WorldWideScience

Sample records for electron tunneling transistor

  1. Low-frequency noise in single electron tunneling transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Mygind, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    The noise in current biased aluminium single electron tunneling (SET) transistors has been investigated in the frequency range of 5 mHz ..., we find the same input charge noise, typically QN = 5 × 10–4 e/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz, with and without the HF shielding. At lower frequencies, the noise is due to charge trapping, and the voltage noise pattern superimposed on the V(Vg) curve (voltage across transistor versus gate voltage) strongly depends...... when ramping the junction voltage. Dynamic trapping may limit the high frequency applications of the SET transistor. Also reported on are the effects of rf irradiation and the dependence of the SET transistor noise on bias voltage. ©1998 American Institute of Physics....

  2. Microwave-induced co-tunneling in single electron tunneling transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Savolainen, M.; Manscher, M.

    2002-01-01

    on rubber bellows. Cross-talk was minimized by using individual coaxial lines between the sample and the room temperature electronics: The co-tunneling experiments were performed at zero DC bias current by measuring the voltage response to a very small amplitude 2 Hz current modulation with the gate voltage......The influence of microwaves on the co-tunneling in single electron tunneling transistors has been investigated as function of frequency and power in the temperature range from 150 to 500 mK. All 20 low frequency connections and the RF line were filtered, and the whole cryostat was suspended...

  3. Metal-Insulator-Metal Single Electron Transistors with Tunnel Barriers Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karbasian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.

  4. Analysis of Co-Tunneling Current in Fullerene Single-Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    KhademHosseini, Vahideh; Dideban, Daryoosh; Ahmadi, MohammadTaghi; Ismail, Razali

    2018-05-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are nano devices which can be used in low-power electronic systems. They operate based on coulomb blockade effect. This phenomenon controls single-electron tunneling and it switches the current in SET. On the other hand, co-tunneling process increases leakage current, so it reduces main current and reliability of SET. Due to co-tunneling phenomenon, main characteristics of fullerene SET with multiple islands are modelled in this research. Its performance is compared with silicon SET and consequently, research result reports that fullerene SET has lower leakage current and higher reliability than silicon counterpart. Based on the presented model, lower co-tunneling current is achieved by selection of fullerene as SET island material which leads to smaller value of the leakage current. Moreover, island length and the number of islands can affect on co-tunneling and then they tune the current flow in SET.

  5. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al 2 O 3 /InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al 2 O 3 conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al 2 O 3 valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance

  6. A New XOR Structure Based on Resonant-Tunneling High Electron Mobility Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Sharifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structure for an exclusive-OR (XOR gate based on the resonant-tunneling high electron mobility transistor (RTHEMT is introduced which comprises only an RTHEMT and two FETs. Calculations are done by utilizing a new subcircuit model for simulating the RTHEMT in the SPICE simulator. Details of the design, input, and output values and margins, delay of each transition, maximum operating frequency, static and dynamic power dissipations of the new structure are discussed and calculated and the performance is compared with other XOR gates which confirm that the presented structure has a high performance. Furthermore, to the best of authors' knowledge, it has the least component count in comparison to the existing structures.

  7. Resonant tunneling assisted propagation and amplification of plasmons in high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Shubhendu; Sensale-Rodriguez, Berardi; Xing, Huili Grace; Rajan, Siddharth; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical and computational model is developed for the plasma-wave propagation in high electron mobility transistor structures with electron injection from a resonant tunneling diode at the gate. We discuss the conditions in which low-loss and sustainable plasmon modes can be supported in such structures. The developed analytical model is used to derive the dispersion relation for these plasmon-modes. A non-linear full-wave-hydrodynamic numerical solver is also developed using a finite difference time domain algorithm. The developed analytical solutions are validated via the numerical solution. We also verify previous observations that were based on a simplified transmission line model. It is shown that at high levels of negative differential conductance, plasmon amplification is indeed possible. The proposed rigorous models can enable accurate design and optimization of practical resonant tunnel diode-based plasma-wave devices for terahertz sources, mixers, and detectors, by allowing a precise representation of their coupling when integrated with other electromagnetic structures

  8. The effects of changing the electrodes temperature on the tunnel magnetoresistance in the ferromagnetic single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, N.; Pourali, N.; Kavaz, E.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic single electron transistor with electrodes having different temperatures is investigated and the effects of changing electrodes temperature on TMR of system are studied. A modified orthodox theory is used to study the system and to calculate the electron tunneling transition rate. The results show that the temperature of electrodes can be an effective tool to control and tune the tunnel magnetoresistance of FM-SET. Also, the effects of parameters such as resistance ratio of junctions, magnetic polarization and spin relaxation time on the behaviour of the system are studied.

  9. Design and simulation of a novel GaN based resonant tunneling high electron mobility transistor on a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Subhra; Biswas, Dhrubes; Chattaraj, Swarnabha

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we have introduced a novel GaN based resonant tunneling high electron mobility transistor (RTHEMT) on a silicon substrate. A monolithically integrated GaN based inverted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) and a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) are designed and simulated using the ATLAS simulator and MATLAB in this study. The 10% Al composition in the barrier layer of the GaN based RTD structure provides a peak-to-valley current ratio of 2.66 which controls the GaN based HEMT performance. Thus the results indicate an improvement in the current–voltage characteristics of the RTHEMT by controlling the gate voltage in this structure. The introduction of silicon as a substrate is a unique step taken by us for this type of RTHEMT structure. (paper)

  10. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  11. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...excellent agreement with experimental findings. The energy filtering has been applied to single-electron transport and clear Coulomb staircases and... Coulomb oscillations have been demonstrated at room temperature. A new architecture of energy-filtered cold electron transistors has been designed and

  12. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  13. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  14. Probing spin-polarized tunneling at high bias and temperature with a magnetic tunnel transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Min, B.C.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) is a three terminal hybrid device that consists of a tunnel emitter, a ferromagnetic (FM) base, and a semiconductor collector. In the MTT with a FM emitter and a single FM base, spin-polarized hot electrons are injected into the base by tunneling. After

  15. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J. L.; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I ON levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures

  16. Assessment of pseudo-bilayer structures in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail: jose.padilladelatorre@epfl.ch; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Medina-Bailón, C.; Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2015-06-29

    We investigate the effect of pseudo-bilayer configurations at low operating voltages (≤0.5 V) in the heterogate germanium electron-hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor (HG-EHBTFET) compared to the traditional bilayer structures of EHBTFETs arising from semiclassical simulations where the inversion layers for electrons and holes featured very symmetric profiles with similar concentration levels at the ON-state. Pseudo-bilayer layouts are attained by inducing a certain asymmetry between the top and the bottom gates so that even though the hole inversion layer is formed at the bottom of the channel, the top gate voltage remains below the required value to trigger the formation of the inversion layer for electrons. Resulting benefits from this setup are improved electrostatic control on the channel, enhanced gate-to-gate efficiency, and higher I{sub ON} levels. Furthermore, pseudo-bilayer configurations alleviate the difficulties derived from confining very high opposite carrier concentrations in very thin structures.

  17. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  18. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2017-06-29

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.

  19. Steep Turn On/Off Green Tunnel Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    band tunneling ( BTBT ), in which electrons tunnel across the energy gap of a semiconductor (i.e., valance to conduction band). Subsequent chapters will...discuss the simulation and experimental results of several transistor designs utilizing BTBT as an active “source” and enabler for ultra low voltage...operation. A thorough understanding of the BTBT models is invaluable for future discussions. In this chapter the derivation of the local or constant

  20. Current gain above 10 in sub-10 nm base III-Nitride tunneling hot electron transistors with GaN/AlN emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhichao, E-mail: zcyang.phys@gmail.com; Zhang, Yuewei; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nath, Digbijoy N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    We report on a tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 10 at a collector current density in excess of 40 kA/cm{sup 2}. The use of a wide-bandgap GaN/AlN (111 nm/2.5 nm) emitter was found to greatly improve injection efficiency of the emitter and reduce cold electron leakage. With an ultra-thin (8 nm) base, 93% of the injected hot electrons were collected, enabling a common-emitter current gain up to 14.5. This work improves understanding of the quasi-ballistic hot electron transport and may impact the development of high speed devices based on unipolar hot electron transport.

  1. Electron irradiation of power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, P.L.; Fiedor, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method for reducing storage time and gain parameters in a semiconductor transistor includes the step of subjecting the transistor to electron irradiation of a dosage determined from measurements of the parameters of a test batch of transistors. Reduction of carrier lifetime by proton bombardment and gold doping is mentioned as an alternative to electron irradiation. (author)

  2. Giant current fluctuations in an overheated single-electron transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laakso, M.A.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2010-01-01

    Interplay of cotunneling and single-electron tunneling in a thermally isolated single-electron transistor leads to peculiar overheating effects. In particular, there is an interesting crossover interval where the competition between cotunneling and single-electron tunneling changes to the dominance

  3. Design and Analysis of CMOS-Compatible III-V Compound Electron-Hole Bilayer Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor for Ultra-Low-Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yoon; Seo, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Seong Min; Cho, Seongjae; Kang, In Man

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we design and analyze complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible III-V compound electron-hole bilayer (EHB) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) by using two-dimensional (2D) technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. A recently proposed EHB TFET exploits a bias-induced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) across the electron-hole bilayer by an electric field from the top and bottom gates. This is in contrast to conventional planar p(+)-p(-)-n TFETs, which utilize BTBT across the source-to-channel junction. We applied III-V compound semiconductor materials to the EHB TFETs in order to enhance the current drivability and switching performance. Devices based on various compound semiconductor materials have been designed and analyzed in terms of their primary DC characteristics. In addition, the operational principles were validated by close examination of the electron concentrations and energy-band diagrams under various operation conditions. The simulation results of the optimally designed In0.533Ga0.47As EHB TFET show outstanding performance, with an on-state current (Ion) of 249.5 μA/μm, subthreshold swing (S) of 11.4 mV/dec, and threshold voltage (Vth) of 50 mV at VDS = 0.5 V. Based on the DC-optimized InGaAs EHB TFET, the CMOS inverter circuit was simulated in views of static and dynamic behaviors of the p-channel device with exchanges between top and bottom gates or between source and drain electrodes maintaining the device structure.

  4. Large magnetocurrents in double-barrier tunneling transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Jun, K.-I.; Shin, K.-H.; Park, S.Y.; Hong, J.K.; Rhie, K.; Lee, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic tunneling transistors (MTT) with double tunneling barriers are fabricated. The structure of the transistor is AFM/FM/I/FM/I/FM/AFM, and ferromagnetic layers serve as the emitter, base and collector. This double-barrier tunneling transistor (DBTT) has an advantage of controlling the potential between the base and collector, compared to the Schottky-barrier-based base and collector of MTT. We found that the collector current density of DBTT is at least 10 3 times larger than that of conventional MTT, since tunneling through AlO x barrier provides much larger current density than that through Schottky barrier

  5. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  6. Planar edge Schottky barrier-tunneling transistors using epitaxial graphene/SiC junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Jan; Hu, Yike; Palmer, James; Guo, Zelei; Hankinson, John; Gamal, Salah H; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2014-09-10

    A purely planar graphene/SiC field effect transistor is presented here. The horizontal current flow over one-dimensional tunneling barrier between planar graphene contact and coplanar two-dimensional SiC channel exhibits superior on/off ratio compared to conventional transistors employing vertical electron transport. Multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) grown on SiC(0001̅) was adopted as the transistor source and drain. The channel is formed by the accumulation layer at the interface of semi-insulating SiC and a surface silicate that forms after high vacuum high temperature annealing. Electronic bands between the graphene edge and SiC accumulation layer form a thin Schottky barrier, which is dominated by tunneling at low temperatures. A thermionic emission prevails over tunneling at high temperatures. We show that neglecting tunneling effectively causes the temperature dependence of the Schottky barrier height. The channel can support current densities up to 35 A/m.

  7. Gate-controlled quantum collimation in nanocolumn resonant tunnelling transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensorra, J; Lepsa, M I; Trellenkamp, S; Moers, J; Lueth, H; Indlekofer, K M

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscaled resonant tunneling transistors (RTT) based on MBE-grown GaAs/AlAs double-barrier quantum well (DBQW) structures have been fabricated by a top-down approach using electron-beam lithographic definition of the vertical nanocolumns. In the preparation process, a reproducible mask alignment accuracy of below 10 nm has been achieved and the all-around metal gate at the level of the DBQW structure has been positioned at a distance of about 20 nm relative to the semiconductor nanocolumn. Due to the specific doping profile n ++ /i/n ++ along the transistor nanocolumn, a particular confining potential is established for devices with diameters smaller than 70 nm, which causes a collimation effect of the propagating electrons. Under these conditions, room temperature optimum performance of the nano-RTTs is achieved with peak-to-valley current ratios above 2 and a peak current swing factor of about 6 for gate voltages between -6 and +6 V. These values indicate that our nano-RTTs can be successfully used in low power fast nanoelectronic circuits.

  8. Investigations of Tunneling for Field Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Matheu, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Over 40 years of scaling dimensions for new and continuing product cycles has introduced new challenges for transistor design. As the end of the technology roadmap for semiconductors approaches, new device structures are being investigated as possible replacements for traditional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in semiconductors, often viewed as an adverse effect of short channel lengths in MOSFETs, has been discussed as a promising ...

  9. Band-to-band tunneling distance analysis in the heterogate electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail: jose.padilladelatorre@epfl.ch [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Palomares, A. [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    In this work, we analyze the behavior of the band-to-band tunneling distance between electron and hole subbands resulting from field-induced quantum confinement in the heterogate electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor. We show that, analogously to the explicit formula for the tunneling distance that can be easily obtained in the semiclassical framework where the conduction and valence band edges are allowed states, an equivalent analytical expression can be derived in the presence of field-induced quantum confinement for describing the dependence of the tunneling distance on the body thickness and material properties of the channel. This explicit expression accounting for quantum confinement holds valid provided that the potential wells for electrons and holes at the top and bottom of the channel can be approximated by triangular profiles. Analytical predictions are compared to simulation results showing very accurate agreement.

  10. An analytic model for gate-all-around silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; He Jin; Chan Mansun; Ye Yun; Zhao Wei; Wu Wen; Deng Wan-Ling; Wang Wen-Ping; Du Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    An analytical model of gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire tunneling field effect transistors (NW-TFETs) is developted based on the surface potential solutions in the channel direction and considering the band to band tunneling (BTBT) efficiency. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved to obtain the surface potential distributions in the partition regions along the channel direction for the NW-TFET, and a tunneling current model using Kane's expression is developed. The validity of the developed model is shown by the good agreement between the model predictions and the TCAD simulation results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. A Klein-tunneling transistor with ballistic graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmart, Quentin; Fève, Gwendal; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Plaçais, Bernard; Berrada, Salim; Hung Nguyen, V; Dollfus, Philippe; Torrin, David

    2014-01-01

    Today, the availability of high mobility graphene up to room temperature makes ballistic transport in nanodevices achievable. In particular, p-n-p transistors in the ballistic regime give access to Klein tunneling physics and allow the realization of devices exploiting the optics-like behavior of Dirac Fermions (DFs) as in the Veselago lens or the Fabry–Pérot cavity. Here we propose a Klein tunneling transistor based on the geometrical optics of DFs. We consider the case of a prismatic active region delimited by a triangular gate, where total internal reflection may occur, which leads to the tunable suppression of transistor transmission. We calculate the transmission and the current by means of scattering theory and the finite bias properties using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) simulation. (letter)

  12. A Klein-tunneling transistor with ballistic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmart, Quentin; Fève, Gwendal; Berroir, Jean-Marc; Plaçais, Bernard [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Université P et M Curie, Université D Diderot, 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Berrada, Salim; Hung Nguyen, V; Dollfus, Philippe [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Orsay (France); Torrin, David [Département de Physique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-06-15

    Today, the availability of high mobility graphene up to room temperature makes ballistic transport in nanodevices achievable. In particular, p-n-p transistors in the ballistic regime give access to Klein tunneling physics and allow the realization of devices exploiting the optics-like behavior of Dirac Fermions (DFs) as in the Veselago lens or the Fabry–Pérot cavity. Here we propose a Klein tunneling transistor based on the geometrical optics of DFs. We consider the case of a prismatic active region delimited by a triangular gate, where total internal reflection may occur, which leads to the tunable suppression of transistor transmission. We calculate the transmission and the current by means of scattering theory and the finite bias properties using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) simulation. (letter)

  13. Trap assisted tunneling and its effect on subthreshold swing of tunnel field effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Redwan N.; Chern, Winston; Hoyt, Judy L.; Antoniadis, Dimitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a detailed study of the interface Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) mechanism in tunnel field effect transistors to show how it contributes a major leakage current path before the Band To Band Tunneling (BTBT) is initiated. With a modified Shockley-Read-Hall formalism, we show that at room temperature, the phonon assisted TAT current always dominates and obscures the steep turn ON of the BTBT current for common densities of traps. Our results are applicable to top gate, double gate and...

  14. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out. (paper)

  15. Suppression of tunneling leakage current in junctionless nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Haijun; Li, Dan; Dong, Yan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Yang, Shengqi; Chan, Mansun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of tunneling leakage current for the dual-material gate junctionless nanowire transistor (DMG-JNT) are investigated by three-dimensional numerical simulations and compared with conventional junctionless nanowire transistor (JNT). The suppression of the tunneling leakage current on the JNT by introducing an energy band step with the DMG structure is verified and presented for the first time. The effects of channel length on the DMG-JNT and the JNT are also studied. Results showed that the tunneling leakage current of the DMG-JNT is two orders smaller than that of the JNT, and further, the DMG-JNT exhibits superior scaling capability. Two key design parameters of the DMG-JNT, control gate ratio (Ra) and work function difference (δW), have been optimized and the optimal ranges of Ra and δW are pointed out.

  16. A novel Tunneling Graphene Nano Ribbon Field Effect Transistor with dual material gate: Numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Saghafi, Kamyar; Yousefi, Reza; Moravvej-farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present Dual Material Gate Tunneling Graphene Nano-Ribbon Field Effect Transistors (DMG-T-GNRFET) mainly to suppress the am-bipolar current with assumption that sub-threshold swing which is one of the important characteristics of tunneling transistors must not be degraded. In the proposed structure, dual material gates with different work functions are used. Our investigations are based on numerical simulations which self-consistently solves the 2D Poisson based on an atomistic mode-space approach and Schrodinger equations, within the Non-Equilibrium Green's (NEGF). The proposed device shows lower off-current and on-off ratio becomes 5order of magnitude greater than the conventional device. Also two different short channel effects: Drain Induced Barrier Shortening (DIBS) and hot-electron effect are improved in the proposed device compare to the main structure.

  17. Giant current fluctuations in an overheated single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M. A.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2010-11-01

    Interplay of cotunneling and single-electron tunneling in a thermally isolated single-electron transistor leads to peculiar overheating effects. In particular, there is an interesting crossover interval where the competition between cotunneling and single-electron tunneling changes to the dominance of the latter. In this interval, the current exhibits anomalous sensitivity to the effective electron temperature of the transistor island and its fluctuations. We present a detailed study of the current and temperature fluctuations at this interesting point. The methods implemented allow for a complete characterization of the distribution of the fluctuating quantities, well beyond the Gaussian approximation. We reveal and explore the parameter range where, for sufficiently small transistor islands, the current fluctuations become gigantic. In this regime, the optimal value of the current, its expectation value, and its standard deviation differ from each other by parametrically large factors. This situation is unique for transport in nanostructures and for electron transport in general. The origin of this spectacular effect is the exponential sensitivity of the current to the fluctuating effective temperature.

  18. Effect of germanium concentrations on tunnelling current calculation of Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, L.; Suhendi, E.; Khairrurijal

    2018-05-01

    Tunelling current calculation on Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor was carried out by including the coupling between transversal and longitudinal components of electron motion. The calculation results indicated that the coupling between kinetic energy in parallel and perpendicular to S1-xGex barrier surface affected tunneling current significantly when electron velocity was faster than 1x105 m/s. This analytical tunneling current model was then used to study how the germanium concentration in base to Si/Si1-xGex/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor influenced the tunneling current. It is obtained that tunneling current increased as the germanium concentration given in base decreased.

  19. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jiang; Yi-Qi, Zhuang; Cong, Li; Ping, Wang; Yu-Qi, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (Dit) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574109 and 61204092).

  20. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhi; Zhuang Yi-Qi; Li Cong; Wang Ping; Liu Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (D it ) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. (paper)

  1. Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.

  2. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current

  3. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  4. Electron tunneling in proteins program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-05

    We developed a unique integrated software package (called Electron Tunneling in Proteins Program or ETP) which provides an environment with different capabilities such as tunneling current calculation, semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculation, and molecular modeling simulation for calculation and analysis of electron transfer reactions in proteins. ETP program is developed as a cross-platform client-server program in which all the different calculations are conducted at the server side while only the client terminal displays the resulting calculation outputs in the different supported representations. ETP program is integrated with a set of well-known computational software packages including Gaussian, BALLVIEW, Dowser, pKip, and APBS. In addition, ETP program supports various visualization methods for the tunneling calculation results that assist in a more comprehensive understanding of the tunneling process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Analysis of different tunneling mechanisms of InxGa1−xAs/AlGaAs tunnel junction light-emitting transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Han; Wu, Chao-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and optical characteristics of tunnel junction light-emitting transistors (TJLETs) with different indium mole fractions (x = 5% and 2.5%) of the In x Ga 1−x As base-collector tunnel junctions have been investigated. Two electron tunneling mechanisms (photon-assisted or direct tunneling) provide additional currents to electrical output and resupply holes back to the base region, resulting in the upward slope of I-V curves and enhanced optical output under forward-active operation. The larger direct tunneling probability and stronger Franz-Keldysh absorption for 5% TJLET lead to higher collector current slope and less optical intensity enhancement when base-collector junction is under reverse-biased.

  6. Atomic-Monolayer Two-Dimensional Lateral Quasi-Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors with Resonant Tunneling Phenomenon

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Che-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Tsai, Shiao-Po; Lei, Sidong; Li, Ming-Yang; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Wu, Wen-Fa; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L.; Lan, Yann-Wen

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency operation with ultra-thin, lightweight and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics are highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems and defense technologies. In this work, the first experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe2-MoS2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density and flexible electronics.

  7. Atomic-Monolayer Two-Dimensional Lateral Quasi-Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors with Resonant Tunneling Phenomenon

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Che-Yu

    2017-10-04

    High-frequency operation with ultra-thin, lightweight and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics are highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems and defense technologies. In this work, the first experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe2-MoS2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density and flexible electronics.

  8. Atomic-Monolayer Two-Dimensional Lateral Quasi-Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors with Resonant Tunneling Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Tsai, Shiao-Po; Lei, Sidong; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Wu, Wen-Fa; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L; Lan, Yann-Wen

    2017-11-28

    High-frequency operation with ultrathin, lightweight, and extremely flexible semiconducting electronics is highly desirable for the development of mobile devices, wearable electronic systems, and defense technologies. In this work, the experimental observation of quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors utilizing a monolayer of the lateral WSe 2 -MoS 2 junctions as the conducting p-n channel is demonstrated. Both lateral n-p-n and p-n-p heterojunction bipolar transistors are fabricated to exhibit the output characteristics and current gain. A maximum common-emitter current gain of around 3 is obtained in our prototype two-dimensional quasi-heterojunction bipolar transistors. Interestingly, we also observe the negative differential resistance in the electrical characteristics. A potential mechanism is that the negative differential resistance is induced by resonant tunneling phenomenon due to the formation of quantum well under applying high bias voltages. Our results open the door to two-dimensional materials for high-frequency, high-speed, high-density, and flexible electronics.

  9. Atomistic modeling trap-assisted tunneling in hole tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pengyu; Huang, Jun Z.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Sarangapani, Prasad; Valencia-Zapata, Gustavo A.; Kubis, Tillmann; Rodwell, Mark J. W.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (FETs) have the potential to achieve steep Subthreshold Swing (S.S.) below 60 mV/dec, but their S.S. could be limited by trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) due to interface traps. In this paper, the effect of trap energy and location on OFF-current (IOFF) of tunnel FETs is evaluated systematically using an atomistic trap level representation in a full quantum transport simulation. Trap energy levels close to band edges cause the highest leakage. Wave function penetration into the surrounding oxide increases the TAT current. To estimate the effects of multiple traps, we assume that the traps themselves do not interact with each other and as a whole do not modify the electrostatic potential dramatically. Within that model limitation, this numerical metrology study points to the critical importance of TAT in the IOFF in tunnel FETs. The model shows that for Dit higher than 1012/(cm2 eV) IO F F is critically increased with a degraded IO N/IO F F ratio of the tunnel FET. In order to have an IO N/IO F F ratio higher than 104, the acceptable Dit near Ev should be controlled to no larger than 1012/(cm2 eV) .

  10. Principles of electron tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a research tool has strongly advanced understanding of superconductivity. This book explains the physics and instrumentation behind the advances illustrated in beautiful images of atoms, rings of atoms and exotic states in high temperature superconductors, and summarizes the state of knowledge that has resulted.

  11. Auger generation as an intrinsic limit to tunneling field-effect transistor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teherani, James T.; Agarwal, Sapan; Chern, Winston; Antoniadis, Dimitri A.; Solomon, Paul M.; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society's best hope for achieving a >10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly underperformed simulations and conventional MOSFETs. To explain the discrepancy between TFET experiments and simulations, we investigate the parasitic leakage current due to Auger generation, an intrinsic mechanism that cannot be mitigated with improved material quality or better device processing. We expose the intrinsic link between the Auger and band-to-band tunneling rates, highlighting the difficulty of increasing one without the other. From this link, we show that Auger generation imposes a fundamental limit on ultimate TFET performance.

  12. Auger generation as an intrinsic limit to tunneling field-effect transistor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teherani, James T., E-mail: j.teherani@columbia.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Agarwal, Sapan [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Chern, Winston; Antoniadis, Dimitri A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Solomon, Paul M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Yablonovitch, Eli [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society's best hope for achieving a >10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly underperformed simulations and conventional MOSFETs. To explain the discrepancy between TFET experiments and simulations, we investigate the parasitic leakage current due to Auger generation, an intrinsic mechanism that cannot be mitigated with improved material quality or better device processing. We expose the intrinsic link between the Auger and band-to-band tunneling rates, highlighting the difficulty of increasing one without the other. From this link, we show that Auger generation imposes a fundamental limit on ultimate TFET performance.

  13. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  14. Tunnel field-effect transistor with two gated intrinsic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and validate (using simulations a novel design of silicon tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET, based on a reverse-biased p+-p-n-n+ structure. 2D device simulation results show that our devices have significant improvements of switching performance compared with more conventional devices based on p-i-n structure. With independent gate voltages applied to two gated intrinsic regions, band-to-band tunneling (BTBT could take place at the p-n junction, and no abrupt degenerate doping profile is required. We developed single-side-gate (SSG structure and double-side-gate (DSG structure. SSG devices with HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 9.58 mV/decade, while DSG devices with polysilicon gate electrode material and HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 16.39 mV/decade. These DSG devices have ON-current of 0.255 μA/μm, while that is lower for SSG devices. Having two nano-scale independent gates will be quite challenging to realize with good uniformity across the wafer and the improved behavior of our TFET makes it a promising steep-slope switch candidate for further investigations.

  15. High-Current-Density Vertical-Tunneling Transistors from Graphene/Highly Doped Silicon Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Sheng, Jiming; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Shakir, Muhammad Imran; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-06-01

    Scalable fabrication of vertical-tunneling transistors is presented based on heterostructures formed between graphene, highly doped silicon, and its native oxide. Benefiting from the large density of states of highly doped silicon, the tunneling transistors can deliver a current density over 20 A cm(-2) . This study demonstrates that the interfacial native oxide plays a crucial role in governing the carrier transport in graphene-silicon heterostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hetero-gate-dielectric double gate junctionless transistor (HGJLT) with reduced band-to-band tunnelling effects in subthreshold regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Mondal, Partha; Akram, M. W.; Bal, Punyasloka; Salimath, Akshay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a hetero-gate-dielectric double gate junctionless transistor (HGJLT), taking high-k gate insulator at source side and low-k gate insulator at drain side, which reduces the effects of band-to-band tunnelling (BTBT) in the sub-threshold region. A junctionless transistor (JLT) is turned off by the depletion of carriers in the highly doped thin channel (device layer) which results in a significant band overlap between the valence band of the channel region and the conduction band of the drain region, due to off-state drain bias, that triggers electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the channel region to the conduction band of the drain region leaving behind holes in the channel. These effects of band-to-band tunnelling increase the sub-threshold leakage current, and the accumulation of holes in the channel forms a parasitic bipolar junction transistor (n–p–n BJT for channel JLT) in the lateral direction by the source (emitter), channel (base) and drain (collector) regions in JLT structure in off-state. The proposed HGJLT reduces the subthreshold leakage current and suppresses the parasitic BJT action in off-state by reducing the band-to-band tunnelling probability. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Resonant tunnelling and negative differential conductance in graphene transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Geim, A. K.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Mishchenko, A.; Greenaway, M. T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Novoselov, K. S.; Eaves, L.

    2013-04-01

    The chemical stability of graphene and other free-standing two-dimensional crystals means that they can be stacked in different combinations to produce a new class of functional materials, designed for specific device applications. Here we report resonant tunnelling of Dirac fermions through a boron nitride barrier, a few atomic layers thick, sandwiched between two graphene electrodes. The resonance occurs when the electronic spectra of the two electrodes are aligned. The resulting negative differential conductance in the device characteristics persists up to room temperature and is gate voltage-tuneable due to graphene’s unique Dirac-like spectrum. Although conventional resonant tunnelling devices comprising a quantum well sandwiched between two tunnel barriers are tens of nanometres thick, the tunnelling carriers in our devices cross only a few atomic layers, offering the prospect of ultra-fast transit times. This feature, combined with the multi-valued form of the device characteristics, has potential for applications in high-frequency and logic devices.

  18. Assessment of field-induced quantum confinement in heterogate germanium electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J. L.; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M.; Gámiz, F.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of quantum mechanical confinement in recent germanium electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistors has been shown to substantially affect the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism between electron and hole inversion layers that constitutes the operating principle of these devices. The vertical electric field that appears across the intrinsic semiconductor to give rise to the bilayer configuration makes the formerly continuous conduction and valence bands become a discrete set of energy subbands, therefore increasing the effective bandgap close to the gates and reducing the BTBT probabilities. In this letter, we present a simulation approach that shows how the inclusion of quantum confinement and the subsequent modification of the band profile results in the appearance of lateral tunneling to the underlap regions that greatly degrades the subthreshold swing of these devices. To overcome this drawback imposed by confinement, we propose an heterogate configuration that proves to suppress this parasitic tunneling and enhances the device performance.

  19. Assessment of field-induced quantum confinement in heterogate germanium electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J. L., E-mail: jose.padilladelatorre@epfl.ch; Alper, C.; Ionescu, A. M. [Nanoelectronic Devices Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Gámiz, F. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-08-25

    The analysis of quantum mechanical confinement in recent germanium electron–hole bilayer tunnel field-effect transistors has been shown to substantially affect the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism between electron and hole inversion layers that constitutes the operating principle of these devices. The vertical electric field that appears across the intrinsic semiconductor to give rise to the bilayer configuration makes the formerly continuous conduction and valence bands become a discrete set of energy subbands, therefore increasing the effective bandgap close to the gates and reducing the BTBT probabilities. In this letter, we present a simulation approach that shows how the inclusion of quantum confinement and the subsequent modification of the band profile results in the appearance of lateral tunneling to the underlap regions that greatly degrades the subthreshold swing of these devices. To overcome this drawback imposed by confinement, we propose an heterogate configuration that proves to suppress this parasitic tunneling and enhances the device performance.

  20. Transport Characteristics of Mesoscopic Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A. H.; Kirah, K.; Aly, N. A. I.; El-Sayes, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    The transport property of a quantum dot under the influence of external time-dependent field is investigated. The mesoscopic device is modelled as semiconductor quantum dot coupled weakly to superconducting leads via asymmetric double tunnel barriers of different heights. An expression for the current is deduced by using the Landauer–Buttiker formula, taking into consideration of both the Coulomb blockade effect and the magnetic field. It is found that the periodic oscillation of the current with the magnetic field is controlled by the ratio of the frequency of the applied ac-field to the electron cyclotron frequency. Our results show that the present device operates as a radio-frequency single electron transistor

  1. Germanium-Source Tunnel Field Effect Transistors for Ultra-Low Power Digital Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    CMOS) technology. In this work, Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based on Band-to-Band Tunneling ( BTBT ) will be proposed and investigated as an...Band Tunneling ( BTBT ) will be proposed and investigated as an alternative logic switch which can achieve steeper switching characteristics than the...11 2.3.2 Calculation of the Imaginary Dispersion Relation ……………………… 12 2.3.3 Calculation of the BTBT Current and Generation Rate

  2. Atomic-Monolayer MoS2 Band-to-Band Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann Wen

    2016-09-05

    The experimental observation of band-to-band tunneling in novel tunneling field-effect transistors utilizing a monolayer of MoS2 as the conducting channel is demonstrated. Our results indicate that the strong gate-coupling efficiency enabled by two-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2, results in the direct manifestation of a band-to-band tunneling current and an ambipolar transport.

  3. Low-threshold amplitude discriminator circuit with tunnel diode and two transistors in differential connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba, J.; Volny, J.

    1973-01-01

    The connection is designed of a low-threshold amplitude discriminator and a tunnel diode with two transistors in differential connection. The discriminator is by its simple connection, its low consumption and high temperature stability suitable especially for portable radiation detectors. The tunnel diode is connected by one pole to a collector clamp and by the other to the supply voltage. A suitable resistor is connected in parallel with the tunnel diode to meet demands for higher sensitivity. (Z.S.)

  4. Study of tunneling transport in Si-based tunnel field-effect transistors with ON current enhancement utilizing isoelectronic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; Miyata, Noriyuki; Migita, Shinji; Fukuda, Koichi; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Masahara, Meishoku; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the tunneling transport characteristics of Si diodes with an isoelectronic impurity has been investigated in order to clarify the mechanism of the ON-current enhancement in Si-based tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) utilizing an isoelectronic trap (IET). The Al-N complex impurity was utilized for IET formation. We observed three types of tunneling current components in the diodes: indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT), trap-assisted tunneling (TAT), and thermally inactive tunneling. The indirect BTBT and TAT current components can be distinguished with the plot described in this paper. The thermally inactive tunneling current probably originated from tunneling consisting of two paths: tunneling between the valence band and the IET trap and tunneling between the IET trap and the conduction band. The probability of thermally inactive tunneling with the Al-N IET state is higher than the others. Utilization of the thermally inactive tunneling current has a significant effect in enhancing the driving current of Si-based TFETs.

  5. On the role of disorder on graphene and graphene nanoribbon-based vertical tunneling transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobadi, Nayereh; Pourfath, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of vertical tunneling field-effect transistors based on graphene (VTGFET) and graphene nanoribbon heterostructure (VTGNRFET) in the presence of disorder are theoretically investigated. An statistical analysis based on an atomistic tight-binding model for the electronic bandstructure along with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism are employed. We study the dependence of the averaged density of states, transmission probability, on- and off-state conductances, on/off conductance ratio, and transfer characteristics on the substrate induced potential fluctuations and vacancies. In addition, the variabilities of the device characteristics due to the presence of disorder are evaluated. It can be inferred from the results that while introducing vacancies cause a relatively modest suppression of the transmission probability, potential fluctuations lead to the significant increase of transmission probability and conductance of the device. Moreover, the results show that the transport properties of VTGFET are more robust against disorder compared to VTGNRFET

  6. Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, S. M.; Fan, B.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    Rectification characteristics of nonsuperconducting metal-barrier-metal junctions as deduced from electronic tunneling theory have been observed experimentally for optical frequency irradiation of the junction.

  7. Modelling transport in single electron transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh Sy Hien; Huynh Lam Thu Thao; Le Hoang Minh

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of single electron transistor (SET). Simulation programme of SET is used as the exploratory tool in order to gain better understanding of process and device physics. This simulator includes a graphic user interface (GUI) in Matlab. The SET was simulated using GUI in Matlab to get current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. In addition, effects of device capacitance, bias, temperature on the I-V characteristics were obtained. In this work, we review the capabilities of the simulator of the SET. Typical simulations of the obtained I-V characteristics of the SET are presented.

  8. Enhancement of tunneling current in phosphorene tunnel field effect transistors by surface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Gong, Jian; Chen, Jie-Zhi; ManduLa, Huhe; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Yang, Shen-Yuan; Jiang, Xiang-Wei

    2018-02-21

    The effects of the staggered double vacancies, hydrogen (H), 3d transition metals, for example cobalt, and semiconductor covalent atoms, for example, germanium, nitrogen, phosphorus (P) and silicon adsorption on the transport properties of monolayer phosphorene were studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. It was observed that the performance of the phosphorene tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) with an 8.8 nm scaling channel length could be improved most effectively, if the adatoms or vacancies were introduced at the source channel interface. For H and P doped devices, the upper limit of on-state currents of phosphorene TFETs were able to be quickly increased to 2465 μA μm -1 and 1652 μA μm -1 , respectively, which not only outperformed the pristine sample, but also met the requirements for high performance logic applications for the next decade in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). It was proved that the defect-induced band gap states make the effective tunneling path between the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) much shorter, so that the carriers can be injected easily from the left electrode, then transfer to the channel. In this regard, the tunneling properties of phosphorene TFETs can be manipulated using surface defects. In addition, the effects of spin polarization on the transport properties of doped phosphorene TFETs were also rigorously considered, H and P doped TFETs could achieve a high ON current of 1795 μA μm -1 and 1368 μA μm -1 , respectively, which is closer to realistic nanodevices.

  9. Design of a Negative Differential Resistance Circuit Element Using Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D. C.; Heij, C. P.; Hadley, P.; Mooij, J. E.

    1998-03-01

    Electronic circuit elements displaying negative differential resistance (NDR), such as tunnel diodes, have a wide variety of device applications, including oscillators, amplifiers, logic, and memory. We present a two-terminal device using two single-electron transistors (SET's) that demonstrates an NDR profile tuneable with gate voltages. If the capacitive coupling between the SET's is sufficiently larger than the junction capacitances, the device exhibits multiply-peaked NDR, allowing its use as a multi-valued digital element. We will also report recent experimental progress in measurements of such a device, fabricated using standard Al tunnel junctions, but with an additional overlap capacitor to allow the required inter-SET coupling.

  10. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  11. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices. C L ROY. Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have ...

  12. Revisiting the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process on current-voltage characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yasuhisa; Mori, Yoshiaki; Sato, Shingo; Mallik, Abhijit

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the role of trap-assisted-tunneling process in controlling the ON- and OFF-state current levels and its impacts on the current-voltage characteristics of a tunnel field-effect transistor. Significant impacts of high-density traps in the source region are observed that are discussed in detail. With regard to recent studies on isoelectronic traps, it has been discovered that deep level density must be minimized to suppress the OFF-state leakage current, as is well known, whereas shallow levels can be utilized to control the ON-state current level. A possible mechanism is discussed based on simulation results.

  13. Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben

    2006-01-01

    In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

  14. Effects of Energy Relaxation via Quantum Coupling Among Three-Dimensional Motion on the Tunneling Current of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Li, Xijun

    2015-12-01

    We report theoretical study of the effects of energy relaxation on the tunneling current through the oxide layer of a two-dimensional graphene field-effect transistor. In the channel, when three-dimensional electron thermal motion is considered in the Schrödinger equation, the gate leakage current at a given oxide field largely increases with the channel electric field, electron mobility, and energy relaxation time of electrons. Such an increase can be especially significant when the channel electric field is larger than 1 kV/cm. Numerical calculations show that the relative increment of the tunneling current through the gate oxide will decrease with increasing the thickness of oxide layer when the oxide is a few nanometers thick. This highlights that energy relaxation effect needs to be considered in modeling graphene transistors.

  15. Electroluminescence from graphene excited by electron tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams, Ryan; Bharadwaj, Palash; Novotny, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    We use low-energy electron tunneling to excite electroluminescence in single layer graphene. Electrons are injected locally using a scanning tunneling microscope and the luminescence is analyzed using a wide-angle optical imaging system. The luminescence can be switched on and off by inverting the tip–sample bias voltage. The observed luminescence is explained in terms of a hot luminescence mechanism. (paper)

  16. Hard rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    Intense submicrosecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types, the spall debris generally consisting of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods were studied. (auth)

  17. Interlayer tunnel field-effect transistor (ITFET): physics, fabrication and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Mou, Xuehao; Fallahazad, Babak; Prasad, Nitin; Wu, Xian; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Movva, Hema C. P.; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    The scaling challenges of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) are increasing with the pace of scaling showing marked signs of slowing down. This slowing has brought about a widespread search for an alternative beyond-CMOS device concept. While the charge tunneling phenomenon has been known for almost a century, and tunneling based transistors have been studied in the past few decades, its possibilities are being re-examined with the emergence of a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. By stacking varying 2D materials together, with two electrode layers sandwiching a tunnel dielectric layer, it could be possible to make vertical tunnel transistors without the limitations that have plagued such devices implemented within other material systems. When the two electrode layers are of the same material, under certain conditions, one can achieve resonant tunneling between the two layers, manifesting as negative differential resistance (NDR) in the interlayer current-voltage characteristics. We call this type of device an interlayer tunnel FET (ITFET). We review the basic operation principles of this device, experimental and theoretical studies, and benchmark simulation results for several digital logic gates based on a compact model that we developed. The results are placed in the context of work going on in other groups.

  18. Poly-silicon quantum-dot single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kwon-Chil; Lee, Joung-Eob; Lee, Jung-Han; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyung-Cheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-01-01

    For operation of a single-electron transistors (SETs) at room temperature, we proposed a fabrication method for a SET with a self-aligned quantum dot by using polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si). The self-aligned quantum dot is formed by the selective etching of a silicon nanowire on a planarized surface and the subsequent deposition and etch-back of poly-silicon or chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The two tunneling barriers of the SET are fabricated by thermal oxidation. Also, to decrease the leakage current and control the gate capacitance, we deposit a hard oxide mask layer. The control gate is formed by using an electron beam and photolithography on chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Owing to the small capacitance of the narrow control gate due to the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) hard mask, we observe clear Coulomb oscillation peaks and differential trans-conductance curves at room temperature. The clear oscillation period of the fabricated SET is 2.0 V.

  19. InAs/Si Hetero-Junction Nanotube Tunnel Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-structure tunnel junctions in non-planar gate-all-around nanowire (GAA NW) tunnel FETs (TFETs) have shown significant enhancement in ‘ON’ state tunnel current over their all-silicon counterpart. Here we show the unique concept of nanotube TFET in a hetero-structure configuration that is capable of much higher drive current as opposed to that of GAA NW TFETs.Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, a single III-V hetero-structured nanotube TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area while achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. Numerical simulations has shown that a 10 nm thin nanotube TFET with a 100 nm core gate has a 5×normalized output current compared to a 10 nm diameter GAA NW TFET.

  20. InAs/Si Hetero-Junction Nanotube Tunnel Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2015-04-29

    Hetero-structure tunnel junctions in non-planar gate-all-around nanowire (GAA NW) tunnel FETs (TFETs) have shown significant enhancement in ‘ON’ state tunnel current over their all-silicon counterpart. Here we show the unique concept of nanotube TFET in a hetero-structure configuration that is capable of much higher drive current as opposed to that of GAA NW TFETs.Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, a single III-V hetero-structured nanotube TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area while achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. Numerical simulations has shown that a 10 nm thin nanotube TFET with a 100 nm core gate has a 5×normalized output current compared to a 10 nm diameter GAA NW TFET.

  1. Tunable SnSe2 /WSe2 Heterostructure Tunneling Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Li, Chao; Bao, Wenzhong; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    The burgeoning 2D semiconductors can maintain excellent device electrostatics with an ultranarrow channel length and can realize tunneling by electrostatic gating to avoid deprivation of band-edge sharpness resulting from chemical doping, which make them perfect candidates for tunneling field effect transistors. Here this study presents SnSe 2 /WSe 2 van der Waals heterostructures with SnSe 2 as the p-layer and WSe 2 as the n-layer. The energy band alignment changes from a staggered gap band offset (type-II) to a broken gap (type-III) when changing the negative back-gate voltage to positive, resulting in the device operating as a rectifier diode (rectification ratio ~10 4 ) or an n-type tunneling field effect transistor, respectively. A steep average subthreshold swing of 80 mV dec -1 for exceeding two decades of drain current with a minimum of 37 mV dec -1 at room temperature is observed, and an evident trend toward negative differential resistance is also accomplished for the tunneling field effect transistor due to the high gate efficiency of 0.36 for single gate devices. The I ON /I OFF ratio of the transfer characteristics is >10 6 , accompanying a high ON current >10 -5 A. This work presents original phenomena of multilayer 2D van der Waals heterostructures which can be applied to low-power consumption devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Investigation of Corner Effect and Identification of Tunneling Regimes in L-Shaped Tunnel Field-Effect-Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam, Faraz; Yu, Yun Seop

    2018-09-01

    Corner-effect existing in L-shaped tunnel field-effect-transistor (LTFET) was investigated using numerical simulations and band diagram analysis. It was found that the corner-effect is caused by the convergence of electric field in the sharp source corner present in an LTFET, thereby increasing the electric field in the sharp source corner region. It was found that in the corner-effect region tunneling starts early, as a function of applied bias, as compared to the rest of the channel not affected by corner-effect. Further, different tunneling regimes as a function of applied bias were identified in the LTFET including source to channel and channel to channel tunneling regimes. Presence of different tunneling regimes in LTFET was analytically justified with a set of equations developed to model source to channel, and channel to channel tunneling currents. Drain-current-gate-voltage (Ids-Vgs) characteristics obtained from the equations is in reasonable qualitative agreement with numerical simulation.

  3. Band-to-Band Tunneling Transistors: Scalability and Circuit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The largest company in the world is now a technology company (Apple Inc.) whose products are all enabled by transistors [2]. Any changes, for better...increasing standby battery life. The nVidia Tegra 3 mobile processor for applications in smartphones and tablets contains five cores: one low power...white paper, NVIDIA , 2011. 14. W. G. Vandenberghe, B. Sorée, W. Magnus, G. Groeseneken, and M. V. Fischetti, “Impact of field-induced quantum

  4. Dissipative tunneling and orthogonality catastrophe in molecular transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braig, S.; Flensberg, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Transport through molecular devices with weak tunnel coupling to the leads but with strong coupling to a single vibrational mode is considered in the case where the vibration is damped by coupling to the environment. In particular, we investigate what influence the electrostatic coupling of the c......Transport through molecular devices with weak tunnel coupling to the leads but with strong coupling to a single vibrational mode is considered in the case where the vibration is damped by coupling to the environment. In particular, we investigate what influence the electrostatic coupling...

  5. A review of selected topics in physics based modeling for tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseni, David; Pala, Marco; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Alper, Cem; Rollo, Tommaso

    2017-08-01

    The research field on tunnel-FETs (TFETs) has been rapidly developing in the last ten years, driven by the quest for a new electronic switch operating at a supply voltage well below 1 V and thus delivering substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of integrated circuits. This paper reviews several aspects related to physics based modeling in TFETs, and shows how the description of these transistors implies a remarkable innovation and poses new challenges compared to conventional MOSFETs. A hierarchy of numerical models exist for TFETs covering a wide range of predictive capabilities and computational complexities. We start by reviewing seminal contributions on direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) modeling in semiconductors, from which most TCAD models have been actually derived. Then we move to the features and limitations of TCAD models themselves and to the discussion of what we define non-self-consistent quantum models, where BTBT is computed with rigorous quantum-mechanical models starting from frozen potential profiles and closed-boundary Schrödinger equation problems. We will then address models that solve the open-boundary Schrödinger equation problem, based either on the non-equilibrium Green’s function NEGF or on the quantum-transmitting-boundary formalism, and show how the computational burden of these models may vary in a wide range depending on the Hamiltonian employed in the calculations. A specific section is devoted to TFETs based on 2D crystals and van der Waals hetero-structures. The main goal of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to the most important physics based models for TFETs, and with a possible guidance to the wide and rapidly developing literature in this exciting research field.

  6. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  7. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  8. Band-to-band tunneling in Γ valley for Ge source lateral tunnel field effect transistor: Thickness scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Rastogi, Priyank; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-07-01

    The direct and indirect valleys in Germanium (Ge) are separated by a very small offset, which opens up the prospect of direct tunneling in the Γ valley of an extended Ge source tunnel field effect transistor (TFET). We explore the impact of thickness scaling of extended Ge source lateral TFET on the band to band tunneling (BTBT) current. The Ge source is extended inside the gate by 2 nm to confine the tunneling in Ge only. We observe that as the thickness is scaled, the band alignment at the Si/Ge heterojunction changes significantly, which results in an increase in Ge to Si BTBT current. Based on density functional calculations, we first obtain the band structure parameters (bandgap, effective masses, etc.) for the Ge and Si slabs of varying thickness, and these are then used to obtain the thickness dependent Kane's BTBT tunneling parameters. We find that electrostatics improves as the thickness is reduced in the ultra-thin Ge film ( ≤ 10 nm). The ON current degrades as we scale down in thickness; however, the subthreshold slope ( S S AVG ) improves remarkably with thickness scaling due to subsurface BTBT. We predict that 8 nm thin devices offer the best option for optimized ON current and S S AVG .

  9. Quantum Transport in Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors for Future Nano-CMOS Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, William

    2012-01-01

    After decades of scientific and technological development to fabricate ever smaller, faster and more energy efficient MOSFETs, reducing MOSFET power consumption is becoming increasingly difficult. As a possible successor to the MOSFET, the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) has been proposed. The topic of this thesis is to study the working principle of the TFET and to go beyond the semiclassical models towards a fully quantum mechanical modeling of the TFET which has band-to-band tunnelin...

  10. Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M I; Tyaginov, S E; Shulekin, A F

    2005-01-01

    The value of m h = 0.33 m 0 has been experimentally obtained for hole effective mass in a tunnel-thin (2-3 nm) SiO 2 film. The use of this value ensures the adequate modelling of a direct-tunnelling hole current in MOS devices. For the first time, in order to determine m h , the characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor have been mathematically processed, that allows for the precise estimation of the effective oxide thickness, as the electron effective mass in SiO 2 is independently known from the literature. The formulae for simulation of currents in a tunnel MOS structure are listed along with the necessary parameter values

  11. Electron tunneling across a tunable potential barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A; Anthore, A; Rocca, M L Della; Boulat, E; Lafarge, P

    2009-01-01

    We present an experiment where the elementary quantum electron tunneling process should be affected by an independent gate voltage parameter. We have realized nanotransistors where the source and drain electrodes are created by electromigration inducing a nanometer sized gap acting as a tunnel barrier. The barrier potential shape is in first approximation considered trapezoidal. The application of a voltage to the gate electrode close to the barrier region can in principle affect the barrier shape. Simulations of the source drain tunnel current as a function of the gate voltage predict modulations as large as one hundred percent. The difficulty of observing the predicted behaviour in our samples might be due to the peculiar geometry of the realized tunnel junction.

  12. Improving band-to-band tunneling in a tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistor by multi-level development of impurities in the drain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Ghodrati, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, in order to improve the performance of a tunneling carbon nanotube field effect transistor (T-CNTFET) a new structure is proposed using multi-level impurity distribution along the drain region. The new T-CNTFET structure consists of six parts in the drain with stepwise doping distribution. The impurities on the drain side are n -type and the length of each region is 5nm. Electronic features of the proposed structure are simulated by the solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equations and the self-consistent method using Non-equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF). Simulation results show that the proposed structure reduces the band curvature near the drain-channel connection and widens the tunneling barrier. As a result, band-to-band tunneling and the OFF current are reduced and the ON/OFF current ratio increases in comparison with the conventional structure. In summary, by improving the subthreshold swing parameters, delay time, power delay product ( PDP and cut-off frequency compared to the conventional structure, the proposed structure can be considered as a proper candidate for digital applications with high speed and low power dissipation.

  13. Electron accelerator for tunneling through hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.

    1975-10-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods are presented, with primary emphasis on the electron accelerator and only a brief description of the tunneling aspects. Of several candidate types of accelerators, a linear induction accelerator producing electron pulses (5 MV, 5 kA, 1.0 μs = 25 kJ) at a 360 Hz rate was selected for the conceptual example. This provides the required average electron beam power output of 9 MW. The feasibility of such an accelerator is discussed

  14. Electron accelerator for tunneling through hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.

    1975-01-01

    Earlier work demonstrated that intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods are presented with primary emphasis on the electron accelerator and only a brief description of the tunneling aspects. Of several candidate types of accelerators, a linear induction accelerator producing electron pulses (5 MV, 5 kA, 1.0 μs = 25 kJ) at a 360 Hz rate was selected for the conceptual example. This provides the required average electron beam power output of 9 MW. The feasibility of such an accelerator is discussed

  15. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  16. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  17. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es, E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  18. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K.; Arbiol, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations

  19. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm 2 /V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (V on ) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (V P /V E ) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm 2 /V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the V P /V E of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional V on shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the V P /V E of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  20. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-09-01

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm2/V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (Von) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (VP/VE) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm2/V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the VP/VE of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional Von shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the VP/VE of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  1. A Steep-Slope Transistor Combining Phase-Change and Band-to-Band-Tunneling to Achieve a sub-Unity Body Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Wolfgang A; Casu, Emanuele A; Biswas, Arnab; Rosca, Teodor; Alper, Cem; Krammer, Anna; Luong, Gia V; Zhao, Qing-T; Mantl, Siegfried; Schüler, Andreas; Ionescu, A M

    2017-03-23

    Steep-slope transistors allow to scale down the supply voltage and the energy per computed bit of information as compared to conventional field-effect transistors (FETs), due to their sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing at room temperature. Currently pursued approaches to achieve such a subthermionic subthreshold swing consist in alternative carrier injection mechanisms, like quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in Tunnel FETs or abrupt phase-change in metal-insulator transition (MIT) devices. The strengths of the BTBT and MIT have been combined in a hybrid device architecture called phase-change tunnel FET (PC-TFET), in which the abrupt MIT in vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) lowers the subthreshold swing of strained-silicon nanowire TFETs. In this work, we demonstrate that the principle underlying the low swing in the PC-TFET relates to a sub-unity body factor achieved by an internal differential gate voltage amplification. We study the effect of temperature on the switching ratio and the swing of the PC-TFET, reporting values as low as 4.0 mV/decade at 25 °C, 7.8 mV/decade at 45 °C. We discuss how the unique characteristics of the PC-TFET open new perspectives, beyond FETs and other steep-slope transistors, for low power electronics, analog circuits and neuromorphic computing.

  2. Perspective analysis of tri gate germanium tunneling field-effect transistor with dopant segregation region at source/drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-kui; Shi, Cheng; Zhang, Yi-bo; Sun, Lei

    2017-04-01

    A tri gate Ge-based tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) has been numerically studied with technology computer aided design (TCAD) tools. Dopant segregated Schottky source/drain is applied to the device structure design (DS-TFET). The characteristics of the DS-TFET are compared and analyzed comprehensively. It is found that the performance of n-channel tri gate DS-TFET with a positive bias is insensitive to the dopant concentration and barrier height at n-type drain, and that the dopant concentration and barrier height at a p-type source considerably affect the device performance. The domination of electron current in the entire BTBT current of this device accounts for this phenomenon and the tri-gate DS-TFET is proved to have a higher performance than its dual-gate counterpart.

  3. Dual metal gate tunneling field effect transistors based on MOSFETs: A 2-D analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    A novel 2-D analytical drain current model of novel Dual Metal Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors Based on MOSFETs (DMG-TFET) is presented in this paper. The proposed Tunneling FET is extracted from a MOSFET structure by employing an additional electrode in the source region with an appropriate work function to induce holes in the N+ source region and hence makes it as a P+ source region. The electric field is derived which is utilized to extract the expression of the drain current by analytically integrating the band to band tunneling generation rate in the tunneling region based on the potential profile by solving the Poisson's equation. Through this model, the effects of the thin film thickness and gate voltage on the potential, the electric field, and the effects of the thin film thickness on the tunneling current can be studied. To validate our present model we use SILVACO ATLAS device simulator and the analytical results have been compared with it and found a good agreement.

  4. Sidewall gated double well quasi-one-dimensional resonant tunneling transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolagunta, V. R.; Janes, D. B.; Melloch, M. R.; Youtsey, C.

    1997-12-01

    We present gating characteristics of submicron vertical resonant tunneling transistors in double quantum well heterostructures. Current-voltage characteristics at room temperature and 77 K for devices with minimum feature widths of 0.9 and 0.7 μm are presented and discussed. The evolution of the I-V characteristics with increasing negative gate biases is related to the change in the lateral confinement, with a transition from a large area 2D to a quasi-1D. Even gating of multiple wells and lateral confinement effects observable at 77 K make these devices ideally suited for applications in multi-valued logic systems and low-dimensional structures.

  5. Electron tunnelling in glassy media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.J.; Pilling, M.J.; Rice, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of electron scavenging by a range of solute molecules in methanol, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) and 10mol dm -3 hydroxide glasses has been investigated by γ-radiolysis at 77K using spectrophotometric detection. The data have been analyzed using the recent theory of Dainton, Pilling and Rice (J.C.S. Faraday II; 71:1311 (1975)), and a satisfactory fit found. The trap depths for the thre systems are estimated to be 1.7eV (methanol), 1.0eV (MTHF) and 0.95eV (aq.hydroxide). A wide variation in the scavenging efficiency is tentatively ascribed to the differing geometries of the scavenger molecules. For MTHF and 10mol dm -3 hydroxide glasses, the efficiency of scavenging is independent of wave-length, suggesting that the width of the electron spectrum is not due to a range of trap depths. (author)

  6. ON current enhancement of nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Kohei; Hashimoto, Shuichiro; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Asada, Shuhei; Xu, Taiyu; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Watanabe, Takanobu

    2016-04-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky barrier tunnel field effect transistors (NW-SBTFETs) are promising structures for high performance devices. In this study, we fabricated NW-SBTFETs to investigate the effect of nanowire structure on the device characteristics. The NW-SBTFETs were operated with a backgate bias, and the experimental results demonstrate that the ON current density is enhanced by narrowing the width of the nanowire. We confirmed using the Fowler-Nordheim plot that the drain current in the ON state mainly comprises the quantum tunneling component through the Schottky barrier. Comparison with a technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation revealed that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field concentration at the corners of cross-section of the NW. The study findings suggest an effective approach to securing the ON current by Schottky barrier width modulation.

  7. Design of double gate vertical tunnel field effect transistor using HDB and its performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Chauhan, Sudakar Singh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the double gate vertical tunnel field-effect transistor using homo/hetero dielectric buried oxide (HDB) to obtain the optimized device characteristics. In this concern, the existence of double gate, HDB and electrode work-function engineering enhances DC performance and Analog/RF performance. The use of electrostatic doping helps to achieve higher on-current owing to occurrence of higher tunneling generation rate of charge carriers at the source/epitaxial interface. Further, lightly doped drain region and high- k dielectric below channel and drain region are responsible to suppress the ambipolar current. Simulated results clarifies that proposed device have achieved the tremendous performance in terms of driving current capability, steeper subthreshold slope (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), hot carrier effects (HCEs) and high frequency parameters for better device reliability.

  8. Effects of overheating in a single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korotkov, A. N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Vasenko, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Heating of a single-electron transistor (SET) caused by the current flowing through it is considered. The current and the temperature increase should be calculated self-consistently taking into account various paths of the heat drain. Even if there is no heat drain from the central electrode...

  9. Tunneling induced electron transfer between separated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Meier, Christoph; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2018-04-01

    We study electron transfer between two separated protons using local control theory. In this symmetric system one can favour a slow transfer by biasing the algorithm, achieving high efficiencies for fixed nuclei. The solution can be parametrized using a sequence of a pump followed by a dump pulse that lead to tunneling-induced electron transfer. Finally, we study the effect of the nuclear kinetic energy on the efficiency. Even in the absence of relative motion between the protons, the spreading of the nuclear wave function is enough to reduce the yield of electronic transfer to less than one half.

  10. Single-electron tunnel junction array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likharev, K.K.; Bakhvalov, N.S.; Kazacha, G.S.; Serdyukova, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have carried out an analysis of statics and dynamics of uniform one-dimensional arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. The correlated single-electron tunneling in the junctions of the array results in its behavior qualitatively similar to that of the Josephson transmission line. In particular, external electric fields applied to the array edges can inject single-electron-charged solitons into the array interior. Shape of such soliton and character of its interactions with other solitons and the array edges are very similar to those of the Josephson vortices (sine-Gordon solitons) in the Josephson transmission line. Under certain conditions, a coherent motion of the soliton train along the array is possible, resulting in generation of narrowband SET oscillations with frequency f/sub s/ = /e where is the dc current flowing along the array

  11. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  12. Electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Li Jianmei; Lu Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    It is highly expected that the future informatics will be based on the spins of individual electrons. The development of elementary information unit will eventually leads to novel single-molecule or single-atom devices based on electron spins; the quantum computer in the future can be constructed with single electron spins as the basic quantum bits. However, it is still a great challenge in detection and manipulation of a single electron spin, as well as its coherence and entanglement. As an ideal experimental tool for such tasks, the development of electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope (ESR-STM) has attracted great attention for decades. This paper briefly introduces the basic concept of ESR-STM. The development history of this instrument and recent progresses are reviewed. The underlying mechanism is explored and summarized. The challenges and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the prospect of future direction and applications are presented. (authors)

  13. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-López, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  14. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  15. Lowest order in inelastic tunneling approximation : efficient scheme for simulation of inelastic electron tunneling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Cerda, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and accurate formalism which allows the simulation at the ab initio level of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy data under a scanning tunneling microscope setup. It exploits fully the tunneling regime by carrying out the structural optimization and vibrational

  16. Quantum Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex I1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    We have simulated the atomistic details of electronic wiring of all Fe/S clusters in complex I, a key enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain. The tunneling current theory of many-electron systems is applied to the broken-symmetry (BS) states of the protein at the ZINDO level. One-electron tunneling approximation is found to hold in electron tunneling between the anti-ferromagnetic binuclear and tetranuclear Fe/S clusters with moderate induced polarization of the core electrons. Calculated tunneling energy is about 3 eV higher than Fermi level in the band gap of the protein, which supports that the mechanism of electron transfer is quantum mechanical tunneling, as in the rest of electron transport chain. Resulting electron tunneling pathways consist of up to three key contributing protein residues between neighboring Fe/S clusters. A distinct signature of the wave properties of electrons is observed as quantum interferences when multiple tunneling pathways exist. In N6a-N6b, electron tunnels along different pathways depending on the involved BS states, suggesting possible fluctuations of the tunneling pathways driven by the local protein environment. The calculated distance dependence of the electron transfer rates with internal water molecules included are in good agreement with a reported phenomenological relation. PMID:21495666

  17. Performance evaluation of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistor by a distributed-element circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yukinori; Mori, Takahiro; Migita, Shinji; Mizubayashi, Wataru; Tanabe, Akihito; Fukuda, Koichi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Liu, Yongxun; Masahara, Meishoku; Ota, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The performance of parallel electric field tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), in which band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) was initiated in-line to the gate electric field was evaluated. The TFET was fabricated by inserting an epitaxially-grown parallel-plate tunnel capacitor between heavily doped source wells and gate insulators. Analysis using a distributed-element circuit model indicated there should be a limit of the drain current caused by the self-voltage-drop effect in the ultrathin channel layer.

  18. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  19. Giant electron-hole transport asymmetry in ultra-short quantum transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, A. C.; Tayari, V.; Porter, J. M.; Champagne, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Making use of bipolar transport in single-wall carbon nanotube quantum transistors would permit a single device to operate as both a quantum dot and a ballistic conductor or as two quantum dots with different charging energies. Here we report ultra-clean 10 to 100 nm scale suspended nanotube transistors with a large electron-hole transport asymmetry. The devices consist of naked nanotube channels contacted with sections of tube under annealed gold. The annealed gold acts as an n-doping top gate, allowing coherent quantum transport, and can create nanometre-sharp barriers. These tunnel barriers define a single quantum dot whose charging energies to add an electron or a hole are vastly different (e−h charging energy asymmetry). We parameterize the e−h transport asymmetry by the ratio of the hole and electron charging energies ηe−h. This asymmetry is maximized for short channels and small band gap tubes. In a small band gap device, we demonstrate the fabrication of a dual functionality quantum device acting as a quantum dot for holes and a much longer quantum bus for electrons. In a 14 nm-long channel, ηe−h reaches up to 2.6 for a device with a band gap of 270 meV. The charging energies in this device exceed 100 meV. PMID:28561024

  20. Simulation model for electron irradiated IGZO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, G. K.; Shantharama Rai, C.; Jayarama, A.; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2018-02-01

    An efficient drain current simulation model for the electron irradiation effect on the electrical parameters of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin-film transistors is developed. The model is developed based on the specifications such as gate capacitance, channel length, channel width, flat band voltage etc. Electrical parameters of un-irradiated IGZO samples were simulated and compared with the experimental parameters and 1 kGy electron irradiated parameters. The effect of electron irradiation on the IGZO sample was analysed by developing a mathematical model.

  1. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Matthew S; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  2. Establishment of design space for high current gain in III-N hot electron transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Geetak; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Suntrup, Donald J., III; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2018-01-01

    This paper establishes the design space of III-N hot electron transistors (HETs) for high current gain by designing and fabricating HETs with scaled base thickness. The device structure consists of GaN-based emitter, base and collector regions where emitter and collector barriers are implemented using AlN and InGaN layers, respectively, as polarization-dipoles. Electrons tunnel through the AlN layer to be injected into the base at a high energy where they travel in a quasi-ballistic manner before being collected. Current gain increases from 1 to 3.5 when base thickness is reduced from 7 to 4 nm. The extracted mean free path (λ mfp) is 5.8 nm at estimated injection energy of 1.5 eV.

  3. Resonance tunneling electron-vibrational spectroscopy of polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalidchik, F I; Kovalevskii, S A; Balashov, E M

    2017-05-21

    The tunneling spectra of the ordered monolayer films of decamolybdodicobaltate (DMDC) compounds deposited from aqueous solutions on HOPG were measured by scanning tunnel microscopy in air. The DMDC spectra, as well as the tunneling spectra of other polyoxometalates (POMs), exhibit well-defined negative differential resistances (NDRs). The mechanism of formation of these spectral features was established from the collection of revealed NDR dependences on the external varying parameters and found to be common to all systems exhibiting Wannier-Stark localization. A model of biresonance tunneling was developed to provide an explanation for the totality of experimental data, both the literature and original, on the tunneling POM probing. A variant of the tunneling electron-vibrational POM spectroscopy was proposed allowing the determination of the three basic energy parameters-energy gaps between the occupied and unoccupied states, frequencies of the vibrational transitions accompanying biresonance electron-tunneling processes, and electron-vibrational interaction constants on the monomolecular level.

  4. Non-linear effects and thermoelectric efficiency of quantum dot-based single-electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbo, Vincent; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Retailleau, Sylvie; Dollfus, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    By means of advanced numerical simulation, the thermoelectric properties of a Si-quantum dot-based single-electron transistor operating in sequential tunneling regime are investigated in terms of figure of merit, efficiency and power. By taking into account the phonon-induced collisional broadening of energy levels in the quantum dot, both heat and electrical currents are computed in a voltage range beyond the linear response. Using our homemade code consisting in a 3D Poisson-Schrödinger solver and the resolution of the Master equation, the Seebeck coefficient at low bias voltage appears to be material independent and nearly independent on the level broadening, which makes this device promising for metrology applications as a nanoscale standard of Seebeck coefficient. Besides, at higher voltage bias, the non-linear characteristics of the heat current are shown to be related to the multi-level effects. Finally, when considering only the electronic contribution to the thermal conductance, the single-electron transistor operating in generator regime is shown to exhibit very good efficiency at maximum power.

  5. Electron tunneling in carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, C; Kuo, Cheng-Yung; Ko, H S

    2009-01-01

    Nanocomposites, such as polymer blending with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have been shown to have a drastic reduction in the resistivity and become conductive when the CNTs concentration has reached a certain percolation threshold. The reduction could be more than a millionth of the original polymer material. This has been realized as the formation of an infinite cluster of connected CNTs or pathways. Therefore, the conductivity of a nanocomposite should follow that of CNTs. Here we show that the resistivity of a nanocomposite is not governed by the interconnected CNTs, but the polymer between neighboring CNTs. That is, polymer-CNTs exhibit the nature of a conducting polymer, which can be explained as the tunneling of electrons one by one from the first CNT electrode to the next-nearest CNT electrode, forming a CNT/polymer pathway. A conduction model based on the tunneling of electrons passing, one by one, through the polymer gap between two neighboring CNT electrodes is formulated and derived. This model can accurately predict the significant reduction of the polymer-CNTs' resistivity with the addition of CNTs. The temperature effect can be readily incorporated to account for resistivity variation with the temperature of this nanocomposites.

  6. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-01-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  7. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Metal-nanoparticle single-electron transistors fabricated using electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, K I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Pasupathy, A N

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated single-electron transistors from individual metal nanoparticles using a geometry that provides improved coupling between the particle and the gate electrode. This is accomplished by incorporating a nanoparticle into a gap created between two electrodes using electromigration, all...... on top of an oxidized aluminum gate. We achieve sufficient gate coupling to access more than ten charge states of individual gold nanoparticles (5–15 nm in diameter). The devices are sufficiently stable to permit spectroscopic studies of the electron-in-a-box level spectra within the nanoparticle as its...

  9. Sub-electron transport in single-electron-tunneling arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel; Sverdlov, Viktor; Korotkov, Alexander; Likharev, Konstantin

    2002-03-01

    We have analyzed quasi-continuous charge transport in two-dimensional tunnel junction arrays with a special distribution of background charges, providing a complete suppression of Coulomb blockade thresholds of tunneling between any pair of islands. Numerical simulations show that at low currents the dc I-V curve is indeed linear, while the shot noise is strongly suppressed and approaches 1/N of the Schottky value (where N is the array length). Thus both conditions of quasi-continuous transport, formulated earlier by Matsuoka and Likharev (Phys. Rev. B, v57, 15613, 1998), are satisfied. At higher fields the electron-hole pair production begins, and shot noise grows sharply. At higher voltages still, the array enters the "plasma" regime (with nearly balanced number of electrons and holes) and the Fano factor drops to 1/N once again. We have studied the resulting shot noise peak in detail, and concluded that its physics is close to that of critical opalescence.

  10. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  11. Spin polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczewski, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews tunneling of spin-polarized electrons through molecules positioned between ferromagnetic electrodes, which gives rise to tunneling magnetoresistance. Such measurements yield important insight into the factors governing spin-polarized electron injection into organic semiconductors, thereby offering the possibility to manipulate the quantum-mechanical spin degrees of freedom for charge carriers in optical/electrical devices. In the first section of the chapter a brief description of the Jullière model of spin-dependent electron tunneling is reviewed. Next, a brief description of device fabrication and characterization is presented. The bulk of the review highlights experimental studies on spin-polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions. In addition, some experiments describing spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy on single molecules are mentioned. Finally, some general conclusions and prospectus on the impact of spin-polarized tunneling in molecular junctions are offered.

  12. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazin, G V; Wu, S W; Ho, W

    2005-06-21

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks corresponding to the individual vibronic states depends on the relative electron tunneling rates through the two barriers of the junction, as found by varying the vacuum gap tunneling rate by changing the height of the scanning tunneling microscope tip above the molecule. A simple, sequential tunneling model explains the observed trends.

  13. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon assisted tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O.; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.

    2007-01-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the non-equilibrium Green's functions formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (Y. Lu et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,...

  14. Silicon nanowire-based tunneling field-effect transistors on flexible plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongwon; Koo, Jamin; Chung, Eun-Ae; Jeong, Dong-Young; Koo, Yong-Seo; Kim, Sangsig

    2009-11-11

    A technique to implement silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) on flexible plastic substrates is developed for the first time. The p-i-n configured Si NWs are obtained from an Si wafer using a conventional top-down CMOS-compatible technology, and they are then transferred onto the plastic substrate. Based on gate-controlled band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) as their working principle, the SiNW-based TFETs show normal p-channel switching behavior with a threshold voltage of -1.86 V and a subthreshold swing of 827 mV/dec. In addition, ambipolar conduction is observed due to the presence of the BTBT between the heavily doped p+ drain and n+ channel regions, indicating that our TFETs can operate in the n-channel mode as well. Furthermore, the BTBT generation rates for both the p-channel and n-channel operating modes are nearly independent of the bending state (strain = 0.8%) of the plastic substrate.

  15. High performance tunnel field-effect transistor by gate and source engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Qianqian; Chen, Shaowen; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jiaxin; An, Xia; Wang, Yangyuan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most promising candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET) can overcome the subthreshold slope (SS) limitation of MOSFET, whereas high ON-current, low OFF-current and steep switching can hardly be obtained at the same time for experimental TFETs. In this paper, we developed a new nanodevice technology based on TFET concepts. By designing the gate configuration and introducing the optimized Schottky junction, a multi-finger-gate TFET with a dopant-segregated Schottky source (mFSB-TFET) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A steeper SS can be achieved in the fabricated mFSB-TFET on the bulk Si substrate benefiting from the coupled quantum band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism, as well as a high I ON /I OFF ratio (∼10 7 ) at V DS  = 0.2 V without an area penalty. By compatible SOI CMOS technology, the fabricated Si mFSB-TFET device was further optimized with a high I ON /I OFF ratio of ∼10 8 and a steeper SS of over 5.5 decades of current. A minimum SS of below 60 mV dec −1 was experimentally obtained, indicating its dominant quantum BTBT mechanism for switching. (paper)

  16. High performance tunnel field-effect transistor by gate and source engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru; Huang, Qianqian; Chen, Shaowen; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jiaxin; An, Xia; Wang, Yangyuan

    2014-12-19

    As one of the most promising candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET) can overcome the subthreshold slope (SS) limitation of MOSFET, whereas high ON-current, low OFF-current and steep switching can hardly be obtained at the same time for experimental TFETs. In this paper, we developed a new nanodevice technology based on TFET concepts. By designing the gate configuration and introducing the optimized Schottky junction, a multi-finger-gate TFET with a dopant-segregated Schottky source (mFSB-TFET) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A steeper SS can be achieved in the fabricated mFSB-TFET on the bulk Si substrate benefiting from the coupled quantum band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism, as well as a high I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio (∼ 10(7)) at V(DS) = 0.2 V without an area penalty. By compatible SOI CMOS technology, the fabricated Si mFSB-TFET device was further optimized with a high ION/IOFF ratio of ∼ 10(8) and a steeper SS of over 5.5 decades of current. A minimum SS of below 60 mV dec(-1) was experimentally obtained, indicating its dominant quantum BTBT mechanism for switching.

  17. Silicon nanowire-based tunneling field-effect transistors on flexible plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongwon; Koo, Jamin; Chung, Eun-Ae; Jeong, Dong-Young; Kim, Sangsig; Koo, Yong-Seo

    2009-01-01

    A technique to implement silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) on flexible plastic substrates is developed for the first time. The p-i-n configured Si NWs are obtained from an Si wafer using a conventional top-down CMOS-compatible technology, and they are then transferred onto the plastic substrate. Based on gate-controlled band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) as their working principle, the SiNW-based TFETs show normal p-channel switching behavior with a threshold voltage of -1.86 V and a subthreshold swing of 827 mV/dec. In addition, ambipolar conduction is observed due to the presence of the BTBT between the heavily doped p + drain and n + channel regions, indicating that our TFETs can operate in the n-channel mode as well. Furthermore, the BTBT generation rates for both the p-channel and n-channel operating modes are nearly independent of the bending state (strain = 0.8%) of the plastic substrate.

  18. Silicon nanowire-based tunneling field-effect transistors on flexible plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongwon; Koo, Jamin; Chung, Eun-Ae; Jeong, Dong-Young; Kim, Sangsig [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong-Seo, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering, Seokyeong University, 16-1, Jungneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-704 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-11

    A technique to implement silicon nanowire (SiNW)-based tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) on flexible plastic substrates is developed for the first time. The p-i-n configured Si NWs are obtained from an Si wafer using a conventional top-down CMOS-compatible technology, and they are then transferred onto the plastic substrate. Based on gate-controlled band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) as their working principle, the SiNW-based TFETs show normal p-channel switching behavior with a threshold voltage of -1.86 V and a subthreshold swing of 827 mV/dec. In addition, ambipolar conduction is observed due to the presence of the BTBT between the heavily doped p{sup +} drain and n{sup +} channel regions, indicating that our TFETs can operate in the n-channel mode as well. Furthermore, the BTBT generation rates for both the p-channel and n-channel operating modes are nearly independent of the bending state (strain = 0.8%) of the plastic substrate.

  19. Electrical characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors with asymmetric channel thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsik; Oh, Hyeongwan; Kim, Jiwon; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Effects of using asymmetric channel thickness in tunneling field-effect transistors (TFET) are investigated in sub-50 nm channel regime using two-dimensional (2D) simulations. As the thickness of the source side becomes narrower in narrow-source wide-drain (NSWD) TFETs, the threshold voltage (V th) and the subthreshold swing (SS) decrease due to enhanced gate controllability of the source side. The narrow source thickness can make the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance shorter and induce much higher electric field near the source junction at the on-state condition. In contrast, in a TFET with wide-source narrow-drain (WSND), the SS shows almost constant values and the V th slightly increases with narrowing thickness of the drain side. In addition, the ambipolar current can rapidly become larger with smaller thickness on the drain side because of the shorter BTBT distance and the higher electric-field at the drain junction. The on-current of the asymmetric channel TFET is lower than that of conventional TFETs due to the volume limitation of the NSWD TFET and high series resistance of the WSND TFET. The on-current is almost determined by the channel thickness of the source side.

  20. Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors in 2-D Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Tan, Yaohua; Novakovic, Bozidar; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib; Appenzeller, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the performance of Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors (TFETs) based on two-dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenide (TMD) materials is investigated by atomistic quantum transport simulations. One of the major challenges of TFETs is their low ON-currents. 2D material based TFETs can have tight gate control and high electric fields at the tunnel junction, and can in principle generate high ON-currents along with a sub-threshold swing smaller than 60 mV/dec. Our simulations reveal that high performance TMD TFETs, not only require good gate control, but also rely on the choice of the right channel material with optimum band gap, effective mass and source/drain doping level. Unlike previous works, a full band atomistic tight binding method is used self-consistently with 3D Poisson equation to simulate ballistic quantum transport in these devices. The effect of the choice of TMD material on the performance of the device and its transfer characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the criteria for high ON-currents are explained with a simple analytic model, showing the related fundamental factors. Finally, the subthreshold swing and energy-delay of these TFETs are compared with conventional CMOS devices.

  1. Fabrication of a novel silicon single electron transistor for Si:P quantum computer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, S.J.; Smith, C.E.A.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.; Snider, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Quantum computation relies on the successful measurement of quantum states. Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be able to perform fast and sensitive charge measurements of solid state qubits. However, due to their sensitivity, SETs are also very susceptible to random charge fluctuations in a solid-state materials environment. In previous dc transport measurements, silicon-based SETs have demonstrated greater charge stability than A1/A1 2 O 3 SETs. We have designed and fabricated a novel silicon SET architecture for a comparison of the noise characteristics of silicon and aluminium based devices. The silicon SET described here is designed for controllable and reproducible low temperature operation. It is fabricated using a novel dual gate structure on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A silicon quantum wire is formed in a 100nm thick high-resistivity superficial silicon layer using reactive ion etching. Carriers are induced in the silicon wire by a back gate in the silicon substrate. The tunnel barriers are created electrostatically, using lithographically defined metallic electrodes (∼40nm width). These tunnel barriers surround the surface of the quantum wire, thus producing excellent electrostatic confinement. This architecture provides independent control of tunnel barrier height and island occupancy, thus promising better control of Coulomb blockade oscillations than in previously investigated silicon SETs. The use of a near intrinsic silicon substrate offers compatibility with Si:P qubits in the longer term

  2. Giant tunnel-electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagoute, Jerome; Joucken, Frederic; Repain, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments have been performed to measure the local electron injection in nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(000) and were successfully compared to ab initio calculations. In graphene, a gaplike feature is measured around the Fermi level due to a phonon-mediated tunneling...... and at carbon sites. Nitrogen doping can therefore be proposed as a way to improve tunnel-electron injection in graphene....

  3. Insights into operation of planar tri-gate tunnel field effect transistor for dynamic memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Nupur; Kranti, Abhinav

    2017-07-01

    Insights into device physics and operation through the control of energy barriers are presented for a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based dynamic memory. The architecture consists of a double gate (G1) at the source side and a single gate (G2) at the drain end of the silicon film. Dual gates (G1) effectively enhance the tunneling based read mechanism through the enhanced coupling and improved electrostatic control over the channel. The single gate (G2) controls the holes in the potential barrier induced through the proper selection of bias and workfunction. The results indicate that the planar tri-gate achieves optimum performance evaluated in terms of two composite metrics (M1 and M2), namely, product of (i) Sense Margin (SM) and Retention Time (RT) i.e., M1 = SM × RT and (ii) Sense Margin and Current Ratio (CR) i.e., M2 = SM × CR. The regulation of barriers created by the gates (G1 and G2) through the optimal use of device parameters leads to better performance metrics, with significant improvement at scaled lengths as compared to other tunneling based dynamic memory architectures. The investigation shows that lengths of G1, G2 and lateral spacing can be scaled down to 25 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively, while achieving reasonable values for (M1, M2). The work demonstrates a systematic approach to showcase the advancement in TFET based Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) through the use of planar tri-gate topology at a lower bias value. The concept, design, and operation of planar tri-gate architecture provide valuable viewpoints for TFET based DRAM.

  4. Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics.

  5. Distribution of tunnelling times for quantum electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Samuel L.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    In electron transport, the tunnelling time is the time taken for an electron to tunnel out of a system after it has tunnelled in. We define the tunnelling time distribution for quantum processes in a dissipative environment and develop a practical approach for calculating it, where the environment is described by the general Markovian master equation. We illustrate the theory by using the rate equation to compute the tunnelling time distribution for electron transport through a molecular junction. The tunnelling time distribution is exponential, which indicates that Markovian quantum tunnelling is a Poissonian statistical process. The tunnelling time distribution is used not only to study the quantum statistics of tunnelling along the average electric current but also to analyse extreme quantum events where an electron jumps against the applied voltage bias. The average tunnelling time shows distinctly different temperature dependence for p- and n-type molecular junctions and therefore provides a sensitive tool to probe the alignment of molecular orbitals relative to the electrode Fermi energy.

  6. Quantum Calculations of Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2015-11-19

    The most detailed and comprehensive to date study of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory complex III of aerobic cells, also known as bc1 complex, is reported. In the framework of the tunneling current theory, electron tunneling rates and atomistic tunneling pathways between different redox centers were investigated for all electron transfer reactions comprising different stages of the proton-motive Q-cycle. The calculations reveal that complex III is a smart nanomachine, which under certain conditions undergoes conformational changes gating electron transfer, or channeling electrons to specific pathways. One-electron tunneling approximation was adopted in the tunneling calculations, which were performed using hybrid Broken-Symmetry (BS) unrestricted DFT/ZINDO levels of theory. The tunneling orbitals were determined using an exact biorthogonalization scheme that uniquely separates pairs of tunneling orbitals with small overlaps out of the remaining Franck-Condon orbitals with significant overlap. Electron transfer rates in different redox pairs show exponential distance dependence, in agreement with the reported experimental data; some reactions involve coupled proton transfer. Proper treatment of a concerted two-electron bifurcated tunneling reaction at the Q(o) site is given.

  7. Quantum Hall Effect: proposed multi-electron tunneling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-11-01

    Here we propose a tunneling experiment for the fractional and Integral Quantum Hall Effect. It may demonstrate multi-electron tunneling and may provide information about the nature of the macroscopic quantum states of 2D electronic liquid or solid. (author)

  8. Tunneling spectroscopy of a germanium quantum dot in single-hole transistors with self-aligned electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G-L; Kuo, David M T; Lai, W-T; Li, P-W

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated a Ge quantum dot (QD) (∼10 nm) single-hole transistor with self-aligned electrodes using thermal oxidation of a SiGe-on-insulator nanowire based on FinFET technology. This fabricated device exhibits clear Coulomb blockade oscillations with large peak-to-valley ratio (PVCR) of 250-750 and negative differential conductance with PVCR of ∼12 at room temperature. This reveals that the gate-induced tunneling barrier lowering is effectively suppressed due to the self-aligned electrode structure. The magnitude of tunneling current spectra also reveals the coupling strengths between the energy levels of the Ge QD and electrodes

  9. Numerical analysis of band tails in nanowires and their effects on the performance of tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahisa; Uchida, Ken

    2018-06-01

    Band tails in heavily doped semiconductors are one of the important parameters that determine transfer characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors. In this study, doping concentration and doing profile dependences of band tails in heavily doped Si nanowires were analyzed by a nonequilibrium Green function method. From the calculated band tails, transfer characteristics of nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors were numerically analyzed by Wentzel–Kramer–Brillouin approximation with exponential barriers. The calculated transfer characteristics demonstrate that the band tails induced by dopants degrade the subthreshold slopes of Si nanowires from 5 to 56 mV/dec in the worst case. On the other hand, surface doping leads to a high drain current while maintaining a small subthreshold slope.

  10. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-04-30

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF} ratio of 10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation.

  11. Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Younghyun; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Kim, SangHyeon; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    We have studied a simple structure n-channel tunnel field-effect transistor with a pure-Ge/strained-Si hetero-junction. The device operation was demonstrated for the devices fabricated by combining epitaxially-grown Ge on strained-silicon-on-insulator substrates. Atomic-layer-deposition-Al 2 O 3 -based gate stacks were formed with electron cyclotron resonance plasma post oxidation to ensure the high quality metal–oxide–semiconductor interface between the high-k insulator and Ge. While the gate leakage current and drain current saturation are well controlled, relatively higher minimum subthreshold swing of 125 mV/dec and lower I ON /I OFF ratio of 10 3 –10 4 were obtained. It is expected that these device characteristics can be improved by further process optimization. - Highlights: • Layer by layer growth of Ge • Uniform interface between Ge and the insulator • Gate leakage current and drain current saturation seem to be well controlled. • The output characteristics show good saturation

  12. Tunneling-Electron-Induced Light Emission from Single Gold Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Arthur; Li, Shaowei; Czap, Gregory; Ho, W

    2016-09-14

    The coupling of tunneling electrons with the tip-nanocluster-substrate junction plasmon was investigated by monitoring light emission in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Gold atoms were evaporated onto the ∼5 Å thick Al2O3 thin film grown on the NiAl (110) surface where they formed nanoclusters 3-7 nm wide. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of these nanoclusters revealed quantum-confined electronic states. Spatially resolved photon imaging showed localized emission hot spots. Size dependent study and light emission from nanocluster dimers further support the viewpoint that coupling of tunneling electrons to the junction plasmon is the main radiative mechanism. These results showed the potential of the STM to reveal the electronic and optical properties of nanoscale metallic systems in the confined geometry of the tunnel junction.

  13. "Size-Independent" Single-Electron Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianli; Sun, Shasha; Swartz, Logan; Riechers, Shawn; Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Shaowei; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Gang-Yu

    2015-12-17

    Incorporating single-electron tunneling (SET) of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) into modern electronic devices offers great promise to enable new properties; however, it is technically very challenging due to the necessity to integrate ultrasmall (<10 nm) particles into the devices. The nanosize requirements are intrinsic for NPs to exhibit quantum or SET behaviors, for example, 10 nm or smaller, at room temperature. This work represents the first observation of SET that defies the well-known size restriction. Using polycrystalline Au NPs synthesized via our newly developed solid-state glycine matrices method, a Coulomb Blockade was observed for particles as large as tens of nanometers, and the blockade voltage exhibited little dependence on the size of the NPs. These observations are counterintuitive at first glance. Further investigations reveal that each observed SET arises from the ultrasmall single crystalline grain(s) within the polycrystal NP, which is (are) sufficiently isolated from the nearest neighbor grains. This work demonstrates the concept and feasibility to overcome orthodox spatial confinement requirements to achieve quantum effects.

  14. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-01-01

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed

  15. First principles studies of electron tunneling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    A first principles study of electronic tunneling along the chain of seven Fe/S clusters in respiratory complex I, a key enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain, is described. The broken-symmetry states of the Fe/S metal clusters calculated at both DFT and semi-empirical ZINDO levels were utilized to examine both the extremely weak electronic couplings between Fe/S clusters and the tunneling pathways, which provide a detailed atomistic-level description of the charge transfer process in the protein. One-electron tunneling approximation was found to hold within a reasonable accuracy, with only a moderate induced polarization of the core electrons. The method is demonstrated to be able to calculate accurately the coupling matrix elements as small as 10−4 cm−1. A distinct signature of the wave properties of electrons is observed as quantum interferences of multiple tunneling pathways. PMID:25383312

  16. Quantum tunneling and field electron emission theories

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the f

  17. Single-molecule electron tunnelling through multiple redox levels with environmental relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    represent the substrate and tip in electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. An equivalent three-electrode configuration represents a molecular single-electron transistor in which the enclosing electrodes constitute source and drain, and the reference electrode the gate. Current-bias voltage...... relations at fixed electrochemical overpotential or gate voltage, and current-overpotential or current-gate voltage relations at fixed bias voltage are equivalent in the two systems. Due to the activation-less nature of the processes, electron flow between the electrodes through the molecular redox levels...... level(s) subsequent to electron transfer. Several physical mechanisms can be distinguished and distinctive current-overpotential/gate voltage or current-bias voltage relations obtained. These reflect electronic level separation, environmental nuclear reorganisation, and coherent or incoherent multi...

  18. Tunneling and Origin of Large Access Resistance in Layered-Crystal Organic Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Takamasa; Arai, Shunto; Minemawari, Hiromi; Inoue, Satoru; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2017-11-01

    Layered crystallinity of organic semiconductors is crucial to obtaining high-performance organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), as it allows both smooth-channel-gate-insulator interface formation and efficient two-dimensional carrier transport along the interface. However, the role of vertical transport across the crystalline molecular layers in device operations has not been a crucial subject so far. Here, we show that the interlayer carrier transport causes unusual nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and enormous access resistance in extremely high-quality single-crystal OTFTs based on 2-decyl-7-phenyl[1]-benzothieno[3 ,2 -b ][1]benzothiophene (Ph -BTBT -C10 ) that involve inherent multiple semiconducting π -conjugated layers interposed, respectively, by electrically inert alkyl-chain layers. The output characteristics present layer-number (n )-dependent nonlinearity that becomes more evident at larger n (1 ≤n ≤15 ), demonstrating tunneling across multiple alkyl-chain layers. The n -dependent device mobility and four-probe measurements reveal that the alkyl-chain layers generate a large access resistance that suppresses the device mobility from the intrinsic value of about 20 cm2 V-1 s-1 . Our findings clarify the reason why device characteristics are distributed in single-crystal OTFTs.

  19. Impact of device engineering on analog/RF performances of tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvargiya, V.; Reniwal, B. S.; Singh, P.; Vishvakarma, S. K.

    2017-06-01

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) and its analog/RF performance is being aggressively studied at device architecture level for low power SoC design. Therefore, in this paper we have investigated the influence of the gate-drain underlap (UL) and different dielectric materials for the spacer and gate oxide on DG-TFET (double gate TFET) and its analog/RF performance for low power applications. Here, it is found that the drive current behavior in DG-TFET with a UL feature while implementing dielectric material for the spacer is different in comparison to that of DG-FET. Further, hetero gate dielectric-based DG-TFET (HGDG-TFET) is more resistive against drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) as compared to DG-TFET with high-k (HK) gate dielectric. Along with that, as compared to DG-FET, this paper also analyses the attributes of UL and dielectric material on analog/RF performance of DG-TFET in terms of transconductance (gm ), transconductance generation factor (TGF), capacitance, intrinsic resistance (Rdcr), cut-off frequency (F T), and maximum oscillation frequency (F max). The LK spacer-based HGDG-TFET with a gate-drain UL has the potential to improve the RF performance of device.

  20. Quantum mechanical solver for confined heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Departement of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, William G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFET) are promising candidates for low-power applications in future technology nodes, as they are predicted to offer high on-currents, combined with a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing. However, the effects of important quantum mechanical phenomena like size confinement at the heterojunction are not well understood, due to the theoretical and computational difficulties in modeling realistic heterostructures. We therefore present a ballistic quantum transport formalism, combining a novel envelope function approach for semiconductor heterostructures with the multiband quantum transmitting boundary method, which we extend to 2D potentials. We demonstrate an implementation of a 2-band version of the formalism and apply it to study confinement in realistic heterostructure diodes and p-n-i-n HTFETs. For the diodes, both transmission probabilities and current densities are found to decrease with stronger confinement. For the p-n-i-n HTFETs, the improved gate control is found to counteract the deterioration due to confinement.

  1. Lateral energy band profile modulation in tunnel field effect transistors based on gate structure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing novel materials and structures is important for enhancing the on-state current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs. In this paper, we reveal that the on-state performance of TFETs is mainly determined by the energy band profile of the channel. According to this interpretation, we present a new concept of energy band profile modulation (BPM achieved with gate structure engineering. It is believed that this approach can be used to suppress the ambipolar effect. Based on this method, a Si TFET device with a symmetrical tri-material-gate (TMG structure is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrated that the special band profile in this device can boost on-state performance, and it also suppresses the off-state current induced by the ambipolar effect. These unique advantages are maintained over a wide range of gate lengths and supply voltages. The BPM concept can serve as a guideline for improving the performance of nanoscale TFET devices.

  2. Impact of edge states on device performance of phosphorene heterojunction tunneling field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Jian; Guo, Hong

    2016-10-27

    Black phosphorus (BP) tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) using heterojunctions (Hes) are investigated by atomistic quantum transport simulations. It is observed that edge states have a great impact on the transport characteristics of BP He-TFETs, which results in the potential pinning effect and deterioration of gate control. However, the on-state current can be effectively enhanced by using hydrogen to saturate the edge dangling bonds in BP He-TFETs, by which means edge states are quenched. By extending layered BP with a smaller band gap to the channel region and modulating the BP thickness, the device performance of BP He-TFETs can be further optimized and can fulfil the requirements of the international technology road-map for semiconductors (ITRS) 2013 for low power applications. In 15 nm 3L-1L and 4L-1L BP He-TFETs along the armchair direction the on-state currents are over two times larger than the current required by ITRS 2013 and can reach above 10 3 μA μm -1 with the fixed off-state current of 10 pA μm -1 . It is also found that the ambipolar effect can be effectively suppressed in BP He-TFETs.

  3. Few-layer Phosphorene: An Ideal 2D Material For Tunnel Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted a lot of attention recently for energy-efficient tunneling-field-effect transistor (TFET) applications due to their excellent gate control resulting from their atomically thin dimensions. However, most TMDs have bandgaps (Eg) and effective masses (m*) outside the optimum range needed for high performance. It is shown here that the newly discovered 2D material, few-layer phosphorene, has several properties ideally suited for TFET applications: 1) direct Eg in the optimum range ~1.0–0.4 eV, 2) light transport m* (0.15 m0), 3) anisotropic m* which increases the density of states near the band edges, and 4) a high mobility. These properties combine to provide phosphorene TFET outstanding ION ~ 1 mA/um, ON/OFF ratio ~ 106 for a 15 nm channel and 0.5 V supply voltage, thereby significantly outperforming the best TMD-TFETs and CMOS in many aspects such as ON/OFF current ratio and energy-delay products. Furthermore, phosphorene TFETS can scale down to 6 nm channel length and 0.2 V supply voltage within acceptable range in deterioration of the performance metrics. Full-band atomistic quantum transport simulations establish phosphorene TFETs as serious candidates for energy-efficient and scalable replacements of MOSFETs. PMID:27345020

  4. Low-background transistors for application in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnokutskij, R.N.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of silicon transistors were carried out to determine transistors with low value of base distributed resistance (R). Measurement results for R and current amplification coefficient β are presented for bipolar transistor several types. Correlations between R and β were studied. KT 399A, 2T640A and KT3117B transistors are found to be most adequate ones as a base for low-background amplifier development

  5. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Nazin, G. V.; Wu, S. W.; Ho, W.

    2005-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks correspondi...

  6. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon-assisted tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O; Lundstrom, Mark S; Nikonov, Dmitri E

    2007-05-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3518-3519), we have obtained strong evidence that BTBT in CNT-MOSFETs is dominated by optical phonon assisted inelastic transport, which can have important implications on the transistor characteristics. It is shown that, under large biasing conditions, two-phonon scattering may also become important.

  7. Tensile strained Ge tunnel field-effect transistors: k · p material modeling and numerical device simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; De Meyer, Kristin; Verhulst, Anne S.; Van de Put, Maarten; Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Vandenberghe, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Group IV based tunnel field-effect transistors generally show lower on-current than III-V based devices because of the weaker phonon-assisted tunneling transitions in the group IV indirect bandgap materials. Direct tunneling in Ge, however, can be enhanced by strain engineering. In this work, we use a 30-band k · p method to calculate the band structure of biaxial tensile strained Ge and then extract the bandgaps and effective masses at Γ and L symmetry points in k-space, from which the parameters for the direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models are determined. While transitions from the heavy and light hole valence bands to the conduction band edge at the L point are always bridged by phonon scattering, we highlight a new finding that only the light-hole-like valence band is strongly coupling to the conduction band at the Γ point even in the presence of strain based on the 30-band k · p analysis. By utilizing a Technology Computer Aided Design simulator equipped with the calculated band-to-band tunneling BTBT models, the electrical characteristics of tensile strained Ge point and line tunneling devices are self-consistently computed considering multiple dynamic nonlocal tunnel paths. The influence of field-induced quantum confinement on the tunneling onset is included. Our simulation predicts that an on-current up to 160 (260) μA/μm can be achieved along with on/off ratio > 10 6 for V DD  = 0.5 V by the n-type (p-type) line tunneling device made of 2.5% biaxial tensile strained Ge

  8. Tensile strained Ge tunnel field-effect transistors: k · p material modeling and numerical device simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Kuo-Hsing; De Meyer, Kristin [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Soree, Bart; Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2000 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vandenberghe, William G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Group IV based tunnel field-effect transistors generally show lower on-current than III-V based devices because of the weaker phonon-assisted tunneling transitions in the group IV indirect bandgap materials. Direct tunneling in Ge, however, can be enhanced by strain engineering. In this work, we use a 30-band k · p method to calculate the band structure of biaxial tensile strained Ge and then extract the bandgaps and effective masses at Γ and L symmetry points in k-space, from which the parameters for the direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) models are determined. While transitions from the heavy and light hole valence bands to the conduction band edge at the L point are always bridged by phonon scattering, we highlight a new finding that only the light-hole-like valence band is strongly coupling to the conduction band at the Γ point even in the presence of strain based on the 30-band k · p analysis. By utilizing a Technology Computer Aided Design simulator equipped with the calculated band-to-band tunneling BTBT models, the electrical characteristics of tensile strained Ge point and line tunneling devices are self-consistently computed considering multiple dynamic nonlocal tunnel paths. The influence of field-induced quantum confinement on the tunneling onset is included. Our simulation predicts that an on-current up to 160 (260) μA/μm can be achieved along with on/off ratio > 10{sup 6} for V{sub DD} = 0.5 V by the n-type (p-type) line tunneling device made of 2.5% biaxial tensile strained Ge.

  9. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  10. Magnetoresistance in single-electron transistors comprising a superconducting island with ferromagnetic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Takiguchi, Masashi; Tamura, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We report electric and magnetic field responses of single-electron transistors (SETs) comprising a superconducting island with ferromagnetic (FM) leads. We fabricated two SETs, one of which had relatively high resistance and the other had relatively low resistance. The SETs had two states for the gate charge: SET-ON or SET-OFF. They also had two states for the FM lead magnetization: parallel (P) or anti-parallel (AP) configuration. Current-voltage characteristics of four SET states (“P & SET-ON,” “P & SET-OFF,” “AP & SET-ON,” and “AP & SET-OFF”) were measured at approximately 0.1 K in a compact dilution refrigerator. Magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) values were obtained for the SET-ON and SET-OFF states, respectively. The higher-resistance SET1 exhibited positive MRR values for all measured bias voltages. The MRR enhancement was confirmed for the SET-OFF state, which agreed well with the co-tunneling model. The lower-resistance SET2, on the other hand, exhibited negative and positive MRR values for higher and lower bias voltage conditions, respectively. The bias voltage for the MRR polarity reversal was changed by the gate voltage. It was also confirmed that the co-tunneling model was partially valid for negative MRR values.

  11. Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    We analyze dynamic properties of vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) and consider their operation as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The GB-HET model accounts for the tunneling electron injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layers with the partial capture into the GB, and the self-consistent oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GB (plasma oscillations), as well as the quantum capacitance and the electron transit-time effects. Using the proposed device model, we calculate the responsivity of GB-HETs operating as THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency, applied bias voltages, and the structural parameters. The inclusion of the plasmonic effect leads to the possibility of the GB-HET operation at the frequencies significantly exceeding those limited by the characteristic RC-time. It is found that the responsivity of GB-HETs with a sufficiently perfect GB exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The GB-HETs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.

  12. Single-electron tunneling in double-barrier nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, V.J.; Su, B.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review experimental study of charge transport in nanometer double-barrier resonant tunneling devices. Heterostructure material is asymmetric: one barrier is substantially less transparent than the other. Resonant tunneling through size-quantized well states and single-electron charging of the well are thus largely separated in the two bias polarities. When the emitter barrier is more transparent than the collector barrier, electrons accumulate in the well; incremental electron occupation of the well is accompanied by Coulomb blockade leading to sharp steps of the tunneling current. When the emitter barrier is less transparent, the current reflects resonant tunneling of just one electron at a time through size-quantized well states; the current peaks and/or steps (depending on experimental parameters) appear in current-voltage characteristics. Magnetic field and temperature effects are also reviewed. Good agreement is achieved in comparison of many features of experimental data with simple theoretical models

  13. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV

  14. Electron and hole transport in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudari, Sangameshwar R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Kagan, Cherie R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both electron and hole transport simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. Electron and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for electrons and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for electrons than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured electron than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.

  15. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy on Electron-Boson Interactions in Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Schackert, Michael Peter

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on electron-boson interactions in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schackert, Michael Peter

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  17. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on electron-boson interactions in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Schackert, Michael Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  18. Hard-rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Keefe, D.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1975-01-01

    Intense sub-microsecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types. The spall debris generally consists of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate, this technique appears promising for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a pulsed electron tunnel excavator, capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods, is presented. (auth)

  19. Charge fluctuations in high-electron-mobility transistors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.

    1993-01-01

    The quasi-two-dimensional carrier population, free to move within a near-perfect crystalline matrix, is the key to remarkable improvements in signal gain, current density and quiet operation. Current-fluctuation effects are central to all of these properties. Some of these are easily understood within linear-response theory, but other fluctuation phenomena are less tractable. In particular, nonequilibrium noise poses significant theoretical challenges, both descriptive and predictive. This paper examines a few of the basic physical issues which motivate device-noise theory. The structure and operation of high-electron-mobility transistor are first reviewed. The recent nonlinear fluctuation theory of Stanton and Wilkins (1987) help to identify at least some of the complicated noise physics which can arise when carriers in GaAs-like conduction bands are subjected to high fields. Simple examples of fluctuation-dominated behaviour are discussed, with numerical illustrations. 20 refs., 9 figs

  20. Performance improvement in novel germanium-tin/germanium heterojunction-enhanced p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Mingshan; Zhang, Qingfang; Zhang, Chunfu; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Han, Genquan

    2015-07-01

    We design a novel GeSn-based heterojunction-enhanced p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor (HE-PTFET) with a Ge0.92Sn0.08/Ge heterojunction located in channel region, at a distance of LT-H from the Ge0.92Sn0.08 source-channel tunneling junction (TJ). HE-PTFETs demonstrate the negative shift of onset voltage VONSET, the steeper subthreshold swing S, and the improved on-state current ION compared to Ge0.92Sn0.08 homo-PTFET. At low VGS, the suppression of BTBT due to the widening of the tunneling barrier caused by the heterojunction leads to a negative shift of VONSET in HE-PTFETs. At high VGS, ION enhancement in HE-PTFETs is achieved over the homo device, which is attributed to the confinement of BTBT in Ge0.92Sn0.08 source-channel TJ region by the heterojunction, where the short tunneling paths lead to a high tunneling probability. Due to the steeper average S, HE-PTFET with a 6 nm LT-H achieves a 4 times higher ION compared to homo device at a VDD of -0.3 V.

  1. Proton Irradiation-Induced Metal Voids in Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ABBREVIATIONS 2DEG two-dimensional electron gas AlGaN aluminum gallium nitride AlOx aluminum oxide CCD charged coupled device CTE coefficient of...frequency of FETs. Such a device may also be known as a heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET), modulation-doped field-effect transistor (MODFET...electrons. This charge attracts electrons to the interface, forming the 2DEG channel. The HEMT includes a heterojunction of two semiconducting

  2. Thermal Investigation of Three-Dimensional GaN-on-SiC High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    University of L’Aquila, (2011). 23 Rao, H. & Bosman, G. Hot-electron induced defect generation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. Solid...AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0143 THERMAL INVESTIGATION OF THREE- DIMENSIONAL GaN-on-SiC HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS Qing Hao The University of Arizona...clarification memorandum dated 16 Jan 09. This report is available to the general public, including foreign nationals. Copies may be obtained from the

  3. The effect of density-of-state tails on band-to-band tunneling: Theory and application to tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, S.; Schenk, A.

    2017-10-01

    It is demonstrated how band tail states in the semiconductor influence the performance of a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET). As a consequence of the smoothened density of states (DOS) around the band edges, the energetic overlap of conduction and valence band states occurs gradually at the onset of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT), thus degrading the sub-threshold swing (SS) of the TFET. The effect of the band tail states on the current-voltage characteristics is modelled quantum-mechanically based on the idea of zero-phonon trap-assisted tunneling between band and tail states. The latter are assumed to arise from a 3-dimensional pseudo-delta potential proposed by Vinogradov [1]. This model potential allows the derivation of analytical expressions for the generation rate covering the whole range from very strong to very weak localization of the tail states. Comparison with direct BTBT in the one-band effective mass approximation reveals the essential features of tail-to-band tunneling. Furthermore, an analytical solution for the problem of tunneling from continuum states of the disturbed DOS to states in the opposite band is found, and the differences to direct BTBT are worked out. Based on the analytical expressions, a semi-classical model is implemented in a commercial device simulator which involves numerical integration along the tunnel paths. The impact of the tail states on the device performance is analyzed for a nanowire Gate-All-Around TFET. The simulations show that tail states notably impact the transfer characteristics of a TFET. It is found that exponentially decaying band tails result in a stronger degradation of the SS than tail states with a Gaussian decay of their density. The developed model allows more realistic simulations of TFETs including their non-idealities.

  4. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  5. Complementary Self-Biased Logics Based on Single-Electron Transistor (SET)/CMOS Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Yong Kyu; Sim, Jae Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook; You, Young Sub; Park, Joo-On; Jin, You Seung; Kim, Young-Wug

    2005-04-01

    We propose a complementary self-biasing method which enables the single-electron transistor (SET)/complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) hybrid multi-valued logics (MVLs) to operate well at high temperatures, where the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of the Coulomb oscillation markedly decreases. The new architecture is implemented with a few transistors by utilizing the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates in dual-gate single-electron transistors (DGSETs). The suggested scheme is evaluated by a SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model. Furthermore, we have developed a new process technology for the SET/CMOS hybrid systems. We have confirmed that both of the fabricated devices, namely, SET and CMOS transistors, exhibit the ideal characteristics for the complementary self-biasing scheme: the SET shows clear Coulomb oscillations with a 100 mV period and the CMOS transistors show a high voltage gain.

  6. The theory of coherent resonance tunneling of interacting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V. F.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-barrier structure (resonance-tunnel diode) with open boundary conditions are found within the model of coherent tunneling of interacting electrons. Simple expressions for resonance current are derived which enable one to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, the conditions of emergence of hysteresis, and singularities of the latter depending on the parameters of resonance-tunnel diode. It is demonstrated that the hysteresis is realized if the current exceeds some critical value proportional to the square of resonance level width.

  7. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Jr., Carlos M. Torres,; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  8. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  9. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lin-Wang, E-mail: lwwang@lbl.gov [Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10{sup 5} atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose.

  10. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi; Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2014-01-01

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10 5 atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose

  11. Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg; Shur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical studies of the response time of the two-dimensional gated electron gas to femtosecond pulses. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the device response to a short pulse or a step-function signal is either smooth or oscillating time-decay at low and high mobility, μ, values, respectively. At small gate voltage swings, U 0  = U g  − U th , where U g is the gate voltage and U th is the threshold voltage, such that μU 0 /L < v s , where L is the channel length and v s is the effective electron saturation velocity, the decay time in the low mobility samples is on the order of L 2 /(μU 0 ), in agreement with the analytical drift model. However, the decay is preceded by a delay time on the order of L/s, where s is the plasma wave velocity. This delay is the ballistic transport signature in collision-dominated devices, which becomes important during very short time periods. In the high mobility devices, the period of the decaying oscillations is on the order of the plasma wave velocity transit time. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors, mixers, delay lines, and phase shifters in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits

  12. Organic High Electron Mobility Transistors Realized by 2D Electron Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panlong; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang

    2017-09-01

    A key breakthrough in inorganic modern electronics is the energy-band engineering that plays important role to improve device performance or develop novel functional devices. A typical application is high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which utilizes 2D electron gas (2DEG) as transport channel and exhibits very high electron mobility over traditional field-effect transistors (FETs). Recently, organic electronics have made very rapid progress and the band transport model is demonstrated to be more suitable for explaining carrier behavior in high-mobility crystalline organic materials. Therefore, there emerges a chance for applying energy-band engineering in organic semiconductors to tailor their optoelectronic properties. Here, the idea of energy-band engineering is introduced and a novel device configuration is constructed, i.e., using quantum well structures as active layers in organic FETs, to realize organic 2DEG. Under the control of gate voltage, electron carriers are accumulated and confined at quantized energy levels, and show efficient 2D transport. The electron mobility is up to 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and the operation mechanisms of organic HEMTs are also argued. Our results demonstrate the validity of tailoring optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors by energy-band engineering, offering a promising way for the step forward of organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmes, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT's) are microwave power devices that have the performance characteristics to improve the capabilities of current and future Navy radar and communication systems...

  14. Single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschi, De S.; Dam, Van J.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Feiner, L.F.; Gurevich, L.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed on single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires. The contact resistances as low as ~10 k¿, with minor temperature dependence were obtained. The Coulomb-blockade behavior was shown with single-electron charging energies of ~1 meV.

  15. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  16. Balancing Hole and Electron Conduction in Ambipolar Split-Gate Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hocheon; Ghittorelli, Matteo; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Smits, Edsger C P; Gelinck, Gerwin H; Ahn, Hyungju; Lee, Han-Koo; Torricelli, Fabrizio; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2017-07-10

    Complementary organic electronics is a key enabling technology for the development of new applications including smart ubiquitous sensors, wearable electronics, and healthcare devices. High-performance, high-functionality and reliable complementary circuits require n- and p-type thin-film transistors with balanced characteristics. Recent advancements in ambipolar organic transistors in terms of semiconductor and device engineering demonstrate the great potential of this route but, unfortunately, the actual development of ambipolar organic complementary electronics is currently hampered by the uneven electron (n-type) and hole (p-type) conduction in ambipolar organic transistors. Here we show ambipolar organic thin-film transistors with balanced n-type and p-type operation. By manipulating air exposure and vacuum annealing conditions, we show that well-balanced electron and hole transport properties can be easily obtained. The method is used to control hole and electron conductions in split-gate transistors based on a solution-processed donor-acceptor semiconducting polymer. Complementary logic inverters with balanced charging and discharging characteristics are demonstrated. These findings may open up new opportunities for the rational design of complementary electronics based on ambipolar organic transistors.

  17. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  18. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  19. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  20. Investigations of quantum effect semiconductor devices: The tunnel switch diode and the velocity modulation transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Erik Stephen

    In this thesis we present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of two quantum effect devices--the Tunnel Switch Diode (TSD) and the Velocity Modulation Transistor (VMT). We show that TSD devices can be fabricated such that they behave (semi-quantitatively) as predicted by simple analytical models and more advanced drift-diffusion simulations. These devices possess characteristics, such as on-state currents which range over nearly five orders of magnitude, and on/off current ratios which are even larger, which may allow for a practical implementation of a very dense transistorless SRAM architecture and possibly other novel circuit designs. We demonstrate that many TSD properties can be explained by analogy to a thyristor. In particular, we show that the thin oxide layer in the TSD plays a critical role, and that this can be understood in terms of current injection through the oxide, analogous to transport through the "current limiting" layer in a thyristor. As this oxide layer can be subjected to extreme stress during device operation, we have studied the effect of this stress on device behavior. We demonstrate many significant stress-dependent effects, and identify structures and operation modes which minimize these effects. We propose an InAs/GaSb/AlSb VMT which may allow for larger conductance modulation and higher temperature operation than has been demonstrated in similar GaAs/AlAs structures. Fundamental differences in device operation in the two materials systems and unusual transport mechanisms in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb system are identified as a result of the band lineups in the two systems. Boltzmann transport simulations are developed and presented, allowing a qualitative description of the transport in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb structure. Band structure calculations are carried out, allowing for device design. While no working VMT devices were produced, this is believed to be due to processing and crystal growth problems. We present methods used to

  1. Theoretical investigation of GaAsBi/GaAsN tunneling field-effect transistors with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    We investigate GaAsBi/GaAsN system for the design of type-II staggered hetero tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-TFET). Strain-symmetrized GaAsBi/GaAsN with effective lattice match to GaAs exhibits a type-II band lineup, and the effective bandgap EG,eff at interface is significantly reduced with the incorporation of Bi and N elements. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and drive current of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are boosted due to the utilizing of the type-II staggered tunneling junction with the reduced EG,eff. Numerical simulation shows that the drive current and subthreshold swing (SS) characteristics of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are remarkably improved by increasing Bi and N compositions. The dilute content GaAs0.85Bi0.15/GaAs0.92N0.08 staggered hetero-nTFET achieves 7.8 and 550 times higher ION compared to InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As homo-TFETs, respectively, at the supply voltage of 0.3 V. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterostructure is a potential candidate for high performance TFET.

  2. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  3. Vertical field effect tunneling transistor based on graphene-ultrathin Si nanomembrane heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Jang, Houk; Bok Lee, Jae; Chu, Hyunwoo; Kim, Seong Dae; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Graphene-based heterostructured vertical transistors have attracted a great deal of research interest. Herein we propose a Si-based technology platform for creating graphene/ultrathin semiconductor/metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and low-power electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We fabricated graphene/Si nanomembrane (NM)/metal vertical heterostructures by using a dry transfer technique to transfer Si NMs onto chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene layers. The resulting van der Waals interfaces between graphene and p-Si NMs exhibited nearly ideal Schottky barrier behavior. Due to the low density of states of graphene, the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier height can be modulated by modulating the band profile in the channel region, yielding well-defined current modulation. We obtained a maximum current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff) of up to ˜103, with a current density of 102 A cm-2. We also observed significant dependence of Schottky barrier height Δφb on the thickness of the Si NMs. We confirmed that the transport in these devices is dominated by the effects of the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier.

  4. Vertical field effect tunneling transistor based on graphene-ultrathin Si nanomembrane heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Jang, Houk; Bok Lee, Jae; Chu, Hyunwoo; Dae Kim, Seong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based heterostructured vertical transistors have attracted a great deal of research interest. Herein we propose a Si-based technology platform for creating graphene/ultrathin semiconductor/metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and low-power electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We fabricated graphene/Si nanomembrane (NM)/metal vertical heterostructures by using a dry transfer technique to transfer Si NMs onto chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene layers. The resulting van der Waals interfaces between graphene and p-Si NMs exhibited nearly ideal Schottky barrier behavior. Due to the low density of states of graphene, the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier height can be modulated by modulating the band profile in the channel region, yielding well-defined current modulation. We obtained a maximum current on/off ratio (I on /I off ) of up to ∼10 3 , with a current density of 10 2 A cm −2 . We also observed significant dependence of Schottky barrier height Δφ b on the thickness of the Si NMs. We confirmed that the transport in these devices is dominated by the effects of the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier. (paper)

  5. Interpretation of electron beam induced charging of oxide layers in a transistor studied using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubaldi, F; Pozzi, G; Kasama, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography has been used to characterize a linear array of transistors, which was prepared for examination in cross-sectional geometry in the transmission electron microscope using focused ion beam milling. In reconstructed phase images, regions of silicon oxide that are located...... into account the mean inner potential of the specimen and the perturbed vacuum reference wave. The simulations suggest that the oxide layers contain a uniform volume density of positive charge and that the elliptical contours result from the combined effect of the electrostatic potential in the specimen...

  6. Efficient spin transitions in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Nicolás; Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre

    2009-10-23

    The excitation of the spin degrees of freedom of an adsorbed atom by tunneling electrons is computed using strong coupling theory. Recent measurements [Heinrich, Science 306, 466 (2004)] reveal that electron currents in a magnetic system efficiently excite its magnetic moments. Our theory shows that the incoming electron spin strongly couples with that of the adsorbate so that memory of the initial spin state is lost, leading to large excitation efficiencies. First-principles transmissions are evaluated in quantitative agreement with the experiment.

  7. Inorganic proton conducting electrolyte coupled oxide-based dendritic transistors for synaptic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Zhou, Ju Mei; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-05-07

    Ionic/electronic hybrid devices with synaptic functions are considered to be the essential building blocks for neuromorphic systems and brain-inspired computing. Here, artificial synapses based on indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte films are fabricated on glass substrates. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation are successfully mimicked in an individual bottom-gate transistor. Most importantly, dynamic logic and dendritic integration established by spatiotemporally correlated spikes are also mimicked in dendritic transistors with two in-plane gates as the presynaptic input terminals.

  8. Efficient evaluation of atom tunneling combined with electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Vilhjálmur; Arnaldsson, Andri; Jónsson, Hannes

    2018-03-14

    Methodology for finding optimal tunneling paths and evaluating tunneling rates for atomic rearrangements is described. First, an optimal JWKB tunneling path for a system with fixed energy is obtained using a line integral extension of the nudged elastic band method. Then, a calculation of the dynamics along the path is used to determine the temperature at which it corresponds to an optimal Feynman path for thermally activated tunneling (instanton) and a harmonic approximation is used to estimate the transition rate. The method is illustrated with calculations for a modified two-dimensional Müller-Brown surface but is efficient enough to be used in combination with electronic structure calculations of the energy and atomic forces in systems containing many atoms. An example is presented where tunneling is the dominant mechanism well above room temperature as an H 3 BNH 3 molecule dissociates to form H 2 . Also, a solid-state example is presented where density functional theory calculations of H atom tunneling in a Ta crystal give close agreement with experimental measurements on hydrogen diffusion over a wide range in temperature.

  9. Optimization of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor for ambipolar current suppression and Analog/RF performance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhuang, Yiqi; Yan, Zhirui; Guo, Jiaming; Han, Ru

    2018-03-01

    L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor (LTFET) has larger tunnel area than planar TFET, which leads to enhanced on-current ION . However, LTFET suffers from severe ambipolar behavior, which needs to be further optimized for low power and high-frequency applications. In this paper, both hetero-gate-dielectric (HGD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures are introduced into LTFET for suppression of ambipolarity and improvement of analog/RF performance of LTFET. Current-voltage characteristics, the variation of energy band diagrams, distribution of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) generation and distribution of electric field are analyzed for our proposed HGD-LDD-LTFET. In addition, the effect of LDD on the ambipolar behavior of LTFET is investigated, the length and doping concentration of LDD is also optimized for better suppression of ambipolar current. Finally, analog/RF performance of HGD-LDD-LTFET are studied in terms of gate-source capacitance, gate-drain capacitance, cut-off frequency, and gain bandwidth production. TCAD simulation results show that HGD-LDD-LTFET not only drastically suppresses ambipolar current but also improves analog/RF performance compared with conventional LTFET.

  10. Investigation on the corner effect of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistors and their fabrication method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Wan; Choi, Woo Young; Sun, Min-Chul; Park, Byung-Gook

    2013-09-01

    In this work, electrical characteristics of L-shaped tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) have been studied and optimized by a commercial device simulator: Synopsys Sentaurus. Unlike our previous study performed by using Silvaco Atlas, there exists a kink phenomenon in a transfer curve which degrades the subthreshold swing (SS) and on-current (lon) of TFETs. According to simulation results, the kink results from abrupt source doping. Rounding the source junction edge with gradual doping profile is helpful to alleviate it. Based on those results, a novel fabrication flow has been proposed to suppress the kink effect induced by source corners. It is predicted that the performance of L-shaped TFETs is improved in terms of SS and Ion under the optimized process condition. Furthremore, the effect of high-k gate dielectric and narrow band gap material on device performance has been examined. Using 2-nm-thick HfO2 for gate dielectric and Si0.7Ge0.3 for intrinsic tunneling region, gate controllability to the channel and tunneling probability have been enhanced. As a result, its threshold voltage (Vth), SS and Ion have been improved by 0.13 V, 16 mV/dec, and 3.62 microA/microm, respectively.

  11. Performance comparison between p–i–n and p–n junction tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Jun; Seo, Jae Hwa; Kang, In Man

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) performances of p–i–n and p–n junction tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). Compared to the p–i–n junction TFET, the p–n junction TFET exhibited higher on-state current (I on) because the channel formation mechanism of the p–n junction TFET resulted in a narrower tunneling barrier and an expanded tunneling area. Further, the reduction of I on of the p–n junction TFET by the interface trap was smaller. Moreover, the p–n junction TFET exhibited lower gate-to-drain capacitance (C gd) because a depletion capacitance (C gd,dep) was formed by the depletion region under gate dielectric. Consequently, the p–n junction TFET achieved an improvement of cut-off frequency (f T) and intrinsic delay time (τ), which are related to the current performance and total gate capacitance (C gg). We confirmed the enhancement of device performances in terms of I on, f T, and τ by the conduction mechanism of the p–n junction TFET.

  12. Simulation of single-electron tunnelling circuits using SPICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Haar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Single-electron tunnelling (SET) devices have very promising properties, like their extremely low power consumption, their extremely high switching speeds and their extremely small physical dimensions. Since the field of SET devices is far from being fully exploited, and their device properties seem

  13. Interaction between electrons and tunneling levels in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.L.; Gyorffy, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model in which the conduction electrons of a metallic glass experience a local time-dependent potential due to two-level tunneling states is considered. The model exhibits interesting divergent behavior which is quite different from that predicted by an earlier ''s-d Kondo'' model

  14. Subelectron transport in single-electron-tunneling arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel M.; Sverdlov, Victor A.; Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2002-05-01

    We have shown that a special distribution of background charges in islands of single-electron-tunneling arrays can completely suppress its Coulomb blockade and at the same time reduce substantially its shot noise at low applied voltages. In particular the Fano factor F can approach the minimum value Fmin=1/Nopalescence.

  15. Tunneling explains efficient electron transport via protein junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereiro, Jerry A; Yu, Xi; Pecht, Israel; Sheves, Mordechai; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Cahen, David

    2018-05-15

    Metalloproteins, proteins containing a transition metal ion cofactor, are electron transfer agents that perform key functions in cells. Inspired by this fact, electron transport across these proteins has been widely studied in solid-state settings, triggering the interest in examining potential use of proteins as building blocks in bioelectronic devices. Here, we report results of low-temperature (10 K) electron transport measurements via monolayer junctions based on the blue copper protein azurin (Az), which strongly suggest quantum tunneling of electrons as the dominant charge transport mechanism. Specifically, we show that, weakening the protein-electrode coupling by introducing a spacer, one can switch the electron transport from off-resonant to resonant tunneling. This is a consequence of reducing the electrode's perturbation of the Cu(II)-localized electronic state, a pattern that has not been observed before in protein-based junctions. Moreover, we identify vibronic features of the Cu(II) coordination sphere in transport characteristics that show directly the active role of the metal ion in resonance tunneling. Our results illustrate how quantum mechanical effects may dominate electron transport via protein-based junctions.

  16. High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS 2 -Base Hot-Electron Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Torres, Carlos M.

    2015-12-09

    The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  17. High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS 2 -Base Hot-Electron Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Torres, Carlos M.; Lan, Yann Wen; Zeng, Caifu; Chen, Jyun Hong; Kou, Xufeng; Navabi, Aryan; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Zhong, Yuan Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii Dong; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-01-01

    The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  18. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of a single nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Fernández-Rossier, J

    2011-08-12

    Detection of a single nuclear spin constitutes an outstanding problem in different fields of physics such as quantum computing or magnetic imaging. Here we show that the energy levels of a single nuclear spin can be measured by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We consider two different systems, a magnetic adatom probed with scanning tunneling microscopy and a single Bi dopant in a silicon nanotransistor. We find that the hyperfine coupling opens new transport channels which can be resolved at experimentally accessible temperatures. Our simulations evince that IETS yields information about the occupations of the nuclear spin states, paving the way towards transport-detected single nuclear spin resonance.

  19. Reduction of ambipolar characteristics of vertical channel tunneling field-effect transistor by using dielectric sidewall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun Woong; Cho, Il Hwan; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ambipolar characteristics of tunneling FETs have been improved by introducing a novel structure which contains dielectric sidewall in the gate region. In the ambipolar operation mode, gate field effect on intrinsic-drain junction region can be reduced with dielectric sidewall. As a result, ambipolar state tunneling probability is decreased at the intrinsic-drain junction. Since the sidewall region is located near the drain region, tunneling probability of source-intrinsic region is not affected by dielectric sidewall. This asymmetric characteristics means only ambipolar current of tunneling FETs can be prohibited by dielectric sidewall. Reduction of ambipolar characteristic of proposed structure has been evaluated with dimension and location of dielectric sidewall. Quantitative analysis of ambipolar characteristics is also investigated with tunneling. (paper)

  20. Tunnel field-effect transistor charge-trapping memory with steep subthreshold slope and large memory window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    Charge-trapping memory requires the increase of bit density per cell and a larger memory window for lower-power operation. A tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) can achieve to increase the bit density per cell owing to its steep subthreshold slope. In addition, a TFET structure has an asymmetric structure, which is promising for achieving a larger memory window. A TFET with the N-type gate shows a higher electric field between the P-type source and the N-type gate edge than the conventional FET structure. This high electric field enables large amounts of charges to be injected into the charge storage layer. In this study, we fabricated silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (SONOS) memory devices with the TFET structure and observed a steep subthreshold slope and a larger memory window.

  1. Full-zone spectral envelope function formalism for the optimization of line and point tunnel field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Mocuta, Anda; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-10-07

    Efficient quantum mechanical simulation of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is indispensable to allow for an optimal configuration identification. We therefore present a full-zone 15-band quantum mechanical solver based on the envelope function formalism and employing a spectral method to reduce computational complexity and handle spurious solutions. We demonstrate the versatility of the solver by simulating a 40 nm wide In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As lineTFET and comparing it to p-n-i-n configurations with various pocket and body thicknesses. We find that the lineTFET performance is not degraded compared to semi-classical simulations. Furthermore, we show that a suitably optimized p-n-i-n TFET can obtain similar performance to the lineTFET.

  2. Analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui Fang; Sun, Wen; Han, Xin Feng

    2018-06-01

    An analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors (HS-TFETs) is presented for the first time, where hetero stacked materials are composed of two different bandgaps. The bandgap of the underlying layer is smaller than that of the upper layer. Under different device parameters (upper layer thickness, underlying layer thickness, and hetero stacked materials) and temperature, the validity of the model is demonstrated by the agreement of its results with the simulation results. Moreover, the results show that the HS-TFETs can obtain predominant performance with relatively slow changes of subthreshold swing (SS) over a wide drain current range, steep average subthreshold swing, high on-state current, and large on–off state current ratio.

  3. InN/InGaN complementary heterojunction-enhanced tunneling field-effect transistor with enhanced subthreshold swing and tunneling current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yibo; Zhao, Shenglei; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-05-01

    InN/In0.75Ga0.25N complementary heterojunction-enhanced tunneling field-effect transistors (HE-TFETs) were characterized using the numerical simulation. InN/In0.75Ga0.25N HE-TFET has an InN/In0.75Ga0.25N heterojunction located in the channel region with a distance of LT-H from the source/channel tunneling junction. We demonstrate that, for both n- and p-channel devices, HE-TFETs have a delay of onset voltage VONSET, a steeper subthreshold swing (SS), and an enhanced on-state current ION in comparison with the homo-TFETs. InN/In0.75Ga0.25N n- and p-channel HE-TFETs with a gate length LG of 25 nm and a LT-H of 5 nm achieve a 7 and 9 times ION improvement in comparison with the homo devices, respectively, at a supply voltage of 0.3 V. The performance enhancement in HE-TFETs is attributed to the modulating effect of heterojunction on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT). Because InN/In0.75Ga0.25N heterointerface shows the similar band offsets at conduction and valence bands, the InN/In0.75Ga0.25N heterojunction exhibits the improved effect on BTBT for both n- and p-channel devices. This makes InN/In0.75Ga0.25N heterojunction a promising structure for high performance complementary TFETs.

  4. Barrier reduction via implementation of InGaN interlayer in wafer-bonded current aperture vertical electron transistors consisting of InGaAs channel and N-polar GaN drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Laurent, Matthew A.; Li, Haoran; Lal, Shalini; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports the influence of the added InGaN interlayer on reducing the inherent interfacial barrier and hence improving the electrical characteristics of wafer-bonded current aperture vertical electron transistors consisting of an InGaAs channel and N-polar GaN drain. The current-voltage characteristics of the transistors show that the implementation of N-polar InGaN interlayer effectively reduces the barrier to electron transport across the wafer-bonded interface most likely due to its polarization induced downward band bending, which increases the electron tunneling probability. Fully functional wafer-bonded transistors with nearly 600 mA/mm of drain current at V GS  = 0 V and L go  = 2 μm have been achieved, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of using wafer-bonded heterostructures for applications that require active carrier transport through both materials

  5. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  6. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT ~ 0.9 GHz, fMAX ~ 1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  7. Single-electron charging effects and implications for tunneling measurements of the high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, J.B.; Honkanen, M.J.; Ruggiero, S.T.; Mullen, K.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Pelton, A.R.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a theory for the dynamics of two voltage-biased, ultra-small-capacitance tunnel junctions connected in series when one or more electrodes are superconducting and experiments performed on parallel arrays of such junctions. Using the semiclassical model, they find that the I-V characteristics display steps and therefore multiple peaks in dI/dV, corresponding to the time-average occupation of the interjunction region by integral numbers of electrons. The voltage at which the first step is located depends on the superconducting gap, Δ(T), and the capacitances of the junctions. The spacing between subsequent steps depends solely on the capacitances. They discuss electron tunneling results performed on metal/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//2-10 nm-diameter metal particles/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//metal junctions where this multiple-peak structure is observed. They present preliminary tunneling results in junctions employing Pb-particles, where they observe a shift of the peaks when the sample is cooled below T/sub c/ of Pb consistent with theory. Taken together, these results indicate that the multiple-peak structure commonly observed in tunneling data of high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors can be explained in terms of charging effects in a material with a single superconducting gap. Finally, they discuss possible applications in a new type of transistor element

  8. Impact of field-induced quantum confinement on the onset of tunneling field-effect transistors: Experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.smets@imec.be; Verreck, Devin; Heyns, Marc M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KULeuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Martens, Koen; Lin, Han Chung; Kazzi, Salim El; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [ICTEAM, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2014-11-17

    The Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) is a promising device for future low-power logic. Its performance is often predicted using semiclassical simulations, but there is usually a large discrepancy with experimental results. An important reason is that Field-Induced Quantum Confinement (FIQC) is neglected. Quantum mechanical simulations show FIQC delays the onset of Band-To-Band Tunneling (BTBT) with hundreds of millivolts in the promising line-TFET configuration. In this letter, we provide experimental verification of this delayed onset. We accomplish this by developing a method where line-TFET are modeled using highly doped MOS capacitors (MOS-CAP). Using capacitance-voltage measurements, we demonstrate AC inversion by BTBT, which was so far unobserved in MOS-CAP. Good agreement is shown between the experimentally obtained BTBT onset and quantum mechanical predictions, proving the need to include FIQC in all TFET simulations. Finally, we show that highly doped MOS-CAP is promising for characterization of traps deep into the conduction band.

  9. Impact of field-induced quantum confinement on the onset of tunneling field-effect transistors: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Heyns, Marc M.; Verhulst, Anne S.; Martens, Koen; Lin, Han Chung; Kazzi, Salim El; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor (TFET) is a promising device for future low-power logic. Its performance is often predicted using semiclassical simulations, but there is usually a large discrepancy with experimental results. An important reason is that Field-Induced Quantum Confinement (FIQC) is neglected. Quantum mechanical simulations show FIQC delays the onset of Band-To-Band Tunneling (BTBT) with hundreds of millivolts in the promising line-TFET configuration. In this letter, we provide experimental verification of this delayed onset. We accomplish this by developing a method where line-TFET are modeled using highly doped MOS capacitors (MOS-CAP). Using capacitance-voltage measurements, we demonstrate AC inversion by BTBT, which was so far unobserved in MOS-CAP. Good agreement is shown between the experimentally obtained BTBT onset and quantum mechanical predictions, proving the need to include FIQC in all TFET simulations. Finally, we show that highly doped MOS-CAP is promising for characterization of traps deep into the conduction band

  10. Analytical drain current formulation for gate dielectric engineered dual material gate-gate all around-tunneling field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jaya; Gupta, R. S.; Chaujar, Rishu

    2015-09-01

    In this work, an analytical drain current model for gate dielectric engineered (hetero dielectric)-dual material gate-gate all around tunnel field effect transistor (HD-DMG-GAA-TFET) has been developed. Parabolic approximation has been used to solve the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation with appropriate boundary conditions and continuity equations to evaluate analytical expressions for surface potential, electric field, tunneling barrier width and drain current. Further, the analog performance of the device is studied for three high-k dielectrics (Si3N4, HfO2, and ZrO2), and it has been investigated that the problem of lower ION, can be overcome by using the hetero-gate architecture. Moreover, the impact of scaling the gate oxide thickness and bias variations has also been studied. The HD-DMG-GAA-TFET shows an enhanced ION of the order of 10-4 A. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing it with ATLAS device simulations.

  11. Effect of 1MeV electron beam on transistors and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hoon

    1998-02-01

    It has been known that semiconductor devices operating in a radiation environment exhibited significant alterations of their electrical responses. Since an electron beam bombardment produces lattice damage in Si and charged defects in SiO 2 , several electrical parameters of transistors exhibit significant changes. Those parameters are the current gain of BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) and the threshold voltage of MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). The degradation of transistors brings about that of circuits. This paper presents the results of experiments and simulations performed to study the effects of 1MeV electron beam irradiation on selected silicon transistors and circuits. For BJTs, the current gains of npn (2N3904) and pnp (2N3906) linearly decreased as the irradiation dose increased, and from this result, the damage constants, Ks were obtained as 13.65 for 2N3904 and 22.52 for 2N3906 in MGy, indicating a more stable operation in the electron radiation environment for pnp than that for npn. The decrease of current gain was due to that of minority-carrier lifetime in the base region. For MOSFETs (CD4007s), the threshold voltages of NMOS and PMOS shifted to the lower values, which was resulted from the accumulation of charge in SiO 2 . The charges could be categorized into fixed oxide charge and interfacial trap charge. From experimental results, the amounts of the induced charges could be quantitatively estimated. These degradations of transistors brought about the decrease in the voltage gain of CE (Common Emitter) amplifier and the shifts in the inverting voltage of inverter. Additionally, PSpice simulations of these circuits were carried out by modeling of irradiated transistors. The comparison of simulation with experiment showed the relatively good agreement of simulation for the degradation of circuits after irradiation

  12. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, 1515 Eubank Blvd SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, 1515 Eubank Blvd SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Carr, S. M. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, 1515 Eubank Blvd SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 μW for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  13. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  14. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10 7  cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10 11  cm −2 . An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs

  15. First Principles Study of Electron Tunneling through Ice

    KAUST Repository

    Cucinotta, Clotilde S.

    2012-10-25

    With the aim of understanding electrochemical scanning tunnel microscopy experiments in an aqueous environment, we investigate electron transport through ice in the coherent limit. This is done by using the nonequilibrium Greens functions method, implemented within density functional theory, in the self-interaction corrected local density approximation. In particular, we explore different ice structures and different Au electrode surface orientations. By comparing the decay coefficient for different thicknesses to the ice complex band structure, we find that the electron transport occurs via tunneling with almost one-dimensional character. The slow decay of the current with the ice thickness is largely due to the small effective mass of the conduction electrons. Furthermore, we find that the calculated tunneling decay coefficients at the Fermi energy are not sensitive to the structural details of the junctions and are at the upper end of the experimental range for liquid water. This suggests that linear response transport measurements are not capable of distinguishing between different ordered ice structures. However, we also demonstrate that a finite bias measurement may be capable of sorting polar from nonpolar interfaces due to the asymmetry of the current-voltage curves for polar interfaces. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Thin-film chemical sensors based on electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.; Leduc, H. G.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanisms underlying a novel chemical sensor based on electron tunneling in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel junctions were studied. Chemical sensors based on electron tunneling were shown to be sensitive to a variety of substances that include iodine, mercury, bismuth, ethylenedibromide, and ethylenedichloride. A sensitivity of 13 parts per billion of iodine dissolved in hexane was demonstrated. The physical mechanisms involved in the chemical sensitivity of these devices were determined to be the chemical alteration of the surface electronic structure of the top metal electrode in the MIM structure. In addition, electroreflectance spectroscopy (ERS) was studied as a complementary surface-sensitive technique. ERS was shown to be sensitive to both iodine and mercury. Electrolyte electroreflectance and solid-state MIM electroreflectance revealed qualitatively the same chemical response. A modified thin-film structure was also studied in which a chemically active layer was introduced at the top Metal-Insulator interface of the MIM devices. Cobalt phthalocyanine was used for the chemically active layer in this study. Devices modified in this way were shown to be sensitive to iodine and nitrogen dioxide. The chemical sensitivity of the modified structure was due to conductance changes in the active layer.

  17. First Principles Study of Electron Tunneling through Ice

    KAUST Repository

    Cucinotta, Clotilde S.; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of understanding electrochemical scanning tunnel microscopy experiments in an aqueous environment, we investigate electron transport through ice in the coherent limit. This is done by using the nonequilibrium Greens functions method, implemented within density functional theory, in the self-interaction corrected local density approximation. In particular, we explore different ice structures and different Au electrode surface orientations. By comparing the decay coefficient for different thicknesses to the ice complex band structure, we find that the electron transport occurs via tunneling with almost one-dimensional character. The slow decay of the current with the ice thickness is largely due to the small effective mass of the conduction electrons. Furthermore, we find that the calculated tunneling decay coefficients at the Fermi energy are not sensitive to the structural details of the junctions and are at the upper end of the experimental range for liquid water. This suggests that linear response transport measurements are not capable of distinguishing between different ordered ice structures. However, we also demonstrate that a finite bias measurement may be capable of sorting polar from nonpolar interfaces due to the asymmetry of the current-voltage curves for polar interfaces. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Theory of inelastic electron tunneling from a localized spin in the impulsive approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Mats

    2009-07-31

    A simple expression for the conductance steps in inelastic electron tunneling from spin excitations in a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic metal surface is derived. The inelastic coupling between the tunneling electron and the spin is via the exchange coupling and is treated in an impulsive approximation using the Tersoff-Hamann approximation for the tunneling between the tip and the sample.

  19. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  20. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  1. Radio-frequency reflectometry on an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs single electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLeod, S. J.; See, A. M.; Keane, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency reflectometry is demonstrated in a sub-micron undoped AlGaAs/GaAs device. Undoped single electron transistors (SETs) are attractive candidates to study single electron phenomena, due to their charge stability and robust electronic properties after thermal cycling. However......, these devices require a large top-gate, which is unsuitable for the fast and sensitive radio frequency reflectometry technique. Here, we demonstrate that rf reflectometry is possible in an undoped SET....

  2. Electron Heating and Quasiparticle Tunnelling in Superconducting Charge Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M. D.; Bueno, J.; Delsing, P.; Echternach, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have directly measured non-equilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling in the time domain as a function of temperature and RF carrier power for a pair of charge qubits based on the single Cooper-pair box, where the readout is performed with a multiplexed quantum capacitance technique. We have extracted an effective electron temperature for each applied RF power, using the data taken at the lowest power as a reference curve. This data has been fit to a standard T? electron heating model, with a reasonable correspondence with established material parameters.

  3. Electron tunneling in nanoscale electrodes for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidenori; Narayanan, Rajaram; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the electrical current that may be obtained from a nanoscale electrochemical system is sensitive to the dimensionality of the electrode and the density of states (DOS). Considering the DOS of lower dimensional systems, such as two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional nanotubes, or zero-dimensional quantum dots, yields a distinct variation of the current-voltage characteristics. Such aspects go beyond conventional Arrhenius theory based kinetics which are often used in experimental interpretation. The obtained insights may be adapted to other devices, such as solid-state batteries. It is also indicated that electron transport in such devices may be considered through electron tunneling.

  4. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor: XIII. Physical Realizations of the Transistor and Circuits (One-Two-MOS-Gates on Thin-Thick Pure-Impure Base)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.-T.; Jie Binbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the physical realization of the Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) and its one-transistor basic building block circuits. Examples are given for the one and two MOS gates on thin and thick, pure and impure base, with electron and hole contacts, and the corresponding theoretical current-voltage characteristics previously computed by us, without generation-recombination-trapping-tunneling of electrons and holes. These examples include the one-MOS-gate on semi-infinite thick impure base transistor (the bulk transistor) and the impurethin-base Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) transistor and the two-MOS-gates on thin base transistors (the FinFET and the Thin Film Transistor TFT). Figures are given with the cross-section views containing the electron and hole concentration and current density distributions and trajectories and the corresponding DC current-voltage characteristics.

  5. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors

  6. Field enhanced luminescence of irradiated organics due to electron tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1981-01-01

    Many organic materials, following exposure to high energy radiation at low temperatures, continue to emit light for long periods. One possible mechanism is that electrons trapped near their parent cations can tunnel back over long times depending on trap depth and distance. This luminescence can be greatly enhanced by the post-radiation application of an external electric field. Calculations on the kinetics of recombination by tunnelling for various trap depths and distances are extended to allow for the effect of an electrical field subsequently applied. The quantitative results lead to two methods of assessing trap depth, depending on immediate light enhancement and on its subsequent decay. The effect of field reversal is also explained. (author)

  7. Electron Tunneling in Junctions Doped with Semiconductors and Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lloyd Douglas, II

    In this study, tunnel junctions incorporating thin layers of semiconductors and metals have been analyzed. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) was employed to yield high-resolution vibrational spectra of surface species deposited at the oxide-M_2 interface of M_1-M_1O _{rm x}-M _2 tunneling samples. Analysis was also performed on the elastic component of the tunneling current, yielding information on the tunnel barrier shape. The samples in this research exhibit a wide range of behavior. The IETS for Si, SiO_2, and Ge doped samples show direct evidence of SiH _{rm x} and GeH_ {rm x} formation. The particular species formed is shown to depend on the form of the evaporated dopant. Samples were also made with organic dopants deposited over the evaporated dopants. Many such samples show marked effects of the evaporated dopants on the inelastic peak intensities of the organic dopants. These alterations are correlated with the changed reactivity of the oxide surface coupled with a change in the OH dipole layer density on the oxide. Thicker organic dopant layers cause large changes in the elastic tunneling barrier due to OH layer alterations or the low barrier attributes of the evaporated dopant. In the cases of the thicker layers an extra current-carrying mechanism is shown to be contributing. Electron ejection from charge traps is proposed as an explanation for this extra current. The trend of barrier shape with dopant thickness is examined. Many of these dopants also produce a voltage-induced shift in the barrier shape which is stable at low temperature but relaxes at high temperature. This effect is similar to that produced by certain organic dopants and is explained by metastable bond formation between the surface OH and dopant. Other dopants, such as Al, Mg, and Fe, produce different effects. These dopants cause large I-V nonlinearity at low voltages. This nonlinearity is modeled as a giant zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) and fits are presented which show good

  8. Problems of noise modeling in the presence of total current branching in high electron mobility transistor and field-effect transistor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiktorov, P; Starikov, E; Gružinskis, V; Varani, L; Sabatini, G; Marinchio, H; Reggiani, L

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of analytical and hydrodynamic models for the description of carrier transport and noise in high electron mobility transistor/field-effect transistor channels the main features of the intrinsic noise of transistors are investigated under continuous branching of the current between channel and gate. It is shown that the current-noise and voltage-noise spectra at the transistor terminals contain an excess noise related to thermal excitation of plasma wave modes in the dielectric layer between the channel and gate. It is found that the set of modes of excited plasma waves can be governed by the external embedding circuits, thus violating a universal description of noise in terms of Norton and Thevenin noise generators

  9. The free electron gas primary thermometer using an ordinary bipolar junction transistor approaches ppm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the free electron gas primary thermometer based on a bipolar junction transistor is able to provide the temperature with an accuracy of a few parts per million. Its simple functioning principle exploits the behavior of the collector current when properly biased to extract the temperature. Using general purpose silicon transistors at the water triple point (273.16 K) and gallium melting point (302.9146), an accuracy of a few parts per million has been reached, constituting the simplest and the easiest to operate primary thermometer, that might be considered even for the redefinition of Kelvin.

  10. A high performance Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5/Si heterojunction dual sources tunneling transistor with a U-shaped channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Wang, Qianqiong; Chen, Shupeng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a new Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5/Si heterojunction dual sources tunneling transistor with a U-shaped channel (Ge_DUTFET) is proposed and investigated by Silvaco-Atlas simulation. The line tunneling perpendicular to channel and point tunneling parallel to channel simultaneously occur on both sides of the gate. The Ge is chosen as the source region material to increase the line tunneling current. The designed heterojunction between the Ge source and Si channel decreases the point tunneling barrier width to enhance the point tunneling current. And this heterojunction can also promote the Ge_DUTFET to occur point tunneling at the small gate voltage, which makes it obtain the smaller turn-on voltage. Furthermore, the Si0.5Ge0.5 buffer layer is also helpful for the enhancement of performance. The simulation results reveal that Ge_DUTFET has the better performance compared with the Si_DUTFET. The on-state current and average subthreshold swing of Ge_DUTFET are 1.11 × 10-5A/μm and 35.1mV/dec respectively. The max cut-off frequency (fT) and gain bandwidth product (GBW) are 26.6 GHz and 16.6 GHz respectively. The fT and GBW of the Ge_DUTFET are respectively increased by ∼27.4% and ∼84.3% compared with the Si_DUTFET.

  11. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds in a single-electron transistor based on an Au nanoparticle chemically anchored at both ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yasuo; Onuma, Yuto; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2016-02-28

    Rhombic Coulomb diamonds are clearly observed in a chemically anchored Au nanoparticle single-electron transistor. The stability diagrams show stable Coulomb blockade phenomena and agree with the theoretical curve calculated using the orthodox model. The resistances and capacitances of the double-barrier tunneling junctions between the source electrode and the Au core (R1 and C1, respectively), and those between the Au core and the drain electrode (R2 and C2, respectively), are evaluated as 4.5 MΩ, 1.4 aF, 4.8 MΩ, and 1.3 aF, respectively. This is determined by fitting the theoretical curve against the experimental Coulomb staircases. Two-methylene-group short octanedithiols (C8S2) in a C8S2/hexanethiol (C6S) mixed self-assembled monolayer is concluded to chemically anchor the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes even when the Au nanoparticle is protected by decanethiol (C10S). This is because the R1 value is identical to that of R2 and corresponds to the tunneling resistances of the octanedithiol chemically bonded with the Au core and the Au electrodes. The dependence of the Coulomb diamond shapes on the tunneling resistance ratio (R1/R2) is also discussed, especially in the case of the rhombic Coulomb diamonds. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds result from chemical anchoring of the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes.

  12. Scanning tunnelling microscope imaging of nanoscale electron density gradients on the surface of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B; Jacobs, J; Missous, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the scanning tunnelling microscope tunnelling conditions needed to produce constant current images dominated either by surface topology or by electronic effects. A model experimental structure was produced by cleaving a GaAs multiδ-doped layer in UHV and so projecting a spatially varying electron gas density onto the (110) surface. This cross sectional electron density varies on a nanometre scale in the [100] growth direction. The electronic structure and tunnelling properties of this system were modelled, and the tunnelling conditions favouring sensitivity to the surface electron gas density determined

  13. Electron holography study on the microstructure of magnetic tunnelling junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.Y.; Wang, Y.G.; You, B.; Du, J.; Hu, A.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Electron holography was applied to study the microstructure evolution of magnetic tunnelling junctions (MTJs) CoFe/AlO x /Co annealed at different temperatures. A mean inner potential barrier was observed in the as-deposited MTJ sample, while it was changed to a potential well after a 200 deg. C or a 400 deg. C annealing. It is suggested that the oxygen atoms were redistributed during the annealing, which left metallic atoms acting as acceptors to confine the electrons, leading to the decrease of the potential of the AlO x barrier layer. The results suggest that the electron holography may be a useful tool for the study of the microstructure of amorphous materials

  14. Probing Nanoscale Electronic and Magnetic Interaction with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Jakob

    tunneling microscope (STM). Especially at low temperatures the Kondo resonance is used to probe magnetic interaction with ferromagnetic islands and between two atoms. The latter showing a crossover between Kondo screened atoms and antiferromagnetically coupled atoms close to the quantum critical point....... This is related to research in correlated electron materials such as studies of phase transitions in heavy fermion compounds and magnetic interaction in spintronic research. The capping of cobalt islands on Cu(111) with silver is investigated with STM and photoemission spectroscopy. It is shown that at low...

  15. Interferometry of Klein tunnelling electrons in graphene quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, D. J. P.; Chaves, Andrey; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically study a current switch that exploits the phase acquired by a charge carrier as it tunnels through a potential barrier in graphene. The system acts as an interferometer based on an armchair graphene quantum ring, where the phase difference between interfering electronic wave functions for each path can be controlled by tuning either the height or the width of a potential barrier in the ring arms. By varying the parameters of the potential barriers, the interference can become completely destructive. We demonstrate how this interference effect can be used for developing a simple graphene-based logic gate with a high on/off ratio.

  16. Crossover in tunneling hops in systems of strongly localized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien Nguyen, V.; Gamietea, A.D.

    1995-11-01

    Accurate Monte-Carlo simulation data show a consistent crossover in different characters of tunneling hops in two-dimensional systems of strongly localized electrons in the presence of scattering and quantum interference of hopping paths. The results also suggest a negative answer to the question whether there is a two-dimensional sign phase transition. The fractal behaviour observed in the direction perpendicular to the hopping direction is found to be similar to that for eigenstates in one-dimensional localized systems. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs

  17. Study of novel junctionless Ge n-Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors with lightly doped drain (LDD) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Meng; Han, Genquan; Cui, Shimin; Zhang, Heming

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel junctionless Ge n-Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TFET) structure is proposed. The simulation results show that Ion = 5.5 × 10-5A/μm is achieved. The junctionless device structure enhances Ion effectively and increases the region where significant BTBT occurs, comparing with the normal Ge-nTEFT. The impact of the lightly doped drain (LDD) region is investigated. A comparison of Ion and Ioff of the junctionless Ge n-TFET with different channel doping concentration ND and LDD doping concentration NLDD is studied. Ioff is reduced 1 order of magnitude with the optimized ND and NLDD are 1 × 1018cm-3 and 1 × 1017 cm-3, respectively. To reduce the gate induced drain leakage (GIDL) current, the impact of the sloped gate oxide structure is also studied. By employing the sloped gate oxide structure, the below 60 mV/decade subthreshold swing S = 46.2 mV/decade is achieved at Ion = 4.05 × 10-5A/μm and Ion/Ioff = 5.7 × 106.

  18. Dopant induced single electron tunneling within the sub-bands of single silicon NW tri-gate junctionless n-MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Wasi; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Maity, Sarmistha; Das, Samaresh

    2017-09-01

    We report 1D electron transport of silicon junctionless tri-gate n-type transistor at 4.2 K. The step like curve observed in the current voltage characteristic suggests 1D transport. Besides the current steps for 1D transport, we found multiple spikes within individual steps, which we relate to inter-band single electron tunneling, mediated by the charged dopants available in the channel region. Clear Coulomb diamonds were observed in the stability diagram of the device. It is shown that a uniformly doped silicon nanowire can provide us the window for the single electron tunnelling. Back-gate versus front-gate color plot, where current is in a color scale, shows a crossover of the increased conduction region. This is a clear indication of the dopant-dopant interaction. It has been shown that back-gate biasing can be used to tune the coupling strength between the dopants.

  19. Unijunction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of unijunction transistors can be modified by irradiation with electron beams in excess of 400 KeV and at a dose rate of 10 13 to 10 16 e/cm 2 . Examples are given of the effect of exposing the emitter-base junctions of transistors to such lattice defect causing radiation for a time sufficient to change the valley current of the transistor. (U.K.)

  20. Performance enhancement in uniaxially tensile stressed GeSn n-channel fin tunneling field-effect transistor: Impact of stress direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Genquan; Jiang, Xiangwei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the boosting effect on the performance of GeSn n-channel fin tunneling FET (nFinTFET) enabled by uniaxial tensile stress is investigated theoretically. As the fin rotates within the (001) plane, the uniaxial tensile stress is always along its direction. The electrical characteristics of tensile-stressed GeSn nFinTFETs with point and line tunneling modes are computed utilizing the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulator in which the dynamic nonlocal band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) algorithm is employed. In comparison with the relaxed devices, tensile-stressed GeSn nFinTFETs achieve a substantial enhancement in band-to-band tunneling generation rate (G BTBT) and on-state current I ON owing to the reduced bandgap E G induced by the tensile stress. Performance improvement of GeSn nFinTFETs induced by tensile stress demonstrates a strong dependence on channel direction and tunneling modes. Under the same magnitude of stress, line-nFinTFETs obtain a more pronounced I ON enhancement over the transistors with point tunneling mode.

  1. Electron tunneling in tantalum surface layers on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.; Track, E.K.; Prober, D.E.; Arnold, G.B.; DeWeert, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have performed electron tunneling measurements on tantalum surface layers on niobium. The tunnel junctions comprise 2000-A-circle Nb base electrodes with 10--100-A-circle in situ--deposited Ta overlayers, an oxide barrier, and Ag, Pb, or Pb-Bi alloy counterelectrodes. The base electrodes were prepared by ion-beam sputter deposition. The characteristics of these junctions have been studied as a function of Ta-layer thickness. These include the critical current, bound-state energy, phonon structure, and oxide barrier shape. We have compared our results for the product I/sub c/R versus tantalum-layer thickness with an extended version of the Gallagher theory which accounts for both the finite mean free path in the Ta overlayers and suppression of the I/sub c/R product due to strong-coupling effects. Excellent fits to the data yield a value of the intrinsic scattering probability for electrons at the Ta/Nb interface of r 2 = 0.01. This is consistent with the value expected from simple scattering off the potential step created by the difference between the Fermi energies of Ta and Nb. We have found a universal empirical correlation in average barrier height phi-bar and width s in the form phi-bar = 6 eV/(s-10 A-circle) for measured junctions which holds both for our data and results for available data in the literature for oxide-barrier junctions. The latter are composed of a wide variety of base and counterelectrode materials. These results are discussed in the general context of oxide growth and compared with results for artificial tunnel barriers

  2. Improved performance of nanoscale junctionless tunnel field-effect transistor based on gate engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei Imen Abadi, Rouzbeh; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a first qualitative study on the performance characteristics of dual-work function gate junctionless TFET (DWG-JLTFET) on the basis of energy band profile modulation is investigated. A dual-work function gate technique is used in a JLTFET in order to create a downward band bending on the source side similar to PNPN structure. Compared with the single-work function gate junctionless TFET (SWG-JLTFET), the numerical simulation results demonstrated that the DWG-JLTFET simultaneously optimizes the ON-state current, the OFF-state leakage current, and the threshold voltage and also improves average subthreshold slope. It is illustrated that if appropriate work functions are selected for the gate materials on the source side and the drain side, the JLTFET exhibits a considerably improved performance. Furthermore, the optimization design of the tunnel gate length ( L Tun) for the proposed DWG-JLTFET is studied. All the simulations are done in Silvaco TCAD for a channel length of 20 nm using the nonlocal band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model.

  3. Analysis on temperature dependent current mechanism of tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junil; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Euyhwan; Park, Taehyung; Kim, Sihyun; Lee, Ryoongbin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the total drain current (I D) of a tunnel FET (TFET) is decomposed into each current component with different origins to analyze the I D formation mechanisms of the TFET as a function of gate voltage (V GS). Transfer characteristics are firstly extracted with fabricated Silicon channel TFETs (Si TFETs) and silicon germanium channel TFETs (SiGe TFETs) at various temperatures. The subthreshold swings (SS) of both Si TFETs and SiGe TFETs get degraded and the SSs of SiGe TFETs get degraded more as temperature becomes higher. Then, all the I Ds measured at various temperatures are decomposed into each current component through technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations with a good agreement with experimental data. As a result, it is revealed that Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination mainly contribute to the I D of a TFET before band to band tunneling (BTBT) occurs. Furthermore, the SS degradation by high temperature is explained successfully by the SRH recombination with electric field dependence.

  4. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Weichen; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Rastak, Reza; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Chung, Jong Won; Niu, Simiao; Feig, Vivian R.; Lopez, Jeffery; Lei, Ting; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yeongin; Foudeh, Amir M.; Ehrlich, Anatol; Gasperini, Andrea; Yun, Youngjun; Murmann, Boris; Tok, Jeffery B.-H.; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-03-01

    Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable—like human skin—would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a

  5. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Weichen; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Rastak, Reza; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Chung, Jong Won; Niu, Simiao; Feig, Vivian R; Lopez, Jeffery; Lei, Ting; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yeongin; Foudeh, Amir M; Ehrlich, Anatol; Gasperini, Andrea; Yun, Youngjun; Murmann, Boris; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-03-01

    Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable-like human skin-would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a

  6. Electronic structure classifications using scanning tunneling microscopy conductance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, K.M.; Swartzentruber, B.S.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bouchard, A.; Bartholomew, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The electronic structure of atomic surfaces is imaged by applying multivariate image classification techniques to multibias conductance data measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. Image pixels are grouped into classes according to shared conductance characteristics. The image pixels, when color coded by class, produce an image that chemically distinguishes surface electronic features over the entire area of a multibias conductance image. Such open-quotes classedclose quotes images reveal surface features not always evident in a topograph. This article describes the experimental technique used to record multibias conductance images, how image pixels are grouped in a mathematical, classification space, how a computed grouping algorithm can be employed to group pixels with similar conductance characteristics in any number of dimensions, and finally how the quality of the resulting classed images can be evaluated using a computed, combinatorial analysis of the full dimensional space in which the classification is performed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  7. Three-input gate logic circuits on chemically assembled single-electron transistors with organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlO[Formula: see text]), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

  8. Effect of substrate and temperature on the electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qizhi; Fang, Jiajia; Zhang, Guangru; Wang, Quan

    2018-03-01

    The use of two-dimensional nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films in field-effect transistors (FETs) in place of graphene was investigated. Monolayer MoS2 films were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. The output and transfer curves of supported and suspended MoS2 FETs were measured. The mobility of the suspended device reached 364.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 150 °C. The hysteresis of the supported device in transfer curves was much larger than that of the suspended device, and it increased at higher temperatures. These results indicate that the device mobility was limited by Coulomb scattering at ambient temperature, and surface/interface phonon scattering at 150 °C, and the injection of electrons, via quantum tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contact, was enhanced at higher temperatures and led to the increase of the hysteresis. The suspended MoS2 films show potential for application as a channel material in electronic devices, and further understanding the causes of hysteresis in a material is important for its use in technologies, such as memory devices and sensing cells.

  9. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Hendrik; Das, Satyajit; Lin, Yen-Hung; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Zhao, Kui; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George; Amassian, Aram; Patsalas, Panos A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-03-01

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In 2 O 3 /ZnO heterojunction. We find that In 2 O 3 /ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In 2 O 3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In 2 O 3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications.

  10. Heterojunction oxide thin-film transistors with unprecedented electron mobility grown from solution

    KAUST Repository

    Faber, Hendrik

    2017-04-28

    Thin-film transistors made of solution-processed metal oxide semiconductors hold great promise for application in the emerging sector of large-area electronics. However, further advancement of the technology is hindered by limitations associated with the extrinsic electron transport properties of the often defect-prone oxides. We overcome this limitation by replacing the single-layer semiconductor channel with a low-dimensional, solution-grown In2O3/ZnO heterojunction. We find that In2O3/ZnO transistors exhibit band-like electron transport, with mobility values significantly higher than single-layer In2O3 and ZnO devices by a factor of 2 to 100. This marked improvement is shown to originate from the presence of free electrons confined on the plane of the atomically sharp heterointerface induced by the large conduction band offset between In2O3 and ZnO. Our finding underscores engineering of solution-grown metal oxide heterointerfaces as an alternative strategy to thin-film transistor development and has the potential for widespread technological applications.

  11. Effect of an Interfacial Layer on Electron Tunneling through Atomically Thin Al2O3 Tunnel Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Jamie; Sakidja, Ridwan; Goul, Ryan; Wu, Judy Z

    2017-10-25

    Electron tunneling through high-quality, atomically thin dielectric films can provide a critical enabling technology for future microelectronics, bringing enhanced quantum coherent transport, fast speed, small size, and high energy efficiency. A fundamental challenge is in controlling the interface between the dielectric and device electrodes. An interfacial layer (IL) will contain defects and introduce defects in the dielectric film grown atop, preventing electron tunneling through the formation of shorts. In this work, we present the first systematic investigation of the IL in Al 2 O 3 dielectric films of 1-6 Å's in thickness on an Al electrode. We integrated several advanced approaches: molecular dynamics to simulate IL formation, in situ high vacuum sputtering atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize Al 2 O 3 on Al films, and in situ ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling spectroscopy to probe the electron tunneling through the Al 2 O 3 . The IL had a profound effect on electron tunneling. We observed a reduced tunnel barrier height and soft-type dielectric breakdown which indicate that defects are present in both the IL and in the Al 2 O 3 . The IL forms primarily due to exposure of the Al to trace O 2 and/or H 2 O during the pre-ALD heating step of fabrication. As the IL was systematically reduced, by controlling the pre-ALD sample heating, we observed an increase of the ALD Al 2 O 3 barrier height from 0.9 to 1.5 eV along with a transition from soft to hard dielectric breakdown. This work represents a key step toward the realization of high-quality, atomically thin dielectrics with electron tunneling for the next generation of microelectronics.

  12. Analysis of Proton Radiation Effects on Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different energy levels on a GaN-on-silicon high electron mobility transistor...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In this work, a physics-based simulation of non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different...Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage in

  13. Coulomb Blockade Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect in a (Ga,Mn)As Single-Electron Transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Kaestner, B.; Irvine, A.C.; Shick, Alexander; Stone, N.; Wang, K. Y.; Rana, U.; Giddings, A.D.; Foxon, C. T.; Campion, R. P.; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2006), 077201/1-077201/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA MŠk LC510 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anisotropic magnetoresistance * Coulomb blockade * single electron transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.072, year: 2006

  14. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  15. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  16. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs

  17. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2007-01-01

    density. Oxide thicknesses have been extracted by fitting a model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics to the C-V characteristics. By plotting I-V characteristics in a Fowler plot, a measure of the thickness of the oxide can be extracted from the tunnel current. These apparent thicknesses show a high degree......A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  18. Capacitorless one-transistor dynamic random-access memory based on asymmetric double-gate Ge/GaAs-heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor with n-doped boosting layer and drain-underlap structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Jun; Seo, Jae Hwa; Kang, In Man

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present a capacitorless one-transistor dynamic random-access memory (1T-DRAM) based on an asymmetric double-gate Ge/GaAs-heterojunction tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) for DRAM applications. The n-doped boosting layer and gate2 drain-underlap structure is employed in the device to obtain an excellent 1T-DRAM performance. The n-doped layer inserted between the source and channel regions improves the sensing margin because of a high rate of increase in the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) probability. Furthermore, because the gate2 drain-underlap structure reduces the recombination rate that occurs between the gate2 and drain regions, a device with a gate2 drain-underlap length (L G2_D-underlap) of 10 nm exhibited a longer retention performance. As a result, by applying the n-doped layer and gate2 drain-underlap structure, the proposed device exhibited not only a high sensing margin of 1.11 µA/µm but also a long retention time of greater than 100 ms at a temperature of 358 K (85 °C).

  19. Molecular electronics: the single molecule switch and transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Geskin, Victor; Heimbuch, Rene; Kumar, Avijit; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected

  20. Pseudo-diode based on protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang Ming; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Xiao, Hui; Song, An Ran

    2018-01-01

    Current rectification behavior has been proved to be essential in modern electronics. Here, a pseudo-diode is proposed based on protonic/electronic hybrid indium-gallium-zinc oxide electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor. The oxide EDL transistors are fabricated by using phosphorous silicate glass (PSG) based proton conducting electrolyte as gate dielectric. A diode operation mode is established on the transistor, originating from field configurable proton fluxes within the PSG electrolyte. Current rectification ratios have been modulated to values ranged between ˜4 and ˜50 000 with gate electrode biased at voltages ranged between -0.7 V and 0.1 V. Interestingly, the proposed pseudo-diode also exhibits field reconfigurable threshold voltages. When the gate is biased at -0.5 V and 0.3 V, threshold voltages are set to ˜-1.3 V and -0.55 V, respectively. The proposed pseudo-diode may find potential applications in brain-inspired platforms and low-power portable systems.

  1. Electron-Electron and Electron-Phonon interactions effects on the tunnel electronic spectrum of PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Yu, Qian; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Ulysse, Christian; Zimmers, Alexandre; Dubertret, Benoit; Aubin, Herve

    2015-03-01

    We present a tunnel spectroscopy study of the electronic spectrum of single PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) trapped between nanometer-spaced electrodes, measured at low temperature T=5 K. The carrier filling of the QD can be controlled either by the drain voltage in the shell filling regime or by a gate voltage. In the empty QD, the tunnel spectrum presents the expected signature of the 8x degenerated excited levels. In the drain controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the global electrostatic Coulomb energy of the QD; in the gate controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the intra-Coulomb interactions. In the charged quantum dot, electron-phonons interactions lead to the apparition of Franck-Condon side bands on the single excited levels and possibly Franck Condon blockade at low energy. The sharpening of excited levels at higher gate voltage suggests that the magnitude of electron-phonon interactions is decreased upon increasing the electron filling in the quantum dot. This work was supported by the French ANR Grants 10-BLAN-0409-01, 09-BLAN-0388-01, by the Region Ile-de-France in the framework of DIM Nano-K and by China Scholarship Council.

  2. Electronic transport at semiconductor surfaces - from point-contact transistor to micro-four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Grey, Francois

    2002-01-01

    show that this type of conduction is measurable using new types of experimental probes, such as the multi-tip scanning tunnelling microscope and the micro-four-point probe. The resulting electronic transport properties are intriguing, and suggest that semiconductor surfaces should be considered...

  3. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Harvard University Office for Sponsored Programs...including journal references , in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 03/21/2016 03/21/2016 03...limited kinetics of electron doping in correlated oxides, Applied Physics Letters (07 2015) TOTAL: 1 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted

  4. Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez-Zalba, M.F.; Ciccarelli, C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Irvine, A.C.; Campion, R.C.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), e0125142 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single-electron transitor * reconfigurable logic * ferromagnetic semiconductor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  5. Electric field driven plasmon dispersion in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ren-Bing; Qin Hua; Zhang Xiao-Yu; Xu Wen

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on the electric field driven plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). By introducing a drifted Fermi—Dirac distribution, we calculate the transport properties of the 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN interface by employing the balance-equation approach based on the Boltzmann equation. Then, the nonequilibrium Fermi—Dirac function is obtained by applying the calculated electron drift velocity and electron temperature. Under random phase approximation (RPA), the electric field driven plasmon dispersion is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the plasmon frequency is dominated by both the electric field E and the angle between wavevector q and electric field E. Importantly, the plasmon frequency could be tuned by the applied source—drain bias voltage besides the gate voltage (change of the electron density)

  6. A silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric p–n–p–n SOI tunneling field–effect transistor with steep subthreshold slope and high switching state current ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Marjani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a silicon–on–insulator (SOI p–n–p–n tunneling field–effect transistor (TFET with a silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO2 ferroelectric gate stack is proposed and investigated via 2D device simulation with a calibrated nonlocal band–to–band tunneling model. Utilization of Si:HfO2 instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics such as lead zirconium titanate (PbZrTiO3 and strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi2Ta2O9 provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. By using Si:HfO2 ferroelectric gate stack, the applied gate voltage is effectively amplified that causes increased electric field at the tunneling junction and reduced tunneling barrier width. Compared with the conventional p–n–p–n SOI TFET, the on–state current and switching state current ratio are appreciably increased; and the average subthreshold slope (SS is effectively reduced. The simulation results of Si:HfO2 ferroelectric p–n–p–n SOI TFET show significant improvement in transconductance (∼9.8X enhancement at high overdrive voltage and average subthreshold slope (∼35% enhancement over nine decades of drain current at room temperature, indicating that this device is a promising candidate to strengthen the performance of p–n–p–n and conventional TFET for a switching performance.

  7. Theoretical calculation of performance enhancement in lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Yibo; Peng, Yue; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hu, Shengdong; Hao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a lattice-matched SiGeSn/GeSn heterostructure p-channel tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-PTFET) with a type-II staggered tunneling junction (TJ) is investigated theoretically. Lattice matching and type-II band alignment at the Γ-point is obtained at the SiGeSn/GeSn interface by tuning Sn and Si compositions. A steeper subthreshold swing (SS) and a higher on state current (I ON) are demonstrated in SiGeSn/GeSn hetero-PTFET than in GeSn homo-PTFET. Si0.31Ge0.49Sn0.20/Ge0.88Sn0.12 hetero-PTFET achieves a 2.3-fold higher I ON than Ge0.88Sn0.12 homo-PTFET at V DD of 0.3 V. Hetero-PTFET achieves a more abrupt hole profile and a higher carrier density near TJ than the homo-PTFET, which contributes to the significantly enhanced band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and tunneling current in hetero-PTFET.

  8. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  9. Current Analysis and Modeling of Fullerene Single-Electron Transistor at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem Hosseini, Vahideh; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Afrang, Saeid; Ismail, Razali

    2017-07-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are interesting electronic devices that have become key elements in modern nanoelectronic systems. SETs operate quickly because they use individual electrons, with the number transferred playing a key role in their switching behavior. However, rapid transmission of electrons can cause their accumulation at the island, affecting the I- V characteristic. Selection of fullerene as a nanoscale zero-dimensional material with high stability, and controllable size in the fabrication process, can overcome this charge accumulation issue and improve the reliability of SETs. Herein, the current in a fullerene SET is modeled and compared with experimental data for a silicon SET. Furthermore, a weaker Coulomb staircase and improved reliability are reported. Moreover, the applied gate voltage and fullerene diameter are found to be directly associated with the I- V curve, enabling the desired current to be achieved by controlling the fullerene diameter.

  10. Microwave Enhanced Cotunneling in SET Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manscher, Martin; Savolainen, M.; Mygind, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Cotunneling in single electron tunneling (SET) devices is an error process which may severely limit their electronic and metrologic applications. Here is presented an experimental investigation of the theory for adiabatic enhancement of cotunneling by coherent microwaves. Cotunneling in SET...... transistors has been measured as function of temperature, gate voltage, frequency, and applied microwave power. At low temperatures and applied power levels, including also sequential tunneling, the results can be made consistent with theory using the unknown damping in the microwave line as the only free...

  11. Electron-spin polarization in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic EuS barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Moodera, J.S.; Meservey, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report here spin-polarized tunneling experiments using non-ferromagnetic electrodes and ferromagnetic EuS barriers. Because of the conduction band in EuS splits into spin-up and spin-down subbands when the temperature is below 16.7 K, the Curie temperature of EuS, the tunnel barrier for electrons with different spin directions is different, therefore giving rise to tunnel current polarization. The spin-filter effect, as it may be called, was observed earlier, directly or indirectly, by several groups: Esaki et al. made a tunneling study on junctions having EuS and EuSe barriers; Thompson et al. studied Schottky barrier tunneling between In and doped EuS; Muller et al. and Kisker et al. performed electron field emission experiments on EuS-coated tungsten tips. The field emission experiments gave a maximum polarization of (89 + 7)% for the emitted electrons. Although the previous tunneling studies did not directly show electron polarization, their results were explained by the same spin- filter effect. This work uses the spin-polarized tunneling technique to show directly that tunnel current is indeed polarized and polarization can be as high as 85%

  12. Effect of superconducting electrons on the energy splitting of tunneling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.C.; Granato, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    We consider the effect of superconducting electrons on the magnitude of the energy splitting of a tunneling system. A specific example is a hydrogen atom tunneling in niobium. We find that in this case the splitting is roughly 20% smaller in the normal state than in the superconducting state. This difference in the splitting should be observable in neutron scattering and ultrasonic measurements

  13. Quantum tunneling recombination in a system of randomly distributed trapped electrons and positive ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Kulp, Christopher; Chaney, Charity-Grace; Tachiya, M

    2017-09-13

    During the past 10 years, quantum tunneling has been established as one of the dominant mechanisms for recombination in random distributions of electrons and positive ions, and in many dosimetric materials. Specifically quantum tunneling has been shown to be closely associated with two important effects in luminescence materials, namely long term afterglow luminescence and anomalous fading. Two of the common assumptions of quantum tunneling models based on random distributions of electrons and positive ions are: (a) An electron tunnels from a donor to the nearest acceptor, and (b) the concentration of electrons is much lower than that of positive ions at all times during the tunneling process. This paper presents theoretical studies for arbitrary relative concentrations of electrons and positive ions in the solid. Two new differential equations are derived which describe the loss of charge in the solid by tunneling, and they are solved analytically. The analytical solution compares well with the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out in a random distribution of electrons and positive ions. Possible experimental implications of the model are discussed for tunneling phenomena in long term afterglow signals, and also for anomalous fading studies in feldspars and apatite samples.

  14. Strain-effect transistors: Theoretical study on the effects of external strain on III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.

  15. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, H.-S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112 ¯ ) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity

  16. Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, H.-S. [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, C. W., E-mail: chee@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    The dependence of ballistic electron current on Sn content, sidewall orientations, fin width, and uniaxial stress is theoretically studied for the GeSn fin field-effect transistors. Alloying Sn increases the direct Γ valley occupancy and enhances the injection velocity at virtual source node. (112{sup ¯}) sidewall gives the highest current enhancement due to the rapidly increasing Γ valley occupancy. The non-parabolicity of the Γ valley affects the occupancy significantly. However, uniaxial tensile stress and the shrinkage of fin width reduce the Γ valley occupancy, and the currents are enhanced by increasing occupancy of specific indirect L valleys with high injection velocity.

  17. Electronic transport mechanisms in scaled gate-all-around silicon nanowire transistor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clément, N., E-mail: nicolas.clement@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr; Han, X. L. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Larrieu, G., E-mail: nicolas.clement@iemn.univ-lille1.fr, E-mail: guilhem.larrieu@laas.fr [Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems (LAAS), CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 7 Avenue Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-23

    Low-frequency noise is used to study the electronic transport in arrays of 14 nm gate length vertical silicon nanowire devices. We demonstrate that, even at such scaling, the electrostatic control of the gate-all-around is sufficient in the sub-threshold voltage region to confine charges in the heart of the wire, and the extremely low noise level is comparable to that of high quality epitaxial layers. Although contact noise can already be a source of poor transistor operation above threshold voltage for few nanowires, nanowire parallelization drastically reduces its impact.

  18. Fabrication of double-dot single-electron transistor in silicon nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Mingyu; Kaizawa, Takuya; Arita, Masashi; Fujiwara, Akira; Ono, Yukinori; Inokawa, Hiroshi; Choi, Jung-Bum; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple method for fabricating Si single-electron transistors (SET) with coupled dots by means of a pattern-dependent-oxidation (PADOX) method. The PADOX method is known to convert a small one-dimensional Si wire formed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate into a SET automatically. We fabricated a double-dot Si SET when we oxidized specially designed Si nanowires formed on SOI substrates. We analyzed the measured electrical characteristics by fitting the measurement and simulation results and confirmed the double-dot formation and the position of the two dots in the Si wire.

  19. Quantitative analysis of Josephson-quasiparticle current in superconducting single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Chen, C.D.; Tsai, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated Josephson-quasiparticle (JQP) current in superconducting single-electron transistors in which charging energy E C was larger than superconducting gap energy Δ and junction resistances were much larger than R Q ≡h/4e 2 . We found that not only the shapes of the JQP peaks but also their absolute height were reproduced quantitatively with a theory by Averin and Aleshkin using a Josephson energy of Ambegaokar-Baratoff close-quote s value. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. The operation cutoff frequency of high electron mobility transistor measured by terahertz method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y. M.; Zhuang, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Commonly, the cutoff frequency of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be measured by vector network analyzer (VNA), which can only measure the sample exactly in low frequency region. In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the cutoff frequency of HEMT by terahertz (THz) technique. One example shows the cutoff frequency of our HEMT is measured at ∼95.30 GHz, which is reasonable agreement with that estimated by VNA. It is proved THz technology a potential candidate for the substitution of VNA for the measurement of high-speed devices even up to several THz.

  1. Ordinary and extraordinary Coulomb blockade magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As single electron transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Novák, Vít; Irvine, A.C.; Kaestner, B.; Shick, Alexander; Foxon, C. T.; Campion, R. P.; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 144, - (2007), s. 536-541 ISSN 0038-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E001; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magnetoresistance * single-electron transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.535, year: 2007

  2. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  3. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.; Kachorovskiǐ, Valentin Yu; Stillman, William J.; Veksler, Dmitry B.; Salama, Khaled N.; Zhang, Xicheng; Shur, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Enhanced plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation using multiple high electron-mobility transistors connected in series

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhatib, Tamer A.

    2010-02-01

    We report on enhanced room-temperature detection of terahertz radiation by several connected field-effect transistors. For this enhanced nonresonant detection, we have designed, fabricated, and tested plasmonic structures consisting of multiple InGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high electron-mobility transistors connected in series. Results show a 1.63-THz response that is directly proportional to the number of detecting transistors biased by a direct drain current at the same gate-to-source bias voltages. The responsivity in the saturation regime was found to be 170 V/W with the noise equivalent power in the range of 10-7 W/Hz0.5. The experimental data are in agreement with the detection mechanism based on the rectification of overdamped plasma waves excited by terahertz radiation in the transistor channel. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Metal-Halide Perovskite Transistors for Printed Electronics: Challenges and Opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yen-Hung

    2017-10-12

    Following the unprecedented rise in photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies during the past five years, metal-halide perovskites (MHPs) have emerged as a new and highly promising class of solar-energy materials. Their extraordinary electrical and optical properties combined with the abundance of the raw materials, the simplicity of synthetic routes, and processing versatility make MHPs ideal for cost-efficient, large-volume manufacturing of a plethora of optoelectronic devices that span far beyond photovoltaics. Herein looks beyond current applications in the field of energy, to the area of large-area electronics using MHPs as the semiconductor material. A comprehensive overview of the relevant fundamental material properties of MHPs, including crystal structure, electronic states, and charge transport, is provided first. Thereafter, recent demonstrations of MHP-based thin-film transistors and their application in logic circuits, as well as bi-functional devices such as light-sensing and light-emitting transistors, are discussed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in the area of MHPs-based electronics, with particular emphasis on manufacturing, stability, and health and environmental concerns, are highlighted.

  6. Coulomb Blockade and Multiple Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Single-Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Thomas; Sprenger, Susanne; Scheer, Elke

    2018-06-01

    In superconducting quantum point contacts, multiple Andreev reflection (MAR), which describes the coherent transport of m quasiparticles each carrying an electron charge with m≥3, sets in at voltage thresholds eV = 2Δ /m. In single-electron transistors, Coulomb blockade, however, suppresses the current at low voltage. The required voltage for charge transport increases with the square of the effective charge eV∝ ( me) ^2. Thus, studying the charge transport in all-superconducting single-electron transistors (SSETs) sets these two phenomena into competition. In this article, we present the fabrication as well as a measurement scheme and transport data for a SSET with one junction in which the transmission and thereby the MAR contributions can be continuously tuned. All regimes from weak to strong coupling are addressed. We extend the Orthodox theory by incorporating MAR processes to describe the observed data qualitatively. We detect a new transport process the nature of which is unclear at present. Furthermore, we observe a renormalization of the charging energy when approaching the strong coupling regime.

  7. Metal-Halide Perovskite Transistors for Printed Electronics: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Following the unprecedented rise in photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies during the past five years, metal-halide perovskites (MHPs) have emerged as a new and highly promising class of solar-energy materials. Their extraordinary electrical and optical properties combined with the abundance of the raw materials, the simplicity of synthetic routes, and processing versatility make MHPs ideal for cost-efficient, large-volume manufacturing of a plethora of optoelectronic devices that span far beyond photovoltaics. Herein looks beyond current applications in the field of energy, to the area of large-area electronics using MHPs as the semiconductor material. A comprehensive overview of the relevant fundamental material properties of MHPs, including crystal structure, electronic states, and charge transport, is provided first. Thereafter, recent demonstrations of MHP-based thin-film transistors and their application in logic circuits, as well as bi-functional devices such as light-sensing and light-emitting transistors, are discussed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in the area of MHPs-based electronics, with particular emphasis on manufacturing, stability, and health and environmental concerns, are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium zinc oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guodong; Wan, Changjin; Wan, Qing; Zhou, Jumei; Zhu, Liqiang

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage (1.5 V) indium zinc oxide (IZO)-based electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors (TFTs) gated by nanogranular proton conducting SiO 2 electrolyte films are fabricated on paper substrates. Both enhancement-mode and depletion-mode operation are obtained by tuning the thickness of the IZO channel layer. Furthermore, such flexible IZO protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs can be used as artificial synapses, and synaptic stimulation response and short-term synaptic plasticity function are demonstrated. The protonic/electronic hybrid EDL TFTs on paper substrates proposed here are promising for low-power flexible paper electronics, artificial synapses and bioelectronics. (paper)

  9. Flexible Electronics: Integration Processes for Organic and Inorganic Semiconductor-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and transparent electronics have been studied intensively during the last few decades. The technique establishes the possibility of fabricating innovative products, from flexible displays to radio-frequency identification tags. Typically, large-area polymeric substrates such as polypropylene (PP or polyethylene terephthalate (PET are used, which produces new requirements for the integration processes. A key element for flexible and transparent electronics is the thin-film transistor (TFT, as it is responsible for the driving current in memory cells, digital circuits or organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs. In this paper, we discuss some fundamental concepts of TFT technology. Additionally, we present a comparison between the use of the semiconducting organic small-molecule pentacene and inorganic nanoparticle semiconductors in order to integrate TFTs suitable for flexible electronics. Moreover, a technique for integration with a submicron resolution suitable for glass and foil substrates is presented.

  10. Analysis on RF parameters of nanoscale tunneling field-effect transistor based on InAs/InGaAs/InP heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung Yun; Yoon, Young Jun; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man

    2013-12-01

    Tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) based on the quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) have advantages such as low off-current and subthreshold swing (S) below 60 mV/dec at room temperature. For these reasons, TFETs are considered as promising devices for low standby power (LSTP) applications. On the other hand, silicon (Si)-based TFETs have a drawback in low on-state current (lon) drivability. In this work, we suggest a gate-all-around (GAA) TFET based on compound semiconductors to improve device performances. The proposed device materials consist of InAs (source), InGaAs (channel), and InP (drain). According to the composition (x) of Ga in In1-xGa(x)As layer of the channel region, simulated devices have been investigated in terms of both direct-current (DC) and RF parameters including tunneling rate, transconductance (g(m)), gate capacitance (Cg), intrinsic delay time (tau), cut-off frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (f(max)). In this study, the obtained maximum values of tau, fT, and f(max) for GAA InAs/In0.9Ga0.1As/InP heterojunction TFET were 21.2 fs, 7 THz, and 18 THz, respectively.

  11. Impact of barrier thickness on transistor performance in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, David A.; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Bass, Robert; Binari, Steven C.; Gougousi, Theodosia; Evans, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    A series of six ultrathin AlN/GaN heterostructures with varied AlN thicknesses from 1.5–6 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated from the set in order to assess the impact of barrier thickness and homo-epitaxial growth on transistor performance. Room temperature Hall characteristics revealed mobility of 1700 cm 2 /V s and sheet resistance of 130 Ω/□ for a 3 nm thick barrier, ranking amongst the lowest room-temperature sheet resistance values reported for a polarization-doped single heterostructure in the III-Nitride family. DC and small signal HEMT electrical characteristics from submicron gate length HEMTs further elucidated the effect of the AlN barrier thickness on device performance.

  12. Impact of barrier thickness on transistor performance in AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, David A., E-mail: david.deen@alumni.nd.edu; Storm, David F.; Meyer, David J.; Bass, Robert; Binari, Steven C. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5347 (United States); Gougousi, Theodosia [Physics Department, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Evans, Keith R. [Kyma Technologies, Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A series of six ultrathin AlN/GaN heterostructures with varied AlN thicknesses from 1.5–6 nm have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. High electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were fabricated from the set in order to assess the impact of barrier thickness and homo-epitaxial growth on transistor performance. Room temperature Hall characteristics revealed mobility of 1700 cm{sup 2}/V s and sheet resistance of 130 Ω/□ for a 3 nm thick barrier, ranking amongst the lowest room-temperature sheet resistance values reported for a polarization-doped single heterostructure in the III-Nitride family. DC and small signal HEMT electrical characteristics from submicron gate length HEMTs further elucidated the effect of the AlN barrier thickness on device performance.

  13. On the role of electron quantum tunneling in charging of dust grains in complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.O.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is calculate ion additional current associated with the quantum tunneling of plasma electrons, that are classically forbidden to overcome the repulsive potential barrier, onto the negatively charged grain. We compare this additional quantum tunneling current with the classical electron current from plasma onto the grain and analyze how this additional current affects the self-consistent equilibrium grain charge for different plasma parameters and grain sizes.

  14. High-Precision Displacement Sensing of Monolithic Piezoelectric Disk Resonators Using a Single-Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Santos, J. T.; Sillanpää, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    A single-electron transistor (SET) can be used as an extremely sensitive charge detector. Mechanical displacements can be converted into charge, and hence, SETs can become sensitive detectors of mechanical oscillations. For studying small-energy oscillations, an important approach to realize the mechanical resonators is to use piezoelectric materials. Besides coupling to traditional electric circuitry, the strain-generated piezoelectric charge allows for measuring ultrasmall oscillations via SET detection. Here, we explore the usage of SETs to detect the shear-mode oscillations of a 6-mm-diameter quartz disk resonator with a resonance frequency around 9 MHz. We measure the mechanical oscillations using either a conventional DC SET, or use the SET as a homodyne or heterodyne mixer, or finally, as a radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET). The RF-SET readout is shown to be the most sensitive method, allowing us to measure mechanical displacement amplitudes below 10^{-13} m. We conclude that a detection based on a SET offers a potential to reach the sensitivity at the quantum limit of the mechanical vibrations.

  15. High Magnetic Field in THz Plasma Wave Detection by High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowicz, M.; Łusakowski, J.; Karpierz, K.; Grynberg, M.; Valusis, G.

    The role of gated and ungated two dimensional (2D) electron plasma in THz detection by high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) was investigated. THz response of GaAs/AlGaAs and GaN/AlGaN HEMTs was measured at 4.4K in quantizing magnetic fields with a simultaneous modulation of the gate voltage UGS. This allowed us to measure both the detection signal, S, and its derivative dS/dUGS. Shubnikov - de-Haas oscillations (SdHO) of both S and dS/dUGS were observed. A comparison of SdHO observed in detection and magnetoresistance measurements allows us to associate unambiguously SdHO in S and dS/dUGS with the ungated and gated parts of the transistor channel, respectively. This allows us to conclude that the entire channel takes part in the detection process. Additionally, in the case of GaAlAs/GaAs HEMTs, a structure related to the cyclotron resonance transition was observed.

  16. Electron tunnelling through single azurin molecules can be on/off switched by voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology, CNR, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Kumar, Vivek; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: cannistr@unitus.it [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2015-05-04

    Redox metalloproteins are emerging as promising candidates for future bio-optoelectronic and nano-biomemory devices, and the control of their electron transfer properties through external signals is still a crucial task. Here, we show that a reversible on/off switching of the electron current tunnelling through a single protein can be achieved in azurin protein molecules adsorbed on gold surfaces, by applying appropriate voltage pulses through a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. The observed changes in the hybrid system tunnelling properties are discussed in terms of long-sustained charging of the protein milieu.

  17. A radio-frequency single-electron transistor based on an InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Duty, Tim; Abay, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate radio frequency single-electron transistors fabricated from epitaxially grown InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. Two sets of double-barrier wires with different barrier thicknesses were grown. The wires were suspended 15 nm above a metal gate electrode. Electrical measurements...... on a high-resistance nanowire showed regularly spaced Coulomb oscillations at a gate voltage from −0.5 to at least 1.8 V. The charge sensitivity was measured to 32 µerms Hz−1/2 at 1.5 K. A low-resistance single-electron transistor showed regularly spaced oscillations only in a small gate-voltage region just...

  18. When does an electron exit a tunneling barrier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov M. Yu.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We probe the dynamics of tunnel ionization via high harmonic generation. We characterize the ionization dynamics in helium atoms, and apply our approach to resolve subtle differences in ionization from different orbitals of a CO2 molecule.

  19. Band-to-band tunneling field effect transistor for low power logic and memory applications: Design, fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjea, Saurabh A.

    Over the past decade the microprocessor clock frequency has hit a plateau. The main reason for this has been the inability to follow constant electric field scaling, which requires the transistor supply voltage to be scaled down as the transistor dimensions are reduced. Scaling the supply voltage down reduces the dynamic power quadratically but increases the static leakage power exponentially due to non-scalability of threshold voltage of the transistor, which is required to maintain the same ON state performance. This limitation in supply voltage scaling is directly related to MOSFET's (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) sub-threshold slope (SS) limitation of 60 mV/dec at room temperature. Thus novel device design/materials are required that would allow the transistor to switch with sub-threshold slopes steeper than 60 mV/dec at room temperature, thus facilitating supply voltage scaling. Recently, a new class of devices known as super-steep slope (SSswitching behavior of TFET is studied through mixed-mode numerical simulations. The significance of correct benchmarking methodology to estimate the effective drive current and capacitance in TFET is highlighted and compared with MOSFET. This is followed by the fabrication details of homo-junction TFET. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of homo-junction TFET gives key insight into its device operation and identifies the critical factors that impact its performance. In order to boost the ON current, the design and fabrication of hetero-junction TFET is also presented.

  20. k-Space imaging of anisotropic 2D electron gas in GaN/GaAlN high-electron-mobility transistor heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Lev, L. L.; Maiboroda, I. O.; Husanu, M. -A.; Grichuk, E. S.; Chumakov, N. K.; Ezubchenko, I. S.; Chernykh, I. A.; Wang, X.; Tobler, B.; Schmitt, T.; Zanaveskin, M. L.; Valeyev, V. G.; Strocov, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructures based on buried interfaces and heterostructures are at the heart of modern semiconductor electronics as well as future devices utilizing spintronics, multiferroics, topological effects and other novel operational principles. Knowledge of electronic structure of these systems resolved in electron momentum k delivers unprecedented insights into their physics. Here, we explore 2D electron gas formed in GaN/AlGaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructures with an ult...

  1. N-polar GaN epitaxy and high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Keller, Stacia; Dasgupta, Nidhi Sansaptak; Denninghoff, Daniel J; Kolluri, Seshadri; Brown, David F; Lu, Jing; Fichtenbaum, Nicholas A; Ahmadi, Elaheh; DenBaars, Steven P; Speck, James S; Mishra, Umesh K; Singisetti, Uttam; Chini, Alessandro; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress of N-polar (0001-bar) GaN high frequency electronics that aims at addressing the device scaling challenges faced by GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for radio-frequency and mixed-signal applications. Device quality (Al, In, Ga)N materials for N-polar heterostructures are developed using molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The principles of polarization engineering for designing N-polar HEMT structures will be outlined. The performance, scaling behavior and challenges of microwave power devices as well as highly-scaled depletion- and enhancement-mode devices employing advanced technologies including self-aligned processes, n+ (In,Ga)N ohmic contact regrowth and high aspect ratio T-gates will be discussed. Recent research results on integrating N-polar GaN with Si for prospective novel applications will also be summarized. (invited review)

  2. Botulinum toxin detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Pearton, S. J.; Ramage, J.; Hooten, D.; Dabiran, A.; Chow, P. P.; Ren, F.

    2008-12-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect botulinum toxin. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when the target toxin in a buffer was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. We could detect a range of concentrations from 1to10ng/ml. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for botulinum toxin detection.

  3. Modeling and the analysis of control logic for a digital PWM controller based on a nano electronic single electron transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathnakannan Kailasam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and the analysis of control logic for a Nano-Device- based PWM controller. A comprehensive simple SPICE schematic model for Single Electron transistor has been proposed. The operation of basic Single Electron Transistor logic gates and SET flip flops were successfully designed and their performances analyzed. The proposed design for realizing the logic gates and flip-flops is used in constructing the PWM controller utilized for switching the buck converter circuit. The output of the converter circuit is compared with reference voltage, and when the error voltage and the reference are matched the latch is reset so as to generate the PWM signal. Due to the simplicity and accuracy of the compact model, the simulation time and speed are much faster, which makes it potentially applicable in large-scale circuit simulation. This study confirms that the SET-based PWM controller is small in size, consumes ultra low power and operates at high speeds without compromising any performance. In addition these devices are capable of measuring charges of extremely high sensitivity.

  4. Molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor for pH detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangzhen; Yang, Shuai; Miao, Bin; Gu, Le; Gu, Zhiqi; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Baojun; Wang, Hong; Wu, Dongmin; Li, Jiadong

    2018-04-18

    A molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor has been developed for pH detection. The sensing surface of the sensor was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to provide amphoteric amine groups, which would play the role of receptors for pH detection. On modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, the transistor exhibits good chemical stability in hydrochloric acid solution and is sensitive for pH detection. Thus, our molecular gated-AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor acheived good electrical performances such as chemical stability (remained stable in hydrochloric acid solution), good sensitivity (37.17 μA/pH) and low hysteresis. The results indicate a promising future for high-quality sensors for pH detection.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of electron trapping levels in pentacene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bum Park, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Electron trapping phenomena have been investigated with respect to the energy levels of localized trap states and bias-induced device instability effects in pentacene field-effect transistors. The mechanism of the photoinduced threshold voltage shift (ΔV T ) is presented by providing a ΔV T model governed by the electron trapping. The trap-and-release behaviour functionalized by photo-irradiation also shows that the trap state for electrons is associated with the energy levels in different positions in the forbidden gap of pentacene. Spectroscopic analysis identifies two kinds of electron trap states distributed above and below the energy of 2.5 eV in the band gap of the pentacene crystal. The study of photocurrent spectra shows the specific trap levels of electrons in energy space that play a substantial role in causing device instability. The shallow and deep trapping states are distributed at two centroidal energy levels of ∼1.8 and ∼2.67 eV in the pentacene band gap. Moreover, we present a systematic energy profile of electron trap states in the pentacene crystal for the first time. (paper)

  6. Ambipolar organic tri-gate transistor for low-power complementary electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.; Ghittorelli, M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Roelofs, C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Gelinck, G.H.; Kovács-Vajna, Z.M.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ambipolar transistors typically suffer from large off-current inherently due to ambipolar conduction. Using a tri-gate transistor it is shown that it is possible to electrostatically switch ambipolar polymer transistors from ambipolar to unipolar mode. In unipolar mode, symmetric characteristics

  7. Tetracene-based organic light-emitting transistors: optoelectronic properties and electron injection mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santato, C.; Capelli, R.; Loi, M.A.; Murgia, M.; Cicoira, F.; Roy, Arunesh; Stallinga, P; Zamboni, R.; Rost, C.; Karg, S.F.; Muccini, M.

    2004-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of light-emitting field-effect transistors (LETs) fabricated on bottom-contact transistor structures using a tetracene film as charge-transport and light-emitting material are investigated. Electroluminescence generation and transistor current are correlated, and the bias

  8. Observation of negative differential resistance and single-electron tunneling in electromigrated break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Yutaka; Ueda, Rieko; Kubota, Tohru; Kamikado, Toshiya; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi; Nagase, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We observed a negative differential resistance (NDR) along with single-electron tunneling (SET) in the electron transport of electromigrated break junctions with metal-free tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2 BSTBPP) at a temperature of 11 K. The NDR strongly depended on the applied gate voltages, and appeared only in the electron tunneling region of the Coulomb diamond. We could explain the mechanism of this new type of electron transport by a model assuming a molecular Coulomb island and local density of states of the source and the drain electrodes

  9. Tip-induced local strain on Mo S2/graphite detected by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wonhee; Hus, Saban M.; Li, Xufan; Berlijn, Tom; Nguyen, Giang D.; Xiao, Kai; Li, An-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of tip-induced local strain applied to the monolayer Mo S2 grown on a graphite substrate by scanning tunneling microscope. Monolayer Mo S2 behaves as both mechanical and tunneling barriers that prevent the tip from contacting the graphite while maintaining the tunneling current. Inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy (IETS) is utilized to probe the phonon modes in graphite. As the tip pushes the sample, IETS reveals a continuous phonon softening in graphite, corroborated by a downward shift of the phonon energy as calculated by density-functional theory. Our results demonstrate a way to apply local mechanical strain and simultaneously detect the induced change in phonon modes by unitizing IETS with two-dimensional materials as a tunneling barrier.

  10. Research Update: Molecular electronics: The single-molecule switch and transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sotthewes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected to macroscopic leads and how the transport properties of the molecule can be measured. Based on this knowledge we have realized two single-molecule devices: a molecular switch and a molecular transistor. The switch can be opened and closed at will by carefully adjusting the separation between the electrical contacts and the voltage drop across the contacts. This single-molecular switch operates in a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures all the way up to room temperature. Via mechanical gating, i.e., compressing or stretching of the octanethiol molecule, by varying the contact's interspace, we are able to systematically adjust the conductance of the electrode-octanethiol-electrode junction. This two-terminal single-molecule transistor is very robust, but the amplification factor is rather limited.

  11. Superconducting single electron transistor for charge sensing in Si/SiGe-based quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen

    Si-based quantum devices, including Si/SiGe quantum dots (QD), are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (quits), which are a potential platform for quantum information processing. Meanwhile, qubit readout remains a challenging task related to semiconductor-based quantum computation. This thesis describes two readout devices for Si/SiGe QDs and the techniques for developing them from a traditional single electron transistor (SET). By embedding an SET in a tank circuit and operating it in the radio-frequency (RF) regime, a superconducting RF-SET has quick response as well as ultra high charge sensitivity and can be an excellent charge sensor for the QDs. We demonstrate such RF-SETs for QDs in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Characterization of the SET in magnetic fields is studied for future exploration of advanced techniques such as spin detection and spin state manipulation. By replacing the tank circuit with a high-quality-factor microwave cavity, the embedded SET will be operated in the supercurrent regime as a single Cooper pair transistor (CPT) to further increase the charge sensitivity and reduce any dissipation. The operating principle and implementation of the cavity-embedded CPT (cCPT) will be introduced.

  12. High Temperature Terahertz Detectors Realized by a GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. W.; Liu, Z.; Teng, J. H.; Palacios, T.; Chua, S. J.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a high temperature THz detector based on a GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with nano antenna structures was fabricated and demonstrated to be able to work up to 200 °C. The THz responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) of the device were characterized at 0.14 THz radiation over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 200 °C. A high responsivity Rv of 15.5 and 2.7 kV/W and a low NEP of 0.58 and 10 pW/Hz0.5 were obtained at room temperature and 200 °C, respectively. The advantages of the GaN HEMT over other types of field effect transistors for high temperature terahertz detection are discussed. The physical mechanisms responsible for the temperature dependence of the responsivity and NEP of the GaN HEMT are also analyzed thoroughly.

  13. Copolymer semiconductors comprising thiazolothiazole or benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazole electron acceptor subunits, and electron donor subunits, and their uses in transistors and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenekhe, Samson A; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Ahmed, Eilaf; Xin, Hao; Kim, Felix Sunjoo

    2014-10-28

    The inventions disclosed, described, and/or claimed herein relate to copolymers comprising copolymers comprising electron accepting A subunits that comprise thiazolothiazole, benzobisthiazole, or benzobisoxazoles rings, and electron donating subunits that comprise certain heterocyclic groups. The copolymers are useful for manufacturing organic electronic devices, including transistors and solar cells. The invention also relates to certain synthetic precursors of the copolymers. Methods for making the copolymers and the derivative electronic devices are also described.

  14. High Electron Mobility Thin-Film Transistors Based on Solution-Processed Semiconducting Metal Oxide Heterojunctions and Quasi-Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Labram, John G.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Sygellou, Labrini; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Hastas, Nikolaos A.; Li, Ruipeng; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Treat, Neil D.; McLachlan, Martyn; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    High mobility thin-film transistor technologies that can be implemented using simple and inexpensive fabrication methods are in great demand because of their applicability in a wide range of emerging optoelectronics. Here, a novel concept of thin-film transistors is reported that exploits the enhanced electron transport properties of low-dimensional polycrystalline heterojunctions and quasi-superlattices (QSLs) consisting of alternating layers of In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO grown by sequential spin casting of different precursors in air at low temperatures (180–200 °C). Optimized prototype QSL transistors exhibit band-like transport with electron mobilities approximately a tenfold greater (25–45 cm2 V−1 s−1) than single oxide devices (typically 2–5 cm2 V−1 s−1). Based on temperature-dependent electron transport and capacitance-voltage measurements, it is argued that the enhanced performance arises from the presence of quasi 2D electron gas-like systems formed at the carefully engineered oxide heterointerfaces. The QSL transistor concept proposed here can in principle extend to a range of other oxide material systems and deposition methods (sputtering, atomic layer deposition, spray pyrolysis, roll-to-roll, etc.) and can be seen as an extremely promising technology for application in next-generation large area optoelectronics such as ultrahigh definition optical displays and large-area microelectronics where high performance is a key requirement.

  15. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Jin Yu [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yuan, Zhi Guo, E-mail: ncityzg@163.com [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  16. High Electron Mobility Thin-Film Transistors Based on Solution-Processed Semiconducting Metal Oxide Heterojunctions and Quasi-Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Yen-Hung

    2015-05-26

    High mobility thin-film transistor technologies that can be implemented using simple and inexpensive fabrication methods are in great demand because of their applicability in a wide range of emerging optoelectronics. Here, a novel concept of thin-film transistors is reported that exploits the enhanced electron transport properties of low-dimensional polycrystalline heterojunctions and quasi-superlattices (QSLs) consisting of alternating layers of In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO grown by sequential spin casting of different precursors in air at low temperatures (180–200 °C). Optimized prototype QSL transistors exhibit band-like transport with electron mobilities approximately a tenfold greater (25–45 cm2 V−1 s−1) than single oxide devices (typically 2–5 cm2 V−1 s−1). Based on temperature-dependent electron transport and capacitance-voltage measurements, it is argued that the enhanced performance arises from the presence of quasi 2D electron gas-like systems formed at the carefully engineered oxide heterointerfaces. The QSL transistor concept proposed here can in principle extend to a range of other oxide material systems and deposition methods (sputtering, atomic layer deposition, spray pyrolysis, roll-to-roll, etc.) and can be seen as an extremely promising technology for application in next-generation large area optoelectronics such as ultrahigh definition optical displays and large-area microelectronics where high performance is a key requirement.

  17. High Electron Mobility Thin‐Film Transistors Based on Solution‐Processed Semiconducting Metal Oxide Heterojunctions and Quasi‐Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen‐Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Labram, John G.; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Sygellou, Labrini; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Hastas, Nikolaos A.; Li, Ruipeng; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Treat, Neil D.; McLachlan, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    High mobility thin‐film transistor technologies that can be implemented using simple and inexpensive fabrication methods are in great demand because of their applicability in a wide range of emerging optoelectronics. Here, a novel concept of thin‐film transistors is reported that exploits the enhanced electron transport properties of low‐dimensional polycrystalline heterojunctions and quasi‐superlattices (QSLs) consisting of alternating layers of In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO grown by sequential spin casting of different precursors in air at low temperatures (180–200 °C). Optimized prototype QSL transistors exhibit band‐like transport with electron mobilities approximately a tenfold greater (25–45 cm2 V−1 s−1) than single oxide devices (typically 2–5 cm2 V−1 s−1). Based on temperature‐dependent electron transport and capacitance‐voltage measurements, it is argued that the enhanced performance arises from the presence of quasi 2D electron gas‐like systems formed at the carefully engineered oxide heterointerfaces. The QSL transistor concept proposed here can in principle extend to a range of other oxide material systems and deposition methods (sputtering, atomic layer deposition, spray pyrolysis, roll‐to‐roll, etc.) and can be seen as an extremely promising technology for application in next‐generation large area optoelectronics such as ultrahigh definition optical displays and large‐area microelectronics where high performance is a key requirement. PMID:27660741

  18. Characterising thermal resistances and capacitances of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors through dynamic electrothermal measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a method to characterise thermal resistances and capacitances of GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through dynamic electrothermal measurements. A measured relation between RF gain and the channel temperature (Tc) is formed and used for indirect measurements...

  19. Organic field-effect transistors as a test-bed for molecular electronics : A combined study with large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Katsouras, Ilias; Harkema, Jan; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Smits, Edsger C. F.; Biscarini, Fabio; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    The contact resistance of a transistor using self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified source and drain electrodes depends on the SAM tunnel resistance, the height of the injection barrier and the morphology at the contact. To disentangle the different contributions, we have combined here the

  20. Organic field-effect transistors as a test-bed for molecular electronics : a combined study with large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Katsouras, I.; Harkema, J.; Gholamrezaie, F.; Smits, E.C.P.; Biscarini, F.; Blom b, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2012-01-01

    The contact resistance of a transistor using self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified source and drain electrodes depends on the SAM tunnel resistance, the height of the injection barrier and the morphology at the contact. To disentangle the different contributions, we have combined here the

  1. Organic field-effect transistors as a test-bed for molecular electronics : A combined study with large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Katsouras, Ilias; Harkema, Jan; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Smits, Edsger C. F.; Biscarini, Fabio; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    The contact resistance of a transistor using self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified source and drain electrodes depends on the SAM tunnel resistance, the height of the injection barrier and the morphology at the contact. To disentangle the different contributions, we have combined here the

  2. Gate-controlled current and inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of benzene: a self-consistent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y; Chen, H; Mizuseki, H; Kawazoe, Y

    2011-04-14

    We use density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function to self-consistently study the current through the 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). The elastic and inelastic tunneling properties through this Au-BDT-Au molecular junction are simulated, respectively. For the elastic tunneling case, it is found that the current through the tilted molecule can be modulated effectively by the external gate field, which is perpendicular to the phenyl ring. The gate voltage amplification comes from the modulation of the interaction between the electrodes and the molecules in the junctions. For the inelastic case, the electron tunneling scattered by the molecular vibrational modes is considered within the self-consistent Born approximation scheme, and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum is calculated.

  3. Spin inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy on local spin adsorbed on surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, J

    2009-06-01

    The recent experimental conductance measurements taken on magnetic impurities on metallic surfaces, using scanning tunneling microscopy technique and suggesting occurrence of inelastic scattering processes, are theoretically addressed. We argue that the observed conductance signatures are caused by transitions between the spin states that have opened due to, for example, exchange coupling between the local spins and the tunneling electrons, and are directly interpretable in terms of inelastic transitions energies. Feasible measurements using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that would enable new information about the excitation spectrum of the local spins are discussed.

  4. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-01-01

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO 2 substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ∼90 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection. (paper)

  5. Random telegraph signals by alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles in chemically assembled single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Shinya; Azuma, Yasuo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Smith, Luke W.; Smith, Charles G.; Majima, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We have studied random telegraph signals (RTSs) in a chemically assembled single-electron transistor (SET) at temperatures as low as 300 mK. The RTSs in the chemically assembled SET were investigated by measuring the source–drain current, using a histogram of the RTS dwell time, and calculating the power spectrum density of the drain current–time characteristics. It was found that the dwell time of the RTS was dependent on the drain voltage of the SET, but was independent of the gate voltage. Considering the spatial structure of the chemically assembled SET, the origin of the RTS is attributed to the trapped charges on an alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticle positioned near the SET. These results are important as they will help to realize stable chemically assembled SETs in practical applications

  6. Hydrogen passivation of electron trap in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro; Domen, Kay; Nomura, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Kumomi, Hideya; Hosono, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental evidence that some hydrogens passivate electron traps in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). The a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) annealed at 300 °C exhibit good operation characteristics; while those annealed at ≥400 °C show deteriorated ones. Thermal desorption spectra (TDS) of H 2 O indicate that this threshold annealing temperature corresponds to depletion of H 2 O desorption from the a-IGZO layer. Hydrogen re-doping by wet oxygen annealing recovers the good TFT characteristic. The hydrogens responsible for this passivation have specific binding energies corresponding to the desorption temperatures of 300–430 °C. A plausible structural model is suggested

  7. Hydrogen passivation of electron trap in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro, E-mail: y-hanyu@lucid.msl.titech.ac.jp; Domen, Kay [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Nomura, Kenji [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Kumomi, Hideya [Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    We report an experimental evidence that some hydrogens passivate electron traps in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). The a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) annealed at 300 °C exhibit good operation characteristics; while those annealed at ≥400 °C show deteriorated ones. Thermal desorption spectra (TDS) of H{sub 2}O indicate that this threshold annealing temperature corresponds to depletion of H{sub 2}O desorption from the a-IGZO layer. Hydrogen re-doping by wet oxygen annealing recovers the good TFT characteristic. The hydrogens responsible for this passivation have specific binding energies corresponding to the desorption temperatures of 300–430 °C. A plausible structural model is suggested.

  8. Ultra Low Energy Binary Decision Diagram Circuits Using Few Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Vinay; Narayanan, Vijay; Datta, Suman

    Novel medical applications involving embedded sensors, require ultra low energy dissipation with low-to-moderate performance (10kHz-100MHz) driving the conventional MOSFETs into sub-threshold operation regime. In this paper, we present an alternate ultra-low power computing architecture using Binary Decision Diagram based logic circuits implemented using Single Electron Transistors (SETs) operating in the Coulomb blockade regime with very low supply voltages. We evaluate the energy - performance tradeoff metrics of such BDD circuits using time domain Monte Carlo simulations and compare them with the energy-optimized CMOS logic circuits. Simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves better energy-delay characteristics than CMOS realizations.

  9. Measurement of quantum noise in a single-electron transistor near the quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, W. W.; Ji, Z.; Pan, Feng; Stettenheim, Joel; Blencowe, M. P.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2009-09-01

    Quantum measurement has challenged physicists for almost a century. Classically, there is no lower bound on the noise a measurement may add. Quantum mechanically, however, measuring a system necessarily perturbs it. When applied to electrical amplifiers, this means that improved sensitivity requires increased backaction that itself contributes noise. The result is a strict quantum limit on added amplifier noise. To approach this limit, a quantum-limited amplifier must possess an ideal balance between sensitivity and backaction; furthermore, its noise must dominate that of subsequent classical amplifiers. Here, we report the first complete and quantitative measurement of the quantum noise of a superconducting single-electron transistor (S-SET) near a double Cooper-pair resonance predicted to have the right combination of sensitivity and backaction. A simultaneous measurement of our S-SET's charge sensitivity indicates that it operates within a factor of 3.6 of the quantum limit, a fourfold improvement over the nearest comparable results.

  10. New Technique for Fabrication of Scanning Single-Electron Transistor Microscopy Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Eric; Tessmer, Stuart

    Fabrication of glass tips for Scanning Single-Electron Transistor Microscopy (SSETM) can be expensive, time consuming, and inconsistent. Various techniques have been tried, with varying levels of success in regards to cost and reproducibility. The main requirement for SSETM tips is to have a sharp tip ending in a micron-scale flat face to allow for deposition of a quantum dot. Drawing inspiration from methods used to create tips from optical fibers for Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopes, our group has come up with a quick and cost effective process for creating SSETM tips. By utilizing hydrofluoric acid to etch the tips and oleic acid to guide the etch profile, optical fiber tips with appropriate shaping can be rapidly prepared. Once etched, electric leads are thermally evaporated onto each side of the tip, while an aluminum quantum dot is evaporated onto the face. Preliminary results using various metals, oxide layers, and lead thicknesses have proven promising.

  11. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories.

  12. Nanoscale investigation of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontserè, A; Pérez-Tomás, A; Placidi, M; Llobet, J; Baron, N; Chenot, S; Cordier, Y; Moreno, J C; Jennings, M R; Gammon, P M; Fisher, C A; Iglesias, V; Porti, M; Bayerl, A; Lanza, M; Nafría, M

    2012-10-05

    AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are devices which are strongly influenced by surface properties such as donor states, roughness or any kind of inhomogeneity. The electron gas is only a few nanometers away from the surface and the transistor forward and reverse currents are considerably affected by any variation of surface property within the atomic scale. Consequently, we have used the technique known as conductive AFM (CAFM) to perform electrical characterization at the nanoscale. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT ohmic (drain and source) and Schottky (gate) contacts were investigated by the CAFM technique. The estimated area of these highly conductive pillars (each of them of approximately 20-50 nm radius) represents around 5% of the total contact area. Analogously, the reverse leakage of the gate Schottky contact at the nanoscale seems to correlate somehow with the topography of the narrow AlGaN barrier regions producing larger currents.

  13. A novel gate and drain engineered charge plasma tunnel field-effect transistor for low sub-threshold swing and ambipolar nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Raad, Bhagwan Ram; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on the improvement of figures of merit for charge plasma based tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) in terms of ON-state current, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing, ambipolar nature, and gate to drain capacitance which provides better channel controlling of the device with improved high frequency response at ultra-low supply voltages. Regarding this, we simultaneously employ work function engineering on the drain and gate electrode of the charge plasma TFET. The use of gate work function engineering modulates the barrier on the source/channel interface leads to improvement in the ON-state current, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Apart from this, for the first time use of work function engineering on the drain electrode increases the tunneling barrier for the flow of holes on the drain/channel interface, it results into suppression of ambipolar behavior. The lowering of gate to drain capacitance therefore enhanced high frequency parameters. Whereas, the presence of dual work functionality at the gate electrode and over the drain region improves the overall performance of the charge plasma based TFET.

  14. Fabrication of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong-Won, E-mail: jwlim@etri.re.kr [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Seong-il; Kang, Dong-Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Min, Byoung-Gue; Lee, Sang-Heung; Yoon, Hyung-Sup; Ju, Chull-Won; Kim, Haecheon; Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Nam, Eun-Soo [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Moo [Photonic/Wireless Convergence Components Dept., IT Materials and Components Lab., Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication and DC and microwave characteristics of 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment process. Silicon nitride layers 700 and 150 Å thick were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 260 °C to protect the device and to define the gate footprint. The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques to obtain enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with 0.5 μm gate lengths. The enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor was prepared in parallel to the depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device on one wafer. Completed double plasma treated 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices fabricated by dry etching exhibited a peak transconductance, gm, of 330 mS/mm, a breakdown voltage of 115 V, a current-gain cutoff frequency (f{sub T}) of 18 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (f{sub max}) of 66 GHz. - Highlights: • The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques. • Double plasma treated device exhibited a transconductance of 330 mS/mm. • Completed 0.5 μm gate device exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 18 GHz. • The off-state breakdown voltage of 115 V for 0.5 μm gate device was obtained. • Continuous-wave output power density of 4.3 W/mm was obtained at 2.4 GHz.

  15. Fabrication of enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong-Won; Ahn, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Seong-il; Kang, Dong-Min; Lee, Jong-Min; Min, Byoung-Gue; Lee, Sang-Heung; Yoon, Hyung-Sup; Ju, Chull-Won; Kim, Haecheon; Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Nam, Eun-Soo; Park, Hyung-Moo

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and DC and microwave characteristics of 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using double plasma treatment process. Silicon nitride layers 700 and 150 Å thick were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 260 °C to protect the device and to define the gate footprint. The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques to obtain enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with 0.5 μm gate lengths. The enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor was prepared in parallel to the depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device on one wafer. Completed double plasma treated 0.5 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices fabricated by dry etching exhibited a peak transconductance, gm, of 330 mS/mm, a breakdown voltage of 115 V, a current-gain cutoff frequency (f T ) of 18 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 66 GHz. - Highlights: • The double plasma process was carried out by two different etching techniques. • Double plasma treated device exhibited a transconductance of 330 mS/mm. • Completed 0.5 μm gate device exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 18 GHz. • The off-state breakdown voltage of 115 V for 0.5 μm gate device was obtained. • Continuous-wave output power density of 4.3 W/mm was obtained at 2.4 GHz

  16. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  17. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.; Mejia, I.; Hovarth, J.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Cha, D. K.; Ramirez-Bon, R.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  18. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Reduction of charge trapping and electron tunneling in SIMOX by supplemental implantation of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlbush, R.E.; Hughes, H.L.; Krull, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator, SOI, technologies are being aggressively pursued to produce high density, high speed, radiation tolerant electronics. The dielectric isolation of the buried oxide makes it possible to design integrated circuits that greatly minimize single event upset and eliminate dose-rate induced latchup and upset. The reduction of excess-silicon related defects in SIMOX by the supplemental implantation of oxygen has been examined. The supplemental implant is 6% of the oxygen dose used to form the buried oxide, and is followed by a 1,000 C anneal, in contrast to the >1,300 C anneal used to form the buried oxide layer of SIMOX. The defects examined include shallow electron traps, deep hole traps, and silicon clusters. The radiation-induced shallow electron and deep hole trapping are measured by cryogenic detrapping and isothermal annealing techniques. The low-field (3 to 6 MV/cm) electron tunneling is interpreted as due to a two phase mixture of stoichiometric SiO 2 and Si clusters a few nm in size. Single and triple SIMOS samples have been examined. All of the defects are reduced by the supplemental oxygen processing. Shallow electron trapping is reduced by an order of magnitude. Because of the larger capture cross section for hole trapping, hole trapping is not reduced as much. The low-field electron tunneling due to Si clusters is also significantly reduced. Both uniform and nonuniform electron tunneling have been observed in SIMOX samples without supplement processing. In samples exhibiting only uniform tunneling, electron capture at holes has been observed. The nonuniform tunneling is superimposed upon the uniform tunneling and is characterized by current spiking

  20. Electronic-Reconstruction-Enhanced Tunneling Conductance at Terrace Edges of Ultrathin Oxide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Kim, Rokyeon; Kim, Yoonkoo; Kim, Choong H; Hwang, Sangwoon; Cho, Myung Rae; Shin, Yeong Jae; Das, Saikat; Kim, Jeong Rae; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kim, Miyoung; Yang, Sang Mo; Noh, Tae Won

    2017-11-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons across ultrathin insulating oxide barriers has been studied extensively for decades due to its great potential in electronic-device applications. In the few-nanometers-thick epitaxial oxide films, atomic-scale structural imperfections, such as the ubiquitously existed one-unit-cell-high terrace edges, can dramatically affect the tunneling probability and device performance. However, the underlying physics has not been investigated adequately. Here, taking ultrathin BaTiO 3 films as a model system, an intrinsic tunneling-conductance enhancement is reported near the terrace edges. Scanning-probe-microscopy results demonstrate the existence of highly conductive regions (tens of nanometers wide) near the terrace edges. First-principles calculations suggest that the terrace-edge geometry can trigger an electronic reconstruction, which reduces the effective tunneling barrier width locally. Furthermore, such tunneling-conductance enhancement can be discovered in other transition metal oxides and controlled by surface-termination engineering. The controllable electronic reconstruction can facilitate the implementation of oxide electronic devices and discovery of exotic low-dimensional quantum phases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO2 nanogranular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO 2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics

  2. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO{sub 2} nanogranular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO{sub 2} nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  3. Bias voltage effect on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic two-phase composite barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Ju Sheng; Li, Z.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bias voltage on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier is investigated theoretically. Because of the inversion symmetry breaking of the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, bias voltage dependence of the electron tunneling shows significant differences between the positive bias and the negative one. The differences of spin filtering or tunnel magnetoresistance increase with the increasing absolute value of bias voltage. Such direction preferred electron tunneling is found intimately related with the unusual asymmetry of the electrical potential profile in two-phase composite barrier and provides a unique change to realize rectifying functions in spintronics. - Highlights: ► Electron tunneling across a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier junction. ► TMR effect is different under the same value but opposite direction bias voltage. ► This directionality of the electron tunneling enhances with increasing bias voltage.

  4. Atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for single electron transistors utilizing Pt oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Michael S., E-mail: mmcconn5@nd.edu; Schneider, Louisa C.; Karbasian, Golnaz; Rouvimov, Sergei; Orlov, Alexei O.; Snider, Gregory L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 275 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This work describes the fabrication of single electron transistors using electron beam lithography and atomic layer deposition to form nanoscale tunnel transparent junctions of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on platinum nanowires using either water or ozone as the oxygen precursor and trimethylaluminum as the aluminum precursor. Using room temperature, low frequency conductance measurements between the source and drain, it was found that devices fabricated using water had higher conductance than devices fabricated with ozone. Subsequent annealing caused both water- and ozone-based devices to increase in conductance by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, comparison of devices at low temperatures (∼4 K) showed that annealed devices displayed much closer to the ideal behavior (i.e., constant differential conductance) outside of the Coulomb blockade region and that untreated devices showed nonlinear behavior outside of the Coulomb blockade region (i.e., an increase in differential conductance with source-drain voltage bias). Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional images showed that annealing did not significantly change device geometry, but energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed an unusually large amount of oxygen in the bottom platinum layer. This suggests that the atomic layer deposition process results in the formation of a thin platinum surface oxide, which either decomposes or is reduced during the anneal step, resulting in a tunnel barrier without the in-series native oxide contribution. Furthermore, the difference between ozone- and water-based devices suggests that ozone promotes atomic layer deposition nucleation by oxidizing the surface but that water relies on physisorption of the precursors. To test this theory, devices were exposed to forming gas at room temperature, which also reduces platinum oxide, and a decrease in resistance was observed, as expected.

  5. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors by utilizing process-optimized double gate structures. Different temperatures and electric field dependence have been found in surface current measurements. At low electric field, the mechanism of surface conductance is considered to be two-dimensional variable range hopping. At elevated electric field, the Frenkel–Poole trap assisted emission governs the main surface electrons transportation. The extracted energy barrier height of electrons emitting from trapped state near Fermi energy level into a threading dislocations-related continuum state is 0.38 eV. SiN passivation reduces the surface leakage current by two order of magnitude and nearly 4 orders of magnitude at low and high electric fields, respectively. SiN also suppresses the Frenkel–Poole conductance at high temperature by improving the surface states of AlGaN/GaN. A surface treatment process has been introduced to further suppress the surface leakage current at high temperature and high field, which results in a decrease in surface current of almost 3 orders of magnitude at 476 K

  6. Dynamic tunneling force microscopy for characterizing electronic trap states in non-conductive surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.; Williams, C. C., E-mail: clayton@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Dynamic tunneling force microscopy (DTFM) is a scanning probe technique for real space mapping and characterization of individual electronic trap states in non-conductive films with atomic scale spatial resolution. The method is based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of a single electron back and forth between a metallic atomic force microscopy tip and individual trap states in completely non-conducting surface. This single electron shuttling is measured by detecting the electrostatic force induced on the probe tip at the shuttling frequency. In this paper, the physical basis for the DTFM method is unfolded through a physical model and a derivation of the dynamic tunneling signal as a function of several experimental parameters is shown. Experimental data are compared with the theoretical simulations, showing quantitative consistency and verifying the physical model used. The experimental system is described and representative imaging results are shown.

  7. A cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Shiwei, E-mail: swwu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The design and performance of a cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) housed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are reported. The cryogen-free design was done by directly integrating a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler to a Besocke-type STM, and the vibration isolation was achieved by using a two-stage rubber bellow between the cryocooler and a UHV-STM interface with helium exchange gas cooling. A base temperature of 15 K at the STM was achieved, with a possibility to further decrease by using a cryocooler with higher cooling power and adding additional low temperature stage under the exchange gas interface. Atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra on various samples were demonstrated. Furthermore, we reported the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy on a single carbon monoxide molecule adsorbed on Ag(110) surface with a cryogen-free STM for the first time. Being totally cryogen-free, the system not only saves the running cost significantly but also enables uninterrupted data acquisitions and variable temperature measurements with much ease. In addition, the system is capable of coupling light to the STM junction by a pair of lens inside the UHV chamber. We expect that these enhanced capabilities could further broaden our views to the atomic-scale world.

  8. A cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei

    2016-06-01

    The design and performance of a cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) housed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are reported. The cryogen-free design was done by directly integrating a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler to a Besocke-type STM, and the vibration isolation was achieved by using a two-stage rubber bellow between the cryocooler and a UHV-STM interface with helium exchange gas cooling. A base temperature of 15 K at the STM was achieved, with a possibility to further decrease by using a cryocooler with higher cooling power and adding additional low temperature stage under the exchange gas interface. Atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra on various samples were demonstrated. Furthermore, we reported the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy on a single carbon monoxide molecule adsorbed on Ag(110) surface with a cryogen-free STM for the first time. Being totally cryogen-free, the system not only saves the running cost significantly but also enables uninterrupted data acquisitions and variable temperature measurements with much ease. In addition, the system is capable of coupling light to the STM junction by a pair of lens inside the UHV chamber. We expect that these enhanced capabilities could further broaden our views to the atomic-scale world.

  9. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  10. Point-contact electron tunneling into the high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. D.; Smith, D. P. E.; Mitzi, D. B.; Sun, J. Z.; Webb, D. J.

    1987-06-01

    Results are reported from a study of electron tunneling into bulk samples of the new high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O using point-contact tunneling. Based on a superconductive tunneling interpretation, the results show exceptionally large energy gaps in these materials (roughly 2Delta = 100 MeV), implying 2Delta/kBTc = about 13. Similar values were found for La-Sr-Cu-O. The structure in the I-V curves is also similar to that seen in La-Sr-Cu-O. From the asymmetries observed in the I-V characteristics, it is inferred that the natural tunneling barrier on this material is of the Schottky type.

  11. Nitrogen plasma-treated multilayer graphene-based field effect transistor fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Jhih; Chang, Hsuan-Chen; Honda, Shin-ichi; Lin, Pao-Hung; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2017-08-01

    Chemical doping with hetero-atoms is an effective method used to change the characteristics of materials. Nitrogen doping technology plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment was used in this work to dope nitrogen atoms to modulate multilayer graphene electrical properties. The measured I-V multilayer graphene-base field-effect transistor characteristics (GFETs) showed a V-shaped transfer curve with the hole and electron region separated from the measured current-voltage (I-V) minimum. GFETs fabricated with multilayer graphene from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibited p-type behavior because of oxygen adsorption. After using different nitrogen plasma treatment times, the minimum in I-V characteristic shifted into the negative gate voltage region with increased nitrogen concentration and the GFET channel became an n-type semiconductor. GFETs could be easily fabricated using this method with potential for various applications. The GFET transfer characteristics could be tuned precisely by adjusting the nitrogen plasma treatment time.

  12. Basic Equations for the Modeling of Gallium Nitride (gan) High Electron Mobility Transistors (hemts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a most promising wide band-gap semiconductor for use in high-power microwave devices. It has functioned at 320 C, and higher values are well within theoretical limits. By combining four devices, 20 W has been developed at X-band. GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are unique in that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is supported not by intentional doping, but instead by polarization charge developed at the interface between the bulk GaN region and the AlGaN epitaxial layer. The polarization charge is composed of two parts: spontaneous and piezoelectric. This behavior is unlike other semiconductors, and for that reason, no commercially available modeling software exists. The theme of this document is to develop a self-consistent approach to developing the pertinent equations to be solved. A Space Act Agreement, "Effects in AlGaN/GaN HEMT Semiconductors" with Silvaco Data Systems to implement this approach into their existing software for III-V semiconductors, is in place (summer of 2002).

  13. Piezotronic effect tuned AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunyan; Liu, Ting; Du, Chunhua; Huang, Xin; Liu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Zhenfu; Li, Linxuan; Pu, Xiong; Zhai, Junyi; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-11-01

    The piezotronic effect utilizes strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charges to tune the carrier transportation across the interface/junction. We fabricated a high-performance AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), and the transport property was proven to be enhanced by applying an external stress for the first time. The enhanced source-drain current was also observed at any gate voltage and the maximum enhancement of the saturation current was up to 21% with 15 N applied stress (0.18 GPa at center) at -1 V gate voltage. The physical mechanism of HEMT with/without external compressive stress conditions was carefully illustrated and further confirmed by a self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. This study proves the cause-and-effect relationship between the piezoelectric polarization effect and 2D electron gas formation, which provides a tunable solution to enhance the device performance. The strain tuned HEMT has potential applications in human-machine interface and the security control of the power system.

  14. Effect of OFF-state stress induced electric field on trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si (111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M. J.; Ng, G. I.; Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Vicknesh, S.; Foo, S. C.; Syamal, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of electric field (EF) on the dynamic ON-resistance (dyn-RDS[ON]) and threshold-voltage shift (ΔVth) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si has been investigated using pulsed current-voltage (IDS-VDS) and drain current (ID) transients. Different EF was realized with devices of different gate-drain spacing (Lgd) under the same OFF-state stress. Under high-EF (Lgd = 2 μm), the devices exhibited higher dyn-RDS[ON] degradation but a small ΔVth (˜120 mV). However, at low-EF (Lgd = 5 μm), smaller dyn-RDS[ON] degradation but a larger ΔVth (˜380 mV) was observed. Our analysis shows that under OFF-state stress, the gate electrons are injected and trapped in the AlGaN barrier by tunnelling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Under high-EF, trapping spreads towards the gate-drain access region of the AlGaN barrier causing dyn-RDS[ON] degradation, whereas under low-EF, trapping is mostly confined under the gate causing ΔVth. A trap with activation energy 0.33 eV was identified in the AlGaN barrier by ID-transient measurements. The influence of EF on trapping was also verified by Silvaco TCAD simulations.

  15. Investigation of trap states in high Al content AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by frequency dependent capacitance and conductance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hou, Bin; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Trap states in Al 0.55 Ga 0.45 N/GaN Schottky-gate high-electron-mobility transistors (S-HEMTs) and Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.55 Ga 0.45 N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) were investigated with conductance method in this paper. Surface states with time constant of (0.09–0.12) μs were found in S-HEMTs, and electron tunneling rather than emission was deemed to be the dominant de-trapping mechanism due to the high electric field in high Al content barrier. The density of surface states evaluated in S-HEMTs was (1.02–4.67)×10 13 eV −1 ·cm −2 . Al 2 O 3 gate insulator slightly reduced the surface states, but introduced low density of new traps with time constant of (0.65–1.29) μs into MOS-HEMTs

  16. Electron flux during pericyclic reactions in the tunneling limit: Quantum simulation for cyclooctatetraene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hege, Hans-Christian; Manz, Joern; Marquardt, Falko; Paulus, Beate; Schild, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In the limit of coherent tunneling, double bond shifting (DBS) of cyclooctatetraene from a reactant (R) to a product (P) is associated with pericyclic electron fluxes from double to single bonds, corresponding to a pincer-motion-type set of arrows in the Lewis structures, each representing a transfer of 0.19 electrons. - Abstract: Pericyclic rearrangement of cyclooctatetraene proceeds from equivalent sets of two reactants to two products. In the ideal limit of coherent tunneling, these reactants and products may tunnel to each other by ring inversions and by double bond shifting (DBS). We derive simple cosinusoidal or sinusoidal time evolutions of the bond-to-bond electron fluxes and yields during DBS, for the tunneling scenario. These overall yields and fluxes may be decomposed into various contributions for electrons in so called pericyclic, other valence, and core orbitals. Pericyclic orbitals are defined as the subset of valence orbitals which describe the changes of Lewis structures during the pericyclic reaction. The quantum dynamical results are compared with the traditional scheme of fluxes of electrons in pericyclic orbitals, as provided by arrows in Lewis structures.

  17. Nanoscale-Barrier Formation Induced by Low-Dose Electron-Beam Exposure in Ultrathin MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Higuchi, Ayaka; He, Guanchen; Yamada, Tetsushi; Krüger, Peter; Ochiai, Yuichi; Gong, Yongji; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Bird, Jonathan P; Aoki, Nobuyuki

    2016-10-05

    Utilizing an innovative combination of scanning-probe and spectroscopic techniques, supported by first-principles calculations, we demonstrate how electron-beam exposure of field-effect transistors, implemented from ultrathin molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), may cause nanoscale structural modifications that in turn significantly modify the electrical operation of these devices. Quite surprisingly, these modifications are induced by even the relatively low electron doses used in conventional electron-beam lithography, which are found to induce compressive strain in the atomically thin MoS 2 . Likely arising from sulfur-vacancy formation in the exposed regions, the strain gives rise to a local widening of the MoS 2 bandgap, an idea that is supported both by our experiment and by the results of first-principles calculations. A nanoscale potential barrier develops at the boundary between exposed and unexposed regions and may cause extrinsic variations in the resulting electrical characteristics exhibited by the transistor. The widespread use of electron-beam lithography in nanofabrication implies that the presence of such strain must be carefully considered when seeking to harness the potential of atomically thin transistors. At the same time, this work also promises the possibility of exploiting the strain as a means to achieve "bandstructure engineering" in such devices.

  18. Quantum tunneling of electron snake states in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    2018-05-01

    In a two dimensional free electron gas subjected to a perpendicular spatially varying magnetic field, the classical paths of electrons are snake-like trajectories that weave along the line where the field crosses zero. But quantum mechanically this system is described by a symmetric double well potential which, for low excitations, leads to very different electron behavior. We compute the spectrum, as well as the wavefunctions, for states of definite parity in the limit of nearly degenerate states, i.e. for electrons sufficiently far from the B z   =  0 line. Transitions between the states are shown to give rise to a tunneling current. If the well is made asymmetrical by a time-dependent parity breaking perturbation then Rabi-like oscillations between parity states occur. Resonances can be excited and used to stimulate the transfer of electrons from one side of the potential barrier to the other through quantum tunneling.

  19. Quantum tunneling of electron snake states in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodbhoy, Pervez

    2018-05-10

    In a two dimensional free electron gas subjected to a perpendicular spatially varying magnetic field, the classical paths of electrons are snake-like trajectories that weave along the line where the field crosses zero. But quantum mechanically this system is described by a symmetric double well potential which, for low excitations, leads to very different electron behavior. We compute the spectrum, as well as the wavefunctions, for states of definite parity in the limit of nearly degenerate states, i.e. for electrons sufficiently far from the B z   =  0 line. Transitions between the states are shown to give rise to a tunneling current. If the well is made asymmetrical by a time-dependent parity breaking perturbation then Rabi-like oscillations between parity states occur. Resonances can be excited and used to stimulate the transfer of electrons from one side of the potential barrier to the other through quantum tunneling.

  20. Band electron spectrum and thermodynamic properties of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ya.Farenyuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels is considered. Generalization of dynamic mean-field method for systems with correlated hopping was applied to the investigation of the model. Electron spectra, electron concentrations, average values of pseudospins and grand canonical potential were calculated within the alloy-analogy approximation. Electron spectrum and dependencies of the electron concentrations on chemical potential were obtained. It was shown that in the alloy-analogy approximation, the model possesses the first order phase transition to ferromagnetic state with the change of chemical potential and the second order phase transition with the change of temperature.

  1. Enhancement of tunnel conductivity by Cooper pair fluctuations in electron-hole bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimkin, D K; Lozovik, Yu E

    2012-01-01

    Influence of Cooper pair fluctuations that are precursor of pairing of electrons and holes located on opposite surfaces of topological insulator film on tunnel conductivity between the surfaces is investigated. Due to restrictions caused by momentum and energy conservation dependence of tunnel conductivity on external bias voltage has peak that becomes more prominent with decreasing of disorder and temperature. We have shown that Cooper pair fluctuations considerably enhance tunneling and height of the peak diverges in vicinity of critical temperature with critical index ν = 2. Width of the peak tends to zero in proximity of critical temperature. Pairing of electrons and holes can be suppressed by disorder and in vicinity of quantum critical point height of the peak also diverges as function of Cooper pair damping with critical index μ = 2.

  2. Trapped electron decay by the thermally-assisted tunnelling to electron acceptors in glassy matrices. A computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feret, B.; Bartczak, W.M.; Kroh, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Redi-Hopefield quantum mechanical model of the thermally-assisted electron transfer has been applied to simulate the decay of trapped electrons by tunnelling to electron acceptor molecules added to the glassy matrix. It was assumed that the electron energy levels in donors and acceptors are statistically distributed and the electron excess energy after transfer is dissipated in the medium by the electron-phonon coupling. The electron decay curves were obtained by the method of computer simulation. It was found that for a given medium there exists a certain preferred value of the electronic excess energy which can be effectively converted into the matrix vibrations. If the mismatch of the electron states on the donor and acceptor coincides with the ''resonance'' energy the overall kinetics of electron transfer is accelerated. (author)

  3. Suppressing the memory state of floating gate transistors with repeated femtosecond laser backside irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambonneau, Maxime; Souiki-Figuigui, Sarra; Chiquet, Philippe; Della Marca, Vincenzo; Postel-Pellerin, Jérémy; Canet, Pierre; Portal, Jean-Michel; Grojo, David

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that infrared femtosecond laser pulses with intensity above the two-photon ionization threshold of crystalline silicon induce charge transport through the tunnel oxide in floating gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor transistor devices. With repeated irradiations of Flash memory cells, we show how the laser-produced free-electrons naturally redistribute on both sides of the tunnel oxide until the electric field of the transistor is suppressed. This ability enables us to determine in a nondestructive, rapid and contactless way the flat band and the neutral threshold voltages of the tested device. The physical mechanisms including nonlinear ionization, quantum tunneling of free-carriers, and flattening of the band diagram are discussed for interpreting the experiments. The possibility to control the carriers in memory transistors with ultrashort pulses holds promises for fast and remote device analyses (reliability, security, and defectivity) and for considerable developments in the growing field of ultrafast microelectronics.

  4. Electronic readout of a single nuclear spin using a molecular spin transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R.; Klyastskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum control of individual spins in condensed matter devices is an emerging field with a wide range of applications ranging from nanospintronics to quantum computing [1,2]. The electron, with its spin and orbital degrees of freedom, is conventionally used as carrier of the quantum information in the devices proposed so far. However, electrons exhibit a strong coupling to the environment leading to reduced relaxation and coherence times. Indeed quantum coherence and stable entanglement of electron spins are extremely difficult to achieve. We propose a new approach using the nuclear spin of an individual metal atom embedded in a single-molecule magnet (SMM). In order to perform the readout of the nuclear spin, the quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) of the magnetic moment of the SMM in a transitor-like set-up is electronically detected. Long spin lifetimes of an individual nuclear spin were observed and the relaxation characteristics were studied. The manipulation of the nuclear spin state of individual atoms embedded in magnetic molecules opens a completely new world, where quantum logic may be integrated.[4pt] [1] L. Bogani, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 7, 179 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Urdampilleta, S. Klyatskaya, J.P. Cleuziou, M. Ruben, W. Wernsdorfer, Nature Mat. 10, 502 (2011).

  5. A predictive analytic model for high-performance tunneling field-effect transistors approaching non-equilibrium Green's function simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Ramon B.; Appenzeller, Joerg; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A new compact modeling approach is presented which describes the full current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of high-performance (aggressively scaled-down) tunneling field-effect-transistors (TFETs) based on homojunction direct-bandgap semiconductors. The model is based on an analytic description of two key features, which capture the main physical phenomena related to TFETs: (1) the potential profile from source to channel and (2) the elliptic curvature of the complex bands in the bandgap region. It is proposed to use 1D Poisson's equations in the source and the channel to describe the potential profile in homojunction TFETs. This allows to quantify the impact of source/drain doping on device performance, an aspect usually ignored in TFET modeling but highly relevant in ultra-scaled devices. The compact model is validated by comparison with state-of-the-art quantum transport simulations using a 3D full band atomistic approach based on non-equilibrium Green's functions. It is shown that the model reproduces with good accuracy the data obtained from the simulations in all regions of operation: the on/off states and the n/p branches of conduction. This approach allows calculation of energy-dependent band-to-band tunneling currents in TFETs, a feature that allows gaining deep insights into the underlying device physics. The simplicity and accuracy of the approach provide a powerful tool to explore in a quantitatively manner how a wide variety of parameters (material-, size-, and/or geometry-dependent) impact the TFET performance under any bias conditions. The proposed model presents thus a practical complement to computationally expensive simulations such as the 3D NEGF approach

  6. Double pulse doped InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Nikitina, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Polyakov, N. K.; Pirogov, E. V.; Gorbazevich, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Double pulse doped (δ-doped) InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using a multiwafer technological system. The room-temperature electron mobility was determined by the Hall method as 6550 and 6000 cm 2 /(V s) at sheet electron densities of 3.00 x 10 12 and 3.36 x 10 12 cm -2 , respectively. HEMT heterostructures fabricated in a single process feature high uniformity of structural and electrical characteristics over the entire area of wafers 76.2 mm in diameter and high reproducibility of characteristics from process to process.

  7. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si 1−x Ge x stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  8. Electronic properties of dioctylterthiophene-based organic thin-film transistors: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharimani, N.; Nysten, B.

    2013-01-01

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could be used as the active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). They can be processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing, which paves the way to applications for cheap plastic electronics such as electronic tags, biosensors, and flexible screens. However, the measured field-effect mobility in these OTFTs is relatively low compared to inorganic devices. Generally, such low field-effect mobility values result from extrinsic effects such as grain boundaries or imperfect interfaces with source and drain electrodes. It has been shown that reducing the number of grain boundaries between the source and drain electrodes improves the field effect mobility. Therefore, it is important to understand the transport mechanisms by studying the local structure and electronic properties of organic thin films within the channel and at the interfaces with source and drain electrodes in order to improve the field-effect mobility in OTFTs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is an ideal tool for that purpose since it allows to simultaneously investigate the local structure and the electrical potential distribution in electronic devices. In this work, the structure and the electrical properties of OTFTs based on dioctylterthiophene (DOTT) were studied. The transistors were fabricated by spin-coating DOTT on the transistor structures with untreated and treated (silanized) channel silicon oxide. The potential profiles across the channel and at the metal-electrode interfaces were measured by KPFM. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties, charge trapping phenomenon and hysteresis effects is demonstrated and analyzed. - Highlights: • Kelvin probe force microscopy study of organic thin film transistors. • Cost and time savings by using solution processable molecules as active layers. • Smaller crystals and less charge trapping effects in silanized devices. • Decrement

  9. Determination of the electronic energy levels of colloidal nanocrystals using field-effect transistors and Ab-initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Degoli, Elena; Spallanzani, Nicola; Krishnan, Gopi; Kooi, Bart Jan; Ghica, Corneliu; Yarema, Maksym; Heiss, Wolfgang; Pulci, Olivia; Ossicini, Stefano; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-08-27

    Colloidal nanocrystals electronic energy levels are determined by strong size-dependent quantum confinement. Understanding the configuration of the energy levels of nanocrystal superlattices is vital in order to use them in heterostructures with other materials. A powerful method is reported to determine the energy levels of PbS nanocrystal assemblies by combining the utilization of electric-double-layer-gated transistors and advanced ab-initio theory. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Strain characterization of fin-shaped field effect transistors with SiGe stressors using nanobeam electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Wook; Byeon, Dae-Seop; Jang, Hyunchul; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ko, Dae-Hong, E-mail: dhko@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoo-Jeong, E-mail: hlee@skku.edu [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25

    This study undertook strain analysis on fin-shaped field effect transistor structures with epitaxial Si{sub 1−x}Ge{sub x} stressors, using nano-beam electron diffraction and finite elements method. Combining the two methods disclosed dynamic strain distribution in the source/drain and channel region of the fin structure, and the effects of dimensional factors such as the stressor thickness and fin width, offering valuable information for device design.

  11. Local imaging of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems with virtual scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelliccione, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sciambi, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called “virtual scanning tunneling microscopy” that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.

  12. Submolecular Electronic Mapping of Single Cysteine Molecules by in Situ Scanning Tunneling Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nazmutdinov, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have used L-Cysteine (Cys) as a model system to study the surface electronic structures of single molecules at the submolecular level in aqueous buffer solution by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM), electrochemistry including voltammetry and chronocou...

  13. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.; Perrin, M.L.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from

  14. Tunneling Characteristics of an Electron-Hole Trilayer in a Parallel Magnetic Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Y

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the tunneling properties of GaSb/AlSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb heterostructures in which electrons- and boles accumulate in the InAs and GaSb regions respectively under a magnetic field parallel...

  15. Probing the longitudinal momentum spread of the electron wave packet at the tunnel exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Pfeiffer, Adrian; Cirelli, Claudio; S. Landsman, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    We present an ellipticity resolved study of momentum distributions arising from strong-field ionization of Helium at constant intensity. The influence of the ion potential on the departing electron is considered within a semi-classical model consisting of an initial tunneling step and subsequent...

  16. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  17. Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae, E-mail: gtkim@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Keun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Minju [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble INP-MINATEC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe{sub 2} FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (S{sub I}) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NS{sub I}) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.

  18. Isolated photosystem I reaction centers on a functionalized gated high electron mobility transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, Sazia A; Lee, Ida; Tulip, Fahmida S; Mostafa, Salwa; Greenbaum, Elias; Ericson, M Nance; Islam, Syed K

    2011-09-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale (~6 nm) reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Isolated Photosystem I Reaction Centers on a Functionalized Gated High Electron Mobility Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliza, Sazia A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lee, Ida [ORNL; Tulip, Fahmida S [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mostafa, Salwa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Greenbaum, Elias [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In oxygenic plants, photons are captured with high quantum efficiency by two specialized reaction centers (RC) called Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II). The captured photon triggers rapid charge separation and the photon energy is converted into an electrostatic potential across the nanometer-scale nm reaction centers. The exogenous photovoltages from a single PS I RC have been previously measured using the technique of Kelvin force probe microscopy (KFM). However, biomolecular photovoltaic applications require two-terminal devices. This paper presents for the first time, a micro-device for detection and characterization of isolated PS I RCs. The device is based on an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs show high current throughputs and greater sensitivity to surface charges compared to other field-effect devices. PS I complexes immobilized on the floating gate of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs resulted in significant changes in the device characteristics under illumination. An analytical model has been developed to estimate the RCs of a major orientation on the functionalized gate surface of the HEMTs.

  20. Improvement in the performance of graphene nanoribbon p-i-n tunneling field effect transistors by applying lightly doped profile on drain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient structure with lightly doped drain region is proposed for p-i-n graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (LD-PIN-GNRFET). Self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equation within Nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism has been employed to simulate the quantum transport of the devices. In proposed structure, source region is doped by constant doping density, channel is an intrinsic GNR, and drain region contains two parts with lightly and heavily doped doping distributions. The important challenge in tunneling devices is obtaining higher current ratio. Our simulations demonstrate that LD-PIN-GNRFET is a steep slope device which not only reduces the leakage current and current ratio but also enhances delay, power delay product, and cutoff frequency in comparison with conventional PIN GNRFETs with uniform distribution of impurity and with linear doping profile in drain region. Also, the device is able to operate in higher drain-source voltages due to the effectively reduced electric field at drain side. Briefly, the proposed structure can be considered as a more reliable device for low standby-power logic applications operating at higher voltages and upper cutoff frequencies.

  1. Germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) with a 10 nm channel length: analog performance, doping and temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of the germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) is proposed. The characteristics and analog performance of the device were theoretically investigated by exploiting the electrical properties of a germanene nanoribbon and applying the doping concentration in the source and drain regions at 300 K and 4 K temperatures. The device parameters were obtained using a non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method within the tight binding (TB) Hamiltonian. The TB Hamiltonian was extracted from the density functional theory (DFT) through the Wannier function. We find that by increasing the doping concentration the I on current increases which leads to an improvement of the I on /I off ratio to 10 5 . Moreover, decreasing the temperature from 300 K to 4 K causes the I off to become ten times smaller. We find that the device output characteristic displays a negative differential conductance with a good peak-to-valley ratio which is improved by increasing the doping concentration. The analog performance of the device is also investigated in the subthreshold regime of operation by varying the doping concentration. It is observed that by increasing the device doping concentration, the analog figures of merit can be improved. (paper)

  2. Doped Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Keum, Chang-Min; Kasemann, Daniel; Naab, Ben; Bao, Zhenan; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-23

    Organic field-effect transistors hold the promise of enabling low-cost and flexible electronics. Following its success in organic optoelectronics, the organic doping technology is also used increasingly in organic field-effect transistors. Doping not only increases device performance, but it also provides a way to fine-control the transistor behavior, to develop new transistor concepts, and even improve the stability of organic transistors. This Review summarizes the latest progress made in the understanding of the doping technology and its application to organic transistors. It presents the most successful doping models and an overview of the wide variety of materials used as dopants. Further, the influence of doping on charge transport in the most relevant polycrystalline organic semiconductors is reviewed, and a concise overview on the influence of doping on transistor behavior and performance is given. In particular, recent progress in the understanding of contact doping and channel doping is summarized.

  3. Electron tunneling and the energy gap in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Beasley, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of electron tunneling on single crystals of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconductor are reported. The junctions show a gap structure with Δ~=25 meV, whose temperature dependence exhibits a qualitatively Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like behavior with a gap-closing Tc~=81-85 K. Comparisons of these tunneling spectra to those obtained on YBa2Cu3O7-x are made. Evidence that 2Δ/kTc~7 for both Ba2Sr2CaCu2Ox and YBa2Cu3O7-x is also discussed.

  4. Scanning tunnel microscope with large vision field compatible with a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, A.P.; Stepanyan, G.A.; Khajkin, M.S.; Ehdel'man, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    A scanning tunnel microscope (STM) with the 20μm vision field and 1nm resolution, designed to be compatible with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is described. The sample scanning area is chosen within the 3x10mm limits with a 0.1-1μm step. The STM needle is moved automatically toward the sample surface from the maximum distance of 10mm until the tunneling current appears. Bimorphous elements of the KP-1 piezocorrector are used in the STM design. The device is installed on a table of SEM object holders

  5. Strong overtones modes in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with cross-conjugated molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    . With this in mind, we investigate a spectroscopic method capable of providing insight into these junctions for cross-conjugated molecules: inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). IETS has the advantage that the molecule interface is probed directly by the tunneling current. Previously, it has been thought...... and leading to suppressed levels of elastic current. In most theoretical studies, only the elastic contributions to the current are taken into account. In this paper, we study the inelastic contributions to the current in cross-conjugated molecules and find that while the inelastic contribution to the current...

  6. Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Colorado State University ETC Electron Transpiration Cooling LHTS Local Heat Transfer Simulation LTE Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium RCC Reinforced...ceramic electric material testing in plasma environment (not performed), 4. measurements and analysis of the Electron Transpiration Cooling (Sec. 4.2). 2...VKI 1D boundary layer code for computation of enthalpy and boundary layer parameters: a) iterate on ’virtually measured ’ heat flux, b) once enthalpy

  7. Spin current in an electron waveguide tunnel-coupled to a topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A

    2012-01-01

    We show that electron tunneling from edge states in a two-dimensional topological insulator into a parallel electron waveguide leads to the appearance of spin-polarized current in the waveguide. The spin polarization P can be very close to unity and the electron current passing through the tunnel contact splits in the waveguide into two branches flowing from the contact. The polarization essentially depends on the electron scattering by the contact and the electron-electron interaction in the one-dimensional edge states. The electron-electron interaction is treated within the Luttinger liquid model. The main effect of the interaction stems from the renormalization of the electron velocity, due to which the polarization increases with the interaction strength. Electron scattering by the contact leads to a decrease in P. A specific effect occurs when the bottom of the subbands in the waveguide crosses the Dirac point of the spectrum of edge states when changing the voltage or chemical potential. This leads to changing the direction of the spin current.

  8. Electron transport and noise spectroscopy in organic magnetic tunnel junctions with PTCDA and Alq3 barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isidoro; Cascales, Juan Pedro; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Prezioso, Mirko; Riminucci, Alberto; Dediu, Valentin A.; Aliev, Farkhad G.

    2016-10-01

    The possible influence of internal barrier dynamics on spin, charge transport and their fluctuations in organic spintronics remains poorly understood. Here we present investigation of the electron transport and low frequency noise at temperatures down to 0.3K in magnetic tunnel junctions with an organic PTCDA barriers with thickness up to 5 nm in the tunneling regime and with 200 nm thick Alq3 barrier in the hopping regime. We observed high tunneling magneto-resistance at low temperatures (15-40%) and spin dependent super-poissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions (OMTJs) with PTCDA. The Fano factor exceeds 1.5-2 values which could be caused by interfacial states controlled by spin dependent bunching in the tunneling events through the molecules.1 The bias dependence of the low frequency noise in OMTJs with PTCDA barriers which includes both 1/f and random telegraph noise activated at specific biases will also be discussed. On the other hand, the organic junctions with ferromagnetic electrodes and thick Alq3 barriers present sub-poissonian shot noise which depends on the temperature, indicative of variable range hopping.

  9. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sung Hun, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu; Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho, E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Youn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Display R and D Center, Samsung Display Co., Yongin-city, Gyeongki-do 446–711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A., E-mail: harin74@gmail.com, E-mail: jhl@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jrogers@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  10. Millimeter-wave small-signal modeling with optimizing sensitive-parameters for metamorphic high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S-W; Baek, Y-H; Han, M; Rhee, J-K; Kim, S-D; Oh, J-H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and reliable technique for determining the small-signal equivalent circuit model parameters of the 0.1 µm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) in a millimeter-wave frequency range. The initial eight extrinsic parameters of the MHEMT are extracted using two S-parameter (scattering parameter) sets measured under the pinched-off and zero-biased cold field-effect transistor conditions by avoiding the forward gate biasing. Furthermore, highly calibration-sensitive values of the R s , L s and C pd are optimized by using a gradient optimization method to improve the modeling accuracy. The accuracy enhancement of this procedure is successfully verified with an excellent correlation between the measured and calculated S-parameters up to 65 GHz

  11. Effect of proton and electron-irradiation intensity on radiation-induced damages in silicon bioolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Yu.A.; Gorin, B.M.; Kozhevnikov, V.P.; Mikhnovich, V.V.; Gusev, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    The increase of radiation-induced damages of bipolar n-p-n transistors 8-12 times with the irradiation intensity decrease by protons from 4.07x1010 to 2.5x107 cm-2 x c-1 has been found experimentally. damages of p-n-p transistors vary in the opposite way - they are decreased 2-3 times with the irradiation intensity decrease within the same limits. the dependence of damages on intansity of proton irradiation occurs at the dose rate by three orders less than it has been observed for electron irradiation. the results obtained are explained by the dependence of radiation defectoformation reactions on charge state of defects with account for the role of formation of disordering regions upon proton irradiation [ru

  12. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  13. Solution-processed single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors and bootstrapped inverters for disintegratable, transient electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Hun; Shin, Jongmin; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Dong Joon; Lee, Chi Hwan; Rogers, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents materials, device designs, and physical/electrical characteristics of a form of nanotube electronics that is physically transient, in the sense that all constituent elements dissolve and/or disperse upon immersion into water. Studies of contact effects illustrate the ability to use water soluble metals such as magnesium for source/drain contacts in nanotube based field effect transistors. High mobilities and on/off ratios in transistors that use molybdenum, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide enable full swing characteristics for inverters at low voltages (∼5 V) and with high gains (∼30). Dissolution/disintegration tests of such systems on water soluble sheets of polyvinyl alcohol demonstrate physical transience within 30 min.

  14. Ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ using oligonucleotide-functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Junjie; Li, Jiadong; Miao, Bin; Wu, Dongmin; Wang, Jine; Pei, Renjun; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    An oligonucleotide-functionalized ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of Hg 2+ . The advantages of ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN HEMT and highly specific binding interaction between Hg 2+ and thymines were combined. The current response of this Hg 2+ ultrasensitive transistor was characterized. The current increased due to the accumulation of Hg 2+ ions on the surface by the highly specific thymine-Hg 2+ -thymine recognition. The dynamic linear range for Hg 2+ detection has been determined in the concentrations from 10 −14 to 10 −8 M and a detection limit below 10 −14 M level was estimated, which is the best result of AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensors for Hg 2+ detection till now.

  15. Electronic Detection of DNA Hybridization by Coupling Organic Field-Effect Transistor-Based Sensors and Hairpin-Shaped Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Napoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electronic transduction of DNA hybridization is presented by coupling organic charge-modulated field-effect transistors (OCMFETs and hairpin-shaped probes. These probes have shown interesting properties in terms of sensitivity and selectivity in other kinds of assays, in the form of molecular beacons (MBs. Their integration with organic-transistor based sensors, never explored before, paves the way to a new class of low-cost, easy-to-use, and portable genetic sensors with enhanced performances. Thanks to the peculiar characteristics of the employed sensor, measurements can be performed at relatively high ionic strengths, thus optimizing the probes’ functionality without affecting the detection ability of the device. A complete electrical characterization of the sensor is reported, including calibration with different target concentrations in the measurement environment and selectivity evaluation. In particular, DNA hybridization detection for target concentration as low as 100 pM is demonstrated.

  16. Electric-field effects on electronic tunneling transport in magnetic barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Wang Hao; Gu Binglin; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Electronic transport properties in magnetic barrier structures under the influence of an electric field have been investigated. The results indicate that the characteristics of transmission resonance are determined not only by the structure and the incident wave vector but also strongly by the electric field. It is shown that the transmission coefficient at resonance in the low-energy range is suppressed by applying the electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with identical magnetic barriers and wells. It is also shown that the transmission resonance is first enhanced up to optimal resonance, and then suppressed with further increased electric field for electron tunneling through the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with unidentical building blocks. Strong suppression of the current density is also found in the magnetic barrier structure, arranged with two different building blocks

  17. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Multi-MgxNy/GaN Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, P. C.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Chang, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer. Compared with conventional HEMT devices with a low-temperature GaN buffer, smaller gate and source-drain leakage current could be achieved with this new buffer design. Consequently, the electron mobility was larger for the proposed device due to the reduction of defect density and the corresponding improvement of crystalline quality as result of using the multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer.

  18. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors with Multi-MgxNy/GaN Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer. Compared with conventional HEMT devices with a low-temperature GaN buffer, smaller gate and source-drain leakage current could be achieved with this new buffer design. Consequently, the electron mobility was larger for the proposed device due to the reduction of defect density and the corresponding improvement of crystalline quality as result of using the multi-MgxNy/GaN buffer.

  19. A study of transport suppression in an undoped AlGaAs/GaAs quantum dot single-electron transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, A. M.; Klochan, O.; Micolich, P.

    2013-01-01

    . The temperature and magnetic field dependences of these features indicate the couplings between the leads and the quantum dot states are suppressed. We attribute this to two possible mechanisms: spin effects which determine whether a particular charge transition is allowed based on the change in total spin......, and the interference effects which arise from coherent tunnelling of electrons in the quantum dot....

  20. Electron mobility variance in the presence of an electric field: Electron-phonon field-induced tunnel scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of electron mobility variance is discussed. It is established that in equilibrium semiconductors the mobility variance is infinite. It is revealed that the cause of the mobility variance infinity is the threshold of phonon emission. The electron-phonon interaction theory in the presence of an electric field is developed. A new mechanism of electron scattering, called electron-phonon field-induced tunnel (FIT) scattering, is observed. The effect of the electron-phonon FIT scattering is explained in terms of penetration of the electron wave function into the semiconductor band gap in the presence of an electric field. New and more general expressions for the electron-non-polar optical phonon scattering probability and relaxation time are obtained. The results show that FIT transitions have principle meaning for the mobility fluctuation theory: mobility variance becomes finite.

  1. Electron-assisted magnetization tunneling in single spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Timofey; Karlewski, Christian; Märkl, Tobias; Schön, Gerd; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic excitations of single atoms on surfaces have been widely studied experimentally in the past decade. Lately, systems with unprecedented magnetic stability started to emerge. Here, we present a general theoretical investigation of the stability of rare-earth magnetic atoms exposed to crystal or ligand fields of various symmetry and to exchange scattering with an electron bath. By analyzing the properties of the atomic wave function, we show that certain combinations of symmetry and total angular momentum are inherently stable against first or even higher-order interactions with electrons. Further, we investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the magnetic stability.

  2. Spin-controlled nanomechanics induced by single-electron tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, D; Nordenfelt, A; Kadigrobov, A M; Shekhter, R I; Jonson, M; Gorelik, L Y

    2011-12-02

    We consider dc-electronic transport through a nanowire suspended between normal- and spin-polarized metal leads in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that magnetomotive coupling between the electrical current through the nanowire and vibrations of the wire may result in self-excitation of mechanical vibrations. The self-excitation mechanism is based on correlations between the occupancy of the quantized electronic energy levels inside the nanowire and the velocity of the nanowire. We derive conditions for the occurrence of the instability and find stable regimes of mechanical oscillations. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  4. Universal tunneling behavior in technologically relevant P/N junction diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Paul M.; Jopling, Jason; Frank, David J.; D'Emic, Chris; Dokumaci, O.; Ronsheim, P.; Haensch, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Band-to-band tunneling was studied in ion-implanted P/N junction diodes with profiles representative of present and future silicon complementary metal-oxide-silicon (CMOS) field effect transistors. Measurements were done over a wide range of temperatures and implant parameters. Profile parameters were derived from analysis of capacitance versus voltage characteristics, and compared to secondary-ion mass spectroscopy analysis. When the tunneling current was plotted against the effective tunneling distance (tunneling distance corrected for band curvature) a quasi-universal exponential reduction of tunneling current versus, tunneling distance was found with an attenuation length of 0.38 nm, corresponding to a tunneling effective mass of 0.29 times the free electron mass (m 0 ), and an extrapolated tunneling current at zero tunnel distance of 5.3x10 7 A/cm 2 at 300 K. These results are directly applicable for predicting drain to substrate currents in CMOS transistors on bulk silicon, and body currents in CMOS transistors in silicon-on-insulator

  5. Tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    361/362, - (1996), s. 167-170 ISSN 0039-6028. [International Conference on the Electronic Properties of Two Dimensional Systems /11./. Nottingham, 07.08.1995-11.08.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/94/1278 Grant - others:INT(XX) 9106888 Impact factor: 2.783, year: 1996

  6. Effects of SiNx on two-dimensional electron gas and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren; Zhi-Biao, Hao; Lei, Wang; Lai, Wang; Hong-Tao, Li; Yi, Luo

    2010-01-01

    SiN x is commonly used as a passivation material for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, the effects of SiN x passivation film on both two-dimensional electron gas characteristics and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are investigated. The SiN x films are deposited by high- and low-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, and they display different strains on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, which can explain the experiment results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Inelastic tunneling of electrons through a quantum dot with an embedded single molecular magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Liang, J.-Q.

    2010-06-01

    We report a theoretical analysis of electron transport through a quantum dot with an embedded biaxial single-molecule magnet (SMM) based on mapping of the many-body interaction-system onto a one-body problem by means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique. It is found that the conducting current exhibits a stepwise behavior and the nonlinear differential conductance displays additional peaks with variation of the sweeping speed and the magnitude of magnetic field. This observation can be interpreted by the interaction of electron-spin with the SMM and the quantum tunneling of magnetization. The inelastic conductance and the corresponding tunneling processes are investigated with normal as well as ferromagnetic electrodes. In the case of ferromagnetic configuration, the coupling to the SMM leads to an asymmetric tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), which can be enhanced or suppressed greatly in certain regions. Moreover, a sudden TMR-switch with the variation of magnetic field is observed, which is seen to be caused by the inelastic tunneling.

  8. Inelastic tunneling of electrons through a quantum dot with an embedded single molecular magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Bo [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Liang, J.-Q., E-mail: jqliang@sxu.edu.c [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China)

    2010-06-28

    We report a theoretical analysis of electron transport through a quantum dot with an embedded biaxial single-molecule magnet (SMM) based on mapping of the many-body interaction-system onto a one-body problem by means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique. It is found that the conducting current exhibits a stepwise behavior and the nonlinear differential conductance displays additional peaks with variation of the sweeping speed and the magnitude of magnetic field. This observation can be interpreted by the interaction of electron-spin with the SMM and the quantum tunneling of magnetization. The inelastic conductance and the corresponding tunneling processes are investigated with normal as well as ferromagnetic electrodes. In the case of ferromagnetic configuration, the coupling to the SMM leads to an asymmetric tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), which can be enhanced or suppressed greatly in certain regions. Moreover, a sudden TMR-switch with the variation of magnetic field is observed, which is seen to be caused by the inelastic tunneling.

  9. Fragment molecular orbital study on electron tunneling mechanisms in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka; Ando, Koji

    2012-11-01

    The tunneling mechanisms of electron transfers (ETs) in photosynthetic reaction center of Blastochloris viridis are studied by the ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method combined with the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) and the bridge Green function (GF) calculations of the electronic coupling T(DA) and the tunneling current method for the ET pathway analysis at the fragment-based resolution. For the ET from batctriopheophytin (H(L)) to menaquinone (MQ), a major tunneling current through Trp M250 and a minor back flow via Ala M215, Ala M216, and His M217 are quantified. For the ET from MQ to ubiquinone, the major tunneling pathway via the nonheme Fe(2+) and His L190 is identified as well as minor pathway via His M217 and small back flows involving His L230, Glu M232, and His M264. At the given molecular structure from X-ray experiment, the spin state of the Fe(2+) ion, its replacement by Zn(2+), or its removal are found to affect the T(DA) value by factors within 2.2. The calculated T(DA) values, together with experimentally estimated values of the driving force and the reorganization energy, give the ET rates in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  10. Electronic states in tunneling semiconductor superlattices: Technical progress report for the period September 15, 1987-September 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This research project funded by DOE has concentrated in the systematic study of the effects of a gate voltage on the electronic structure of a tunneling superlattice system. The effects of strong magnetic fields and other various parameters on energy levels of tunneling superlattices have been investigated

  11. Hysteresis loops of spin-dependent electronic current in a paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wójcik, P; Spisak, B J; Wołoszyn, M; Adamowski, J

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear properties of the spin-dependent electronic transport through a semiconductor resonant tunnelling diode with a paramagnetic quantum well are considered. The spin-dependent Wigner–Poisson model of the electronic transport and the two-current Mott’s formula for the independent spin channels are applied to determine the current–voltage curves of the nanodevice. Two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops are found in the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current. The physical interpretation of these two types of the electronic current hysteresis loops is given based on the analysis of the spin-dependent electron densities and the potential energy profiles. The differences between the current–voltage characteristics for both the spin components of the electronic current allow us to explore the changes of the spin polarization of the current for different electric fields and determine the influence of the electronic current hysteresis on the spin polarization of the current flowing through the paramagnetic resonant tunnelling diode. (paper)

  12. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  13. Electronic tunneling through a fullerene-like molecular bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaie, H.; Yaghobi, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to consider the electronic transport properties of the N_{36} B_{36} molecule, using the Green's function method based on the GW model. The number, width, height and position of density of state peaks are dramatically dependent on the correlation effect, the contact type and symmetric properties of the molecule. Also, negative differential resistance behavior was observed for all modes in voltages 4.4 V (- 4.5 V) to 4.7 V (- 4.7 V). The N_{36} B_{36} molecule behaves as an insulator where the total current becomes zero for the same values of the gate voltages but acts as a metal at other values. Therefore, the physical picture of electron conduction may change in N_{36} B_{36}—based molecular devices and it could behave as a semiconductor.

  14. Limitations in cooling electrons using normal-metal-superconductor tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekola, J P; Heikkilä, T T; Savin, A M; Flyktman, J T; Giazotto, F; Hekking, F W J

    2004-02-06

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally two limiting factors in cooling electrons using biased tunnel junctions to extract heat from a normal metal into a superconductor. First, when the injection rate of electrons exceeds the internal relaxation rate in the metal to be cooled, the electrons do not obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution, and the concept of temperature cannot be applied as such. Second, at low bath temperatures, states within the gap induce anomalous heating and yield a theoretical limit of the achievable minimum temperature.

  15. Electronic tunneling through a potential barrier on the surface of a topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Guanghui

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the tunneling transport for electrons on the surface of a topological insulator (TI) through an electrostatic potential barrier. By using the Dirac equation with the continuity conditions for all segments of wave functions at the interfaces between regions inside and outside the barrier, we calculate analytically the transmission probability and conductance for the system. It is demonstrated that, the Klein paradox can also been observed in the system same as in graphene system. Interestingly, the conductance reaches the minimum value when the incident electron energy is equal to the barrier strength. Moreover, with increasing barrier width, the conductance turns up some tunneling oscillation peaks, and larger barrier strength can cause lower conductance, shorter period but larger oscillation amplitude. The oscillation amplitude decreases as the barrier width increases, which is similar as that of the system consisting of the compressive uniaxial strain applied on a TI, but somewhat different from that of graphene system where the oscillation amplitude is a constant. The findings here imply that an electrostatic barrier can greatly influence the electron tunneling transport of the system, and may provide a new way to realize directional filtering of electrons.

  16. Facile synthesis and electron transport properties of NiO nanostructures investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Mallick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique chemical, thermal, electronic and photonic properties, low -dimensional transition metal oxides, especially NiO, have attracted great deal of attention for potential applications in a wide range of technologies, such as, sensors, electrochromic coatings and self-healing materials. However, their synthesis involves multi-step complex procedures that in addition to being expensive, further introduce impurities. Here we present a low cost facile approach to synthesize uniform size NiO nanoparticles (NPs from hydrothermally grown Ni(OH2. Detailed transmission electron microscopic analysis reveal the average size of NiO NPs to be around 29 nm. The dimension of NiO NP is also corroborated by the small area scanning tunneling microscope (STM measurements. Further, we investigate electron transport characteristics of newly synthesized Ni(OH2 and NiO nanoparticles on p-type Si substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy. The conductivity of Ni(OH2 and NiO are determined to be 1.46x10-3 S/cm and 2.37x10-5 S/cm, respectively. The NiO NPs exhibit a lower voltage window (∼0.7 V electron tunneling than the parent Ni(OH2.

  17. Precision Electron Density Measurements in the SSX MHD Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen-Lewis, Emma M.; Barbano, Luke J.; Shrock, Jaron E.; Kaur, Manjit; Schaffner, David A.; Brown, Michael R.

    2017-10-01

    We characterize fluctuations of the line averaged electron density of Taylor states produced by the magnetized coaxial plasma gun of the SSX device using a 632.8 nm HeNe laser interferometer. The analysis method uses the electron density dependence of the refractive index of the plasma to determine the electron density of the Taylor states. Typical magnetic field and density values in the SSX device approach about B ≅ 0.3 T and n = 0 . 4 ×1016 cm-3 . Analysis is improved from previous density measurement methods by developing a post-processing method to remove relative phase error between interferometer outputs and to account for approximately linear phase drift due to low-frequency mechanical vibrations of the interferometer. Precision density measurements coupled with local measurements of the magnetic field will allow us to characterize the wave composition of SSX plasma via density vs. magnetic field correlation analysis, and compare the wave composition of SSX plasma with that of the solar wind. Preliminary results indicate that density and magnetic field appear negatively correlated. Work supported by DOE ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  18. Spin-polarized electron tunneling in bcc FeCo/MgO/FeCo(001) magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, F; Hauet, T; Andrieu, S; Bertran, F; Le Fèvre, P; Calmels, L; Tejeda, A; Montaigne, F; Warot-Fonrose, B; Belhadji, B; Nicolaou, A; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A

    2012-04-27

    In combining spin- and symmetry-resolved photoemission, magnetotransport measurements and ab initio calculations we detangled the electronic states involved in the electronic transport in Fe(1-x)Co(x)(001)/MgO/Fe(1-x)Co(x)(001) magnetic tunnel junctions. Contrary to previous theoretical predictions, we observe a large reduction in TMR (from 530 to 200% at 20 K) for Co content above 25 atomic% as well as anomalies in the conductance curves. We demonstrate that these unexpected behaviors originate from a minority spin state with Δ(1) symmetry that exists below the Fermi level for high Co concentration. Using angle-resolved photoemission, this state is shown to be a two-dimensional state that occurs at both Fe(1-x)Co(x)(001) free surface, and more importantly at the interface with MgO. The combination of this interface state with the peculiar density of empty states due to chemical disorder allows us to describe in details the complex conduction behavior in this system.

  19. Energy transfer between two vacuum-gapped metal plates: Coulomb fluctuations and electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Recent experimental measurements for near-field radiative heat transfer between two bodies have been able to approach the gap distance within 2 nm , where the contributions of Coulomb fluctuation and electron tunneling are comparable. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method in the G0W0 approximation, based on a tight-binding model, we obtain for the energy current a Caroli formula from the Meir-Wingreen formula in the local equilibrium approximation. Also, the Caroli formula is consistent with the evanescent part of the heat transfer from the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics. We go beyond the local equilibrium approximation to study the energy transfer in the crossover region from electron tunneling to Coulomb fluctuation based on a numerical calculation.

  20. Weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization: benchmark analytical results for two-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Vinh H; Morishita, Toru; Tolstikhin, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed many-electron weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization of atoms and molecules in an external static electric field (Tolstikhin et al 2014, Phys. Rev. A 89, 013421) is extended to the first-order terms in the asymptotic expansion in field. To highlight the results, here we present a simple analytical formula giving the rate of tunneling ionization of two-electron atoms H − and He. Comparison with fully-correlated ab initio calculations available for these systems shows that the first-order theory works quantitatively in a wide range of fields up to the onset of over-the-barrier ionization and hence is expected to find numerous applications in strong-field physics. (fast track communication)

  1. Electron-tunneling observation of local excited states in manganese-doped indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, J.; Ginsberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    We have measured the electron-tunneling characteristics of a dilute indium-manganese alloy. Well-defined structure was observed, corresponding to a band of local excited states within the energy gap. The measurements were made on two samples, and were quantitatively compared with the theory of Shiba and of Rusinov. We obtained good agreement of the tunneling data with the theory by taking into account only s-wave scattering of conduction electrons from the magnetic-impurity atoms. Even better agreement was obtained by including p- and d-wave scattering. Only by including these higher partial waves could we account for the magnitude of the observed depression of the transition temperature. The phase shifts used are in good agreement with band-theory values calculated recently

  2. Out-of-equilibrium catalysis of chemical reactions by electronic tunnel currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhioev, Alan A; Kosov, Daniel S; von Oppen, Felix

    2013-04-07

    We present an escape rate theory for current-induced chemical reactions. We use Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions to derive a Langevin equation for the reaction coordinate. Due to the out of equilibrium electronic degrees of freedom, the friction, noise, and effective temperature in the Langevin equation depend locally on the reaction coordinate. As an example, we consider the dissociation of diatomic molecules induced by the electronic current from a scanning tunnelling microscope tip. In the resonant tunnelling regime, the molecular dissociation involves two processes which are intricately interconnected: a modification of the potential energy barrier and heating of the molecule. The decrease of the molecular barrier (i.e., the current induced catalytic reduction of the barrier) accompanied by the appearance of the effective, reaction-coordinate-dependent temperature is an alternative mechanism for current-induced chemical reactions, which is distinctly different from the usual paradigm of pumping vibrational degrees of freedom.

  3. O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan

    2017-04-06

    The growth mechanism of indium oxide (InO) layers processed via spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution in the temperature range of 100-300 °C and the impact on their electron transporting properties are studied. Analysis of the droplet impingement sites on the substrate\\'s surface as a function of its temperature reveals that Leidenfrost effect dominated boiling plays a crucial role in the growth of smooth, continuous, and highly crystalline InO layers via a vapor phase-like process. By careful optimization of the precursor formulation, deposition conditions, and choice of substrate, this effect is exploited and ultrathin and exceptionally smooth layers of InO are grown over large area substrates at temperatures as low as 252 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using these optimized InO layers exhibit superior electron transport characteristics with the electron mobility reaching up to 40 cm V s, a value amongst the highest reported to date for solution-processed InO TFTs. The present work contributes enormously to the basic understanding of spray pyrolysis and highlights its tremendous potential for large-volume manufacturing of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistor electronics.

  4. Quantum ballistic transistor and low noise HEMT for cryo-electronics lower than 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremion, E.

    2008-01-01

    Next generations of cryo-detectors, widely used in physics of particles and physics of universe, will need in the future high-performance cryo-electronics less noisy and closer to the detector. Within this context, this work investigates properties of two dimensional electron gas GaAlAs/GaAs by studying two components, quantum point contact (QPC) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Thanks to quantized conductance steps in QPC, we have realized a quantum ballistic transistor (voltage gain higher than 1), a new component useful for cryo-electronics thanks to its operating temperature and weak power consumption (about 1 nW). Moreover, the very low capacity of this component leads to promising performances for multiplexing low temperature bolometer dedicated to millimetric astronomy. The second study focused on HEMT with very high quality 2DEG. At 4.2 K, a voltage gain higher than 20 can be obtained with a very low power dissipation of less than 100 μW. Under the above experimental conditions, an equivalent input voltage noise of 1.2 nV/√(Hz) at 1 kHz and 0.12 nV/√(Hz) at 100 kHz has been reached. According to the Hooge formula, these noise performances are get by increasing gate capacity estimated to 60 pF. (author)

  5. O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Isakov, Ivan; Faber, Hendrik; Grell, Max; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Kehagias, Thomas; Dimitrakopulos, George P.; Patsalas, Panos P.; Li, Ruipeng; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    The growth mechanism of indium oxide (InO) layers processed via spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor solution in the temperature range of 100-300 °C and the impact on their electron transporting properties are studied. Analysis of the droplet impingement sites on the substrate's surface as a function of its temperature reveals that Leidenfrost effect dominated boiling plays a crucial role in the growth of smooth, continuous, and highly crystalline InO layers via a vapor phase-like process. By careful optimization of the precursor formulation, deposition conditions, and choice of substrate, this effect is exploited and ultrathin and exceptionally smooth layers of InO are grown over large area substrates at temperatures as low as 252 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using these optimized InO layers exhibit superior electron transport characteristics with the electron mobility reaching up to 40 cm V s, a value amongst the highest reported to date for solution-processed InO TFTs. The present work contributes enormously to the basic understanding of spray pyrolysis and highlights its tremendous potential for large-volume manufacturing of high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistor electronics.

  6. The Optimization of Spacer Engineering for Capacitor-Less DRAM Based on the Dual-Gate Tunneling Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Qianqiong

    2018-03-01

    The DRAM based on the dual-gate tunneling FET (DGTFET) has the advantages of capacitor-less structure and high retention time. In this paper, the optimization of spacer engineering for DGTFET DRAM is systematically investigated by Silvaco-Atlas tool to further improve its performance, including the reduction of reading "0" current and extension of retention time. The simulation results show that spacers at the source and drain sides should apply the low-k and high-k dielectrics, respectively, which can enhance the reading "1" current and reduce reading "0" current. Applying this optimized spacer engineering, the DGTFET DRAM obtains the optimum performance-extremely low reading "0" current (10-14A/μm) and large retention time (10s), which decreases its static power consumption and dynamic refresh rate. And the low reading "0" current also enhances its current ratio (107) of reading "1" to reading "0". Furthermore, the analysis about scalability reveals its inherent shortcoming, which offers the further investigation direction for DGTFET DRAM.

  7. The Optimization of Spacer Engineering for Capacitor-Less DRAM Based on the Dual-Gate Tunneling Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Qianqiong

    2018-03-05

    The DRAM based on the dual-gate tunneling FET (DGTFET) has the advantages of capacitor-less structure and high retention time. In this paper, the optimization of spacer engineering for DGTFET DRAM is systematically investigated by Silvaco-Atlas tool to further improve its performance, including the reduction of reading "0" current and extension of retention time. The simulation results show that spacers at the source and drain sides should apply the low-k and high-k dielectrics, respectively, which can enhance the reading "1" current and reduce reading "0" current. Applying this optimized spacer engineering, the DGTFET DRAM obtains the optimum performance-extremely low reading "0" current (10 -14 A/μm) and large retention time (10s), which decreases its static power consumption and dynamic refresh rate. And the low reading "0" current also enhances its current ratio (10 7 ) of reading "1" to reading "0". Furthermore, the analysis about scalability reveals its inherent shortcoming, which offers the further investigation direction for DGTFET DRAM.

  8. Valley polarization due to trigonal warping on tunneling electrons in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Jr, J M; Peeters, F M; Costa Filho, R N; Farias, G A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of trigonal warping on the transmission of electrons tunneling through potential barriers in graphene is investigated. We present calculations of the transmission coefficient for single and double barriers as a function of energy, incidence angle and barrier heights. The results show remarkable valley-dependent directional effects for barriers oriented parallel to the armchair or parallel to the zigzag direction. These results indicate that electrostatic gates can be used as valley filters in graphene-based devices.

  9. Mapping the intramolecular contributions to the inelastic electron tunneling signal of a molecular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2016), 1-10, č. článku 045418. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single molecule transport * inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy * DFT-NEGF * inelastic selection rules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  10. Multichannel model of magneto tunneling in disordered electron nanodevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, M.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Diez, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multichannel model of magnetotunneling transport in unintentionally disordered double-barrier GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The source of disorder comes from interface roughness at the heterojunctions. Disorder break translational symmetry along the lateral direction and therefore electrons can be scattered off the growth direction. The model correctly describes channel mixing due to these elastic scattering events. The magnetic field applied to the double-barrier heterostructure splits the resonant level into a set of equally-spaced resonances, the level spacing increasing with the magnetic field. We discuss the influence of the various parameters (epilayer widths and magnitude or disorder) on the lineshape of the resonant levels

  11. Atomic scale investigations of the gate controlled tunneling effect in graphyne nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wen; Wang, Lu-Hao; Geng, Yang; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Shi-Jing; Wei Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Configuration and transport properties of zigzag graphyne nanoribbon (n = 2) are investigated by means of the first-principles calculations and non-equilibrium Green's function in this work. We demonstrated the controllability of the graphyne's conductivity by gate bias, and the tunneling behavior induced by gate and drain voltages was investigated systemically. The characteristics of I d -V d , I d -V g , as well as the evolutions of current with electron temperature elevation were explored. The device exhibits a tunneling ratio around 10 3 , and the state art of tunneling operations of the tunneling field effect transistor in this split-new material was achieved

  12. Tunneling of electrons via rotor–stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreska, Irina, E-mail: irina.petreska@pmf.ukim.mk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, PO Box 162, 1000 Skopje, Former Yugolav Republic of Macedonia, The (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ohanesjan, Vladimir [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, PO Box 162, 1000 Skopje, Former Yugolav Republic of Macedonia, The (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Pejov, Ljupčo [Institute of Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Arhimedova 5, P.O. Box 162, 1000 Skopje, Former Yugolav Republic of Macedonia, The (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Kocarev, Ljupčo [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Krste Misirkov 2, PO Box 428, 1000 Skopje, Former Yugolav Republic of Macedonia, The (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Former Yugolav Republic of Macedonia, The (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Tunneling of electrons through rotor–stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons’ formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green’s Function Formalism.

  13. Thermal instability and the growth of the InGaAs/AlGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrino, Joseph G.; Qadri, Syed B.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Tseng, Wen F.; Thurber, Robert; Gajewski, Donald; Guyer, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of temperature overshoot during molecular beam epitaxy growth on the transport properties of conventionally and delta-doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) structures have been examined. A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)-controlled versus a thermocouple (TC)-controlled, growth scheme is compared. Several advantages of the DRS-grown pHEMTs over the TC-controlled version were observed. Modest improvements in mobility, on the order of 2%-3%, were observed in addition to a 20% reduction in carrier freeze-out for the DRS-grown pHEMTs at 77 K

  14. Physisorption of functionalized gold nanoparticles on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, M S; Kim, S; Gaillard, M; Janes, D; Manfra, M J; Bryan, I; Sitar, Z; Arellano, C; Xie, J; Collazo, R; Ivanisevic, A

    2013-02-18

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to measure electrical characteristics of physisorbed gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with alkanethiols with a terminal methyl, amine, or carboxyl functional group. Additional alkanethiol was physisorbed onto the NP treated devices to distinguish between the effects of the Au NPs and alkanethiols on HEMT operation. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and electrical measurements were used to characterize the treatment effects. The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this region. The Au NP/HEMT system electrically detected functional group differences on adsorbed NPs which is pertinent to biosensor applications.

  15. Coulomb blockade anisotropic magnetoresistance and voltage controlled magnetic switching in a ferromagnetic GaMnAs single electron transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Irvine, A.C.; Kaestner, B.; Shick, Alexander; Campion, R. P.; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 310, - (2007), s. 1883-1888 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * magnetoresistance * single-electron transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2007

  16. Effect of OFF-state stress induced electric field on trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si (111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, M. J., E-mail: anand2@e.ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg; Ng, G. I., E-mail: anand2@e.ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: eging@ntu.edu.sg; Syamal, B.; Zhou, X. [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Vicknesh, S.; Foo, S. C. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, Research Techno Plaza, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-02-23

    The influence of electric field (EF) on the dynamic ON-resistance (dyn-R{sub DS[ON]}) and threshold-voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si has been investigated using pulsed current-voltage (I{sub DS}-V{sub DS}) and drain current (I{sub D}) transients. Different EF was realized with devices of different gate-drain spacing (L{sub gd}) under the same OFF-state stress. Under high-EF (L{sub gd} = 2 μm), the devices exhibited higher dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation but a small ΔV{sub th} (∼120 mV). However, at low-EF (L{sub gd} = 5 μm), smaller dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation but a larger ΔV{sub th} (∼380 mV) was observed. Our analysis shows that under OFF-state stress, the gate electrons are injected and trapped in the AlGaN barrier by tunnelling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Under high-EF, trapping spreads towards the gate-drain access region of the AlGaN barrier causing dyn-R{sub DS[ON]} degradation, whereas under low-EF, trapping is mostly confined under the gate causing ΔV{sub th}. A trap with activation energy 0.33 eV was identified in the AlGaN barrier by I{sub D}-transient measurements. The influence of EF on trapping was also verified by Silvaco TCAD simulations.

  17. Effect of OFF-state stress induced electric field on trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si (111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M. J.; Ng, G. I.; Syamal, B.; Zhou, X.; Arulkumaran, S.; Manoj Kumar, C. M.; Ranjan, K.; Vicknesh, S.; Foo, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electric field (EF) on the dynamic ON-resistance (dyn-R DS[ON] ) and threshold-voltage shift (ΔV th ) of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on Si has been investigated using pulsed current-voltage (I DS -V DS ) and drain current (I D ) transients. Different EF was realized with devices of different gate-drain spacing (L gd ) under the same OFF-state stress. Under high-EF (L gd  = 2 μm), the devices exhibited higher dyn-R DS[ON] degradation but a small ΔV th (∼120 mV). However, at low-EF (L gd  = 5 μm), smaller dyn-R DS[ON] degradation but a larger ΔV th (∼380 mV) was observed. Our analysis shows that under OFF-state stress, the gate electrons are injected and trapped in the AlGaN barrier by tunnelling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Under high-EF, trapping spreads towards the gate-drain access region of the AlGaN barrier causing dyn-R DS[ON] degradation, whereas under low-EF, trapping is mostly confined under the gate causing ΔV th . A trap with activation energy 0.33 eV was identified in the AlGaN barrier by I D -transient measurements. The influence of EF on trapping was also verified by Silvaco TCAD simulations

  18. N-Type self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors for flexible organic electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringk, A.; Roelofs, Christian; Smits, E.C.P.; van der Marel, C.; Salzmann, I.; Neuhold, A.; Gelinck, G.H.; Resel, R.; de Leeuw, D.M.; Strohriegl, P.

    Within this work we present n-type self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) based on a novel perylene bisimide. The molecule spontaneously forms a covalently fixed monolayer on top of an aluminium oxide dielectric via a phosphonic acid anchor group. Detailed studies revealed an

  19. Extracting the noise spectral densities parameters of JFET transistor by modeling a nuclear electronics channel response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, J.

    2009-07-01

    Mathematical model for the RMS noise of JFET transistor has been realized. Fitting the model according to the experimental results gives the noise spectral densities values. Best fitting was for the model of three noise sources and real preamplifier transfer function. After gamma irradiation, an additional and important noise sources appeared and two point defects are estimated through the fitting process. (author)

  20. Dysprosium disilicide nanostructures on silicon(001) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Gangfeng; Nogami, Jun; Crimp, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of self-assembled dysprosium silicide nanostructures on silicon(001) has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The studies focused on nanostructures that involve multiple atomic layers of the silicide. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy images and fast Fourier transform analysis showed that both hexagonal and orthorhombic/tetragonal silicide phases were present. Both the magnitude and the anisotropy of lattice mismatch between the silicide and the substrate play roles in the morphology and epitaxial growth of the nanostructures formed

  1. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mingsen [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China); Ye, Gui; Jiang, Jun, E-mail: jiangj1@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Cai, Shaohong, E-mail: caish@mail.gufe.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economic System Simulation, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, 550004 (China); Sun, Guangyu [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl)-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  2. Magnetic-Field Control Of Tunnel-Coupling In Strongly Confined One-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S. F.; Apetrii, G.; Kunze, U.; Schuh, D.; Abstreiter, G.

    2007-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ballistic electron transport is studied through stacked 1D quantum conductors separated by a thin tunneling barrier. The 1D electron systems of large 1D subband spacings (more than 10 meV) allow single mode operation. Degeneracies of 1D subbands of equal lateral mode index are lifted by the formation of symmetric and antisymmetric states and are depicted by anti-crossings of transconductance maxima. We observe a mode-dependent turnover from level anti-crossings to crossings in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  3. Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Single-Electron Tunneling Devices with Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics. Finally, we discuss prospects for simulations of larger mesoscopic systems.

  4. Improved DC performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using hafnium oxide for surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Chor, Eng Fong; Tan, Leng Seow

    2007-01-01

    Improved DC performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been demonstrated using reactive-sputtered hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) thin film as the surface passivation layer. Hall data indicate a significant increase in the product of sheet carrier concentration (n s ) and electron mobility (μ n ) in the HfO 2 -passivated HEMTs, compared to the unpassivated HEMTs. This improvement in electron carrier characteristics gives rise to a 22% higher I Dmax and an 18% higher g mmax in HEMTs with HfO 2 passivation relative to the unpassivated devices. On the other hand, I gleak of the HEMTs decreases by nearly one order of magnitude when HfO 2 passivation is applied. In addition, drain current is measured in the subthreshold regime. Compared to the unpassivated HEMTs, HfO 2 -passivated HEMTs exhibit a much smaller off-state I D , indicating better turn-off characteristics

  5. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Chi, Li-Feng, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  6. Characteristics in AlN/AlGaN/GaN Multilayer-Structured High-Electron-Mobility Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Zhou, Hu; Ling, Yang; Li-Yuan, Yang; Si, Quan; Shou-Gao, Jiang; Ji-Gang, Ma; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2010-01-01

    A new multilayer-structured AlN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) is demonstrated. The AlN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT exhibits the maximum drain current density of 800 mA/mm and the maximum extrinsic transconductance of 170 mS/mm. Due to the increase of the distance between the gate and the two-dimensional electron-gas channel, the threshold voltage shifts slightly to the negative. The reduced drain current collapse and higher breakdown voltage are observed on this AlN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT. The current gain cut-off frequency and the maximum frequency of oscillation are 18.5 GHz and 29.0 GHz, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin; Chi, Li-Feng; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process

  8. Vibrational Properties of h-BN and h-BN-Graphene Heterostructures Probed by Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suyong; Park, Minkyu; Park, Jaesung; Jeong, Tae-Young; Kim, Ho-Jong; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ha, Dong Han; Hwang, Chanyong; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2015-11-13

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating lattice dynamics of nanoscale systems including graphene and small molecules, but establishing a stable tunnel junction is considered as a major hurdle in expanding the scope of tunneling experiments. Hexagonal boron nitride is a pivotal component in two-dimensional Van der Waals heterostructures as a high-quality insulating material due to its large energy gap and chemical-mechanical stability. Here we present planar graphene/h-BN-heterostructure tunneling devices utilizing thin h-BN as a tunneling insulator. With much improved h-BN-tunneling-junction stability, we are able to probe all possible phonon modes of h-BN and graphite/graphene at Γ and K high symmetry points by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. Additionally, we observe that low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations of h-BN and graphene lattices are significantly modified at heterostructure interfaces. Equipped with an external back gate, we can also detect high-order coupling phenomena between phonons and plasmons, demonstrating that h-BN-based tunneling device is a wonderful playground for investigating electron-phonon couplings in low-dimensional systems.

  9. Revisiting the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single hydrogen atom adsorbed on the Cu(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of a single hydrogen atom on the Cu(100) surface in a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) configuration has been investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory. The electron-vibration interaction is treated at the level of lowest order expansion. Our calculations show that the single peak observed in the previous STM-IETS experiments is dominated by the perpendicular mode of the adsorbed H atom, while the parallel one only makes a negligible contribution even when the STM tip is laterally displaced from the top position of the H atom. This propensity of the IETS is deeply rooted in the symmetry of the vibrational modes and the characteristics of the conduction channel of the Cu-H-Cu tunneling junction, which is mainly composed of the 4s and 4p z atomic orbitals of the Cu apex atom and the 1s orbital of the adsorbed H atom. These findings are helpful for deepening our understanding of the propensity rules for IETS and promoting IETS as a more popular spectroscopic tool for molecular devices

  10. Large Current Modulation and Spin-Dependent Tunneling of Vertical Graphene/MoS$_{2}$ Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, Gukhyung

    2013-01-01

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermio...

  11. Molecular electronics of a single photosystem I reaction center: Studies with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I.; Lee, J.W.; Warmack, R.J.; Allison, D.P.; Greenbaum, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-14

    Thylakoids and photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy. The thylakoids were isolated from spinach chloroplasts, and PSI reaction centers were extracted from thylakoid membranes. Because thylakoids are relatively thick nonconductors, they were sputter-coated with Pd/Au before imaging. PSI photosynthetic centers and chemically platinized PSI were investigated without sputter-coating. They were mounted on flat gold substrates that had been treated with mercaptoacetic acid to help bind the proteins. With tunneling spectroscopy, the PSI centers displayed a semiconductor-like response with a band gap of 1.8 eV. Lightly platinized (platinized for 1 hr) centers displayed diode-like conduction that resulted in dramatic contrast changes between images taken with opposite bias voltages. The electronic properties of this system were stable under long-term storage. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Tunneling electron induced molecular electroluminescence from individual porphyrin J-aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qiushi; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhyangnano@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Yao; Liao, Yuan; Dong, Zhenchao, E-mail: zhyangnano@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zcdong@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-07-27

    We investigate molecular electroluminescence from individual tubular porphyrin J-aggregates on Au(111) by tunneling electron excitations in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). High-resolution STM images suggest a spiral tubular structure for the porphyrin J-aggregate with highly ordered “brickwork”-like arrangements. Such aggregated nanotube is found to behave like a self-decoupled molecular architecture and shows red-shifted electroluminescence characteristics of J-aggregates originated from the delocalized excitons. The positions of the emission peaks are found to shift slightly depending on the excitation sites, which, together with the changes in the observed spectral profiles with vibronic progressions, suggest a limited exciton coherence number within several molecules. The J-aggregate electroluminescence is also found unipolar, occurring only at negative sample voltages, which is presumably related to the junction asymmetry in the context of molecular excitations via the carrier injection mechanism.

  13. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  14. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun, E-mail: xuck@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xjun@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  15. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  16. Electronic properties of assemblies of zno quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Aarnoud Laurens

    2003-01-01

    Electron transport in an assembly of ZnO quantum dots has been studied using an electrochemically gated transistor. The electron mobility shows a step-wise increase as a function of the electron occupation per quantum dot. When the occupation number is below two, transport occurs by tunnelling

  17. Fragment-orbital tunneling currents and electronic couplings for analysis of molecular charge-transfer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn

    2018-04-04

    In theoretical charge-transfer research, calculation of the electronic coupling element is crucial for examining the degree of the electronic donor-acceptor interaction. The tunneling current (TC), representing the magnitudes and directions of electron flow, provides a way of evaluating electronic couplings, along with the ability of visualizing how electrons flow in systems. Here, we applied the TC theory to π-conjugated organic dimer systems, in the form of our fragment-orbital tunneling current (FOTC) method, which uses the frontier molecular-orbitals of system fragments as diabatic states. For a comprehensive test of FOTC, we assessed how reasonable the computed electronic couplings and the corresponding TC densities are for the hole- and electron-transfer databases HAB11 and HAB7. FOTC gave 12.5% mean relative unsigned error with regard to the high-level ab initio reference. The shown performance is comparable with that of fragment-orbital density functional theory, which gave the same error by 20.6% or 13.9% depending on the formulation. In the test of a set of nucleobase π stacks, we showed that the original TC expression is also applicable to nondegenerate cases under the condition that the overlap between the charge distributions of diabatic states is small enough to offset the energy difference. Lastly, we carried out visual analysis on the FOTC densities of thiophene dimers with different intermolecular alignments. The result depicts an intimate topological connection between the system geometry and electron flow. Our work provides quantitative and qualitative grounds for FOTC, showing it to be a versatile tool in characterization of molecular charge-transfer systems.

  18. Influence of 60Co gamma radiation on fluorine plasma treated enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Si; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Yu Hui-You

    2011-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN depletion-mode high-electron-mobility transistor (D-HEMT) and fluorine (F) plasma treated enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistor (E-HEMT) are exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation with a dose of 1.6 Mrad (Si). No degradation is observed in the performance of D-HEMT. However, the maximum transconductance of E-HEMT is increased after radiation. The 2DEG density and the mobility are calculated from the results of capacitance-voltage measurement. The electron mobility decreases after fluorine plasma treatment and recovers after radiation. Conductance measurements in a frequency range from 10 kHz to 1 MHz are used to characterize the trapping effects in the devices. A new type of trap is observed in the F plasma treated E-HEMT compared with the D-HEMT, but the density of the trap decreases by radiation. Fitting of G p /ω data yields the trap densities D T = (1 − 3) × 10 12 cm −2 · eV −1 and D T = (0.2 − 0.8) × 10 12 cm −2 · eV −1 before and after radiation, respectively. The time constant is 0.5 ms-6 ms. With F plasma treatment, the trap is introduced by etch damage and degrades the electronic mobility. After 60 Co gamma radiation, the etch damage decreases and the electron mobility is improved. The gamma radiation can recover the etch damage caused by F plasma treatment. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Temperature Dependent Electron Transport Properties of Gold Nanoparticles and Composites: Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumati; Datar, Suwarna; Dharmadhikari, C V

    2018-03-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) is used for investigating variations in electronic properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and its composite with urethane-methacrylate comb polymer (UMCP) as function of temperature. Films are prepared by drop casting AuNPs and UMCP in desired manner on silicon substrates. Samples are further analyzed for morphology under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). STS measurements performed in temperature range of 33 °C to 142 °C show systematic variation in current versus voltage (I-V) curves, exhibiting semiconducting to metallic transition/Schottky behavior for different samples, depending upon preparation method and as function of temperature. During current versus time (I-t) measurement for AuNPs, random telegraphic noise is observed at room temperature. Random switching of tunneling current between two discrete levels is observed for this sample. Power spectra derived from I-t show 1/f2 dependence. Statistical analysis of fluctuations shows exponential behavior with time width τ ≈ 7 ms. Local density of states (LDOS) plots derived from I-V curves of each sample show systematic shift in valance/conduction band edge towards/away from Fermi level, with respect to increase in temperature. Schottky emission is best fitted electron emission mechanism for all samples over certain range of bias voltage. Schottky plots are used to calculate barrier heights and temperature dependent measurements helped in measuring activation energies for electron transport in all samples.

  20. Large current modulation and tunneling magnetoresistance change by a side-gate electric field in a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaki, Toshiki; Yamasaki, Hiroki; Koyama, Tomohiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2018-05-08

    A vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin MOSFET) is a promising low-power device for the post scaling era. Here, using a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs-based vertical spin MOSFET with a GaAs channel layer, we demonstrate a large drain-source current I DS modulation by a gate-source voltage V GS with a modulation ratio up to 130%, which is the largest value that has ever been reported for vertical spin field-effect transistors thus far. We find that the electric field effect on indirect tunneling via defect states in the GaAs channel layer is responsible for the large I DS modulation. This device shows a tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio up to ~7%, which is larger than that of the planar-type spin MOSFETs, indicating that I DS can be controlled by the magnetization configuration. Furthermore, we find that the TMR ratio can be modulated by V GS . This result mainly originates from the electric field modulation of the magnetic anisotropy of the GaMnAs ferromagnetic electrodes as well as the potential modulation of the nonmagnetic semiconductor GaAs channel layer. Our findings provide important progress towards high-performance vertical spin MOSFETs.

  1. Electronic system for data acquisition to study radiation effects on operating MOSFET transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves de Oliveira, Juliano; Assis de Melo, Marco Antônio; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the development of an acquisition system for characterizing transistors under X-ray radiation. The system is able to carry out the acquisition and to storage characteristic transistor curves. To test the acquisition system we have submitted polarized P channel MOS transistors under continuous 10-keV X-ray doses up to 1500 krad. The characterization system can operate in the saturation region or in the linear region in order to observe the behavior of the currents or voltages involved during the irradiation process. Initial tests consisted of placing the device under test (DUT) in front of the X-ray beam direction, while its drain current was constantly monitored through the prototype generated in this work, the data are stored continuously and system behavior was monitored during the test. In order to observe the behavior of the DUT during the radiation tests, we used an acquisition system that consists of an ultra-low consumption16-bit Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessor. Preliminary results indicate linear behavior of the voltage as a function of the exposure time and fast recovery. These features may be favorable to use this device as a radiation dosimeter to monitor low rate X-ray

  2. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume

  3. Device Process and Circuit Application Interaction for Harsh Electronics: Hf-In-Zn-O Thin Film Transistors as an Example

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    2017-06-27

    The effects of Hf content on the radiation hardness of Hf-In-Zn-O thin-film transistors (HIZO TFTs) and HIZO TFTbased circuits are systemically examined. The evaluated circuits, including current-starved ring oscillator, energy harvesting and RF circuits are essential for space electronic systems. It is shown that HIZO TFTs with low Hf concentration have better initial performance while TFTs with high Hf concentration are more stable against radiation. On the other hand, for circuit application, the stable HIZO TFTs are not necessarily preferred for all circuits. The work demonstrates that understanding the device-circuit interactions is necessary for device optimization and circuit reliability improvements for harsh electronic systems.

  4. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    to drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial...... with respect to both transconductance and on/off ratio. We achieve high currents of up to 45mA at a temperature of 80 C with an on/ off ratio of 100 which is sufficient to drive large area organic electronics such as an EC device powered by OPV devices that we also demonstrate. Finally, we observe......We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20mmin1) roll-to-roll (R2R) flexographic printing[1] of the drain (D) and source (S) electrode structures directly on polyester foil. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by spin coating or slot-die coating...

  5. Device Process and Circuit Application Interaction for Harsh Electronics: Hf-In-Zn-O Thin Film Transistors as an Example

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lu, Chao; Kim, Soo Youn; Mungan, Selin; Yang, Shih-Guo; Zhang, Yuanzhi; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Hf content on the radiation hardness of Hf-In-Zn-O thin-film transistors (HIZO TFTs) and HIZO TFTbased circuits are systemically examined. The evaluated circuits, including current-starved ring oscillator, energy harvesting and RF circuits are essential for space electronic systems. It is shown that HIZO TFTs with low Hf concentration have better initial performance while TFTs with high Hf concentration are more stable against radiation. On the other hand, for circuit application, the stable HIZO TFTs are not necessarily preferred for all circuits. The work demonstrates that understanding the device-circuit interactions is necessary for device optimization and circuit reliability improvements for harsh electronic systems.

  6. Very high channel conductivity in low-defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiran, A. M.; Wowchak, A. M.; Osinsky, A.; Xie, J.; Hertog, B.; Cui, B.; Chow, P. P.; Look, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Low defect AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with very high values of electron mobility (>1800 cm 2 /V s) and sheet charge density (>3x10 13 cm -2 ), were grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on sapphire and SiC, resulting in sheet resistivity values down to ∼100 Ω/□ at room temperature. Fabricated 1.2 μm gate devices showed excellent current-voltage characteristics, including a zero gate saturation current density of ∼1.3 A/mm and a peak transconductance of ∼260 mS/mm. Here, an all MBE growth of optimized AlN/GaN HEMT structures plus the results of thin-film characterizations and device measurements are presented

  7. Significant performance enhancement in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor by high-κ organic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze-Gao, Wang; Yuan-Fu, Chen; Cao, Chen; Ben-Lang, Tian; Fu-Tong, Chu; Xing-Zhao, Liu; Yan-Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with and without high-κ organic dielectrics are investigated. The maximum drain current I D max and the maximum transconductance g m max of the organic dielectric/AlGaN/GaN structure can be enhanced by 74.5%, and 73.7% compared with those of the bare AlGaN/GaN HEMT, respectively. Both the threshold voltage V T and g m max of the dielectric/AlGaN/GaN HEMT are strongly dielectric-constant-dependent. Our results suggest that it is promising to significantly improve the performance of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by introducing the high-κ organic dielectric. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Study of the enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with split floating gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Ling-Li; Zhao, Hai-Yue; Lin, Xin-Peng; Yu, Hong-Yu

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the charge storage based split floating gates (FGs) enhancement mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are studied. The simulation results reveal that under certain density of two dimensional electron gas, the variation tendency of the threshold voltage (Vth) with the variation of the blocking dielectric thickness depends on the FG charge density. It is found that when the length sum and isolating spacing sum of the FGs both remain unchanged, the Vth shall decrease with the increasing FGs number but maintaining the device as E-mode. It is also reported that for the FGs HEMT, the failure of a FG will lead to the decrease of Vth as well as the increase of drain current, and the failure probability can be improved significantly with the increase of FGs number.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of V-gate AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Cao Meng-Yi; Chen Yong-He; Yang Li-Yuan; Wang Chong; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    V-gate GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) are fabricated and investigated systematically. A V-shaped recess geometry is obtained using an improved Si 3 N 4 recess etching technology. Compared with standard HEMTs, the fabricated V-gate HEMTs exhibit a 17% higher peak extrinsic transconductance due to a narrowed gate foot. Moreover, both the gate leakage and current dispersion are dramatically suppressed simultaneously, although a slight degradation of frequency response is observed. Based on a two-dimensional electric field simulation using Silvaco “ATLAS” for both standard HEMTs and V-gate HEMTs, the relaxation in peak electric field at the gate edge is identified as the predominant factor leading to the superior performance of V-gate HEMTs. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  10. Fabrication of tunnel junction-based molecular electronics and spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel junction-based molecular devices (TJMDs) are highly promising for realizing futuristic electronics and spintronics devices for advanced logic and memory operations. Under this approach, ∼2.5 nm molecular device elements bridge across the ∼2-nm thick insulator of a tunnel junction along the exposed side edge(s). This paper details the efforts and insights for producing a variety of TJMDs by resolving multiple device fabrication and characterization issues. This study specifically discusses (i) compatibility between tunnel junction test bed and molecular solutions, (ii) optimization of the exposed side edge profile and insulator thickness for enhancing the probability of molecular bridging, (iii) effect of fabrication process-induced mechanical stresses, and (iv) minimizing electrical bias-induced instability after the device fabrication. This research will benefit other researchers interested in producing TJMDs efficiently. TJMD approach offers an open platform to test virtually any combination of magnetic and nonmagnetic electrodes, and promising molecules such as single molecular magnets, porphyrin, DNA, and molecular complexes.

  11. Detecting stray microwaves and nonequilibrium quasiparticles in thin films by single-electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.

  12. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  13. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  14. Peculiarities of resonant tunneling of electrons through the triply degenerate state of a quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jermakov, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of low transparency of barriers, tunneling of electrons through a double barrier system with account their Coulomb interaction in the inter barrier space (quantum well) is considered. The quantum state of the well is supposed to be triply degenerated. It was shown that the dependence of quantum well accupation on the applied bias has a step like character at low temperatures, and there is a threshold value in the region of small applied bias. These properties can be explained by splitting of states in the well due to the electron interaction. The considered system also has bistability properties. This is due to the possibility for electrons to occupy upper levels in the well while lower levels remain empty. Charge fluctuations in the well are also discussed

  15. Proximity effect and hot-electron diffusion in Ag/Al2O3/Al tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netel, H.; Jochum, J.; Labov, S.E.; Mears, C.A.; Frank, M.; Chow, D.; Lindeman, M.A.; Hiller, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated Ag/Al 2 O 3 /Al tunnel junctions on Si substrates using a new process. This process was developed to fabricate superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) on the surface of a superconductor. These junctions allow us to study the proximity effect of a superconducting Al film on a normal metal trapping layer. In addition, these devices allow us to measure the hot-electron diffusion constant using a single junction. Lastly these devices will help us optimize the design and fabrication of tunnel junctions on the surface of high-Z, ultra-pure superconducting crystals. 5 refs., 8 figs

  16. Transport of electrons in the tunnel of an ion sensitive probe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komm, Michael; Adámek, Jiří; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gunn, J. P.; Pekárek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2011), 015005-015005 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA MŠk 7G09042; GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * plasma * katsumata probe * ExB drift * ion temperature * tunnel * electron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/1/015005/pdf/0741-3335_53_1_015005.pdf

  17. A hybrid instrument combining electronic and photonic tunnelling for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechou, R.; Ajustron, F.; Seine, G.; Coratger, R.; Maurel, C.; Beauvillain, J.

    2004-01-01

    A PSTM working in the collection mode and based on an STM probe-sample regulation scheme has been developed. This original hybrid instrument for surface analysis uses apertureless metal-coated chemically etched optical fibres. The use of an electronic tunnelling-based feedback loop significantly reduces tip-sample distance and leads to the collection of a high level near-field optical (NFO) signal. A simple amplified photodiode is thus used to perform optical signal acquisition and to draw electromagnetic field maps of sample surfaces. Experimental results on nanostructured gold surfaces are presented

  18. Electron tunneling into superconducting indium and lead films containing the magnetic impurity manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Tunneling measurements of quench-condensed In-Mn and Pb-Mn alloy films were made. The results were compared with Shiba's theory of superconductors containing magnetic impurities. The localized excited impurity states predicted by Shiba's theory were observed in both alloys. In addition to s-wave scattering, it was necessary to include p- and d-wave scattering of the conduction electrons in the theory in order to explain the experimental data. Partial agreement between the theory and the experimental data was obtained using phase shifts from band calculations by A.B. Kunz. The results on In-Mn also agree with thermal conductivity data

  19. Electron-tunneling observation of localized excited states in superconducting manganese-doped lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, J.; Ginsberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    We have made electron-tunneling measurements on a dilute, superconducting lead-manganese alloy. A well-defined structure was observed in the ac-conductance--voltage curves, indicating excited states within the BCS energy gap. These states were partially accounted for by Shiba theory when spin-dependent s-, p-, and d-wave scattering were included. The phase shifts used in doing that were the results of band calculations. The experimental data also show the existence of a broad background density of states in the energy gap, which cannot be accounted for by the theory

  20. Exploring the Tilt-Angle Dependence of electron tunneling across Molecular junction of Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Munuera, C.; Ocal, C.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic transport mechanisms in molecular junctions are investigated by a combination of first-principles calculations and current−voltage measurements of several well-characterized structures. We study self-assembled layers of alkanethiols grown on Au(111) and form tunnel junctions...... for the longer molecular chains. Our calculations confirm the observed trends and explain them as a result of two mechanisms, namely, a previously proposed intermolecular tunneling enhancement as well as a hitherto overlooked tilt-dependent molecular gate effect....