SFWMD convened a panel of wetland scientists to review the existing groundwater drawdown criteria. The panel concluded there was insufficient information to determine if the criteria were either too restrictive or insufficient in protecting wetlands. The panel recommended that the SFWMD conduct research to answer related questions. Since that time, staff at the SFWMD have developed a research plan, selected 38 isolated wetland monitoring sites in seven study areas, collected over four years of data, and developed an integrated surface water and groundwater simulation model. However, the staff at the SFWMD has had difficulties in transforming the research results into regulatory rules. The nature of an isolated wetland is quite complicated. Its setting changes significantly from time to time depending on the variation of rainfall, hydro-geological conditions, and human activities. A regulatory rule requires simple and more easily measurable criteria. The regulatory staff need simple tools to evaluate many permit applications within a limited time frame. The tools used in the research process are often complicated and time consuming. This paper describes the wetland research, and the difficulties of transforming research results into regulatory rules. (author)

  12. Syngas to Synfuels Process Development Unit Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The process described is for the gasification of 20 kg/h of biomass (switchgrass) to produce a syngas suitable for upgrading to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquid fuels (gas, diesel, waxes, etc.). The gas stream generated from gasification is primarily composed of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), steam (H2O), and methane (CH4), but also includes tars, particulate matter, ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen sulfide ( H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), etc. as contaminants. The gas stream passes through an array of cleaning devices to remove the contaminants to levels suitable for FT synthesis of fuels/chemicals. These devices consist primarily of an oil scrubber (to remove tars and remaining particulates), sulfur scrubber (to remove sulfur compounds), and a wet scrubber (to remove NH3, HCl and remaining water soluble contaminants). The ammonia and oil scrubbers are absorption columns with a combination of random and structured packing materials, using water and oil as the adsorption liquids respectively. The ammonia scrubber performed very well, while operating the oil scrubber proved to be more difficult due to the nature of tar compounds. The sulfur scrubber is a packed bed absorption device with solid extrudates of adsorbent material, primarily composed of ZnO and CuO. It performed well, but over a limited amount of time due to fouling created by excess tar/particulate matter and oil aerosols. Overall gas contaminants were reduced to below 1 ppm NH3, and less than 1 ppm collective sulfur compounds.

  13. Orchestrating classroom change to engage children in the process of scientific reasoning: Challenges for teachers and strategies for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Melissa J.

    Science curricula should reflect the nature of science as experienced by its practitioners (Hacking, 1992; Harding & Hare, 2000; Latour, 1987; Pickering, 1992). Contemporary literature depicts scientific research laboratories as social spaces, where intellectual debate plays a significant role in discovery. However, this is not the way science instruction is conducted in most science classrooms. Tharp and Gallimore (1988) argue that pedagogical methods have not changed in The United States in over one hundred years. Driver, Leach, Millar, and Scott (1996) suggest that in order for students to understand the scientific process, teachers must focus on the "actual work of scientists and illustrate the internal social relations within science" (p. 146). In light of the widespread appeals for change, why does the traditional classroom structure persist? The aim of the present study is to address the issue of classroom change to support students as they engage in the practice of posing questions and constructing scientific explanations complete with peer review. Although theoretical perspectives clearly support designing classroom environments in which the language of conjecture and evidence is the norm, translating these ideas into classroom practice has not been as successful. The original intent of the current study was to explore how students in one intact fifth grade class, positioned as specialists who each had access to one component of a problem with the responsibility of teaching that component to their peers, would differ from students in a second intact fifth grade class, who did not assume this role. The students were compared in terms of the predictions made and the types of evidence presented to support claims. The data indicated that the students did not engage in discussions as anticipated. In fact, the children from both classes approached the problem as a search for the correct answer. Very little evaluation of evidence or debate took place. Given that

  14. 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference. Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules. Collection of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.Yu.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The reports of the 4. All-Russian (international) scientific conference: Physicochemical processes during selection of atoms and molecules, are presented. The conference took place in Zvenigorod, 4-8 October, 1999. Contents of the reports are the following: laser isotope separation of molecules and atoms; isotopic selection of molecules and atoms in the field of centrifugal forces; selection of molecules by means of rectification and isotopic exchange methods; separation of isotopes by ion cyclotron-resonance method, in electric discharge and electromagnetic field; change in physical properties of substances which variation of their natural isotopic composition; use of isotopes in pharmacy preparation; status of experimental and diagnostic technique; certain promising methods of selection of atoms and molecules. The problems of laser separation of uranium isotopes, separation of carbon isotopes by multi-photon selective dissociation are discussed. The procedures permitting production of isotopes with high concentration and efficiency are developed [ru

  15. Using writing as a vehicle to promote and develop scientific concepts and process skills in fourth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disimoni, Katherine Cecilia

    The development of conceptual knowledge, particularly at the elementary level, is one area in which researchers and educators have noted remarkable deficiencies. The purpose of this descriptive study was to observe the impact of the use of writing as a thinking tool on the promotion and development of scientific concepts and science process skills in elementary students in the discipline of science. Reports from some of the publications for science research and educational progress cited the direct links of writing effectiveness to the development of skills in critical thinking. The study consisted of 12 fourth-grade students in the control group and their 12 fourth-grade counterparts in the experimental group. The treatment for the study was the use of learning logs by the experimental group to record their written responses to predesigned prompts related to hands-on science experiences during the intervention period. Their counterparts did no writing. Statistical measures used were Student's t tests to determine if significance was present. A pretest and posttest were given that involved written responses to the same prompt. Three judges used a specially designed rubric to evaluate and score the writing. Significant differences were found when the scores of the experimental group were analyzed between pretest and posttest. Also, a standardized test to assess basic process skills was administered prior to and after the intervention. There were no statistical differences found in either group to demonstrate that writing effected the development of process skills. The researcher determined that perhaps writing is not the best way to promote process skills. Rather, engaging in science is the best way. These skills are built separately but used in tandem, particularly when learning about science and mathematics. The implications of this study impact upon several areas of education which make up paradigms leading to good practice based on sound theory. These components

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the process “INTERSEROH Step 1” used to recycle polypropylene cratesfor use as food contact material

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) provides a scientific opinion dealing with the safety evaluation of the recycling process “INTERSEROH Step 1” with the EC register number RECYC069. The process recycles pre-washed damaged food contact re-usable polypropylene crates (RPC) which have been used in a closed and controlled product loop into new recycled polypropylene crates. Through this process, cleaned damaged crates are firstly gro...

  17. Developing PBL kit by utilizing blog in order to improve scientific process and problem solving skills in physics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maria Ulva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at generating PBL-based learning kit product by utilizing blog, at meeting the criteria of learning kit feasibility, at testing the effectiveness of learning kit that the researcher had developed and at identifying the learning participants’ scientific process and problem solving skills. In conducting the study, the researcher implemented the 4-D Model. The learning kit development started involved preliminary study, product design, expert and practitioner test, limited experiment and field experiment. The instruments that had been deployed in conducting the study consisted of validation sheet, learning management observation sheet, student response sheet, teacher interview sheet and learning results test. This study generated a product that consisted of lesson plan, teacher’s book, student’s book, student’s working sheet, blog and learning results assessment. The validation results showed that the learning kit that had been developed were feasible for implementation. Then, the experiment results showed that the learning kit that the researcher had developed met the criteria of effectiveness. Based on the pretest and the posttest results that was administered during the field experiment, students’ physics learning has increased approximately 17.10 point from the pretest average score, namely 58.20, and from the posttest average score, namely 75.30.

  18. The Effect of Use of Animations on the Academic Achievements of the Students, Retention of the Knowledge Learned, and the Scientific Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the animation on the academic achievements of the students, retention of this achievement, and the development of scientific process skills in the unit of force and motion of the science and technology course of the 6th grade basic education and to find out the student's views. The…

  19. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  20. The processes of "re-education" of the scientific and historical environment of the Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinska, K. O.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of total transformation of the scientific and historical environment of the Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s. The key issue of the article is establishment maximum control of ruling regime over the scientific environment of the Soviet Ukraine during the 1920s and the beginning of the transformation of this environment through the establishment of the Marxist ideological basis of the scientific system. The article also focuses on the "re-education" of scientific and pedagogical personnel and the ambiguous relationship between the "bourgeois" and the "red" professors. It is mentioned that the confrontation between the "bourgeois" professors and Marxist ideology was the consequence of the discovery of the so-called cultural front. The main stages of the relationship between the Bolsheviks and the Ukrainian intelligentsia are scrutinized in this article. Peculiarities of the conquest by the Bolsheviks of the scientific and historical environment of the NEP period are represented also. Teaching and supervising staff of the party-supported Ukrainian Institute of Marxism-Leninism and the Artem Communist University in Kharkiv are analyzed.

  1. REQUIREMENTS TO AUTOMATIZATION PROCESSING IN THE PROGRAMMING INFORMATION SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES IN ACADEMY OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Kilchenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.

  2. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations: a cross-European comparison of nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timotijevic, L.; Barnett, J.; Brown, K.; Shepherd, R.; Fernandez-Celemin, L.; Domolki, L.; Ruprich, J.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Sonne, A.M.; Hermoso, M.; Koletzko, B.; Frost-Andersen, L.; Timmer, A.; Raats, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective - To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design - Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants

  3. Scientific political consulting and university education in Germany: demand and supply patterns in the context of the Bologna process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, A.; Heister, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the competences required for a career in scientific policy consultancy (especially in the field of foreign policy) in Germany and the extent to which university education in the field of political science can and does prepare for this occupation. Our analysis indicates that

  4. The Process of Scientific Inquiry as It Relates to the Creation/Evolution Controversy: I. A Serious Social Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon S.; Toth, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    We describe how the increased level of religiosity in the United States is correlated with the resistance to the teaching of evolution and argue that this is a social, rather than scientific, issue. Our goal is to foster teachers' understanding of the philosophy of biology and encourage them to proactively deal with creationism at all levels,…

  5. Interests and epistemic integrity in science : a new framework to assess interest influences in scientific research processes

    OpenAIRE

    De Winter, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Non-epistemic interests (e.g., financial interests, political interests) sometimes influence scientific decisions (e.g., hypothesis acceptance, theory choice). For instance, pharmaceutical giant Merck manipulated clinical trial data in order to make sure that these data confirmed the safety of one of its products (Vioxx), as this served the company’s short-term commercial interests. The latter is obviously unacceptable. But why exactly is it unacceptable? One way to account for this is on the...

  6. Social-scientific criticism: Perspective, process and payoff. Evil eye accusation at Galatia as illustration of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Elliott

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a presentation of the method, emergence and contribution of social-scientific criticism (SSC as an inter-disciplinary operation of New Testament exegesis. A description of ancient evil eye belief and practice and its appearance in Paul’s letter to the Galatians illustrates how the method contributes to a more accurate translation of the biblical text, a clarification of its logic and a fuller understanding of the social dynamics involving Paul and his opponents.

  7. Proceedings of 1.International scientific and technological conference 'Modern problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials'. v. 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of reports presented on 1.International scientific and technological conference 'Modern problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials', devoted to the 20th anniversary of the Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas (Atyrau, 2000, 18-19 December) are published in 2 volumes. The problems and new methods for prediction of oil and gas as well as different resources in both the coastal lands and the shelf of the Caspian Sea are considered. Scientific problems of drilling and repair of oil and gas wells are highlighted. Results of fundamental and applied studies on problems of oil and oil products processing, its transportation through pipelines with taking into account rheological and physico-chemical properties of oils mining on western fields of the Republic are cited. The points of ecological safety guarantee, reliability of mechanisms and machines operation and others problems are widely discussed

  8. Triple-loop learning as foundation for profound change, individual cultivation, and radical innovation. Construction processes beyond scientific and rational knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    Peschl, Markus F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Ernst von Glasersfeld’s question concerning the relationship between scientific/ rational knowledge and the domain of wisdom and how these forms of knowledge come about is the starting point. This article aims at developing an epistemological as well as methodological framework that is capable of explaining how profound change can be brought about in various contexts, such as in individual cultivation, in organizations, in processes of radical innovation, etc. This fra...

  9. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on basic research of nuclear science and technology (book II): chemical, waste processing technology and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Syarip; Samin; Darsono; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Gede Sutresna W; Tjipto Sujitno; Slamet Santosa; Herry Poernomo; Bambang Siswanto; Eko Edy Karmanto; Endro Kismolo; Budi Setiawan; Prajitno; Jumari; Wahini Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, in Yogyakarta, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings which were divided into two groups that are chemistry, environmental and waste treatment technology process . The proceedings consists of three articles from keynote speakers and 24 articles from BATAN and others participants.(PPIKSN)

  10. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Researchin Nuclear Science and Technology part II: Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Karmanto, Eko-Edy; Suradjijo, Ganang

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Scienceand Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings. These are the second part of the proceedings that contain 71 articles in the fields of nuclear chemistry, process technology, radioactive waste management, and environment (PPIN).

  11. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...... the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. As described in scientific literature, the process was effective in removing PCDD...

  12. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology and there are 47 papers which have separated index. The proceedings is the second part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  13. Process skills acquisition, cognitive growth, and attitude change of ninth grade students in a scientific literacy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.; Piburn, Michael

    This is a report of the effects of a scientific literacy course on the skills, cognitive ability, and attitude of students in the first year of high school. Specifically, the research examines (1) whether it is possible to teach scientific skills, (2) whether a literacy curriculum affects attitude and cognitive ability, and (3) whether incoming student characteristics affect the development of attitude and cognitive abilities. Two hundred and fifty (126 male and 124 female) ninth grade students were enrolled in a specially designed literacy course which met for 3 hours and 20 minutes each week for 39 weeks. Students were pretested for logical, spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability, as well as for attitude toward self and science, and psychological type. The course was successful in teaching skills. In addition, there were significant increases in spatial, verbal, and quantitative ability. Increases in cognitive ability were predicted by logical ability, measurement skills, and academic self-concept. Attitudes declined as a result of participation in the course. Self concept and mastery were related to cognitive variables and motivation, mastery, and control were related to psychological type.

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303 (FGE.303): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... of the flavouring substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured....... In conclusion, for the candidate substance spilanthol [FL-no: 16.121] additional data on chemical defined material are required as a 28 day study is not considered sufficient to deriving a NOAEL....

  15. Scientific news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1994-01-01

    The Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus acquired funds through NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) to participate in a 7-year interdisciplinary cooperative programme of Indonesian and Dutch scientific institutions aiming at research in Irian Jaya, Cenderawasih province (the Bird’s

  16. Kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts and scientific inquiry processes according to demographic variables (the sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail İlhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students’ levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC and scientific inquiry processes (SIP and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the kindergarten students’ LUSSC and SIP. This study was conducted according to quantitative research design. The study group consisted of 335 kindergarten students from 20 different rural and urban schools. In the study, the scale for “Turkish Kindergarten Students’ Understandings of Scientific Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes” was used. According to some variables (such as mother’s education level and family structure, there was a statistically significant difference between students’ mean scores for LUSSC and between students’ mean scores for SIP. Within the scope of this study, it was found that among the predictor variables (age, family’s income level, and number of brother/sister were significant predictors for LUSSC, and number of brother/sister was a significant predictor for SIP.

  17. Motivated scientific reasoning biases, epistemological beliefs, and theory polarization: a two-process approach to adolescent cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, P A

    2000-01-01

    Theory-motivated reasoning biases arise when different reasoning skills are invoked to evaluate evidence that is congruent or incongruent with individuals' belief systems. To explore this phenomenon, 66 early and 73 middle adolescents evaluated evidence relevant to their theories of social class or religion. In both conditions, reasoning biases were found, but in-group biases were evident only in the religion condition. In both conditions, higher order scientific reasoning was used to reject theory-incongruent evidence and judgmental heuristics (i.e., cognitive rules of thumb) were used to evaluate theory-congruent evidence. In both conditions, subsequent to the evidence presentation, adolescents' theories became more extreme (i.e., polarized) than at the outset of the experiment. Beliefs regarding the origin, acquisition, and certainty of knowledge, however, appeared to moderate reasoning biases and theory polarization. Age differences emerged on only one index of bias: In the religion condition, middle adolescents were more likely to treat theory-incongruent evidence as implausible. These findings are pertinent to theories of cognitive development, decision making, rationality, and in-group favoritism.

  18. A simple, robust lightweight microscopy and sample processing system for scientific and commercial research on ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A light-weight, user-friendly, algorithmically or remotely controlled microscope, not purchased from a microscope company, coupled to fluid sample processing and...

  19. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  20. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-02-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific entities and their related processes were investigated: astronomical and microscopic. The sample included 79 female students from Grades 9 and 10. For the purpose of the study, three instruments were used. The Mental Images by Guided Imagery instrument was designed to investigate participants' visualization of static and dynamic mental images. The Water-Level Task was adopted to estimate participants' spatial ability. The Learning Styles Inventory was used to classify participants into verbal, visual and schematic learners. The research findings suggest that schematic learners outperformed verbal and visual learners in their spatial ability. They also outperformed them in their vividness of microscopic images; both micro-static and micro-dynamic images; especially in the case of appearing/disappearing images. The differences were not significant in the case of astronomical images. The results also indicate that appearing/disappearing images received the least vividness scores for all three types of learners.

  1. The Impact of an Interactive Statistics Module on Novices' Development of Scientific Process Skills and Attitudes in a First-Semester Research Foundations Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsan, Lynnsay A; D'Arcy, Christina E; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that incorporating quantitative reasoning exercises into existent curricular frameworks within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is essential for novices' development of conceptual understanding and process skills in these domains. Despite this being the case, such studies acknowledge that students often experience difficulty in applying mathematics in the context of scientific problems. To address this concern, the present study sought to explore the impact of active demonstrations and critical reading exercises on novices' comprehension of basic statistical concepts, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and interpretation of research findings. Students first engaged in a highly interactive height activity that served to intuitively illustrate normal distribution, mean, standard deviation, and sample selection criteria. To enforce practical applications of standard deviation and p -value, student teams were subsequently assigned a figure from a peer-reviewed primary research article and instructed to evaluate the trustworthiness of the data. At the conclusion of this exercise, students presented their evaluations to the class for open discussion and commentary. Quantitative assessment of pre- and post-module survey data indicated a statistically significant increase both in students' scientific reasoning and process skills and in their self-reported confidence in understanding the statistical concepts presented in the module. Furthermore, data indicated that the majority of students (>85%) found the module both interesting and helpful in nature. Future studies will seek to develop additional, novel exercises within this area and to evaluate the impact of such modules across a variety of STEM and non-STEM contexts.

  2. THE AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE ORGANIZATION, CARRYING OUT AND PROCESSINGS OF RESULTS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova O.V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The general regularities detecting in the psychological development of person is modern theoretical problem of psychology. So the computer-aided informational system was made as the psychological item for the resolving of this problem. The system stores empirical data, makes processing and generalization of the results, creates the new psychological tests and compares the results in Kamchatka region with other regions’ results by the identical parameters

  3. The new European regulation on personal data protection: significant aspects for data processing for scientific research purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Preite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On 27 April 2016, after a troubled gestation,, Regulation 2016/6791 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data was finally published. The Regulation is to have a two-year transitional period, meaning it will actually enter into force in the first half of 2018.

  4. Web-based execution of graphical work-flows: a modular platform for multifunctional scientific process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ley, E.; Jacobs, D.; Ounsy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Passerelle process automation suite offers a fundamentally modular solution platform, based on a layered integration of several best-of-breed technologies. It has been successfully applied by Synchrotron Soleil as the sequencer for data acquisition and control processes on its beamlines, integrated with TANGO as a control bus and GlobalScreen TM ) as the SCADA package. Since last year it is being used as the graphical work-flow component for the development of an eclipse-based Data Analysis Work Bench, at ESRF. The top layer of Passerelle exposes an actor-based development paradigm, based on the Ptolemy framework (UC Berkeley). Actors provide explicit reusability and strong decoupling, combined with an inherently concurrent execution model. Actor libraries exist for TANGO integration, web-services, database operations, flow control, rules-based analysis, mathematical calculations, launching external scripts etc. Passerelle's internal architecture is based on OSGi, the major Java framework for modular service-based applications. A large set of modules exist that can be recombined as desired to obtain different features and deployment models. Besides desktop versions of the Passerelle work-flow workbench, there is also the Passerelle Manager. It is a secured web application including a graphical editor, for centralized design, execution, management and monitoring of process flows, integrating standard Java Enterprise services with OSGi. We will present the internal technical architecture, some interesting application cases and the lessons learnt. (authors)

  5. Scientific visualization as a possible component of the imaginative part of academic drawing and painting in a process of industrial design teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitman, V. R.; Kazakova, O. A.; Viitman, N. G.; Viitman, P. V.; Sitnikov, E. V.; Vinokurova, G. F.

    2017-01-01

    The article raises the question of the conscious possibility of scientific visualization usage in a context of designers’ education. The article considers the problem of mixing creativity (such as academic drawing) and computer technologies in the process of design students’ education. This article underlines the priority of impressions and the secondariness of constructive specifications of images that may appear in the very beginning during the process of work with material. The material of the article covers such things like the nature of image appearance and presumable results of original ideas realization. The actual ideas of image appearance are given as a singularity of a gouache painting technique. According to the tradition of school of academic painting, aspiration to stand out by originality of smear, tone and color of stretch marks, relief, pasty painting are welcome.

  6. Processes of cation migration in clay-rocks: Final Scientific Report of the CatClay European Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, S.; Aertsens, M.; Appelo, T.; Bruggeman, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Glaus, M.; Jacquier, P.; Kupcik, T.; Maes, N.; Montoya, V.; Rabung, T.; Robinet, J.-C.; Savoye, S.; Schaefer, T.; Tournassat, C.; Van Laer, L.; Van Loon, L.

    2015-07-01

    illite and clay rocks, even though some assumptions made have to be verified. In parallel, actual 3D geometrical pore size distributions of compacted illite, and in less extent, clay rock samples, were successfully determined by combining TEM and FIB-nt analyses on materials maintained in a water-like saturation state by means of an extensive impregnation step. Based on this spatial distribution of pores, first numerical diffusion experiments were carried at the pore scale through virtual illite, enabling a better understanding of how transfer pathways are organized in the porous media. Finally, the EC CatClay project allowed a better understanding of the migration of strongly sorbing tracers through low permeability 'clay rock' formations, increasing confidence in our capacity to demonstrate that the models used to predict radionuclide migration through these rocks are scientifically sound. (authors)

  7. Development Instrument’s Learning of Physics Through Scientific Inquiry Model Based Batak Culture to Improve Science Process Skill and Student’s Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Derlina; Syahreni Harahap, Putri; Harahap, Marabangun

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to: (1) developed a instrument’s learning (lesson plan, worksheet, student’s book, teacher’s guide book, and instrument test) of physics learning through scientific inquiry learning model based Batak culture to achieve skills improvement process of science students and the students’ curiosity; (2) describe the quality of the result of develop instrument’s learning in high school using scientific inquiry learning model based Batak culture (lesson plan, worksheet, student’s book, teacher’s guide book, and instrument test) to achieve the science process skill improvement of students and the student curiosity. This research is research development. This research developed a instrument’s learning of physics by using a development model that is adapted from the development model Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel. The stages are traversed until retrieved a valid physics instrument’s learning, practical, and effective includes :(1) definition phase, (2) the planning phase, and (3) stages of development. Test performed include expert test/validation testing experts, small groups, and test classes is limited. Test classes are limited to do in SMAN 1 Padang Bolak alternating on a class X MIA. This research resulted in: 1) the learning of physics static fluid material specially for high school grade 10th consisted of (lesson plan, worksheet, student’s book, teacher’s guide book, and instrument test) and quality worthy of use in the learning process; 2) each component of the instrument’s learning meet the criteria have valid learning, practical, and effective way to reach the science process skill improvement and curiosity in students.

  8. Finial Scientific/Technical Report: Application of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Process for the Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Ping Pan; Dr. John T. Riley

    2005-10-10

    Chemical Looping Combustion is a novel combustion technology for the inherent separation of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}. In 1983, Richter and Knoche proposed reversible combustion, which utilized both the oxidation and reduction of metal. Metal associated with its oxidized form as an oxygen carrier was circulated between two reactors--oxidizer and reducer. In the reducer, the solid oxygen carrier reacts with the fuel to produce CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and elemental metal only. Pure CO{sub 2} will be obtained in the exit gas stream from the reducer after H{sub 2}O is condensed. The pure CO{sub 2} is ready for subsequent sequestration. In the oxidizer, the elemental metal reacts with air to form metal oxide and separate oxygen from nitrogen. Only nitrogen and some unused oxygen are emitted from the oxidizer. The advantage of CLC compared to normal combustion is that CO{sub 2} is not diluted with nitrogen but obtained in a relatively pure form without any energy needed for separation. In addition to the energy-free purification of CO{sub 2}, the CLC process also provides two other benefits. First, NO{sub x} formation can be largely eliminated. Secondly, the thermal efficiency of a CLC system is very high. Presently, the CLC process has only been used with natural gas. An oxygen carrier based on an energy balance analysis and thermodynamics analysis was selected. Copper (Cu) seems to be the best choice for the CLC system for solid fuels. From this project, the mechanisms of CuO reduction by solid fuels may be as follows: (1) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are available, reduction of CuO could start at about 400 C or less. (2) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is lower, reduction of CuO could occur at an onset temperature of about 500 C, char gasification reactivity in CO{sub 2} was lower at lower temperatures. (3) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is higher than 750 C

  9. The integration of scientific knowledge on hydrogeomorphological processes in fluvial risk management strategies through the "Freedom space for rivers" concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Simon; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Biron, Pascale; Ruiz, Julie

    2017-04-01

    Extensive knowledge and tools developed by hydrogeomorphologists led to the development of new approaches for fluvial hazards mapping that recognize the diversity of river systems and consider the temporal morphodynamic adjustments. Hydrogeomorphological mapping can be integrated into a management approach by considering distinct processes with specific regulation and management practices. The Freedom space for rivers (FSR) concept promotes the integration of multiple processes into a single space by combining the flooding and the mobility spaces as well as the riparian wetlands. Flooding spaces are delimited by a combination of methods, calling for the use of LiDAR elevation models and geomorphological observations related to past flood events. Mobility spaces are defined by the analysis of historical river positions and the interpretation of landforms associated with morphodynamics. In the FSR approach, fluvial processes can naturally operate, thus limiting risk for citizens and infrastructure, while providing a series of ecological services and socioeconomic benefits. Many methodological and institutional challenges arise for the applicability of the FSR concept in the management of rivers. To investigate these challenges, working groups bringing together different water stakeholders were created in collaboration with local watershed organizations and municipal authorities in three contrasting river environments in Québec (Canada). Stakeholders' engagement help identify local concerns regarding FSR management, collectively set up implementation strategies and transfer knowledge gained on river dynamics and fluvial hazards. The collaborative research approach aims to better understand challenges and opportunities for FSR management concepts. Farmers' reluctance to limit their interventions and practices along watercourses, a lack of political will at local level, the absence of government incentives to support local FSR actions, and the institutional challenge

  10. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  11. What does it take to build a medium scale scientific cloud to process significant amounts of Earth observation data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, André; Diedrich, Hannes; Spengler, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The installment of the operational fleet of Sentinels by Copernicus offers an unprecedented influx of freely available Earth Observation data with Sentinel-2 being a great example. It offers a broad range of land applications due to its high spatial sampling from 10 m to 20 m and its multi-spectral imaging capabilities with 13 spectral bands. The open access policy allows unrestricted use by everybody and provides data downloads for on the respective sites. For a small area of interest and shorter time series, data processing, and exploitation can easily be done manually. However, for multi-temporal analysis of larger areas, the data size can quickly increase such that it is not manageable in practice on a personal computer which leads to an increasing interest in central data exploitation platforms. Prominent examples are GoogleEarth Engine, NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) or current developments such as CODE-DE in Germany. Open standards are still evolving, and the choice of a platform may create lock-in scenarios and a situation where scientists are not anymore in full control of all aspects of their analysis. Securing intellectual properties of researchers can become a major issue in the future. Partnering with a startup company that is dedicated to providing tools for farm management and precision farming, GFZ builds a small-scale science cloud named GTS2 for processing and distribution of Sentinel-2 data. The service includes a sophisticated atmospheric correction algorithm, spatial co-registration of time series data, as well as a web API for data distribution. This approach is different from the drag to centralized research using infrastructures controlled by others. By keeping the full licensing rights, it allows developing new business models independent from the initially chosen processing provider. Currently, data is held for the greater German area but is extendable to larger areas on short notice due to a scalable distributed network file system. For a

  12. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  13. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  14. Products and processes of agri-scientific service-learning: adding harmony to Dopico and Garcia-Vázquez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, George L.

    2011-06-01

    This forum response adds a conceptualization of harmony to Dopico and Vázquez' investigation of pedagogy that combines citizen science, environmental and cross-cultural research, and service-learning. Placing many appropriate and significant aspects of culturally situated science education in an authentically relational context beyond the classroom, this paper calls attention to insightful contributions and new directions for research, such as the process of inducing or eluding nihilism regarding ecological issues. How can such a question be researched effectively in order to learn about the family of pedagogies emerging in response to the need for more ecologically conscious and relationally authentic teaching across many disciplines? In this paper, I use a Vygotskian framework and an abbreviated case study of agricultural service-learning from my research, drawing attention to the importance of students' culturally-mediated construction of setting as they interact in older and newer ways.

  15. Biblio-MetReS for user-friendly mining of genes and biological processes in scientific documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Usie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One way to initiate the reconstruction of molecular circuits is by using automated text-mining techniques. Developing more efficient methods for such reconstruction is a topic of active research, and those methods are typically included by bioinformaticians in pipelines used to mine and curate large literature datasets. Nevertheless, experimental biologists have a limited number of available user-friendly tools that use text-mining for network reconstruction and require no programming skills to use. One of these tools is Biblio-MetReS. Originally, this tool permitted an on-the-fly analysis of documents contained in a number of web-based literature databases to identify co-occurrence of proteins/genes. This approach ensured results that were always up-to-date with the latest live version of the databases. However, this ‘up-to-dateness’ came at the cost of large execution times. Here we report an evolution of the application Biblio-MetReS that permits constructing co-occurrence networks for genes, GO processes, Pathways, or any combination of the three types of entities and graphically represent those entities. We show that the performance of Biblio-MetReS in identifying gene co-occurrence is as least as good as that of other comparable applications (STRING and iHOP. In addition, we also show that the identification of GO processes is on par to that reported in the latest BioCreAtIvE challenge. Finally, we also report the implementation of a new strategy that combines on-the-fly analysis of new documents with preprocessed information from documents that were encountered in previous analyses. This combination simultaneously decreases program run time and maintains ‘up-to-dateness’ of the results. Availability: http://metres.udl.cat/index.php/downloads, Contact: metres.cmb@gmail.com.

  16. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancu, Dan [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wood, Benjamin [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Genovese, Sarah [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Perry, Robert [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Spiry, Irina [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Farnum, Rachael [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wilson, Paul [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Chen, Wei [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McDermott, John [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Doherty, Mark [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Rainka, Matt [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Miebach, Barbara [General Electric Company, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-08-03

    GE Global Research has developed, over the last 8 years, a platform of cost effective CO2 capture technologies based on a non-aqueous aminosilicone solvent (GAP-1m). As demonstrated in a previous funded DOE project (DE-FE0007502), the GAP-1m solvent has increased CO2 working capacity, lower volatility and corrosivity than the benchmark aqueous amine technology. The current report describes the cooperative program between GE Global Research (GE GRC), and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to design, construct, and operate a pilot-scale process using GAP-1m solvent to demonstrate its performance at 0.5 MWe. (i) Performance of the GAP-1m solvent was demonstrated in a 0.5 MWe pilot with real flue gas for over 900 hrs. of operation using two alternative desorption designs: a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), and a Steam Stripper Column (SSC). The CSTR is a one-stage separation unit with reduced space requirements, and capital cost. The alternative is a multi-stage separation column, with improved desorption efficiency. Testing the two desorber options allowed us to identify the most cost effective, and space efficient desorber solution. (ii) CSTR Campaign: The CSTR desorber unit was designed, fabricated and integrated with the pilot solvent test unit (PSTU), replacing the PSTU Steam Stripper Column at NCCC. Solvent management and waste water special procedures were implemented to accommodate operation of the non-aqueous solvent in the PSTU. Performance of the GAP-1m solvent with the CSTR was demonstrated for over 500 hrs. while varying temperature of the desorption (230 – 265 oF), solvent circulation rate (GAP-1m : CO2 (molar) = 1.5 – 4), and flue gas flow rates (0.2 – 0.5 MWe). Solvent carry-over in the CO2 product was minimized by maintaining water content below 5 wt.%, and desorption pressure at 7 psig. CO2 capture efficiency achieved was 95% at 0.25 MWe (GAP-1m : CO2 = 4 (molar

  17. The Impact of an Interactive Statistics Module on Novices’ Development of Scientific Process Skills and Attitudes in a First-Semester Research Foundations Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnsay A. Marsan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that incorporating quantitative reasoning exercises into existent curricular frameworks within the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM disciplines is essential for novices’ development of conceptual understanding and process skills in these domains. Despite this being the case, such studies acknowledge that students often experience difficulty in applying mathematics in the context of scientific problems. To address this concern, the present study sought to explore the impact of active demonstrations and critical reading exercises on novices’ comprehension of basic statistical concepts, including hypothesis testing, experimental design, and interpretation of research findings. Students first engaged in a highly interactive height activity that served to intuitively illustrate normal distribution, mean, standard deviation, and sample selection criteria. To enforce practical applications of standard deviation and p-value, student teams were subsequently assigned a figure from a peer-reviewed primary research article and instructed to evaluate the trustworthiness of the data. At the conclusion of this exercise, students presented their evaluations to the class for open discussion and commentary. Quantitative assessment of pre- and post-module survey data indicated a statistically significant increase both in students’ scientific reasoning and process skills and in their self-reported confidence in understanding the statistical concepts presented in the module. Furthermore, data indicated that the majority of students (>85% found the module both interesting and helpful in nature. Future studies will seek to develop additional, novel exercises within this area and to evaluate the impact of such modules across a variety of STEM and non-STEM contexts.

  18. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Justification for this approach stems, first, from the sheer cost of trying to test at all levels. More significant is the fact that system-level tests are...specific impulses have been well worth the price until recently, when large production runs of small rockets (Scouts) and the sheer size of boosters in the...length: about 12 meters. Energy in unwanted oscillations is dissipated as heat in the damping spring. 348 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES S/-- Piano Wire Silicone

  19. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee...... consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  20. Scientific Crossbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic. To deve......This thesis presents an alternative approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity. One of the basic reasons for developing an alternative method for evaluation of interdisciplinary activities is that epistemic issues are insufficiently dealt with in the existing literature on the topic....... To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...

  1. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management......In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  2. A MODEL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IN THE FACULTIES OF PHYSICAL CULTURE / MODELO PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL PROCESO DE INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN FACULTADES DE CULTURA FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Gilda Prado Alfaro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation takes as point of departures the insufficiencies of the process of scientific investigation that limit the obtaining of impacts of science and technology in the Faculty of Physical Culture in “Las Tunas”. It was planned as objective: the elaboration of a model for the management of scientific investigation process for this faculty supported by the adaptation pattern for the negotiation of relevant processes and impacts in University Faculties. The fundamental contribution is the application of Model for the management of Relevant and Impact Processes in University Faculties to a Faculty of Physical Culture, a new regularity for the process of scientific investigation and its administration and on the base of it, to sustain a strategy for the management in faculties of Physical Culture.

  3. Parallel Processing and Scientific Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    the algorithm have computational complexity O(N) and be scalable. Multigrid Methods Among the known scalable algorith.ms for elliptic PDE solution, the...close to linear in N and scales linearly in P. However multigrid methods have a particular difficulty on parallel machines in that they do not have...This inherent disadvantage of multigrid methods has led to the search for truly parallel MG methods - multigrid methods that can utilize all processors

  4. Scientific Research: The Planning Process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    animals, should be calculated beforehand, and if too few are possible, or available, then the experimental ... This is because a response surface must be fitted to the data, and the more points and the wider the .... practical case, the answer could be found by asking how big the difference needs to be before farmers would.

  5. Designing scientific applications on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's complex scientific applications now require a vast amount of computational power. General purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) enable researchers in a variety of fields to benefit from the computational power of all the cores available inside graphics cards.Understand the Benefits of Using GPUs for Many Scientific ApplicationsDesigning Scientific Applications on GPUs shows you how to use GPUs for applications in diverse scientific fields, from physics and mathematics to computer science. The book explains the methods necessary for designing or porting your scientific appl

  6. Cloud-based opportunities in scientific computing: insights from processing Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Direct Broadcast data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2013-12-01

    The cloud is proving to be a uniquely promising platform for scientific computing. Our experience with processing satellite data using Amazon Web Services highlights several opportunities for enhanced performance, flexibility, and cost effectiveness in the cloud relative to traditional computing -- for example: - Direct readout from a polar-orbiting satellite such as the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) requires bursts of processing a few times a day, separated by quiet periods when the satellite is out of receiving range. In the cloud, by starting and stopping virtual machines in minutes, we can marshal significant computing resources quickly when needed, but not pay for them when not needed. To take advantage of this capability, we are automating a data-driven approach to the management of cloud computing resources, in which new data availability triggers the creation of new virtual machines (of variable size and processing power) which last only until the processing workflow is complete. - 'Spot instances' are virtual machines that run as long as one's asking price is higher than the provider's variable spot price. Spot instances can greatly reduce the cost of computing -- for software systems that are engineered to withstand unpredictable interruptions in service (as occurs when a spot price exceeds the asking price). We are implementing an approach to workflow management that allows data processing workflows to resume with minimal delays after temporary spot price spikes. This will allow systems to take full advantage of variably-priced 'utility computing.' - Thanks to virtual machine images, we can easily launch multiple, identical machines differentiated only by 'user data' containing individualized instructions (e.g., to fetch particular datasets or to perform certain workflows or algorithms) This is particularly useful when (as is the case with S-NPP data) we need to launch many very similar machines to process an unpredictable number of

  7. Scientific Eschatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  8. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  9. Scientific computer simulation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizer, Joshua S.; Heller, A. Kevin; Oberkampf, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Before the results of a scientific computer simulation are used for any purpose, it should be determined if those results can be trusted. Answering that question of trust is the domain of scientific computer simulation review. There is limited literature that focuses on simulation review, and most is specific to the review of a particular type of simulation. This work is intended to provide a foundation for a common understanding of simulation review. This is accomplished through three contributions. First, scientific computer simulation review is formally defined. This definition identifies the scope of simulation review and provides the boundaries of the review process. Second, maturity assessment theory is developed. This development clarifies the concepts of maturity criteria, maturity assessment sets, and maturity assessment frameworks, which are essential for performing simulation review. Finally, simulation review is described as the application of a maturity assessment framework. This is illustrated through evaluating a simulation review performed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In making these contributions, this work provides a means for a more objective assessment of a simulation’s trustworthiness and takes the next step in establishing scientific computer simulation review as its own field. - Highlights: • We define scientific computer simulation review. • We develop maturity assessment theory. • We formally define a maturity assessment framework. • We describe simulation review as the application of a maturity framework. • We provide an example of a simulation review using a maturity framework

  10. Electron-Driven Proton Transfer Along H2O Wires Enables Photorelaxation of pi sigma* States in Chromophore-Water Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabla, Rafal; Šponer, Jiří; Gora, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 8 (2015), s. 1467-1471 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : PHOTOINDUCED PROCESSES * CONICAL INTERSECTIONS * ULTRAFAST DYNAMICS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015

  11. 1997 Scientific Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes

  12. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the 'Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires' (DRN) during the year 1999. DRN is one of the CEA Institutions. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in English) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department for the year 1999 are presented giving information on the simulation of low mach number compressible flow, experimental irradiation of multi-materials, progress in the dry route conversion process of UF 6 to UO 2 , the neutronics, the CASCADE installation, the corium, the BWR type reactor cores technology, the reactor safety, the transmutation of americium and fuel cell flow studies, the crack propagation, the hybrid systems and the CEA sites improvement. (A.L.B.)

  13. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  14. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Galipeau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well.  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  15. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors' perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants' list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 "highly rated" competency-related statements and another 86 "included" items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future.

  16. An international survey and modified Delphi process revealed editors’ perceptions, training needs, and ratings of competency-related statements for the development of core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Cobey, Kelly D.; Barbour, Virginia; Baskin, Patricia; Bell-Syer, Sally; Deeks, Jonathan; Garner, Paul; Shamseer, Larissa; Sharon, Straus; Tugwell, Peter; Winker, Margaret; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scientific editors (i.e., those who make decisions on the content and policies of a journal) have a central role in the editorial process at biomedical journals. However, very little is known about the training needs of these editors or what competencies are required to perform effectively in this role. Methods: We conducted a survey of perceptions and training needs among scientific editors from major editorial organizations around the world, followed by a modified Delphi process in which we invited the same scientific editors to rate the importance of competency-related statements obtained from a previous scoping review. Results: A total of 148 participants completed the survey of perceptions and training needs. At least 80% of participants agreed on six of the 38 skill and expertise-related statements presented to them as being important or very important to their role as scientific editors. At least 80% agreed on three of the 38 statements as necessary skills they perceived themselves as possessing (well or very well).  The top five items on participants’ list of top training needs were training in statistics, research methods, publication ethics, recruiting and dealing with peer reviewers, and indexing of journals. The three rounds of the Delphi were completed by 83, 83, and 73 participants, respectively, which ultimately produced a list of 23 “highly rated” competency-related statements and another 86 “included” items. Conclusion: Both the survey and the modified Delphi process will be critical for understanding knowledge and training gaps among scientific editors when designing curriculum around core competencies in the future. PMID:28979768

  17. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Ganang Suradjijo

    2002-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. This proceedings contains a proposal about basic research in nuclear technology which has environment. This proceedings is the second part of the two parts which published in series. There are 57 articles which have separated index. (PPIN)

  18. Scientific report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This scientific report of the Fuel Cycle Direction of the Cea, presents the Direction activities and research programs in the fuel cycle domain during the year 1999. The first chapter is devoted to the front end of the fuel cycle with the SILVA process as main topic. The second chapter is largely based on the separation chemistry of the back end cycle. The third and fourth chapters present studies of more applied and sometimes more technical developments in the nuclear industry or not. (A.L.B.)

  19. The art of scientific writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan

    2018-01-01

    This three-part workshop introduces strategies, tools, and techniques for sound scientific output. It discusses success and failure factors relevant to the publication process (writing included). The first part aims to understand the entire publication process. It presents an overview of standard

  20. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  1. About role of 'Nuclear sciences' and other trends of scientific and technological works in innovation development of phenomena and globalization processes in XX and XXI centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifov, P.V.; Azimova, D.S.; Trostyanskij, D.V.; Umarov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    It is concluded, that just successful development of scientific and technological works in the field 'Nuclear Sciences' results economy advantages for USA and some West countries compared with USSR and the rest countries of East Europe. In the following decades this advantage allows to a leader-countries develop with success principally new trends of scientific, technological workings in the a wide-scale sphere of natural, technical, biomedical, and other related sciences. Here soon the USA gap from other world countries was achieved. In the field of fundamental sciences there are such fields: Computer Sciences (1940 and then), Space Sciences (1950 and then), Life Sciences (1960 and then), Computer tomography Sciences (1970 and then). Material Researches Sciences (1980 and then), Internet Sciences (1994 and then), Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (1999 and then). In the end of XX century these advantages allow to USA to realize two known global innovation initiatives having National character: Ballistic Missile Defense - from 1983, Internet - from 1994, and to declare the third one - targeting to the XXI century - Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies - from 1999. It is noted, that due to unexampled high temps of development of phenomena and globalization in the XXI century the specialists and professionals of Uzbekistan in the shortest time have to learn the newest world experience in order to ensure worthy status for the young independent state in the world developed countries commonwealth in new age

  2. Modalidades de regulação da atividade científica: uma comparação entre as interpretações normativa, cognitiva e transacional dos processos de integração social da comunidade científica Modalities regulating scientific activity: a comparison of the normative, cognitive and transactional interpretations of the scientific community's social integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Mattedi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina a questão dos padrões de regulação da atividade científica, por meio da análise do conceito de comunidade científica. Sustenta que a dimensão regulatória exercida pela comunidade científica sobre a atividade científica pode ser descrita a partir de três formas de interpretação do processo de socialização: a auto-regulação normativa, cognitiva e transacional. Para desenvolver este argumento, depois de uma breve introdução onde será contextualizada a especificidade do debate sobre a comunidade científica, inicialmente apresentaremos a interpretação formulada por Merton sobre o ethos científico. Em seguida, trataremos da interpretação feita por Kuhn sobre os paradigmas e, por último, consideraremos a interpretação proposta por Hagstrom sobre o modelo de troca. Para finalizar, apresentaremos algumas conclusões sobre o alcance e significado da noção de comunidade para descrição da atividade científica, por meio da comparação das contribuições dos três autores.This paper explores the issue of the regulation patterns of scientific activity through the analysis of the concept of 'scientific community'. It advocates that the regulation exerted by the scientific community on its activities can be described by three interpretations of the socialization process: normative, cognitive and transactional self-regulations. To develop this argument, after a brief introduction contextualizing the debate on the scientific community, we present Merton's interpretation of the scientific ethos and go through Kuhn's interpretation of paradigms before considering the exchange model proposed by Hagstrom. We then present some of our conclusions on the range and meaning of the concept of community to depict scientific activity through the comparison of these three author's contribution.

  3. The martial art of scientific publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    Publication of scientific results in refereed journals is an essential part of the scientific process. It is the final payoff for the obscure labors that compose scientific research. Unfortunately, effective operation of the publication procedure requires simultaneous rational scientific judgment on the part of the author, the referee, and the editor, and the coincidence of all of these cannot be taken for granted on every given occasion. There are times when the working definition of truth is taken to be the consensus of one's scientific intimates: the “good old boys.” Anything outside that limited horizon is discomforting and improper and is to be barred from consideration.

  4. Scientific methodology applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, A

    1975-04-01

    The subject of this symposium is naproxen, a new drug that resulted from an investigation to find a superior anti-inflammatory agent. It was synthesized by Harrison et al. in 1970 at the Syntex Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biological Sciences. How can we chart the evolution of this or any other drug? Three steps are necessary: first, chemical studies (synthesis, analysis); second, animal pharmacology; third, human pharmacology. The last step can additionally be divided into four phases: metabolism and toxicology of the drug in normal volunteers; dose titration and initial clinical trials with sick subjects (pharmacometry); confirmatory clinical trials when the drug is accepted on the market and revaluation (familiarization trials). To discover the truth about naproxen, we must all participate actively with a critical mind, following the principles of scientific methodology. We shall find that the papers to be presented today all deal with the third step in the evaluation process--clinical pharmacology. It is quite evident that the final and most decisive test must be aimed at the most valuable target: the human being. The end product of this day's work for each of us should be the formation of an opinion based on solid scientific proofs. And let us hope that we will all enjoy fulfilling the symposium in its entire etymological meaning this evening. In vino veritas.

  5. Scientific Workflows: Business as Usual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Bertram; Weske, Mathias; McPhillips, Timothy; Bowers, Shawn

    Business workflow management and business process modeling are mature research areas, whose roots go far back to the early days of office automation systems. Scientific workflow management, on the other hand, is a much more recent phenomenon, triggered by (i) a shift towards data-intensive and computational methods in the natural sciences, and (ii) the resulting need for tools that can simplify and automate recurring computational tasks. In this paper, we provide an introduction and overview of scientific workflows, highlighting features and important concepts commonly found in scientific workflow applications. We illustrate these using simple workflow examples from a bioinformatics domain. We then discuss similarities and, more importantly, differences between scientific workflows and business workflows. While some concepts and solutions developed in one domain may be readily applicable to the other, there remain sufficiently many differences that warrant a new research effort at the intersection of scientific and business workflows. We close by proposing a number of research opportunities for cross-fertilization between the scientific workflow and business workflow communities.

  6. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  7. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brazilian Scientific Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Borges, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    This work aimed to make an analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Policy, considering its multi ways of approaching, and was settled on several author's points of view, working on different scientific areas. The world scientific development panorama and its influence on science made in Brazil, including problems, conditions and consequences, are presented in an historical sequence. Central and peripherical (dependent) capitalist nations are defined and identified, and influences on the scientific, economical, political and cultural developments of the peripherical are remarked. (author)

  9. Scientific Workflows: Moving Across Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, C.S.; Atkinson, M.P.; Galea, M.; Ang, T.F.; Martin, P.; van Hemert, J.I.

    Modern scientific collaborations have opened up the opportunity to solve complex problems that require both multidisciplinary expertise and large-scale computational experiments. These experiments typically consist of a sequence of processing steps that need to be executed on selected computing

  10. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  11. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  12. How to write a good scientific paper

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Chris A

    2018-01-01

    Many scientists and engineers consider themselves poor writers or find the writing process difficult. The good news is that you do not have to be a talented writer to produce a good scientific paper, but you do have to be a careful writer. In particular, writing for a peer-reviewed scientific or engineering journal requires learning and executing a specific formula for presenting scientific work. This book is all about teaching the style and conventions of writing for a peer-reviewed scientific journal. From structure to style, titles to tables, abstracts to author lists, this book gives practical advice about the process of writing a paper and getting it published.

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 310 (FGE.310): Rebaudioside A from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate rebaudioside A [FL-no: 16.113], a steviol glycoside. The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. Since a comprehensive and adequate...

  14. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1999-01-01

    This book contains technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the upper fuel cycle studies with the SILVA (isotope separation by laser on atomic vapor) process (a model of gas centrifuge separative performance, an estimation of electron gun cathodes erosion, a power improvement of diode-pumped solid-state-lasers, measurement using intracavity near resonant propagation in atomic vapours); the down side fuel cycle studies (electronic structure of lanthanide or actinides complexes, forecasting of the stoichiometry of europium nitrate complexes, actinides complexes structural determination, experimental studies on separations, radioactive wastes processing and conditioning with the vitrification processes, radioactive wastes storage with concrete behaviour and biodegradation); studies on dismantling and cleansing (rheological behaviour of foams, remote decontamination of austenitic steel by ultra-violet laser); and technological analysis (high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic systems, reliability of fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation, chemical optodes based on evanescent-wave absorption, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO 2 as a promoter). (A.L.B.)

  15. How to study consciousness scientifically.

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, J R

    1998-01-01

    The neurosciences have advanced to the point that we can now treat consciousness as a scientific problem like any other. The problem is to explain how brain processes cause consciousness and how consciousness is realized in the brain. Progress is impeded by a number of philosophical mistakes, and the aim of this paper is to remove nine of those mistakes: (i) consciousness cannot be defined; (ii) consciousness is subjective but science is objective; (iii) brain processes cannot explain conscio...

  16. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  17. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 309 (FGE.309): Sodium Diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate sodium diacetate [FL-no: 16.073] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 309, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. However, although...... on Food. Based on this group ADI, the use as sodium diacetate as a flavouring substance at the current levels of dietary intake raises no safety concern....

  19. 2. National scientific conference on process engineering in environment protection. Conference materials; 2. Ogolnopolska konferencja naukowa ``inzynieria procesowa w ochronie srodowiska``. Materialy konferencyjne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The national conference on `Process engineering in environment protection` Jachranka 1994 has been divided into three sessions. Section 1 has been devoted to flue gas purification and collects 13 papers. Section 2 on liquid purification gathered 8 presentation. Section 3 - the poster session with 12 posters on related topics. During the conference 2 lectures and 3 posters have been devoted to the application of nuclear techniques to the solution different problems connected with environment protection.

  20. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... and changeable according to the specific perspective. This understanding is even more important today as numerous digitally generated information tools as well as collaborative and interdisciplinary research are blurring the domain borders. Nevertheless, researchers navigate “intuitively” in “their” specific...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time...

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision.......002, 14.023, 14.094, 14.107, 14.138, 14.145, 14.163 and 14.169], for which additional data were requested, are no longer supported by Industry for use as flavouring substances in Europe and will therefore not be considered any further. None of the 24 substances were considered to have genotoxic potential...

  2. EFSA CEF Panel (Panel on Food Contac t Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids , 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 2 07 (FGE.2 07 )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one flavouring substance, 2,6-dimethyl-2,5,7-octatriene-1-ol acetate [FL-no: 09.931], from subgroup 1.1.2 of FGE.19, which......-no: 09.034] and santalyl phenylacetate [FL-no: 09.712] from FGE.19 subgroup 2.1 for which 2,6-dimethyl-2,5,7-octatriene-1-ol acetate [FL-no: 09.931] is representative. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  3. Confidence in ASCI scientific simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, J.A.; Trucano, T.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luginbuhl, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program calls for the development of high end computing and advanced application simulations as one component of a program to eliminate reliance upon nuclear testing in the US nuclear weapons program. This paper presents results from the ASCI program`s examination of needs for focused validation and verification (V and V). These V and V activities will ensure that 100 TeraOP-scale ASCI simulation code development projects apply the appropriate means to achieve high confidence in the use of simulations for stockpile assessment and certification. The authors begin with an examination of the roles for model development and validation in the traditional scientific method. The traditional view is that the scientific method has two foundations, experimental and theoretical. While the traditional scientific method does not acknowledge the role for computing and simulation, this examination establishes a foundation for the extension of the traditional processes to include verification and scientific software development that results in the notional framework known as Sargent`s Framework. This framework elucidates the relationships between the processes of scientific model development, computational model verification and simulation validation. This paper presents a discussion of the methodologies and practices that the ASCI program will use to establish confidence in large-scale scientific simulations. While the effort for a focused program in V and V is just getting started, the ASCI program has been underway for a couple of years. The authors discuss some V and V activities and preliminary results from the ALEGRA simulation code that is under development for ASCI. The breadth of physical phenomena and the advanced computational algorithms that are employed by ALEGRA make it a subject for V and V that should typify what is required for many ASCI simulations.

  4. Atalante: scientific report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report makes a synthesis of the research works carried out at CEA Marcoule in the domain of the back-end of the fuel cycle. The research programs involving the ATALANTE facility concern: the improvement of the spent fuel reprocessing of today's and tomorrow's reactors, the separation of minor actinides prior to their transmutation, and the long-term behaviour of ultimate radioactive wastes immobilized in suitable matrices for a reversible storage or a disposal in deep geologic repositories. The report presents the main scientific results obtained these last years in the domain of: 1 - basic chemistry of actinides and fission products, 2 - processing of spent fuels, 3 - actinides recycling experiments, 4 - long-term behaviour of conditioning matrices for materials and wastes, and 5 - measurements and analytical techniques used in the above mentioned studies. The ATALANTE facility is in the core of the future nuclear stakes which aim at optimizing the recycling of nuclear materials using innovative and proliferation-safe processes, and at minimizing the impact of radioactive wastes on the environment. (J.S.)

  5. EFSA EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304 (FGE.304): Five carboxamides from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate five flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances...... were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel...... concluded that the three substances [FL-no: 16.117, 16.123 and 16.125] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining two candidate substances [FL-no: 16.118 and 16.124], no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional...

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 93, Revision 1 (FGE.93Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The two substances 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.130] and 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2......-(2-butyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.131], which are 3-thiazolines, are structural similar to two other 3-thiazolines in FGE.21Rev1 for which the Panel has expressed a genotoxicity concern, and accordingly the Procedure should not be applied to these two substances until adequate genotoxicity data become......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 305 (FGE.305): L - Methionylglycine of chemical group 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, the dipeptide L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037], in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 305, using the Procedure in Commission...... data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that for the flavouring substance, evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. The present evaluation of the candidate substance L-methionylglycine [FL-no: 17.037] is only applicable for its...... use in foods that are not heated or intended to be heated. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have...

  8. Beyond the Continent: Creating an Independent Scientific Assessment Process for the Hawai`i and U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecni, Z. N.; Keener, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    An external evaluation found that the inclusion of users of climate information and diverse regional experts in developing the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment was a key factor in the report's perceived credibility and usefulness (Moser 2013). The 2012 assessment is seen as a foundational summary for Hawai`i and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and is still used in vulnerability assessments and to support decisions by public- and private-sector actors. Recently, lessons learned from the 2012 assessment process were applied in engaging technical experts and potential future users in developing a chapter for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, as a regional update that builds on previous assessment activities. In the absence of downscaled climate projection scenarios and products available to the contiguous U.S., the Pacific Islands chapter continued to draw on projections from regional climate models and extensive user engagement. Through surveys, webinars, technical sectoral workshops, and peer review networks, the regional author team received input from a range of stakeholders. In particular, engagement aimed to identify key risks in sectors of importance to the Hawai`i and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands region and cases in which stakeholder groups are already implementing measures toward resilience and adaptation. Data collection began during the chapter development process and will continue at the release of the 4th National Climate Assessment in 2018, with the aim of evaluating how stakeholder engagement affects the assessment's usefulness in assisting island communities to understand risks and vulnerabilities and review potential adaptation strategies.

  9. Establishing a Scientific Basis for Optimizing Compositions, Process Paths and Fabrication Methods for Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys for Use in Advanced Fission Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G Robert; Cunningham, Nicholas J., Wu, Yuan; Etienne, Auriane; Stergar, Erich; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2012-02-21

    The broad objective of this NEUP was to further develop a class of 12-15Cr ferritic alloys that are dispersion strengthened and made radiation tolerant by an ultrahigh density of Y-Ti-O nanofeatures (NFs) in the size range of less than 5 nm. We call these potentially transformable materials nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). NFAs are typically processed by ball milling pre-alloyed rapidly solidified powders and yttria (Y2O3) powders. Proper milling effectively dissolves the Ti, Y and O solutes that precipitate as NFs during hot consolidation. The tasks in the present study included examining alternative processing paths, characterizing and optimizing the NFs and investigating solid state joining. Alternative processing paths involved rapid solidification by gas atomization of Fe, 14% Cr, 3% W, and 0.4% Ti powders that are also pre-alloyed with 0.2% Y (14YWT), where the compositions are in wt.%. The focus is on exploring the possibility of minimizing, or even eliminating, the milling time, as well as producing alloys with more homogeneous distributions of NFs and a more uniform, fine grain size. Three atomization environments were explored: Ar, Ar plus O (Ar/O) and He. The characterization of powders and alloys occurred through each processing step: powder production by gas atomization; powder milling; and powder annealing or hot consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) or hot extrusion. The characterization studies of the materials described here include various combinations of: a) bulk chemistry; b) electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); c) atom probe tomography (APT); d) small angle neutron scattering (SANS); e) various types of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM); and f) microhardness testing. The bulk chemistry measurements show that preliminary batches of gas-atomized powders could be produced within specified composition ranges. However, EPMA and TEM showed that the Y is heterogeneously distributed and phase separated, but

  10. Technical-scientific production of IPEN - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The technical-scientific production from Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), Brazil, is presented, including 471 references, where 421 papers are from the 1992 year and 50 from the earlier years. The main areas that the IPEN acts are: technical-scientific development of materials; nuclear processes; research reactors; nuclear utilization; nuclear safety and human resources formation. (C.G.C.)

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be structurally related to the candidate substances 2-butyl-4-methyl(4H)pyrrolidino[1,2d]-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL......-no: 15.135]. Furthermore, new in vitro genotoxicity studies have become available on the supporting substance 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.010], which is considered to be structurally related to and a supportive substance for 2-methyl-2-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.086]. Eighteen of the original 59...

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... is a tertiary alcohol) [FL-no: 07.097, 07.165 and 07.184] all belonging to chemical groups 8 and 10. One of the 12 candidate substances possesses four chiral centres [FL-no: 06.134] two possesses two chiral centres [FL-no: 02.133 and 07.168] and four substances possesses one chiral centre [FL-no: 07.097, 07...... the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise information that would enable the Panel to make a more realistic estimate...

  13. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  14. An assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR Evaluative Process for Assessing Human Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Agents. Expert Scientific Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in nature in the form of borates at low concentrations in soils and rocks. Boron is released from these minerals by the natural weathering processes in the form of boric acid, which is water soluble and biologically available. High levels of boric acid are naturally found in sea water. Boric acid and borax are used in the greatest quantities and represent the major boron chemical exposures to humans and the environment. The principal use of boric acid and borax is in the manufacture of various types of glass products that do not result in exposure to the consumer. Boric acid and borax are also found in an array of consumer goods including fireproofing for fabrics and wood, insecticides, and in many cosmetics and personal care products as well. Boron may be an essential element for higher animals including humans. Boric acid and borax are considered to be completely absorbed by the oral route of exposure. Absorption through intact skin is considered negligible, although absorption can occur through denuded or irritated skin. Boron levels in the body do not persist upon cessation of exposure. People may be exposed to boron through three primary sources: 1) consumption of private, municipal, or commercial (bottled) sources of drinking water; 2) dietary consumption of crops and other foodstuffs (including dietary supplements for body building); and 3) inhalation of boron compounds during their mining, manufacturing, and other industrial processing. While boron has been detected in 81.8% of the municipal water systems, it is a minor source of boron in most parts of the U.S. The mean boron concentration is reported as 0.2 mg B/L. However, residents of California and other western states with boron-rich geologic deposits may be regularly exposed to higher levels in drinking water. Individuals who drink bottled mineral water may also increase their exposure to boron. An EPA health advisory, recommends boron concentrations in

  15. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  17. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman ... V V Raman1. Emeritus Professor of Physics and Humanities at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

  18. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. The Scientific Enterprise - Some Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 90-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... group 7. Seven of the nine flavouring substances possess one or more chiral centres and additionally, and due to the presence of a double bond, one of these substances can exist as geometric isomer. For two of these substances, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified. The nine flavouring...... at the use level reported by the Industry, especially in those cases where the annual production values were reported to be small. In consequence, the Panel had reservations about the data on use and use levels provided and the intake estimates obtained by the MSDI approach. In the absence of more precise...

  1. Reframing science communication: How the use of metaphor, rhetoric, and other tools of persuasion can strengthen the public understanding of science (without weakening the integrity of the scientific process)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Jeanne

    This paper is about "truthiness", its resulting impact on the public understanding of science (and subsequently science policy), and why scientists need to learn how to navigate truthiness in order to ensure that the scientific body of knowledge is both preserved and shared. In order to contend with truthiness, scientists must understand and acknowledge how people receive and process information, how they form their reactions and opinions about it, and how they can be manipulated by various agencies and players to feel and think in certain ways. In order to accomplish these objectives, scientists must also understand various aspects of culture, language, psychology, neuroscience, and communication. Most importantly, scientists must recognize their own humanity, and learn how to accept and work with their own human boundaries. Truth can indeed be beauty. And, there is absolutely nothing unscientific about creating beauty in order to demonstrate and explain truth.

  2. Deathcore, creativity, and scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMajor scientific breakthroughs are generally the result of materializing creative ideas, the result of an inductive process that sometimes spontaneously and unexpectedly generates a link between thoughts and/or objects that did not exist before. Creativity is the cornerstone of scientific thinking, but scientists in academia are judged by metrics of quantification that often leave little room for creative thinking. In many scientific fields, reductionist approaches are rewarded and new ideas viewed skeptically. As a result, scientific inquiry is often confined to narrow but safe disciplinary ivory towers, effectively preventing profoundly creative explorations that could yield unexpected benefits.New informationThis paper argues how apparently unrelated fields specifically music and belief systems can be combined in a provocative allegory to provide novel perspectives regarding patterns in nature, thereby potentially inspiring innovation in the natural, social and other sciences. The merger between basic human tensions such as those embodied by religion and music, for example the heavy metal genre of deathcore, may be perceived as controversial, challenging, and uncomfortable. However, it is an example of moving the thinking process out of unconsciously established comfort zones, through the connection of apparently unrelated entities. We argue that music, as an auditory art form, has the potential to enlighten and boost creative thinking in science. Metal, as a fast evolving and diversifying extreme form of musical art, may be particularly suitable to trigger surprising associations in scientific inquiry. This may pave the way for dealing with questions about what we don´t know that we don´t know in a fast-changing planet.

  3. Scientific data management challenges, technology and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Rotem, Doron

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the volume, complexity, and diversity of data currently being generated by scientific experiments and simulations often causes scientists to waste productive time. Scientific Data Management: Challenges, Technology, and Deployment describes cutting-edge technologies and solutions for managing and analyzing vast amounts of data, helping scientists focus on their scientific goals. The book begins with coverage of efficient storage systems, discussing how to write and read large volumes of data without slowing the simulation, analysis, or visualization processes. It then focuses on the efficient data movement and management of storage spaces and explores emerging database systems for scientific data. The book also addresses how to best organize data for analysis purposes, how to effectively conduct searches over large datasets, how to successfully automate multistep scientific process workflows, and how to automatically collect metadata and lineage information. This book provides a comprehensive u...

  4. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  5. The Scientific Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1940’s Brazilian photographer and moviemaker Benedito Junqueira Duarte introduced among us the idea of a scientific cinema, a cinema organically intimate to the scientific research. In despite of his important contribution in defining precisely what this subject could be, he made more than 500 movies, half a part of them being considered true scientific films, mainly in the field of medical-surgical investigations. The article aims to argue on the very possibilities Duarte’s work can contribute to an understanding of the past and the future of cinema.

  6. Specific "scientific" data structures, and their processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Karczmarczuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc., and this requires some change in their thought patterns while converting their formulae into some code, since the "data structures" operated upon, while elaborating some theory and its consequences, are rather: power series and Padé approximants, differential forms and other instances of differential algebras, functionals (for the variational calculus, trajectories (solutions of differential equations, Young diagrams and Feynman graphs, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific, embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations. Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data (in particular: the "infinite" sequences in a natural and comfortable manner.

  7. Climate change. Scientific background and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes briefly the natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past. It also discusses the future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  8. The importance of recording scientific research processes

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenares Quintero, Ramón Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists of the XVII century kept the results of their investigations secret in order to avoid others claiming them as their own. Thought leaders of the time, including Sir Isaac Newton, refrained from announcing many of their discoveries in fear of third parties claiming authorship on said findings.

  9. Scientific Integrity Policy Creation and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring the integrity of science was a priority for the Obama Administration. In March 2009, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum that recognized the need for the public to be able to trust the science and scientific process informing public policy decisions. In 2010, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a Memorandum providing guidelines for Federal departments and agencies to follow in developing scientific integrity policies. This Memorandum describes minimum standards for: (1) strengthening the foundations of scientific integrity in government, including by shielding scientific data and analysis from inappropriate political influence; (2) improving public communication about science and technology by promoting openness and transparency; (3) enhancing the ability of Federal Advisory Committees to provide independent scientific advice; and (4) supporting the professional development of government scientists and engineers. The Memorandum called upon the heads of departments and agencies to develop scientific integrity policies that meet these requirements. At the end of the Obama Administration, 24 Federal departments and agencies had developed and implemented scientific integrity policies consistent with the OSTP guidelines. This year, there are significant questions as to the Trump Administration's commitment to these scientific integrity policies and interest in the Congress in codifying these policies in law. The session will provide an update on the status of agency scientific integrity policies and legislation.

  10. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...... groups. Thereby, I argue that research groups and their role in scientific practice deserve more philosophical attention than they have hitherto received. In contemporary natural science, research groups are key to the formulation and corroboration of scientific knowledge claims prior...

  11. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  12. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.

    2003-01-01

    , the quantitative data showed no statistically significant differences with respect to effectiveness and adoption.The qualitative data helped explain this null result: participants reported advantages and disadvantages working under both conditions and developed work-arounds to cope with the perceived disadvantages......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes...

  13. Ethics of reviewing scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Petrini, Carlo; Garattini, Silvio

    2017-05-01

    The approval or rejection of scientific publications can have important consequences for scientific knowledge, so considerable responsibility lies on those who have to assess or review them. Today it seems that the peer review process, far from being considered an outdated system to be abandoned, is experiencing a new upturn. This article proposes criteria for the conduct of reviewers and of those who select them. While commenting on new emerging models, it provides practical recommendations for improving the peer-review system, like strengthening the role of guidelines and training and supporting reviewers. The process of peer review is changing, it is getting more open and collaborative, but those same ethical principles which guided it from its very origin should remain untouched and be firmly consolidated. The paper highlights how the ethics of reviewing scientific publications is needed now more than ever, in particular with regard to competence, conflict of interest, willingness to discuss decisions, complete transparency and integrity. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 33816 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Small Business: Computational Biology, Image Processing, and Data... Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Small Business: Devices and Detection...

  15. Evaluating Scientific Work by Means of Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ophir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two approaches for evaluating scientific papers. The classic way is to choose well established representatives of the specific scientific community and have them evaluate their colleague's work. The other method of evaluation, the so called peer-evaluation method, is where peers (famous or otherwise of the author evaluate the paper. Peer-evaluation resembles the diffusion process in which a new substance spreads out to the whole solution. Similarly the new author and article are diffused among the scientific community, smoothing the level for accepting scientific papers. Using the classic-evaluation system of accepting new papers, the average starting scientists writes their first number of articles as collaborators with a renowned scientist, thus gradually building up their image. Only afterwards do these authors dare to independently publish. What are the pros and cons of both these types of scientific article evaluations?

  16. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  17. Scientific collaboratories in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Li, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind their developm......Scientific collaboratories hold the promise of providing students access to specialized scientific instruments, data and experts, enabling learning opportunities perhaps otherwise not available. However, evaluation of scientific collaboratories in higher education has lagged behind...

  18. Description du langage scientifique (Description of Scientific Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdowson, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    A description of scientific language using three approaches: text, textualization, and discourse. Scientific discourse is analogous to universal deep structure; text, to surface variations in diverse languages; and textualization, to transformational processes. The relationship of the primary and secondary (scientific) cultures and their languages…

  19. XML in scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2013-01-01

    While the extensible markup language (XML) has received a great deal of attention in web programming and software engineering, far less attention has been paid to XML in mainstream computational science and engineering. Correcting this imbalance, XML in Scientific Computing introduces XML to scientists and engineers in a way that illustrates the similarities and differences with traditional programming languages and suggests new ways of saving and sharing the results of scientific calculations. The author discusses XML in the context of scientific computing, demonstrates how the extensible stylesheet language (XSL) can be used to perform various calculations, and explains how to create and navigate through XML documents using traditional languages such as Fortran, C++, and MATLAB®. A suite of computer programs are available on the author’s website.

  20. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  1. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  2. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  3. Lexical Features of Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rusko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a lot of emphasis is placed of the ability of a person to successfully communicate in any sphere of activity, which along with upbringing and education is among the factors that determine a person’s culture. In the context of rapid scientific and technological progress, it is vital to constantly exchange relevant infor- mation. The effectiveness of this process relies not only on the proficient knowledge of the subject and the ability to make grammatically correct sentences, but to a large extent on the level of competence in scientific language. The present article attempts to consider the interaction of discourse and vocabulary, different types of cognitive phenomena responsible for the use of a language in real time and related to the language as a means of storing and organising information. Analysing and classifying some key elements of a scientific discourse lexicon contributes to the development of certain provisions of lexicology, functional stylistics, cognitive linguistics and terminology. The results of the analysis may be advantageous both to linguistics and teaching the language for specific purposes.

  4. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    In this paper we illustrate how a truth circulates within social discourse. We examine a particular truth reproduced within science, that is: through the understanding of Euclid’s axioms and postulates a person will gain the access to all human knowledge. We deploy a discourse analysis that helps...... us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...

  5. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...... integrity.This task involves not only a discussion of these norms is content, but also a discussion of the theoreticalconditions for their development. Thus, a number of normative assumptions of the modern debate onvalues in science (values in science debate) is being discussed.The thesis concludes...

  6. USGS Scientific Visualization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Scientific Visualization Laboratory at the National Center in Reston, Va., provides a central facility where USGS employees can use state-of-the-art equipment for projects ranging from presentation graphics preparation to complex visual representations of scientific data. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products.

  7. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  8. NOAA's Scientific Data Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet the Nation's economic, social and environmental needs. NOAA has responsibility for long-term archiving of the United States environmental data and has recently integrated several data management functions into a concept called Scientific Data Stewardship. Scientific Data Stewardship a new paradigm in data management consisting of an integrated suite of functions to preserve and exploit the full scientific value of NOAA's, and the world's, environmental data These functions include careful monitoring of observing system performance for long-term applications, the generation of authoritative long-term climate records from multiple observing platforms, and the proper archival of and timely access to data and metadata. NOAA has developed a conceptual framework to implement the functions of scientific data stewardship. This framework has five objectives: 1) develop real-time monitoring of all satellite observing systems for climate applications, 2) process large volumes of satellite data extending up to decades in length to account for systematic errors and to eliminate artifacts in the raw data (referred to as fundamental climate data records, FCDRs), 3) generate retrieved geophysical parameters from the FCDRs (referred to as thematic climate data records TCDRs) including combining observations from all sources, 4) conduct monitoring and research by analyzing data sets to uncover climate trends and to provide evaluation and feedback for steps 2) and 3), and 5) provide archives of metadata, FCDRs, and TCDRs, and facilitate distribution of these data to the user community. The term `climate data record' and related terms, such as climate data set, have been used for some time, but the climate community has yet to settle on a concensus definition. A recent United States National Academy of Sciences report recommends using the

  9. Scientific Workflow Management in Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Jeroen S.; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Data processing in proteomics can be a challenging endeavor, requiring extensive knowledge of many different software packages, all with different algorithms, data format requirements, and user interfaces. In this article we describe the integration of a number of existing programs and tools in Taverna Workbench, a scientific workflow manager currently being developed in the bioinformatics community. We demonstrate how a workflow manager provides a single, visually clear and intuitive interface to complex data analysis tasks in proteomics, from raw mass spectrometry data to protein identifications and beyond. PMID:22411703

  10. Tools for bridging the cultures of everyday and scientific thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jan; Pea, Roy D.

    A perspective about science education is developed which has implications for the design of interactive learning technologies. Current philosophical work concerning the interpretative nature of scientific inquiry is reviewed as a context for discussing the situation of the child in developing scientific understanding. This view of learning emphasizes the relationships among informal understanding, conceptual change, and enculturation into modes of scientific discourse. A prototype software system for supporting scientific inquiry processes in students is described.

  11. Automation of Network-Based Scientific Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas, I. [University of California, La Jolla; Barreto, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Blondin, J. M. [North Carolina State University; Cheng, Z. [North Carolina State University; Critchlow, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Khan, A. [University of Utah; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Ligon, J. [North Carolina State University; Ludaescher, B. [University of California, Davis; Mouallem, P. A. [North Carolina State University; Parker, S. [University of Utah; Podhorszki, Norbert [University of California, Davis; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silva, C. [University of Utah; Vouk, M. A. [North Carolina State University

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive, end-to-end, data and workflow management solutions are needed to handle the increasing complexity of processes and data volumes associated with modern distributed scientific problem solving, such as ultra-scale simulations and high-throughput experiments. The key to the solution is an integrated network-based framework that is functional, dependable, fault-tolerant, and supports data and process provenance. Such a framework needs to make development and use of application workflows dramatically easier so that scientists' efforts can shift away from data management and utility software development to scientific research and discovery An integrated view of these activities is provided by the notion of scientific workflows - a series of structured activities and computations that arise in scientific problem-solving. An information technology framework that supports scientific workflows is the Ptolemy II based environment called Kepler. This paper discusses the issues associated with practical automation of scientific processes and workflows and illustrates this with workflows developed using the Kepler framework and tools.

  12. Report of scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The findings of R+D activities of the HMI radiation chemistry department in the fields of pulsed radiolysis, reaction kinematics, insulators and plastics are presented as well as the scientific publications and lectures of HMI staff and visitors including theoretical contributions, theses and dissertations, and conference papers. (HK) [de

  13. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  14. Toward executable scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cushing, R.; Vasyunin, D.; Laat, C. de; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reproducibility of experiments is considered as one of the main principles of the scientific method. Recent developments in data and computation intensive science, i.e. e-Science, and state of the art in Cloud computing provide the necessary components to preserve data sets and re-run code and

  15. Scientific Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This annual scientific report gives an concise overview of research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2007. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  16. Scientific Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor.

  17. Improving scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature on the effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems has increased significantly over the past decade, providing a foundation for establishing forest-climate relationships and projecting the effects of continued warming on a wide range of forest resources and ecosystem services. In addition, certainty about the nature of some of...

  18. Dorky Poll Scientific Fears

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The questions posed in yesterday's posts about hopes for 2008 were half of what we were asked by the Powers That Be. The other half: What scientific development do you fear you'll be blogging or reading about in 2008?

  19. Scientific Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2004. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  20. A Scientific Autobiography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. A Scientific Autobiography. Sushan Konar. Book Review Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 89-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/01/0089-0092. Author Affiliations.

  1. The Scientific Outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C V Raman. The Scientific Outlook. IT IS CUSTOMARY in all branches of science to associate the names of eminent men with the facts and principles discovered by them which form the foundations of the subjects. This practice is found to be useful since it helps to abbreviate and give precision to the terminology of science.

  2. Scientific annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the scientific research at DESY in 1973, which included the first storage of electrons in the double storage ring DORIS. Also mentioned are the two large spectrometers PLUTO and DASP, and experiments relating to elementary particles, synchrotron radiation, and the improvement of the equipment are described. (WL/AK) [de

  3. 2003 Scientific Technological Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, A.; Gayoso Caballero, C.; Robles Nique, A.; Olivera Lescano, P.

    2004-08-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects

  4. Scientific Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2003. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge, and fusion research

  5. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Fonda, C.; Zennaro, M.

    2006-11-01

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  6. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    ancient Greece was so confused by different claims of truth that he gave up trying to find out where the truth lay. ... The word skepticism comes from the Greek skeptesthai: to consider, to examine. In this etymological ... Need for refinements and modifications of long held notions become a matter of routine. Yet, the scientific ...

  7. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 11. The Scientific Enterprise - Theories and Hypothesis in Science. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 11 November 2009 pp 1122-1131. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    that led to the Big Bang, etc. Then there are matters relating to ... In some instances, one may have collected a mass of experimental data pertaining to a phenomenon, but the data may be ... love, values like honesty, and ethical principles like compassion and kindness, will never be fully amenable to scientific analysis.

  9. Nursing's Scientific Quest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Examines nursing's changing research practices. Discusses changes in the philosophy of science, dichotomies within nursing, and nursing's changing research tradition. Concludes that a new research tradition can provide nursing with the scientific and social freedom and openness to solve both conceptual and empirical problems. (CT)

  10. Scientific Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives an overview of the R and D activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2001. The report discusses progress and main achievements in four principal areas: Radiation Protection, Radioactive Waste and Clean-up, Reactor Safety and the BR2 Reactor

  11. Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2006. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  12. Projecting the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the gas laws are an excellent vehicle for introducing the steps of the scientific method. Students can use balloons and a simple apparatus to observe changes in various gas parameters, develop ideas about the changes they see, collect numerical data, test their ideas, derive simple equations for the relationships, and use the…

  13. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  14. Scientific Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The annual scientific report gives a summary overview of the research and development activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2005. The report discusses progress and main achievements in the following areas: reactor safety, radioactive waste and clean-up, radiation protection, the BR2 reactor, nuclear research and society, managing nuclear knowledge and fusion research

  15. Scientific Tourism in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific Tourism is relatively new direction in the world, however it already has managed to gain great popularity. As it is, it has arisen in 1980s, but its ideological basis comes from the earliest periods of the human history. In Armenia, it is a completely new phenomenon and still not-understandable for many people. At global level, the Scientific Tourism has several definitions: for example, as explains the member of the scientific tourist centre of Zlovlen Mrs. Pichelerova "The essence of the scientific tourism is based on the provision of the educational, cultural and entertainment needs of a group of people of people who are interested in the same thing", which in our opinion is a very comprehensive and discreet definition. We also have our own views on this type of tourism. Our philosophy is that by keeping the total principles, we put the emphasis on the strengthening of science-individual ties. Our main emphasis is on the scientific-experimental tourism. But this does not mean that we do not take steps to other forms of tourism. Studying the global experience and combining it with our resources, we are trying to get a new interdisciplinary science, which will bring together a number of different professionals as well as individuals, and as a result will have a new lore. It is in this way that an astronomer will become an archaeologist, an archaeologist will become an astrophysicist, etc. Speaking on interdisciplinary sciences, it's worth mentioning that in recent years, the role of interdisciplinary sciences at global level every day is being considered more and more important. In these terms, tourism is an excellent platform for the creation of interdisciplinary sciences and, therefore, the preparation of corresponding scholars. Nevertheless, scientific tourism is very important for the revelation, appreciation and promotion of the country's historical-cultural heritage and scientific potential. Let us not forget either that tourism in all its

  16. PSI scientific report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    looked at. The substantial enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies is reported on, as is the production of terbium radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Non-homogeneous distribution of radionuclides in proton-irradiated liquid-metal targets is the topic covered in a further report and the precise simulation of high-intensity cyclotrons is reported on. The expanding horizons for proton therapy are examined. The report also reviews the Strategy and highlights of general energy research and deals with a Niobia-Ceria based multi-purpose catalyst for diesel exhaust gas after-treatment. High-flux solar-driven thermochemical dissociation of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O using ceria redox reactions and the characterisation of combustion processes by laser spectroscopic measuring techniques are further topics covered. Results of the first projects completed by the Competence Center Energy and Mobility CCEM are discussed, scientific findings on nuclear safety and the safety analysis of the EPR nuclear reactor are discussed, as is the improved retention of radioactive aerosols during a steam-generator tube rupture. Predictive sorption modelling of various substances in Bentonite and opalinus clay and a safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems and their operators are reported on. The characterisation of plutonium in mixed-oxide nuclear fuel by synchrotron radiation is reported on. The impact of the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano eruption on air quality and the detection of recent climatic changes in the Russian Altai are further atmospheric topics dealt with. Finally, the heuristic design for the technical characterisation of passenger vehicles is looked at. The report also lists the facilities available to external users and their use in 2010. Technology transfer is discussed and a statistical overview of the PSI in 2010 is presented. The comprehensive report is finalised with contact information and an extensive overview of

  17. PSI scientific report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    at. The substantial enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of antibodies is reported on, as is the production of terbium radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. Non-homogeneous distribution of radionuclides in proton-irradiated liquid-metal targets is the topic covered in a further report and the precise simulation of high-intensity cyclotrons is reported on. The expanding horizons for proton therapy are examined. The report also reviews the Strategy and highlights of general energy research and deals with a Niobia-Ceria based multi-purpose catalyst for diesel exhaust gas after-treatment. High-flux solar-driven thermochemical dissociation of CO 2 and H 2 O using ceria redox reactions and the characterisation of combustion processes by laser spectroscopic measuring techniques are further topics covered. Results of the first projects completed by the Competence Center Energy and Mobility CCEM are discussed, scientific findings on nuclear safety and the safety analysis of the EPR nuclear reactor are discussed, as is the improved retention of radioactive aerosols during a steam-generator tube rupture. Predictive sorption modelling of various substances in Bentonite and opalinus clay and a safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems and their operators are reported on. The characterisation of plutonium in mixed-oxide nuclear fuel by synchrotron radiation is reported on. The impact of the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano eruption on air quality and the detection of recent climatic changes in the Russian Altai are further atmospheric topics dealt with. Finally, the heuristic design for the technical characterisation of passenger vehicles is looked at. The report also lists the facilities available to external users and their use in 2010. Technology transfer is discussed and a statistical overview of the PSI in 2010 is presented. The comprehensive report is finalised with contact information and an extensive overview of publications made

  18. CSP for Executable Scientific Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard

    is demonstrated through examples. By providing a robust library for organising scientific workflows in a Python application I hope to inspire scientific users to adopt PyCSP. As a proof-of-concept this thesis demonstrates three scientific applications: kNN, stochastic minimum search and McStas to scale well......This thesis presents CSP as a means of orchestrating the execution of tasks in a scientific workflow. Scientific workflow systems are popular in a wide range of scientific areas, where tasks are organised in directed graphs. Execution of such graphs is handled by the scientific workflow systems...... and the readability of Python source code. Python is a popular programming language in the scientific community, with many scientific libraries (modules) and simple integration to external languages. This thesis presents a PyCSP extended with many new features and a more robust implementation to allow scientific...

  19. Risk assessment of "other substances" – D-Glucurono-γ-lactone. Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food and Cosmetics of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Husøy, Trine; Bruzell, Ellen Merete; Granum, Berit; Hetland, Ragna Bogen; Rohloff, Jens; Wicklund, Trude; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods. "Other substances" a...

  20. Publishing Platform for Scientific Software - Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Reusser, Dominik; Brembs, Björn; Deinzer, Gernot; Loewe, Peter; Fenner, Martin; van Edig, Xenia; Bertelmann, Roland; Pampel, Heinz; Klump, Jens; Wächter, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Scientific software has become an indispensable commodity for the production, processing and analysis of empirical data but also for modelling and simulation of complex processes. Software has a significant influence on the quality of research results. For strengthening the recognition of the academic performance of scientific software development, for increasing its visibility and for promoting the reproducibility of research results, concepts for the publication of scientific software have to be developed, tested, evaluated, and then transferred into operations. For this, the publication and citability of scientific software have to fulfil scientific criteria by means of defined processes and the use of persistent identifiers, similar to data publications. The SciForge project is addressing these challenges. Based on interviews a blueprint for a scientific software publishing platform and a systematic implementation plan has been designed. In addition, the potential of journals, software repositories and persistent identifiers have been evaluated to improve the publication and dissemination of reusable software solutions. It is important that procedures for publishing software as well as methods and tools for software engineering are reflected in the architecture of the platform, in order to improve the quality of the software and the results of research. In addition, it is necessary to work continuously on improving specific conditions that promote the adoption and sustainable utilization of scientific software publications. Among others, this would include policies for the development and publication of scientific software in the institutions but also policies for establishing the necessary competencies and skills of scientists and IT personnel. To implement the concepts developed in SciForge a combined bottom-up / top-down approach is considered that will be implemented in parallel in different scientific domains, e.g. in earth sciences, climate research and

  1. Scientific report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to outline the main developments of the ''Departement des Reacteurs Nucleaires'', (DRN) during the year 1998. DRN is one of the CEA Institution. This report is divided in three main parts: the DRN scientific programs, the scientific and technical publications (with abstracts in english) and economic data on staff, budget and communication. Main results of the Department, for the year 1998, are presented giving information on the reactors technology and safety, the neutronics, the transmutation and the hybrid systems, the dismantling and the sites improvement, the nuclear accidents, the nuclear matter transport, the thermonuclear fusion safety, the fuel cladding materials and radioactive waste control. (A.L.B.)

  2. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  3. Scientific Social Responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie; Horst, Maja

    for the development of competitive knowledge economies. In the present paper, these developments are all understood as moves to increase the social responsibility of science, i.e. efforts to hold science accountable to wider social, economic and ethical values. Despite the widespread political and theoretical plea...... formed organizations to make science responsible for its social effects. More recently, ideals of increasing the social acceptability of science through engagement, reflexivity and dialogue seems to have found their way into the heart of policy-making, not least as a way of making science a prime motor...... for scientific social responsibility (SSR), however, there is a striking lack of knowledge about how it should be (or indeed is) performed in practice. This paper makes a first step in this direction by mapping different interpretations of what scientific social responsibility might entail. It also charts...

  4. Scientific Programming in Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Snyder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fortran programming language was designed by John Backus and his colleagues at IBM to reduce the cost of programming scientific applications. IBM delivered the first compiler for its model 704 in 1957. IBM's competitors soon offered incompatible versions. ANSI (ASA at the time developed a standard, largely based on IBM's Fortran IV in 1966. Revisions of the standard were produced in 1977, 1990, 1995 and 2003. Development of a revision, scheduled for 2008, is under way. Unlike most other programming languages, Fortran is periodically revised to keep pace with developments in language and processor design, while revisions largely preserve compatibility with previous versions. Throughout, the focus on scientific programming, and especially on efficient generated programs, has been maintained.

  5. [Scientific periodicals: quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Gonzaga; Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a historical literature review on the evaluation of periodicals and the methodology employed for their evaluation. It emphasizes the attention that should be given to the contents of the periodicals and their format based on technical standards in order to reach a global quality of the publications. This paper includes a summary of the most important aspects of the technical standards for periodicals and scientific articles.

  6. Scientific thinking in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Chandran

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.

  7. Scientific Technological Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayoso C, C.; Cuya G, T.; Robles N, A.; Prado C, A.

    2003-07-01

    This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects

  8. PROSCENIUM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, organizations developed rapidly, their managers began to realize that they had too frequent managerial problems; this awareness lead to a new phase of development of scientific management. Examining the titles published in that period, it can be concluded that management issues that pose interest related to payroll and payroll systems, problems exacerbated by the industrial revolution and related work efficiency. Noting that large organizations losing power, direct supervision, the managers were looking for incentives to replace this power . One of the first practitioners of this new management system was Henry R. Towne, the president of the well-known enterprise "Yale and Towne Manufacturing Company", which applied the management methods in his company workshops. Publishers of magazines "Industrial Management" and "The Engineering Magazine" stated that HR Towne is, undisputedly, the pioneer of scientific management. He initiated the systematic application of effective management methods and his famous article "The Engineer as Economist" provided to the company. "American Society of Mechanical Engineers" in 1886 was the one that probably inspired Frederick W. Taylor to devote his entire life and work in scientific management.

  9. The next scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tony

    2010-11-01

    For decades, computer scientists have tried to teach computers to think like human experts. Until recently, most of those efforts have failed to come close to generating the creative insights and solutions that seem to come naturally to the best researchers, doctors, and engineers. But now, Tony Hey, a VP of Microsoft Research, says we're witnessing the dawn of a new generation of powerful computer tools that can "mash up" vast quantities of data from many sources, analyze them, and help produce revolutionary scientific discoveries. Hey and his colleagues call this new method of scientific exploration "machine learning." At Microsoft, a team has already used it to innovate a method of predicting with impressive accuracy whether a patient with congestive heart failure who is released from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. It was developed by directing a computer program to pore through hundreds of thousands of data points on 300,000 patients and "learn" the profiles of patients most likely to be rehospitalized. The economic impact of this prediction tool could be huge: If a hospital understands the likelihood that a patient will "bounce back," it can design programs to keep him stable and save thousands of dollars in health care costs. Similar efforts to uncover important correlations that could lead to scientific breakthroughs are under way in oceanography, conservation, and AIDS research. And in business, deep data exploration has the potential to unearth critical insights about customers, supply chains, advertising effectiveness, and more.

  10. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads to a f...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems.......Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  11. [Scientific ethics and frozen embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C Y

    2001-05-01

    Scientific Ethics is the theory and praxis of decisions. Philosophical Ethics is presented as the theory and praxis of the good. As the good differs among cultures, Philosophical Ethics is dependent on the endo-cultural good conception. The decision (included that one of adhesion or not to a world vision) depends on neuro-psychic specific factors: i) cognitive factors that include mostly the knowledge of the alternatives and their consequences and the ideological or religious conception of good in relation to the alternatives; ii) affective factors that make alternatives pleasant, unpleasant or neutral, attractive, repulsive or neutral; iii) emotional factors that associate to alternatives anger, peace or neutrality, sadness, happiness or neutrality; iv) value factors that assign importance, triviality or neutrality to alternatives, or assign them significance, irrelevancy or neutrality. There are unspecific factors such as the psychic energy, desire or others. Mixed factors such as attitude, motivation, intention and others. Scientific Ethics deals with the mind as a materio-energetic process which is different from the soul, eggs and embryos of any species are full individuals of that species, because, they have initiated a copy of their genome that specify, give autonomy and define them as individuals. For Scientific Ethics to leave frozen embryos like that for ever, to defrost and get rid of them or to use their cells for science are synonymous of killing them. To defrost them to use their cells as stem cells for somatic cell therapy or to implant them into uteri to continue their development is to maintain alive their cells, but only the implantation allows their maintenance as individuals, thus, being the only compatible with the Christian ethics. The compatibility of these alternatives with other ethics is discussed.

  12. On the Possibility of a Scientific Theory of Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical strengths and weaknesses of Laudan's normative naturalism, which understands the principles of scientific method to be akin to scientific hypotheses, and therefore open to test like any principle of science. Contains 19 references. (Author/WRM)

  13. A guide for writing in the scientific forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    When considering the importance of scientific writing in disseminating new discoveries and ideas, it is quite remarkable that few physicians have received any formal instruction in this essential process. This article focuses on the fundamental principles of scientific writing that also include a "style and grace" component. The art of good scientific writing is to convey scientific materials in a clear and interesting way, while avoiding incomprehensible sentences that only serve to disguise marginal contents within the article. The goal of this article is to encourage authors and readers to critically examine the art of scientific writing to overcome the barrier to effective communication.

  14. Science Teaching as Educational Interrogation of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginev, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    The main argument of this article is that science teaching based on a pedagogy of questions is to be modeled on a hermeneutic conception of scientific research as a process of the constitution of texts. This process is spelled out in terms of hermeneutic phenomenology. A text constituted by scientific practices is at once united by a hermeneutic…

  15. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, S. [Curie Muesum, Paris (France)

    1998-12-01

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  16. Marie Curie: scientific entrepreneur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, S.

    1998-01-01

    Marie Curie is best known for her discovery of radium one hundred years ago this month, but she also worked closely with industry in developing methods to make and monitor radioactive material, as Soraya Boudia explains. One hundred years ago this month, on 28 December 1898, Pierre Curie, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Gustave Bemont published a paper in Comptes-rendus - the journal of the French Academy of Sciences. In the paper they announced that they had discovered a new element with astonishing properties: radium. But for one of the authors, Marie Curie, the paper was more than just the result of outstanding work: it showed that a woman could succeed in what was then very much a male-dominated scientific world. Having arrived in Paris from Poland in 1891, Marie Curie became the first woman in France to obtain a PhD in physics, the first woman to win a Nobel prize and the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne. She also helped to found a new scientific discipline: the study of radioactivity. She became an icon and a role-model for other women to follow, someone who succeeded - despite many difficulties - in imposing herself on the world of science. Although Curie's life story is a familiar and well documented one, there is one side to her that is less well known: her interaction with industry. As well as training many nuclear physicists and radiochemists in her laboratory, she also became a scientific pioneer in industrial collaboration. In this article the author describes this side of Marie Curie. (UK)

  17. Choosing ESRO's first scientific satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arturo

    1992-11-01

    The choice of the scientific payloads of the European Space Research Organization's (ESRO's) first generation of satellites is analyzed. Concentration is on those aspects of the decision process that involved more directly the scientific community and that emerged as major issues in the discussion of the Launching Program Advisory Committee (LPAC). The main theme was the growing competition between the various fields of space science within the progressive retrenching of the Organization's financial resources available for the satellite program. A general overview of the status of the program by the end of 1966 is presented. The choice of the first small satellites' payloads (ESRO 1 and 2, and HEOS-A) and the difficult definition of the TD satellite program are discussed. This part covers a time span going from early 1963 to the spring of 1966. In the second part, the narrative starts from the spring of 1967, when the decision to recommend a second HEOS-type satellite was taken, and then analyzes the complex situation determined by the crisis of the TD program in 1968, and the debates which eventually led to the abandonment of TD-2 and the start of the far less ambitious ESRO 5 project.

  18. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets....

  19. Scientific report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.; Gueneau, C.; Doizi, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this book are found technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Direction of the Fuel Cycle (DCC) in France. The study fields are: the up-side of the nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (plasma simulation) and technological developments and instrumentation (lasers diodes, carbides plasma projection, carbon 13 enrichment); the down-side nuclear fuel cycle with theoretical studies (ion Eu 3+ complexation simulation, decay simulation, uranium and plutonium diffusion study, electrolyser operating simulation), scenario studies ( recycling, wastes management), experimental studies; dismantling and cleaning (soils cleaning, surface-active agent for decontamination, fault tree analysis); analysis with expert systems and mass spectrometry. (A.L.B.)

  20. Combinatorial scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial Scientific Computing explores the latest research on creating algorithms and software tools to solve key combinatorial problems on large-scale high-performance computing architectures. It includes contributions from international researchers who are pioneers in designing software and applications for high-performance computing systems. The book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the latest research, tool development, and applications. It focuses on load balancing and parallelization on high-performance computers, large-scale optimization, algorithmic differentiation of numeric

  1. Annual scientific report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1976-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1975 are reported in individual summaries. Field of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  2. Annual scientific report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Bobin, K.; Michiels, G.; Proost, J.

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of SCK/CEN during 1974 are reported in individual summaries. Fields of research are the following: sodium cooled fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, light water reactors, applied nuclear research (including waste disposal, safeguards and fusion research), basic and exploratory research (including materials science, nuclear physics and radiobiology). The BR2 Materials testing reactor and associated facilities are described. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the SCK/CEN Scientific staff is given

  3. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  4. Practical scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, A

    2011-01-01

    Scientific computing is about developing mathematical models, numerical methods and computer implementations to study and solve real problems in science, engineering, business and even social sciences. Mathematical modelling requires deep understanding of classical numerical methods. This essential guide provides the reader with sufficient foundations in these areas to venture into more advanced texts. The first section of the book presents numEclipse, an open source tool for numerical computing based on the notion of MATLAB®. numEclipse is implemented as a plug-in for Eclipse, a leading integ

  5. Misconduct versus honest error and scientific disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    Researchers sometimes mistakenly accuse their peers of misconduct. It is important to distinguish between misconduct and honest error or a difference of scientific opinion to prevent unnecessary and time-consuming misconduct proceedings, protect scientists from harm, and avoid deterring researchers from using novel methods or proposing controversial hypotheses. While it is obvious to many researchers that misconduct is different from a scientific disagreement or simply an inadvertent mistake in methods, analysis or misinterpretation of data, applying this distinction to real cases is sometimes not easy. Because the line between misconduct and honest error or a scientific dispute is often unclear, research organizations and institutions should distinguish between misconduct and honest error and scientific disagreement in their policies and practices. These distinctions should also be explained during educational sessions on the responsible conduct of research and in the mentoring process. When researchers wrongfully accuse their peers of misconduct, it is important to help them understand the distinction between misconduct and honest error and differences of scientific judgment or opinion, pinpoint the source of disagreement, and identify the relevant scientific norms. They can be encouraged to settle the dispute through collegial discussion and dialogue, rather than a misconduct allegation.

  6. I Can Make a Scientific Research: A Course about Scientific Research Methods, in Which Learning Management System (LMS) Is Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…

  7. TSCA Scientific Peer Review Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SACC will provide independent scientific advice and recommendations to the EPA on the scientific basis for risk assessments, methodologies, and pollution prevention measures and approaches for chemicals regulated under TSCA.

  8. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  9. Scientific discovery through weighted sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sidirourgos (Eleftherios); M.L. Kersten (Martin); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractScientific discovery has shifted from being an exercise of theory and computation, to become the exploration of an ocean of observational data. Scientists explore data originated from modern scientific instruments in order to discover

  10. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  11. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  12. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  13. Budapest scientific a guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, István

    2015-01-01

    This guidebook introduces the reader—the scientific tourist and others—to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in Budapest—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artefacts. According to the Hungarian–American Nobel laureate Albert Szent-Györgyi, this metropolis at the crossroads of Europe has a special atmosphere of respect for science. It has been the venue of numerous scientific achievements and the cradle, literally, of many individuals who in Hungary, and even more beyond its borders became world-renowned contributors to science and culture. Six of the eight chapters of the book cover the Hungarian Nobel laureates, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the university, the medical school, agricultural sciences, and technology and engineering. One chapter is about selected gimnáziums from which seven Nobel laureates (Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, Wigner, Gabor, Harsanyi, Olah, and Kertész) and the five “Martians of Science” (von Kármán, Szilard, Wigner, von Neumann, and Teller...

  14. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  15. Helping to expand scientific knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear research has spread rapidly across practically all of the established sciences. It has been a dynamic and creative process in which the Agency has been able to play a constructive role. One of the methods has been the programme of research contracts. This has provided financial support for research involving some form of nuclear technology to physicists, chemists, medical doctors, hydrologists, entomologists, geneticists and scientists in many other disciplines. It is a system almost unique within the United Nations family, though the World Health Organization (WHO) also supports medical research under contract. An examination of the programme and its catalysing and co-ordinating effects in the expansion of scientific knowledge is made here by Clarence O'Neal, of the Division of Research and Laboratories. (author)

  16. Scientific literacy and the social constructivist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Slobodanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term scientific literacy is already common in our educational rhetoric. Although the term is widely used, there are no papers that analyse the definition of the term and the rangeitencompasses in Serbia. If scientific literacy is a necessary outcome of education, this analysis is an important base for designing the teaching/learning process which is intended to develop such an outcome. Therefore, this paper provides an analysis of the concept of scientific literacy (SL, the different viewpoints on SL and the nature of the concept. Furthermore, five key lines as courses of action in the teaching/learning process, necessary for the development of these competencies, are defined: appreciation ofstudents' previous knowledge, encouragement of students' basic functional literacy and reading comprehension skills, the development of students' understanding of the socio-cultural perspective on the origin and use of scientific knowledge and technological products, and practicing of scientific research, either through school science or science applied in the context of cooperation between school and the local community, i.e. in the socio-cultural background where students live.

  17. INNER DIALOGICITY OF MEDICAL SCIENTIFIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova Nataliya Vladimirovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author studies inner dialogicity as an integral property of a scientist's thinking activity, a way of a scientific idea development, one of the cognitive and discursive mechanisms of new knowledge formation, its crystallization and dementalisation in a text, as a way of search for truth. Such approach to dialogicity in the study of a scientific text makes it possible to analyze the cogitative processes proceeding in human consciousness and cognitive activity, allows to fully understand the stated scientific concept, to define pragmatic strategies of the author, to plunge into his reflexive world. On the material of medical scientific texts of N.M. Amosov and F. G. Uglov, famous scientists in the field of cardio surgery, it is established that traces of internal dialogicity manifestation in the textual space of scientists actualize the origin of new knowledge, the change of author's semantic positions, his ability to reflect, compare, analyze his own thoughts and actions, to estimate oneself and the features of thinking process which are realized in logic of a statement of the scientific concept, an explanation of concepts, terms at judgment of the points of view of contemporaries and predecessors, adherents and scientist's opponents, and also orientation to the addressee's presupposition, activization of his cogitative activity. Linguistic, discursive, verbal analysis singles out the impact on the addressee, his mental activity.

  18. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  19. How to review a scientific paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv

    2014-10-01

    Scientific observations must survive the scrutiny of experts before they are disseminated to the broader community because their publication in a scientific journal provides a stamp of validity. Although critical review of a manuscript by peers prior to publication in a scientific journal is a central element in this process, virtually no formal guidance is provided to reviewers about the nature of the task. In this article, the essence of peer review is described and critical steps in the process are summarized. The role of the peer reviewer as an intermediary and arbiter in the process of scientific communication between the authors and the readers via the vehicle of the particular journal is discussed and the responsibilities of the reviewer to each of the three parties (the author/s, readers, and the Journal editor) are defined. The two formal products of this activity are separate sets of reviewer comments to the editor and the authors and these are described. Ethical aspects of the process are considered and rewards accruing to the reviewer summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Landscape Architectural Design as Scientific Inquiry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses ‘landscape architectural design as scientific inquiry’ and exemplifies this with the description of a design process within climate-responsive design leading to new design knowledge. ‘Research and design’ are issues that need increasing attention within landscape

  1. Creativity, Scientific Practice, and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…

  2. The contamination of scientific literature: looking for an antidote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Science may have very strong implications for society. The knowledge of the processes occurring around the society represents a good opportunity to take responsible decisions. This is particularly true in the field of geosciences. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, climate changes and many other natural phenomena still need to be further investigated. The role of the scientific community is to increase the knowledge. Each member can share his own ideas and data thus allowing the entire scientific community to receive a precious contribution. The latter one often derives from research activities, which are expensive in terms of consumed time and resources. Nowadays the sharing of scientific results occurs through the publication on scientific journals. The reading of available scientific literature thus represents a unique opportunity to define the state of the art on a specific topic and to address research activities towards something new. When published results are obtained through a rigorous scientific process, they constitute a solid background where each member can add his ideas and evidences. Differently, published results may be affected by scientific misconduct; they constitute a labyrinth where the scientists lose their time in the attempt of truly understanding the natural processes. The normal scientific dialectic should unmask such results, thus avoiding literature contamination and making the scientific framework more stimulating. The scientific community should look for the best practice to reduce the risk of literature contamination.

  3. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  4. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  5. TestingScientificSoftware.pdf

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Anshu

    2017-01-01

    Testing scientific software is critical for producing credible results and for code maintenance. The IDEAS scientific software productivity project aims toward increasing software productivity and sustainability, with participants from many projects that define the state of practice in software engineering in the HPC community. This tutorial distills the combined knowledge of IDEAS team members in the area of scientific software testing.

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Shust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The article is dedicated to the analysis of legal nature and peculiarities of optimal correlation between the notions of intellectual property and scientific activity. Nowadays intellectual property as institution goes through the period of establishment in Ukraine. As the Soviet system of civil law was based on recognition and regulation of authors’ rights for the authors of scientific works, discoveries, inventions and innovation proposals as the ones having mainly relative, i.e. legally mandatory, but not absolute character.  Getting started to define the notion of intellectual property and intellectual property right in the system of interaction with scientific activity, it is important to say that such notion as “intellectual property” still needs enhancement. Its imperfection is due to the fact that this kind of property implies being formed by intellectual efforts of the author of scientific work, but legally it is processed with the help of documents that guarantee property right. Methods. General scientific method, philosophical method, specially-legal method of scientific research, system analysis method. Results: It is important to emphasize that not every result of scientific or creative work can become the object of intellectual property right, but the one that corresponds with law. Any scientific work falls within the purview of law if it corresponds with law demands. Scientific and technical results obtain legal protection only in case of appropriate qualification established by specific agency of State administration and issuement of law-enforcement document being limited by the territory of Ukraine. Protection of rights on the territory of other countries is realized only on the basis of correspondent international conventions and treaties. Discussion: Advanced modern countries realized the meaning and importance of usage and proper protection of creative and scientific work results known as

  7. Scientific annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In the section data processing and electronics, application-oriented R+D acivities in the field of general and process-oriented data processing, digital and analogue measuring systems and electronic components are carried out in seven working groups and two project groups: HMI computer network; mathematical software and computer graphics; software development; nuclear electronics, measurement and control; research on components and irradiation tests; operation of the central computers; process data processing in medicine; cooperation with the Wissenschaftliches Rechenzentrum Berlin (WRB) in the project BERNET. (orig./WB) [de

  8. The Associative Basis of Scientific Creativity: A Model Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kanli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is accepted as an important part of scientific skills. Scientific creativity proceeds from a need or urge to solve a problem, and in-volves the production of original and useful ideas or products. Existing scientific creativity theories and tests do not feature the very im-portant thinking processes, such as analogical and associative thinking, which can be consid-ered crucial in creative scientific problem solv-ing. Current study’s aim is to provide an alter-native model and explicate the associative basis of scientific creativity. Emerging from the re-viewed theoretical framework, Scientific Asso-ciations Model is proposed. This model claims that, similarity and mediation constitutes the basis of creativity and focuses on three compo-nents namely; associative thinking, analogical thinking (analogical reasoning & analogical problem solving and insight which are consid-ered to be main elements of scientific associa-tive thinking.

  9. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  10. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-02

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity.

  11. Apollo's scientific legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.

    1979-01-01

    The scientific value and importance of the Apollo lunar programme is assessed in the light of data obtained both from the lunar surface itself and also from the command modules which orbited above. It is stated that much of the material they returned still awaits a detailed examination and that the cooperative teams set up to handle the lunar material have established new methods and standards of analysis, which are currently revitalising the old science of meteoritics. The new forms of organised research have also been carried over in the rapidly developing subject of planetary science. It is concluded that whatever the motives for launching the Apollo missions, planetary scientists have been in a much better position to understand the Solar System since then. (UK)

  12. Annual scientific report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1978-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1977. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploraty research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear reseach and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  13. Annual scientific report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Proost, J.

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1980. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics; the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors, namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basis and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  14. Annual scientific report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.; Proost, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1976. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactors and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry

  15. Annual scientific report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, J.; Billiau, R.; Kirk, F.

    1979-01-01

    This report of the Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie gives a survey of the scientific and technical work done in 1978. The research areas are: 1. The sodium cooled fast reactor and namely the mixed oxide fuels, the carbide fuel, the materials development, the reprocessing, the fast reactor physics, the safety and instrumentation and the sodium technology. 2. The gas cooled reactors as gas cooled fast and high temperature reactors. 3. The light water reactors namely the BR3 reactor, the light water reactor fuels and the plutonium recycling. 4. The applied nuclear research, waste conditioning and disposal as the safeguards, the fusion research and the lithium technology. 5. The basic and exploratory research namely the materials science and the nuclear physics and finally 6. Non-nuclear research and development such as the air pollution, the pollution abatement and waste handling, the fuel cells and applied electrochemistry. (AF)

  16. Scientific journal cancellations

    CERN Multimedia

    The Library

    2001-01-01

    Earlier this year the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) requested the Library and the Working Group for Acquisitions to revise the current printed journal collection in order to cancel those titles that are less required. Savings could then be used for the development of other collections and particularly electronic resources needed to support CERN current research activities. A list of proposed cancellations was drawn and posted on the Library web pages: http://library.cern.ch/library_general/cancel.html The SIPB invites every one to check if any of the titles are of importance to their work, in which case you are invited to inform the Library before the 25th of September by sending an e-mail to: eliane.chaney@cern.ch Titles not reconsidered by the users will be cancelled by the end of the year. Thank you, The Library

  17. Dishonesty in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone’s daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it’s adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  18. Ben Franklin's Scientific Amusements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Dudley

    2003-04-01

    As an American icon, Benjamin Franklin is often portrayed as wise and canny in business and politics, earnestly pursuing and extolling diligence, sensible conduct, pragmatism, and good works. Also legendary are some of his inventions, particularly the lightning rod, bifocals, and an efficient wood-burning stove. The iconic image is misleading in major respects. Today, surprisingly few people appreciate that, in the 18th century, Franklin was greatly esteemed throughout Europe as a scientist (termed then a "natural philosopher.") He was hailed as the "Newton of Electricity." Indeed, until Franklin, electricity seemed more mysterious than had gravity in Newton's time, and lightning was considered the wrath of God. By his own account, Franklin's studies of electricity and many other phenomena were prompted not by practical aims, but by his playful curiosity--which often became obsessive. Also not generally appreciated is the importance of Franklin's scientific reputation in enhancing his efforts to obtain French support for the American Revolution.

  19. Scientific developments ISFD3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, M.H.I.; Soong, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Highlights, trends, and consensus from the 63 papers submitted to the Scientific Developments theme of the Third International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD) are presented. Realizing that absolute protection against flooding can never be guaranteed, trends in flood management have shifted: (1) from flood protection to flood-risk management, (2) from reinforcing structural protection to lowering flood levels, and (3) to sustainable management through integrated problem solving. Improved understanding of watershed responses, climate changes, applications of GIS and remote-sensing technologies, and advanced analytical tools appeared to be the driving forces for renewing flood-risk management strategies. Technical competence in integrating analytical tools to form the basin wide management systems are demonstrated by several large, transnation models. However, analyses from social-economic-environmental points of view are found lag in general. ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group.

  20. PSI Scientific report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnicki, P.

    2010-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at work done at the institute in the year 2009. In particular, the SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility that will allow novel investigations of femtosecond molecular dynamics in chemical, biochemical and condensed-matter systems and permit coherent diffraction imaging of individual nanostructures is commented on. Potential scientific applications of the SwissFEL are noted. Further, the institute's research focus and its findings are commented on. Synchrotron light is looked at and results obtained using neutron scattering and muon spin resonance are reported on. Work done in the micro and nano-technology, biomolecular research and radiopharmacy areas is also reported on Work performed in the biology, general energy and environmental sciences area is also reported on. The institute's comprehensive research facilities are reviewed and the facilities provided for users from the national and international scientific community, in particular regarding condensed matter, materials science and biology research are noted. In addition to the user facilities at the accelerators, other PSI laboratories are also open to external users, e.g. the Hot Laboratory operated by the Nuclear Energy and Safety Department that allows experiments to be performed on highly radioactive samples. The Technology Transfer Office at PSI is also reported on. This department assists representatives from industry in their search for opportunities and sources of innovation at the PSI. Further, an overview is presented of the people who work at the PSI, how the institute is organised and how the money it receives is distributed and used. Finally, a comprehensive list of publications completes the report

  1. A practical guide to scientific data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Livingstone, David J

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by the author's need for practical guidance in the processes of data analysis, A Practical Guide to Scientific Data Analysis has been written as a statistical companion for the working scientist.  This handbook of data analysis with worked examples focuses on the application of mathematical and statistical techniques and the interpretation of their results. Covering the most common statistical methods for examining and exploring relationships in data, the text includes extensive examples from a variety of scientific disciplines. The chapters are organised logically, from pl

  2. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  3. Hedging in Popular Scientific Articles on Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.

  4. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).

  5. Evolution of the scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).

  6. Hot Spots and Hot Moments in Scientific Collaborations and Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John N.; Hackett, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are essential but little understood components of research; they catalyze and sustain creative scientific work and fuel the scientific and intellectual social movements (SIMs) that propel scientific change. Adopting a micro-sociological focus, we examine how emotions shape two intellectual processes central to all scientific work:…

  7. Medical elementology as a new scientific discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2006-01-01

    All legitimate scientific disciplines are characterized by: (1) the clear definition of subjects of the study and its corresponding clear-cut name, (2) some accepted postulates, (3) set of research methods, (4) methods of quality control and processing of the obtained information, and (5) specific terminology and definitions. The inaccuracies and uncertainties in medical elementology as a new scientific discipline are discussed and some corresponding statements are made. Another and no less important problem of medical elementology is the critical unsatisfactory reproducibility of data. The complex arrangements required for the harmonization of data acquired for studies in medical elementology are offered. Main strategic aims and tactical tasks of the new scientific discipline are outlined. (author)

  8. Simulator of Cryogenic process and Refrigeration, and its Control in scientific -nuclear facilities with EcosimPro; Simulador de procesos criogenicos y de refrigeracion y de su control en las grandes instalaciones cienfificas nucleares con Ecosimpro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleiro Blanco, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The cryogenic plants and their control in Scientific-Nuclear Facilities is complicated by the large number of variables and the wide range of variation during operation. Initially the design and control of these systems in CERN was based on stationary calculations which non yielded the expected results. Due to its complexity, the dynamic simulation is the only way to get adequate results during operational transients.

  9. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  10. Gaming Science: The Gamification of Scientific Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley eMorris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well being in the 21st century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  11. Gaming science: the "Gamification" of scientific thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J; Croker, Steve; Zimmerman, Corinne; Gill, Devin; Romig, Connie

    2013-09-09

    Science is critically important for advancing economics, health, and social well-being in the twenty-first century. A scientifically literate workforce is one that is well-suited to meet the challenges of an information economy. However, scientific thinking skills do not routinely develop and must be scaffolded via educational and cultural tools. In this paper we outline a rationale for why we believe that video games have the potential to be exploited for gain in science education. The premise we entertain is that several classes of video games can be viewed as a type of cultural tool that is capable of supporting three key elements of scientific literacy: content knowledge, process skills, and understanding the nature of science. We argue that there are three classes of mechanisms through which video games can support scientific thinking. First, there are a number of motivational scaffolds, such as feedback, rewards, and flow states that engage students relative to traditional cultural learning tools. Second, there are a number of cognitive scaffolds, such as simulations and embedded reasoning skills that compensate for the limitations of the individual cognitive system. Third, fully developed scientific thinking requires metacognition, and video games provide metacognitive scaffolding in the form of constrained learning and identity adoption. We conclude by outlining a series of recommendations for integrating games and game elements in science education and provide suggestions for evaluating their effectiveness.

  12. On the impovesrishment of scientific education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hannah Arendt, one of the foremost political philosophers of the twentieth century, has argued that it is the responsibility of educators not to leave children in their own world but instead to bring them into the adult world so that, as adults, they can carry civilization forward to whatever challenges it will face by bringing to bear the learning of the past. In the same collection of essays, she discusses the recognition by modern science that Nature is inconceivable in terms of ordinary human conceptual categories - as she writes, ‘unthinkable in terms of pure reason’. Together, these views on scientific education lead to an educational process that transforms children into adults, with a scientific adult being one who has the ability to conceptualize scientific systems independent of ordinary physical intuition. This article begins with Arendt’s basic educational and scientific points and develops from them a critique of current scientific education in conjunction with an appeal to educate young scientists in a manner that allows them to fulfill their potential ‘on the shoulders of giants’. While the article takes a general philosophical perspective, its specifics tend to be directed at biomedical education, in particular, how such education pertains to translational science. PMID:24215841

  13. On the impoverishment of scientific education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2013-11-11

    Hannah Arendt, one of the foremost political philosophers of the twentieth century, has argued that it is the responsibility of educators not to leave children in their own world but instead to bring them into the adult world so that, as adults, they can carry civilization forward to whatever challenges it will face by bringing to bear the learning of the past. In the same collection of essays, she discusses the recognition by modern science that Nature is inconceivable in terms of ordinary human conceptual categories - as she writes, 'unthinkable in terms of pure reason'. Together, these views on scientific education lead to an educational process that transforms children into adults, with a scientific adult being one who has the ability to conceptualize scientific systems independent of ordinary physical intuition. This article begins with Arendt's basic educational and scientific points and develops from them a critique of current scientific education in conjunction with an appeal to educate young scientists in a manner that allows them to fulfill their potential 'on the shoulders of giants'. While the article takes a general philosophical perspective, its specifics tend to be directed at biomedical education, in particular, how such education pertains to translational science.

  14. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D

    2010-01-04

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

  15. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojick, D E; Warnick, W L; Carroll, B C; Crowe, J

    2006-06-01

    With the United States federal government spending billions annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. The process by which science knowledge is spread is called diffusion. It is therefore important to better understand and measure the benefits of this diffusion of knowledge. In particular, it is important to understand whether advances in Internet searching can speed up the diffusion of scientific knowledge and accelerate scientific progress despite the fact that the vast majority of scientific information resources continue to be held in deep web databases that many search engines cannot fully access. To address the complexity of the search issue, the term global discovery is used for the act of searching across heterogeneous environments and distant communities. This article discusses these issues and describes research being conducted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

  16. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  17. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Lynn [Director, Sponsored Programs

    2014-05-16

    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  18. Should scientific realists be platonists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Jacob; Morrison, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Realists about are arrived at by any inferen- tial route which eschews causes (§3), and nor is there any direct pressure for Scientific Real- ists to change their inferential methods (§4). We suggest that in order to maintain inferential parity with Scientific Realism, proponents of EIA need to give......Enhanced Indispensability Arguments (EIA) claim that Scientific Realists are committed to the existence of mathematical entities due to their reliance on Inference to the Best Explana- tion (IBE). Our central question concerns this purported parity of reasoning: do people who defend the EIA make...... an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism (in particular, IBE) to achieve platonism? (§2) We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we should be Scientific...

  19. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  20. Mastering scientific computing with R

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you want to learn how to quantitatively answer scientific questions for practical purposes using the powerful R language and the open source R tool ecosystem, this book is ideal for you. It is ideally suited for scientists who understand scientific concepts, know a little R, and want to be able to start applying R to be able to answer empirical scientific questions. Some R exposure is helpful, but not compulsory.

  1. Scientific Information Service at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.

  2. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios N. KOUMPAROULIS; Dionysios K. SOLOMOS

    2012-01-01

    Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape the modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but from the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management have become a machine of uni...

  3. Reductive immobilization of U(VI) in Fe(III) oxide-reducing subsurface sediments: Analysis of coupled microbial-geochemical processes in experimental reactive transport systems. Final Scientific/Technical Report-EMSP 73914

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric E. Roden Matilde M. Urrutia Mark O. Barnett Clifford R. Lange

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide information to DOE on microbiological and geochemical processes underlying the potential use of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) to create subsurface redox barriers for immobilization of uranium and other redox-sensitive metal/radionuclide contaminants that were released to the environment in large quantities during Cold War nuclear weapons manufacturing operations. Several fundamental scientific questions were addressed in order to understand and predict how such treatment procedures would function under in situ conditions in the subsurface. These questions revolved the coupled microbial-geochemical phenomena which are likely to occur within a redox barrier treatment zone, and on the dynamic interactions between hydrologic flux and biogeochemical process rates. First, we assembled a robust conceptual understanding and numerical framework for modeling the kinetics of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and associated DMRB growth in sediments. Development of this framework is a critical prerequisite for predicting the potential effectiveness of DMRB-promoted subsurface bioremediation, since Fe(III) oxides are expected to be the primary source of electron-accepting capacity for growth and maintenance of DMRB in subsurface environments. We also defined in detail the kinetics of microbial (enzymatic) versus abiotic, ferrous iron-promoted reduction of U(VI) in the presence and absence of synthetic and natural Fe(III) oxide materials. The results of these studies suggest that (i) the efficiency of dissolved U(VI) scavenging may be influenced by the kinetics of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in systems with relative short fluid residence times; (2) association of U(VI) with diverse surface sites in natural soils and sediments has the potential to limit the rate and extent of microbial U(VI) reduction, and in turn modulate the effectiveness of in situ U(VI) bioremediation; and (3) abiotic, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) drive n U

  4. Lazy ETL in Action: ETL Technology Dates Scientific Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargın, Y.; Ivanova, M.; Zhang, Y.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.

    2013-01-01

    Both scientific data and business data have analytical needs. Analysis takes place after a scientific data warehouse is eagerly filled with all data from external data sources (repositories). This is similar to the initial loading stage of Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) processes that drive

  5. Confronting and Changing Middle School Teachers' Perceptions of Scientific Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    2003-01-01

    The reform documents of the 1990s stressed that science is not practiced by a rigid scientific method, but science texts continue to describe the process as if it were rigid and linear. The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to explore middle school in-service teachers' perceptions of scientific methodology and (b) to explore ways in…

  6. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  7. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful...... for understanding this. Instead, it is argued that in order to understand why the RBV is an instance of scientific progress, we should begin from the notion that reduction is at the heart of progress in science, and that many scientists implicitly or explicitly hold this view. The RBV is a case of scientific...

  8. Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommissetty, Venkat [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2012-11-21

    This symposium aimed to bring together researchers working on quantifying nanoscale carrier transport processes in excitonic solar cells. Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such efforts can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well-defined electronic structures.

  9. Electron-driven excitations and dissociation of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Greg [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Orel, Ann E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    This program studied how energy is interchanged in electron and photon collisions with molecules leading to ex-citation and dissociation. Modern ab initio techniques, both for the photoionization and electron scattering, and the subsequent nuclear dynamics studies, are used to accurately treat these problems. This work addresses vibrational ex-citation and dissociative attachment following electron impact, and the dynamics following inner shell photoionzation. These problems are ones for which a full multi-dimensional treatment of the nuclear dynamics is essential and where non-adiabatic effects are expected to be important.

  10. Constructing Scientific Arguments Using Evidence from Dynamic Computational Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and argumentation are two important scientific practices students need to develop throughout school years. In this paper, we investigated how middle and high school students ( N = 512) construct a scientific argument based on evidence from computational models with which they simulated climate change. We designed scientific argumentation tasks with three increasingly complex dynamic climate models. Each scientific argumentation task consisted of four parts: multiple-choice claim, openended explanation, five-point Likert scale uncertainty rating, and open-ended uncertainty rationale. We coded 1,294 scientific arguments in terms of a claim's consistency with current scientific consensus, whether explanations were model based or knowledge based and categorized the sources of uncertainty (personal vs. scientific). We used chi-square and ANOVA tests to identify significant patterns. Results indicate that (1) a majority of students incorporated models as evidence to support their claims, (2) most students used model output results shown on graphs to confirm their claim rather than to explain simulated molecular processes, (3) students' dependence on model results and their uncertainty rating diminished as the dynamic climate models became more and more complex, (4) some students' misconceptions interfered with observing and interpreting model results or simulated processes, and (5) students' uncertainty sources reflected more frequently on their assessment of personal knowledge or abilities related to the tasks than on their critical examination of scientific evidence resulting from models. These findings have implications for teaching and research related to the integration of scientific argumentation and modeling practices to address complex Earth systems.

  11. [Academician Li Lianda talking about doctors doing scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Yi-kui

    2015-09-01

    At present, Chinese medical field faces with an important problem of how to correctly handle the relationship between medical and scientific research. Academician Li Lianda advocates doctors doing scientific research under the premise of putting the medical work first. He points out that there are many problems in the process of doctors doing scientific research at present such as paying more attention to scientific research than medical care, excessively promoting building scientific research hospital, only paying attention to training scientific talents, research direction be flashy without substance, the medical evaluation system should be improved and so on. Medical, scientific research and teaching are inseparable because improving medical standards depends on scientific research and personnel training. But not all doctors need to take into account of medical treatment, scientific research and teaching in the same degree while not all hospitals need to turn into three-in-one hospital, scientific research hospital or teaching hospital. It must be treated differently according to the actual situation.

  12. How to write and publish a scientific paper

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Writing and publishing journal articles are crucial to scientific careers. Unfortunately, many young scientists find the process of communicating scientific information effectively a complete mystery. By providing practical, readable, and sometimes humorous guidance, this book helps researchers gain the knowledge, skills, and confidence to succeed in communicating about their work. This seventh edition of "How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper" contains 41 chapters focused upon two separate tasks: how to write the respective sections of a scientific paper and how to publish the paper. Other related topics include approaching a writing project, following ethical principles in scientific publishing, preparing oral presentations and poster presentations, writing grant proposals, and working with the popular media. The authors provide considerable guidance on appropriate scientific writing style as well as an extensive list of words and expressions to avoid - and supply the language to substitute for them.

  13. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although…

  14. Scientific Research: How Many Paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, George O.

    2012-01-01

    As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…

  15. Scientific Jargon, Good and Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Russel

    2003-01-01

    Scientific and technical jargon--specialized vocabulary, usually Latinate--plays a vital role in scientific and technical communication. But its proper use continues to be a point of discussion because of our concern with audience adaptation, rhetorical exigence, rhetorical purpose, and ethics. We've focused on teaching students--and on convincing…

  16. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science endeavours to give a meaningful description of the world of phenomena using what are known as laws, hypotheses and theories. Logicians and students of scientific method analyse the structure of scientific knowledge and try to determine the precise significance of these terms. But it is surprising to note.

  17. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using nutritio...

  18. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  19. In Search of Scientific Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    In the ever-expanding sea of scientific advances, how do you find inspiration for your own study? Cell editor Jiaying Tan talked with Mark Lemmon and Joseph (Yossi) Schlessinger about the importance of fueling your research creativity with the conceptual excitement and technical advance from the broad scientific field. An excerpt of the conversation appears below. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. GSI scientific report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundinger, U.

    1991-03-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute. These concern experimental studies on the structure of exotic nuclei and high-spin states, heavy ion reactions, nuclear theory, positron production in atomic systems, few-electron systems, biological and physical radiation effects, radiochemical separation processes and chemical properties, developments of detectors, data acquisition, and computing, as well as development and operation of UNILAC, SIS, and ESR. (HSI)

  1. Characteristics of scientific web publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund Jepsen, Erik; Seiden, Piet; Ingwersen, Peter Emil Rerup

    2004-01-01

    types of metadata. As could be expected, the ranked output differs between the three search engines. Apparently, this is caused by differences in ranking algorithms rather than the databases themselves. In fact, because scientific Web content in this subject domain receives few inlinks, both Alta......Because of the increasing presence of scientific publications on the Web, combined with the existing difficulties in easily verifying and retrieving these publications, research on techniques and methods for retrieval of scientific Web publications is called for. In this article, we report...... on the initial steps taken toward the construction of a test collection of scientific Web publications within the subject domain of plant biology. The steps reported are those of data gathering and data analysis aiming at identifying characteristics of scientific Web publications. The data used in this article...

  2. Scientific evaluation at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a statement of the scientific and technical activity of the French atomic energy commission (CEA) for the year 1998. This evaluation is made by external and independent experts and requires some specific dispositions for the nuclear protection and safety institute (IPSN) and for the direction of military applications (DAM). The report is divided into 5 parts dealing successively with: part 1 - the CEA, a public research organization (civil nuclear research, technology research and transfers, defence activities); the scientific and technical evaluation at the CEA (general framework, evaluation of the IPSN and DAM); part 2 - the scientific and technical councils (directions of fuel cycle, of nuclear reactors, and of advanced technologies); part 3 - the scientific councils (directions of matter and of life sciences); the nuclear protection and safety institute; the direction of military applications; part 4 - the corresponding members of the evaluation; part 5 - the list of scientific and technical councils and members. (J.S.)

  3. NIPNE-Scientific Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexa, Calin; Andries, Mihai; Badescu, Elisabeta

    1998-01-01

    This annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering on 1997 covers the following eight main directions: 1 - Theoretical Physics (42 p.); 2 - Experimental Physics (76 p.); 3 - Biophysics (8 p.); 4 - Applied Physics (40 p.); 5 - Radiation Processing, Tracers and Radiometry (16 p.); 6 - Technological Development (12 p.); 7 - Waste Management and Site Restoration (16 p.); 8 - Standardization (6 p.). The Theoretical Physics division contains four research fields: 1 - Nuclear and Atomic Physics; 2 - Condensed Matter: 3 - Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles: 4 - Physics of Information. The Experimental Physics division is divided in the following seven directions: 1 - Nuclear Structure; 2 - Nuclear Reactions; 3 - Atomic Physics; 4 - Particle Physics; 5 - Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics; 6 - Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutations; 7 - Nuclear Instruments and Methods. The Waste Management and Site Restoration section is dealing with: 1 - Nuclear Reactors; 2 - Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility. The document contains also appendices reporting: Publications (journals, books and preprints); Contributions at international conferences; Patents; PhD Theses; Training courses; Scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, invited seminars, visits abroad, seminars abroad); Research Staff

  4. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  5. Scientific Publication Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman İnci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science based on consciousness of responsibility and principles of trust puts academics under an obligation to act according to the values and principles, ethical attitudes and standards of behaviour. A quest for perfectness, to observe truth and show respect for the dignity and value of each individual should be a fundamental principle. In this context, academic freedom and autonomy, academic integrity,  responsibility and accountabily, respect for others, the protection of the fundamental rights and competence are among the core values of academic merit. Science is not possible without ethics. Protection of academic value is essential for an academic publication. It is also fundamental that academics should not behave contrary to the ethics values. It is assumed that academic studies are conducted honestly, based on true foundations, that the research data are collected according to the correct methods, accurate statistics are used and results are reported accordingly. It is also assumed that professional standards are carried out in software presentation and share of results. The exceptional methods in academical publications should be classified as those carried out intentionally, aiming to mislead the related studies and the others to be distinguished from the ones carried out by some ignorances and various innocent facts. The most serious infraction of the ethical rules and standards is the ‘academic misappropriation’. Among all, the most crucial one is the academic plagiarism, which is transferring the production of some other person under one’s own name or stealing away the work of other persons. Creating some not-existing data and results, and fabrication is inventing some information just by sitting at the table. Changing the datas and results without scientific reasoning, and falsification is accepted as another and the third kind of misappropriation (FTP. Their most important difference from the other kinds is

  6. Scientific myth-conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  7. Mikhail Kondratyev's Scientific Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitskaya O.B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article illuminates the most important outcomes of research activities carried out by Mikhail Kondratyev. It reveals the relevance of his research for the development of concepts of social psychological processes that take place in closed communities, of relations of authority, as well as for the diagnostics and correction of relationships of interpersonal significance in groups of various types. The paper also reviews the main stages of Mikhail Kondratyev’s scholarly and teaching activities and highlights his major contributions to the further development of research in social psychological problems of small groups and interpersonal relationships that emerge within them.

  8. Support for cooperative experiments in VL-e: from scientific workflows to knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Belloum, A.; Bubak, M.; Hertzberger, B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in Internet and Grid technologies have greatly enhanced processes in scientific experiments; not only computing and data intensive tasks become feasible, but also large scale collaborations between resources and users are now possible. Scientific workflows encode intelligence of

  9. How should a scientific team be effectively formed and managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohanni, Matti; Isohanni, Irene; Veijola, Juha

    2002-01-01

    In the research process, hypotheses, observations and raw data are systematically transformed into new knowledge and scientific rules. People and human input are essential features of the research; the intellectual process performed by the individual scientists and their team. Unplanned administration and human conflicts are the major causes of unsuccessful research. In this article, some essential organizational and psychological aspects of the scientific team are described and discussed. In addition, practical guidelines on forming, working and managing a research team are presented.

  10. Reconstructive remembering of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, K J; Brewer, W F

    1993-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the role of reconstructive memory in citation errors that occur in the scientific literature. We focus on the case of de Groot's (1946) studies of the memory for chess positions by chess experts. Previous work has shown that this research is very often cited incorrectly. In Experiment 1 we show that free recall of this work by research psychologists replicates most of the errors found in the published literature. Experiment 2 shows that undergraduates reading a correct account of the de Groot study also make the same set of errors in recall. We interpret these findings as showing that consistent errors in secondary accounts of experimental findings are frequently reconstructive memory errors due to source confusion and schema-based processes. Analysis of a number of other examples of scientific literature that have been frequently cited incorrectly add additional support to the reconstructive account. We conclude that scientists should be aware of the tendency of reconstructive memory errors to cause violations of the scientific norm of accurate reporting of the scientific literature.

  11. Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S

    2014-09-16

    In this paper I describe how a narrative approach to science communication may help audiences to more fully understand how science is relevant to their own lives and behaviors. The use of prescriptive scientific narrative can help to overcome challenges specific to scientific concepts, especially the need to reconsider long-held beliefs in the face of new empirical findings. Narrative can captivate the audience, driving anticipation for plot resolution, thus becoming a self-motivating vehicle for information delivery. This quality gives narrative considerable power to explain complex phenomena and causal processes, and to create and reinforce memory traces for better recall and application over time. Because of the inherent properties of narrative communication, their creators have a special responsibility to ensure even-handedness in selection and presentation of the scientific evidence. The recent transformation in communication and information technology has brought about new platforms for delivering content, particularly through interactivity, which can use structured self-tailoring to help individuals most efficiently get exactly the content that they need. As with all educational efforts, prescriptive scientific narratives must be evaluated systematically to determine whether they have the desired effects in improving understanding and changing behavior.

  12. Communication of geo-scientific safety arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.; Goodwin, B.; Jensen, M.; Linden, R.; Mazurek, M.; Srivastave, M.; Strom, A.; Sudicky, E.; Voinis, S.

    2007-01-01

    Working Group B addressed the communication of geo-scientific safety arguments through a discussion of practical experience as it related to the methods, types of information and specific arguments found to best communicate geo-scientific concepts and notions of safety with broad audiences including, colleagues, authorities and regulators, political decision makers, academics, and the general public. The following questions were suggested by the programme committee of the AMIGO-2 workshop for discussion by Working Group B with respect to the communication of geo-scientific information and safety arguments: - What is the place of geo-scientific arguments in relation to quantitative and qualitative topics like scenario and FEPs (features, events, processes) assessment, simulated repository evolution, calculated dose or risk impacts, engineering tests of materials, etc., when presenting a safety case to different audiences and with respect to the various stages of the repository programme? (see section 3). - Would we be better off focusing messages to the public on time scales of a few hundred years or a few generations? (see section 4). - How do you handle the fact that geoscience interpretations seldom are unique and data often are open to various interpretations? (see section 5). - How do you handle expert controversy on a specific topic? (see section 6). (authors)

  13. 1996 scientific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhouet, F.; Delavault, E.; Dupuy, P.; Legre, J.; Comte, M.; Panek, H.; Martin-Daguet, V.; Fleche, J.L.; Meis, C.; Kupecek, Ph.; Mennerat, G.; Mauchien, P.; Chaleard, C.; Kocon, S.; Lacour, J.L.; Gueneau, C.; Dauvois, V.; Gonella, C.; Berhier, C.; Lameille, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the work realized in 1996 by CEA-DCC (Direction du Cycle du Combustible). The main study fields are: laser beam stabilization, copper vapor laser (LVC) modelling, vapor density measurements, light transport in thick vapor, uranium evaporation, GdR-PRACTIS activities, uranyl organo phosphates, actinide extraction, ultra son in chemistry, oxidation mechanisms, salt free processes, tributyl phosphate (TBP) stability, cation exchanging membranes, filtering mineral membranes, liquid-liquid extraction processes, centrifugal contactor, supercritical phase, iodine reduction, weapon plutonium reprocessing, long term waste packaging, clay behaviour modelling; gas formation in deep storages, water-clay chemical interaction, nuclear glass behaviour, actinide storage dies, radionuclide release in storage, waste storage dies, iodine conditioning, cesium extraction by calix[4]arene molecules, decontamination foam, oxidation by supercritical water, decontamination by electrolysis, microorganism actions on metals, long life radionuclide determination in wastes, active and passive tomography, sulfated wastes, zircon-titanates ceramics, direct storage of irradiated fuel, caramel type fuel dismantling, radioprotection calculation codes, diffraction of backscattered electrons, infrared light coherent source, optical spectrometry, physical and chemical aspect of corium, iron-nickel-chromium alloy corrosion, natural uranium perspective, Atalante installation, interlaboratory comparisons. (A.C.)

  14. EFSA Scientific Committee; Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment Terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    of risk assessment terminology and identified their relevance for EFSA to adopt more harmonised use. These included examining definitions of risk and uncertainty, expressing uncertainty and different levels of risk, the merits of using qualitative and quantitative expressions and the use of glossaries......The Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the use of risk assessment terminology within its Scientific Panels. An external report, commissioned by EFSA, analysed 219 opinions published by the Scientific Committee and Panels to recommend possible ways...... of improving the expression and communication of risk and/or uncertainties in the selected opinions. The Scientific Committee concluded that risk assessment terminology is not fully harmonised within EFSA. In part this is caused by sectoral legislation defining specific terminology and international standards...

  15. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  16. ERINDA Scientific Results: Transnational Access Activities and Scientific Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Transnational Access Activities and Scientific visits within the FP7 project ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data). It highlights the fact that nearly 3200 data - taking hours for external users were made available in the partner installations and 104 man weeks for scientific visits to par tner institutes. This is much more than the 2500 beam hours and 80 weeks promised in the Description of Work of the project.

  17. Four stages of a scientific discipline; four types of scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Alexander M

    2009-05-01

    productivity. The proposed model of scientific evolution might also be instrumental for society in organizing and managing the scientific process. No public policy aimed at stimulating the scientific process can be equally beneficial for all four stages. Attempts to apply the same criteria to scientists working on scientific disciplines at different stages of their scientific evolution would be stimulating for one and detrimental for another. In addition, researchers operating at a certain stage of scientific evolution might not possess the mindset adequate to evaluate and stimulate a discipline that is at a different evolutionary stage. This could be the reason for suboptimal implementation of otherwise well-conceived scientific policies.

  18. Scientific results - report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    During the year under report 1981, five working groups were active in the field of nuclear chemistry: neutron diffraction, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in bio-medicine and geo-chemistry. The objectives of the R+D projects ranged from the more basic research to the development of technological processes. Nuclear inspection methodes that have already been developed (e.g. neutron diffraction, trace element analysis) have increasingly been used in an interdisciplinary way. Besides these R+D projects the project of increase of power of the BER II was pursued also in 1981, and further planning documents on the extension of the BER II have been established. The report informs about the most important results of the single sections. A list of the publications (with abstracts) and lectures, also by guest scientists, is attached. (RB) [de

  19. Making Scientific Data Usable and Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satwicz, T.; Bharadwaj, A.; Evans, J.; Dirks, J.; Clark Cole, K.

    2017-12-01

    Transforming geological data into information that has broad scientific and societal impact is a process fraught with barriers. Data sets and tools are often reported to have poor user experiences (UX) that make scientific work more challenging than it needs be. While many other technical fields have benefited from ongoing improvements to the UX of their tools (e.g., healthcare and financial services) scientists are faced with using tools that are labor intensive and not intuitive. Our research team has been involved in a multi-year effort to understand and improve the UX of scientific tools and data sets. We use a User-Centered Design (UCD) process that involves naturalistic behavioral observation and other qualitative research methods adopted from Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related fields. Behavioral observation involves having users complete common tasks on data sets, tools, and websites to identify usability issues and understand the severity of the issues. We measure how successfully they complete tasks and diagnosis the cause of any failures. Behavioral observation is paired with in-depth interviews where users describe their process for generating results (from initial inquiry to final results). By asking detailed questions we unpack common patterns and challenges scientists experience while working with data. We've found that tools built using the UCD process can have a large impact on scientist work flows and greatly reduce the time it takes to process data before analysis. It is often challenging to understand the organization and nuances of data across scientific fields. By better understanding how scientists work we can create tools that make routine tasks less-labor intensive, data easier to find, and solve common issues with discovering new data sets and engaging in interdisciplinary research. There is a tremendous opportunity for advancing scientific knowledge and helping the public benefit from that work by creating intuitive, interactive

  20. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Niknam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or systems engineering, there is no specific framework available to assess the degree of maturity of an organization towards CM. This paper focuses on revealing the important maturity dimensions and levels for CM as a means towards developing a CM maturity model.

  1. PSI Scientific Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J.

    2007-04-01

    Selected highlights in this years report include muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 and the antitumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale. From the energy research departments we hear that progress has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel, and towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutronic studies dealt with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors, thermal hydraulics with reactors of the future. safety is also the issue in how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as he facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume are only a fraction of the varied research undertaken at PSI in the past year; for more information visit our website www.psi.ch. (author)

  2. PSI Scientific Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J. (ed.)

    2007-04-15

    Selected highlights in this years report include muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 and the antitumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale. From the energy research departments we hear that progress has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel, and towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutronic studies dealt with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors, thermal hydraulics with reactors of the future. safety is also the issue in how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as he facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume are only a fraction of the varied research undertaken at PSI in the past year; for more information visit our website www.psi.ch. (author)

  3. PSI Scientific report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capper, S.

    2008-04-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) on work done in 2007 presents selected highlights including work done on muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 as well as the anti-tumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS (Swiss Light Source) reported on include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale level. In the energy research departments, progress is reported on that has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel and work leading towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research is reported on which, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutron studies deal with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors and thermal hydraulics with aspects concerning reactors of the future. Safety is also the issue as far as how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as the facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume represent only a fraction of the research undertaken at PSI in 2007. The report also deals with know-how transfer and includes a list of publications on the work done in the various areas of research

  4. PSI Scientific report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capper, S. (ed.)

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) on work done in 2007 presents selected highlights including work done on muon spin studies and investigations of polymer films, the chemical properties of element 112 as well as the anti-tumour effects of radionuclides. In its fifth year of operation, results from the SLS (Swiss Light Source) reported on include shedding light on superconductivity and understanding magnetism at the nanoscale level. In the energy research departments, progress is reported on that has been achieved in the conversion of biomass to methane fuel and work leading towards the generation of hydrogen by solar thermochemistry. Combustion research is reported on which, among other themes, focused on efficiency in gas turbine processes. Neutron studies deal with safety aspects of present nuclear reactors and thermal hydraulics with aspects concerning reactors of the future. Safety is also the issue as far as how ions migrate in waste repositories or in the operation of the MEGAPIE liquid metal target. The Competence Center Energy and Mobility of the ETH domain, for which PSI acts as the facilitator, started operation at the beginning of 2006, and several projects have been successfully launched. The reports in this volume represent only a fraction of the research undertaken at PSI in 2007. The report also deals with know-how transfer and includes a list of publications on the work done in the various areas of research.

  5. Taylor’s Scientific Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Koumparoulis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Frederick Taylor is known as the father of modern management. Taylor’s scientific management revolutionized industry and helped shape modern organization. Scientific management revolutionized industry because it explains how to increase production by working smarter, not harder. Taylor’s ideas were not limited to only serving the company’s bottom line but the increase in productivity benefited the workforce as well. The principles of scientific management became a machine of universal efficiency since there was a widespread use of scientific management worldwide and beyond the scope of the workplace. Taylor’s theories on using science and statistical fact have become a guideline that many have followed to great success.

  6. Scientific Revolutions and Political Attitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mervart, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 185-190 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Scientific revolution * party historiography * Czechoslovakia * communist reformism Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. Scientific papers for health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Duarte, Jacy Marcondes; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    From the hypothesis that the development of scientific papers, mainly in interdisciplinary areas such as Health Informatics, may bring difficulties to the author, as had its communicative efficacy decreased or compromising their approval for publication; we aim to make considerations on the main items to good players making this kind of text. The scientific writing has peculiarities that must be taken into consideration when it writes: general characteristics, such as simplicity and objectivity, and characteristics of each area of knowledge, such as terminology, formatting and standardization. The research methodology adopted is bibliographical. The information was based on literature review and the authors' experience, teachers and assessors of scientific methodology in peer review publications in the area. As a result, we designed a checklist of items to be checked before submission of a paper to a scientific publication vehicle in order to contribute to the promotion of research, facilitating the publication and increase its capacity in this important area of knowledge.

  8. Scientific Services on the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David; Joshi, Karuna P.; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milt; Yesha, Yaacov; Nguyen, Phuong

    Scientific Computing was one of the first every applications for parallel and distributed computation. To this date, scientific applications remain some of the most compute intensive, and have inspired creation of petaflop compute infrastructure such as the Oak Ridge Jaguar and Los Alamos RoadRunner. Large dedicated hardware infrastructure has become both a blessing and a curse to the scientific community. Scientists are interested in cloud computing for much the same reason as businesses and other professionals. The hardware is provided, maintained, and administrated by a third party. Software abstraction and virtualization provide reliability, and fault tolerance. Graduated fees allow for multi-scale prototyping and execution. Cloud computing resources are only a few clicks away, and by far the easiest high performance distributed platform to gain access to. There may still be dedicated infrastructure for ultra-scale science, but the cloud can easily play a major part of the scientific computing initiative.

  9. Characteristics of scientific web publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund Jepsen, Erik; Seiden, Piet; Ingwersen, Peter Emil Rerup

    2004-01-01

    Because of the increasing presence of scientific publications on the Web, combined with the existing difficulties in easily verifying and retrieving these publications, research on techniques and methods for retrieval of scientific Web publications is called for. In this article, we report...... were generated based on specifically selected domain topics that are searched for in three publicly accessible search engines (Google, AllTheWeb, and AltaVista). A sample of the retrieved hits was analyzed with regard to how various publication attributes correlated with the scientific quality...... types of metadata. As could be expected, the ranked output differs between the three search engines. Apparently, this is caused by differences in ranking algorithms rather than the databases themselves. In fact, because scientific Web content in this subject domain receives few inlinks, both Alta...

  10. Till Moritz Karbach, Scientific Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    We are deeply touched by the sudden loss of our dear friend and colleague Till Moritz Karbach. With this memorial book we wish to commemorate Moritz’ scientific legacy, and what Moritz meant to us as a friend.

  11. High-End Scientific Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA uses high-end scientific computing, geospatial services and remote sensing/imagery analysis to support EPA's mission. The Center for Environmental Computing (CEC) assists the Agency's program offices and regions to meet staff needs in these areas.

  12. Role of Scientific Societies in International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches. Understanding how deeply interrelated are Earth components and processes, population growth, increased needs of mineral and energy resources, global impact of human activities, and view of our planet as an interconnected system emphasizes the need of international cooperation. International research collaboration has an immense potential and is needed for further development of Earth science research and education. The Union Session is planned to provide a forum for analysis and discussion of the status of research and education of geosciences in developing countries, international collaboration programs and new initiatives for promoting and strengthening scientific cooperation. A theme of particular relevance in the analyses and discussions is the role of scientific societies in international collaboration. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities. They may further assist communities in developing countries in providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. What else can be done? This is a complex subject and scientific societies may not be seen independently from the many factors involved in research and education. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems, while urgently requiring improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources, and identification of major problems and needs. What are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? What and how should international collaboration do? What are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to

  13. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  14. Science communication at scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, Jeanne

    2017-10-01

    Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientific and Technological Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, Antonio; Santiago Contreras, Julio; Solis Veliz, Jose; Lopez Moreno, Edith

    2011-10-01

    This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2010. This report includes 41 papers divided in 8 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, mining industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, scientific instrumentation and management aspects. It also includes annexes. (APC)

  16. Scientific and Technological Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Milla, Alcides; Prado Cuba, Antonio; Agapito Panta, Juan; Montoya Rossi, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2011. This report includes 30 papers divided in 8 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, mining industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, scientific instrumentation and management aspects. It also includes annexes. (APC)

  17. Scientific Synergy between LSST and Euclid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Nichol, Robert C.; Aubourg, Éric; Bean, Rachel; Boutigny, Dominique; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Capak, Peter; Cardone, Vincenzo; Carry, Benoît; Conselice, Christopher J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hatch, N. A.; Helou, George; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hložek, Renée; Jones, Lynne; Kahn, Steven; Kiessling, Alina; Kitching, Thomas; Lupton, Robert; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Markovic, Katarina; Marshall, Phil; Massey, Richard; Maughan, Ben J.; Melchior, Peter; Mellier, Yannick; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Robertson, Brant; Sauvage, Marc; Schrabback, Tim; Smith, Graham P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Taylor, Andy; Von Der Linden, Anja

    2017-12-01

    Euclid and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are poised to dramatically change the astronomy landscape early in the next decade. The combination of high-cadence, deep, wide-field optical photometry from LSST with high-resolution, wide-field optical photometry, and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from Euclid will be powerful for addressing a wide range of astrophysical questions. We explore Euclid/LSST synergy, ignoring the political issues associated with data access to focus on the scientific, technical, and financial benefits of coordination. We focus primarily on dark energy cosmology, but also discuss galaxy evolution, transient objects, solar system science, and galaxy cluster studies. We concentrate on synergies that require coordination in cadence or survey overlap, or would benefit from pixel-level co-processing that is beyond the scope of what is currently planned, rather than scientific programs that could be accomplished only at the catalog level without coordination in data processing or survey strategies. We provide two quantitative examples of scientific synergies: the decrease in photo-z errors (benefiting many science cases) when high-resolution Euclid data are used for LSST photo-z determination, and the resulting increase in weak-lensing signal-to-noise ratio from smaller photo-z errors. We briefly discuss other areas of coordination, including high-performance computing resources and calibration data. Finally, we address concerns about the loss of independence and potential cross-checks between the two missions and the potential consequences of not collaborating.

  18. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  19. Accelerating scientific discovery : 2007 annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, P.; Dave, P.; Drugan, C.

    2008-11-14

    As a gateway for scientific discovery, the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) works hand in hand with the world's best computational scientists to advance research in a diverse span of scientific domains, ranging from chemistry, applied mathematics, and materials science to engineering physics and life sciences. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, researchers are using the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer at the ALCF to study and explore key scientific problems that underlie important challenges facing our society. For instance, a research team at the University of California-San Diego/ SDSC is studying the molecular basis of Parkinson's disease. The researchers plan to use the knowledge they gain to discover new drugs to treat the disease and to identify risk factors for other diseases that are equally prevalent. Likewise, scientists from Pratt & Whitney are using the Blue Gene to understand the complex processes within aircraft engines. Expanding our understanding of jet engine combustors is the secret to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Lessons learned from the scientific simulations of jet engine combustors have already led Pratt & Whitney to newer designs with unprecedented reductions in emissions, noise, and cost of ownership. ALCF staff members provide in-depth expertise and assistance to those using the Blue Gene/L and optimizing user applications. Both the Catalyst and Applications Performance Engineering and Data Analytics (APEDA) teams support the users projects. In addition to working with scientists running experiments on the Blue Gene/L, we have become a nexus for the broader global community. In partnership with the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, we have created an environment where the world's most challenging computational science problems can be addressed. Our expertise in high-end scientific computing enables us to provide

  20. Research Infrastructure and Scientific Collections: The Supply and Demand of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E.; Schindel, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Research infrastructure is essential in both experimental and observational sciences and is commonly thought of as single-sited facilities. In contrast, object-based scientific collections are distributed in nearly every way, including by location, taxonomy, geologic epoch, discipline, collecting processes, benefits sharing rules, and many others. These diffused collections may have been amassed for a particular discipline, but their potential for use and impact in other fields needs to be explored. Through a series of cross-disciplinary activities, Scientific Collections International (SciColl) has explored and developed new ways in which the supply of scientific collections can meet the demand of researchers in unanticipated ways. From cross-cutting workshops on emerging infectious diseases and food security, to an online portal of collections, SciColl aims to illustrate the scope and value of object-based scientific research infrastructure. As distributed infrastructure, the full impact of scientific collections to the research community is a result of discovering, utilizing, and networking these resources. Examples and case studies from infectious disease research, food security topics, and digital connectivity will be explored.

  1. Modeling scientific: some theoretical and methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tamayo-Roca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At present widespread use of models as an auxiliary system to penetrate the essence of phenomena related to all areas of cognitive and transforming activity of man, covering as diverse as human sciences fields. In the field of education use it is becoming more common as essential to transform school practice and enrich their theoretical instrument bitter day. The paper deals with the development of theoretical modeling as a scientific method to advance the process to be transformed and characterized by establishing relationships and links between the structural components that comprise it. In this regard it is proposed as an objective socialize some theoretical and methodological considerations that favor the use of modeling method in the scientific research activity of teachers.

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220, Revision 1 (FGE.220Rev1): alpha,beta-Unsaturated ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19: 3(2H)-Furanones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... substances could not be evaluated through the Procedure. The Panel recognised that the studies which provided indications for germ cell genotoxicity were of limited validity. For this reason a robust GLP-controlled cytogenetic investigation in mouse spermatocytes according to the OECD guideline 483...

  3. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  4. The scientific research methods applied from Physical Education Theory and Methodology contents at physical skills treatment and its relationship with the sport motor skills connected with the Teaching and Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naivy Lanza-Escobar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the current theoretical and methodological conceptions that approach the educational processes and phenomena of Physical Education in the Physical capabilities topic there are several levels that, with a systemic character, offer coherence and unity from their more general argumentation to the description of how they should be studied. However, this reality, that is implicit in the different theories, is usually unnoticed by the researchers and thus it brings about theoretical and methodological in-consequences in the investigation which damage the strictness of the research process. The aim of this article is to analyse each level in the theoretical foundation of investigations about the educational process of Physical Education in the Physical capabilities topic. The teaching learning process is valued on how different authors have approached methodological and theoretical levels; later, each of them are specified, highlighting new element which according to the author can enrich the personified work and the relationship among the content to be deal with the mentioned process.

  5. Autonomy vs. dependency of scientific collaboration in scientific performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla-Rodriguez, Z.; Miguel, S.; Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ovalle-Perandones, M.A.; Olmeda-Gomez, C.

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the capacity of Latin America in the generation of scientific knowledge and its visibility at the global level. The novelty of the contribution lies in the decomposition of leadership, plus its combination with the results of performance indicators. We compare the normalized citation of all output against the leading output, as well as scientific excellence (Chinchilla, et al. 2016a; 2016b), technological impact and the trends in collaboration types and normalized citation. The main goal is to determine to what extent the main Latin American producers of scientific output depend on collaboration to heighten research performance in terms of citation; or to the contrary, whether there is enough autonomy and capacity to leverage its competitiveness through the design of research and development agendas. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study adopting this approach at the country level within the field of N&N. (Author)

  6. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215): Seven α,β-Unsaturated Cinnamyl Ketones from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of flavouring substances from subgroup 3.2 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 215 (FGE.215). The Flavour Industry has pro...

  8. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project's present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ''confirmatory'' and monitoring nature

  9. RETROCK Project. Treatment of geosphere retention phenomena in safety assessments. Scientific basis of retention processes and their implementation in safety assessment models (WP2). Work Package 2 report of the RETROCK Concerted Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, M.

    2004-10-01

    This report considers the present-day understanding and approaches to take into account retention and transport processes in the performance assessment (PA) models used in the evaluation of the long-term safety of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. It is a product of Work Package 2 in the RETROCK Concerted Action, a part of EURATOM's research and training programme. The processes emphasised in RETROCK are the influences of the flow field, matrix diffusion, and sorption on radionuclide transport characteristics. These processes, and radioactive decay, provide the key terms to the transport equations of the PA models. The following processes are handled more cursorily: colloid-facilitated transport, microbial activity, gas-mediated transport, precipitation/coprecipitation, and off diagonal Onsager processes. The environment in question is saturated sparsely fractured rock in the repository far field. The fracture network offers flow paths for the groundwater transporting radionuclides away from a repository. The radionuclides in various chemical forms interact physically and chemically with other matter in groundwater, fracture surfaces, fracture infills and the rock matrix adjacent to the fractures. These interactions typically result in significant retardation, and decay, of radionuclides compared to the velocity of the groundwater. The PA models usually take into account retention phenomena using simplified concepts that are justified by their conservatism. They are complemented by a large variety of more detailed and realistic process-specific models that can be used to support the choice of data for PA models, as well as specific arguments made in safety cases. While the fundamental understanding, the conceptualisations of the phenomena, the models and the computing resources develop, the extensive data requirements often become a most restrictive factor to the use of a model. The difficulties in obtaining data tend to hinder the utilisation of

  10. RETROCK Project. Treatment of geosphere retention phenomena in safety assessments. Scientific basis of retention processes and their implementation in safety assessment models (WP2). Work Package 2 report of the RETROCK Concerted Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykyri, M. [Safram Oy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    2004-10-01

    This report considers the present-day understanding and approaches to take into account retention and transport processes in the performance assessment (PA) models used in the evaluation of the long-term safety of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. It is a product of Work Package 2 in the RETROCK Concerted Action, a part of EURATOM's research and training programme. The processes emphasised in RETROCK are the influences of the flow field, matrix diffusion, and sorption on radionuclide transport characteristics. These processes, and radioactive decay, provide the key terms to the transport equations of the PA models. The following processes are handled more cursorily: colloid-facilitated transport, microbial activity, gas-mediated transport, precipitation/coprecipitation, and off diagonal Onsager processes. The environment in question is saturated sparsely fractured rock in the repository far field. The fracture network offers flow paths for the groundwater transporting radionuclides away from a repository. The radionuclides in various chemical forms interact physically and chemically with other matter in groundwater, fracture surfaces, fracture infills and the rock matrix adjacent to the fractures. These interactions typically result in significant retardation, and decay, of radionuclides compared to the velocity of the groundwater. The PA models usually take into account retention phenomena using simplified concepts that are justified by their conservatism. They are complemented by a large variety of more detailed and realistic process-specific models that can be used to support the choice of data for PA models, as well as specific arguments made in safety cases. While the fundamental understanding, the conceptualisations of the phenomena, the models and the computing resources develop, the extensive data requirements often become a most restrictive factor to the use of a model. The difficulties in obtaining data tend to hinder the

  11. Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Niezgodka, Marek

    2012-01-01

    This book is a selection of results obtained within one year of research performed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming to create an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform. The idea of this book is based on the very successful SYNAT Project Conference and the SYNAT Workshop accompanying the 19th International Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems (ISMIS 2011). The papers included in this book present an overview and insight into such topics as architecture of scientific information platforms, semantic clustering, ontology-based systems, as well as, multimedia data processing.

  12. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise.......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...

  13. Tools for Reproducibility and Extensibility in Scientific Research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Open inquiry through reproducing results is fundamental to the scientific process. Contemporary research relies on software engineering pipelines to collect, process, and analyze data. The open source projects within Project Jupyter facilitate these objectives by bringing software engineering within the context of scientific communication. We will highlight specific projects that are computational building blocks for scientific communication, starting with the Jupyter Notebook. We will also explore applications of projects that build off of the Notebook such as Binder, JupyterHub, and repo2docker. We will discuss how these projects can individually and jointly improve reproducibility in scientific communication. Finally, we will demonstrate applications of Jupyter software that allow researchers to build upon the code of other scientists, both to extend their work and the work of others.    There will be a follow-up demo session in the afternoon, hosted by iML. Details can be foun...

  14. [Scientific report in ophthalmology--the use of Greek and Latin words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporini, Edmea Rita; Carani, José Carlos Eudes

    2010-01-01

    Scientific research in ophthalmology is a dynamic process usually delivered by means of written reports. Greek and Latin words are commonly used in scientific writing. This paper points out some issues related to the clarity, objectivity and precision of writing and offers a short glossary of terms from Greek and Latin languages which are commonly used in scientific writing.

  15. RUSSIA SHOULD BECOME THE LEADER OF THE NEW GREAT SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Yakovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prospects of development and standing science in the XXI century of the Russian science the leader of a new scientific revolution. This process is necessary to base synthesis of knowledge and achievements of three previous great scientific and technological revolutions: scientific, educational and informational.

  16. Betting on better scientific literacy

    CERN Document Server

    Daisy Yuhas

    Dmitry Zimin, founder of the Russian philanthropic foundation Dynasty, visited CERN on 23 October. Zimin, who is himself a scientist and businessman, founded Dynasty in order to support scientific education and a greater public understanding of scientific thinking. Zimin met the Bulletin to reflect on the experience and what had interested him about CERN. Zimin, who had read about and researched CERN before his visit, felt prepared for the physics at CERN but was greatly impressed by the collaborative “brainforce.” He observed that “The organization of all of these people is not less important as an achievement than all of the technical achievements, the collider, the experiments.” He was amazed at “how CERN has been able to organize such a grand collaboration of different people from different institutes of countries from all over the world.” At the core of the Dynasty Foundation’s ideals is the dissemination of scientific thought. Zimin ...

  17. The scientific status of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The development of fusion energy has been a large-scale scientific undertaking of broad interest. The magnetic plasma containment in tokamaks and the laser-drive ignition of microfusion capsules appear to be scientifically feasible sources of energy. These concepts are bounded by questions of required intensity in magnetid field and plasma currents or in drive energy and, for both concepts, by issues of plasma stability and energy transport. The basic concept and the current scientific issues are described for magnetic fusion and for the interesting, but likely infeasible, muon-catalyzed fusion concept. Inertial fusion is mentioned, qualitatively, to complete the context. For magnetic fusion, the required net energy production within the plasma may be accomplished soon, but the more useful goal of self-sustained plasma ignition requires a new device of somewhat uncertain (factor of 2) cost and size. (orig.)

  18. DataBank. Towards a new scientific management methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, N.S.; Lashin, R.M.A.; Abdul-Aziz, L.Kh. [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (ENNRA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Installations Safety Div.

    2017-12-15

    The main task of the presented management system plan is to control and organize the successful organisation. The achievement of the project shall consider objectives of the organization, strategy, workers and benefits. Various management systems have appeared during the last century; the scientific management approach, administrative theory, systems approach, socio-technical approach, contingency or situational approach, and others. The selection of the management methodology for a scientific organizations in the nuclear sector shall be, in particular, a precise process. That is due to the different objectives of scientific activities performed.

  19. DataBank. Towards a new scientific management methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, N.S.; Lashin, R.M.A.; Abdul-Aziz, L.Kh.

    2017-01-01

    The main task of the presented management system plan is to control and organize the successful organisation. The achievement of the project shall consider objectives of the organization, strategy, workers and benefits. Various management systems have appeared during the last century; the scientific management approach, administrative theory, systems approach, socio-technical approach, contingency or situational approach, and others. The selection of the management methodology for a scientific organizations in the nuclear sector shall be, in particular, a precise process. That is due to the different objectives of scientific activities performed.

  20. WFIRST: Integrated Coronagraph Design and Scientific Yield Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Nemati, Bijan; Gersh-Range, Jessica; Kasdin, Jeremy; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Krist, John; Ruane, Garreth; Sidick, Erkin

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) will be the first instrument to directly image cool gas giant exoplanets. To achieve its scientific goals of exoplanet imaging, exoplanet characterization, and circumstellar debris disk imaging, the CGI will carry both the shaped pupil coronagraph and hybrid Lyot coronagraph. Ongoing design work is focused on increasing the expected scientific yield by improving coronagraph performance (e.g., throughput or starlight suppression), robustness to observatory dynamics, and robustness to polarization aberrations. We present the design methodology, updated designs, and the evaluation process for choosing the designs with the highest scientific returns.

  1. A Scientific Approach to Monitoring Public Perceptions of Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, N. I.; Lee, A. J.; Cribb, J. H. J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a three-year study to evaluate a new approach to increasing the impact and adoption of new scientific findings and technologies. The purpose of the case study was to monitor the public's perception of the severity of problems posed by invasive animal species and of possible methods of managing them. A real-time "moving…

  2. Scientific Utopia: An agenda for improving scientific communication (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, B.

    2013-12-01

    The scientist's primary incentive is publication. In the present culture, open practices do not increase chances of publication, and they often require additional work. Practicing the abstract scientific values of openness and reproducibility thus requires behaviors in addition to those relevant for the primary, concrete rewards. When in conflict, concrete rewards are likely to dominate over abstract ones. As a consequence, the reward structure for scientists does not encourage openness and reproducibility. This can be changed by nudging incentives to align scientific practices with scientific values. Science will benefit by creating and connecting technologies that nudge incentives while supporting and improving the scientific workflow. For example, it should be as easy to search the research literature for my topic as it is to search the Internet to find hilarious videos of cats falling off of furniture. I will introduce the Center for Open Science (http://centerforopenscience.org/) and efforts to improve openness and reproducibility such as http://openscienceframework.org/. There will be no cats.

  3. Scientific Culture Measures: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Cerezo, J.L.; Muñoz van den Eynde, A

    2016-07-01

    Since mid-twentieth century, efforts to promote scientific and technological development and engage the public in R&D process are increasing. Among those efforts, since the 1970s first in United States and then in United Kingdom and Europe, governments have funded surveys aimed at understanding the public attitudes toward science, scientists, and science policy. The Science and Engineering Indicators series of the National Science Foundation, or the European Community through its Special Eurobarometer on Europeans, science and technology, have shaped the research, measures and indicators of public understanding of science surveys. Examples are, at international level, surveys like Scientific Culture in IberoAmerican Countries (2009, FECYT-OEI-RICYT), or the International Study on Scientific Culture (2012, BBVA Foundation); and at national level, surveys like Social Perception of Science and Technology (2002-2014) series, or the recent Perception, Interest, Knowledge, and Actions (PIKA) Survey (2014), both funded by Spanish Government through its Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). (Author)

  4. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  5. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepa Henry S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed.

  6. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed. PMID:23343381

  7. Procurement management in scientific research and production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yi

    2008-01-01

    To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)

  8. Scientific Software - Publish, Cite, and get Credit for your Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Klump, J. F.; Fenner, M.; Pampel, H.; Bertelmann, R.; Brembs, B.; Deinzer, G.; Reusser, D. E.; Fritzsch, B.; Loewe, P.; Wächter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific software takes on an increasingly prominent role in research. In particular in the sciences software has become an indispensable element in the research process. The way we handle software has a significant influence on the quality of research results, their traceability and reproducibility. In order to strengthen the recognition of scientific results achieved by software and to improve its visibility, the scientific community is actively working on concepts and solutions enabling researchers to publish software, cite it and be credited for it. For software to be a valuable and citeable contribution to science, the publication of scientific software must meet the quality criteria of the scientific discourse. As with data publication, defined processes and persistent identifiers should be used to make the results of research reproducible. Also, the specific needs of research have to be addressed and joined with experience gained in the field of development of free and open source software. A common understanding of handling scientific software with defined processes must be developed jointly. These processes have to address questions regarding quality assurance, versioning and documentation, traceability, reproducibility and reusability. Furthermore, the archiving of source code and executables, the use of persistent identifiers, and metrics measuring productivity, impact, and recognition have to be addressed. Especially when looking at software in the context of scientific publications only insufficient solutions exist to date. Even though it is possible to mint DOIs to identify archived source code copies, quality ensured by reviews is not addressed properly. But deserving credit for a software publication requires measures assessing the value of the published software. Subject-specific reviews paired with software-specific expertise would open up new possibilities leveraging interdisciplinarity and the interplay of complementary scientific fields such

  9. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  10. ISDMS, Inel Scientific Data Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruestle, H.R.; Russell, K.D.; Snider, D.M.; Stewart, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Description of program or function: The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Scientific Data Management System, ISDMS, is a generalized scientific data processing system designed to meet the needs of the various organizations at the INEL. It consists of a set of general and specific processors running under the control of an executive processor which serves as the interface between the system and the user. The data requirements at the INEL are primarily for times series analyses. Data acquired at various site facilities are processed on the central CDC CYBER computers. This processing includes: data conversion, data calibration, computed parameter calculations, time series plots, and sundry other applications. The data structure used in ISDMS is CWAF, a common word addressable format. A table driven command language serves as the ISDMS control language. Execution in both batch and interactive mode is possible. All commands and their input arguments are specified in free form. ISDMS is a modular system both at the top executive or MASTER level and in the independent lower or sub-level modules. ISDMS processors were designed and isolated according to their function. This release of ISDMS, identified as 1.3A by the developers, includes processors for data conversion and reformatting for applications programs (e.g. RELAP4), interactive and batch graphics, data analysis, data storage, and archival and development aids

  11. Sociocultural determiners of scientific activity transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubanov Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of modern society affects all fields. The goals and objectives of social development as well as the means to achieve them require science-based mechanisms, methodological support for studying social phenomena and their philosophical and sociological analysis. Both integrative and differential processes characterize modern scientific activity. The key reason for science institutionalization as a sociocultural phenomenon is its social inclusion. In this process science integrates with such social institutions as education, management and etc.The paper deals with research activities in higher education institutions. The importance of this study is determined by the increasing role of research activities in social, economic, political, legal and cultural development of society. In a modern society the process of institutionalization requires its dynamic development. Science has issues that should be examined. The socio-cultural basis of scientific activity changes is a key one for studying. The goal of this study is to analyze the historical validity of the characteristics of research activities in terms of sociocultural determinants. The authors carried out system and comparative analyses and a logical-historical study of the transformation of research activity phenomenon. In conclusion, sociocultural determinants of research activity formation and development are revealed in today’s changing conditions of social factors; the definitions to such concepts as “research interest” and “research needs” are given.

  12. Management of scientific information with Google Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-09-20

    The amount and diversity of scientific publications requires a modern management system. By "management" we mean the process of gathering interesting information for the purpose of reading and archiving for quick access in future clinical practice and research activity. In the past, such system required physical existence of a library, either institutional or private. Nowadays in an era dominated by electronic information, it is natural to migrate entire systems to a digital form. In the following paper we describe the structure and functions of an individual electronic library system (IELiS) for the management of scientific publications based on the Google Drive service. Architecture of the system. Architecture system consists of a central element and peripheral devices. Central element of the system is virtual Google Drive provided by Google Inc. Physical elements of the system include: tablet with Android operating system and a personal computer, both with internet access. Required software includes a program to view and edit files in PDF format for mobile devices and another to synchronize the files. Functioning of the system. The first step in creating a system is collection of scientific papers in PDF format and their analysis. This step is performed most frequently on a tablet. At this stage, after being read, the papers are cataloged in a system of folders and subfolders, according to individual demands. During this stage, but not exclusively, the PDF files are annotated by the reader. This allows the user to quickly track down interesting information in review or research process. Modification of the document title is performed at this stage, as well. Second element of the system is creation of a mirror database in the Google Drive virtual memory. Modified and cataloged papers are synchronized with Google Drive. At this stage, a fully functional scientific information electronic library becomes available online. The third element of the system is a

  13. Scientific report 1999; Rapport scientifique 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This scientific report of the Fuel Cycle Direction of the Cea, presents the Direction activities and research programs in the fuel cycle domain during the year 1999. The first chapter is devoted to the front end of the fuel cycle with the SILVA process as main topic. The second chapter is largely based on the separation chemistry of the back end cycle. The third and fourth chapters present studies of more applied and sometimes more technical developments in the nuclear industry or not. (A.L.B.)

  14. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern...

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565....../2000. This revision is made due to a re-evaluation of one flavouring substance N-(2-(pyridine-2-yl)ethyl)-3-p-menthanecarboxamide [FL-no: 16.118], as a 90-day dietary rat study has become available. One of the original five flavouring substances [FL-no: 16.124], for which additional data were requested, is no longer...

  17. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 (FGE.300): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300 using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance...... that for the substance [FL-no: 16.115] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. The composition of the stereoisomeric...

  18. Scientific and technological information: analysis of periodic publications of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Cintya do Nascimento Vasconcelos; Gabriela Belmont de Farias

    2017-01-01

    The research analyzes the articles published in national scientific journals of the area of Information Science, classified with Qualis A1, having as parameter the term "scientific and technological information". It presents concepts about scientific and technological information and the processes that involve its uses, as well as scientific communication, information flows and sources of information. The methodology used is a descriptive study with a quantitative-qualitative approach, using ...

  19. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION: THE ESSENCE AND INTERACTION OF THE COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Meniailo, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    One of the main directions of state policy in education is the development of scientific and innovation activities at institutions of higher education. It imposes on them additional features related to the inclusion of scientific activities in universities united innovative process for the creating and practical application of new knowledge. The purpose of the article is to establish the relationship between scientific and innovation activities and clarify the essence of scientific and innova...

  20. 77 FR 26302 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Member Conflict... Group; Social Psychology, Personality and Interpersonal Processes Study Section. Date: May 31-June 1...

  1. 75 FR 54159 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Review Group; Social Psychology, Personality and Interpersonal Processes Study Section. Date: October 11...: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Member Conflict: Auditory Neuroscience. Date...

  2. African Languages and Scientific Terminologies: The Hausa Example

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a picture of how scientific and technological words can be created in Hausa through compounding and derivational processes. In compounding process, two words or bound morphemes of two different languages, Hausa on one hand, and English and Arabic, on the other hand are combined to generate ...

  3. WISE technology: A scientific information system for astronomy and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Begeman, K.; Valentijn, E.; Vriend, W.-j.; Williams, O. R.

    2015-01-01

    The data processing of a number of current astronomical projects require an intelligent data handling system which can satisfy the requirements both from users processing the data and users exploring the result. We present the WISE Concept of Scientific Information Systems which has been used in a

  4. The data processor from the small scientific satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    A reprogrammable data system aboard a small scientific satellite is described that samples and processes magnetospheric measurements for transmission to the ground. The lightweight configuration of the data system is made up of the program memory, data storage, input/output module, and a central processing unit. The system is designed for multiple missions.

  5. Scientific days of Marcoule 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The sixth scientific days of Marcoule 2006 took place in La Grande Motte, on 15-19 May 2006. During these days, the research works of the PhD students of Marcoule and Pierrelatte centers are presented. A summary of the progress of each PhD thesis is given below. (O.M.)

  6. The talented scientific capable organizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Кулик

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause the role and development of the Ivanovo skilled - selection station, as research establishment is determined. A creative way founder of selection work on sugar beet and grain cereals of Boris Nikolayevich Lebedinskiy, outstanding scientific, large connoisseur of a technique of research work, creator of an agricultural science also is directly opened.

  7. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  8. Report of scientific results 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific progress report of the HMI for 1977 gives a survey of the main results of HMI research in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, and radionuclide production. After this, short summaries are given of HMI publications and papers in the above fields. (HK) [de

  9. Scientific applications of symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, A.C.

    1976-02-01

    The use of symbolic computation systems for problem solving in scientific research is reviewed. The nature of the field is described, and particular examples are considered from celestial mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and general relativity. Symbolic integration and some more recent applications of algebra systems are also discussed [fr

  10. Scientific Medical Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its ...

  11. Trieste's lesson in scientific communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The opening of the new home of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste also marked the start of a most important manifestation in science - a review of the whole of contemporary physics carried out by world leaders of scientific thought. Eight Nobel Laureates were included among more than 300 distinguished participants. (author)

  12. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  13. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-540 ISSN 1210-0250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/11/2338 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : material culture of science * scientific instruments * epistemology engines * experimental systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Scientific and Technological Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Cuba, Antonio; Robles Nique, Anita; Solis Veliz, Jose; Rodriguez R, Juan

    2005-08-01

    This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2004. This report includes 48 papers divided in 6 subject matters, such as: materials science, nuclear engineering, industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects

  15. Scientific aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is given of the basic radiation physics background knowledge required to aid the understanding of the scientific aspects of radiation protection. The different types of electromagnetic and particulate radiation are described together with general information on ray energy, radioactivity units and radionuclide half-life. (U.K.)

  16. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This definition is satisfactory in so far as it describes the function of a scientific hypothesis. But it is necessary to emphasise that what is assumed or supposed by the hypothesis (the subject matter of it) need not necessarily be of the nature .... when the intention of the author is to focus our attention on the central hypothesis in ...

  17. The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Siggaard; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge aims to reach a unique understanding of science with the help of economic and sociological theories. They use institutional and evolutionary theories and the sociological theories draw from the type of work on social studies of science that have, in recent...

  18. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  19. Developing the Critical Thinking Skills of Astrobiology Students through Creative and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Judith D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology. Key Words: Scientific inquiry—Critical thinking—Curriculum development—Astrobiology—Microbialites. Astrobiology 15, 89–99. PMID:25474292

  20. Publication and citation of scientific software with persistent identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Scientific progress depends increasingly on the use and development of software and the combination of diverse software components. Scientific software, as well as the underlying hardware platforms, also evolve quickly. But when using different versions of software and operating systems the processing of complex data can lead to significantly different results, and thus is in conflict with the principle of reproducibility in natural sciences. Incomplete documentation and ambiguous quality of the software hamper the understanding, reuse and the reproducibility of generated results. In addition, available software code repositories are developed for industrial and open source community needs and do not meet the demands of the scientific community for the sustainable use of software in sciences. Furthermore, software development in general is not perceived as a scientific achievement, similar to the situation of research data years ago. However, the development of software accounts for an increasingly prominent space in research, especially in natural sciences software has become an indispensable commodity. In its complexity the software developed within research ranges from scripts for data processing, programs of increasing complexity to extensive program packages and system images, e.g. for use in cloud infrastructures. This software, its quality and its handling highly influence the quality of research results obtained and their traceability. As a consequence of this, the scientific community is in active discussion on how to overcome the related problems, to find and implement solutions serving researchers' needs regarding software used in a scientific context. As for research data, answers to a variety of related questions and a common understanding of handling scientific software with defined processes have to be developed jointly. Amongst others, these processes have to cover issues regarding quality assurance, versioning and documentation, traceability