WorldWideScience

Sample records for electron proton scattering

  1. ELECTRON SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS ON THE NEUTRON AND PROTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelman, Karl

    1963-06-15

    The electric and magnetic helicity form factors of the proton are measured at 4-momentum transfers (squared) of 25 to 45 f/sup -2/, by means of electron scattering by protons at high energies. The results are combined with other e/sup -/--p and e/sup -/--d experimental findings in order to show the proton form fuctors from 0 to 45 f/sup -2/ and the neutron form factors from 0 to 25 f/sup -2/. (T.F.H.)

  2. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M, where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O(E/M) 2 , we obtain a prediction for A n that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering

  3. Selectron production in quasi-elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Hollik, W.

    1985-08-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of selectrons in quasi-elastic electron proton scattering at HERA energies. In the region of very small momentum transfer the cross section turns out to be large: e.g. sigma=36 pb for a selectron mass of 60 GeV, tsub(min) 2 ), and photino mass small compared to the selectron mass. Together with the clean experimental signature, this large cross section makes the reaction e+P->e+γ tilde+P one of the most promising HERA-processes in connection with the search for supersymmetric particles. (orig.)

  4. Parity Violation in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, IV, Grady Wilson [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from the proton at Jefferson Laboratory. The kinematic point (θlab = 12.3 deg. and (Q2) = 0.48 (GeV/c)2) is chosen to provide sensitivity to the strange electric form factor GsE. A 3.36 GeV beam of longitudinally polarized electrons was scattered from protons in a liquid hydrogen target. The scattered flux was detected by a pair of spectrometers which focussed the elastically-scattered electrons onto total-absorption detectors. The detector signals were integrated and digitized by a custom data acquisition system. A feedback system reduced systematic errors by controlling helicity-correlated beam intensity differences at the sub-ppm (part per million) level. The experimental result, A = 14.5 +/- 2.0 (stat) ± 1.1 (syst) ppm, is consistent with the electroweak Standard Model with no additional contributions from strange quarks. In particular, the measurement implies GSE + 0.39 GsM = 0.023 ± 0.040 ± 0.026 (ζGnE), where the last uncertainty is due to the estimated uncertainty in the neutron electric form factor GnE . This result represents the first experimental constraint of the strange electric form factor.

  5. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Donald C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton QpW via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be pW = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of pW(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].

  6. Parity Violation in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering and the Proton's Strange Magnetic Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spayde, D. T.; Averett, T.; Barkhuff, D.; Beck, D. H.; Beise, E. J.; Benson, C.; Breuer, H.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; DelCorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron scattering from the proton at backward scattering angles. This asymmetry is sensitive to the strange magnetic form factor of the proton as well as electroweak axial radiative corrections. The new measurement of A=-4.92±0.61±0.73 ppm provides a significant constraint on these quantities. The implications for the strange magnetic form factor are discussed in the context of theoretical estimates for the axial corrections. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Highlights of electron-proton deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltesse, J.

    1996-02-01

    Salient results on deep inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are reviewed. These include preliminary measurements of the proton structure function F 2 extending to new regimes at both high Q 2 and low Q 2 and x, studies of the hadronic final states and discussion on QCD interpretations of low x data. New determination of α s from jet rates in deep inelastic scattering based on 1994 data are presented. A consistent picture of the gluon density in the proton at low x from a variety of processes is obtained. (author)

  8. On the proton exchange contribution to electron-hydrogen atom elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Tort, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    It is shown that the exchange contribution to the electron-proton potential Born term in elastic electron-hydrogen atom scattering arises as the non relativistic limit from the exchange of a proton between the two participant electrons - calculated from quantum electrodynamics including properly bound states (as solution of Bethe - Salpeter equation). (Author) [pt

  9. Enhancement of the incoherent scattering plasma lines due to precipitating protons and secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernaa, N.; Havnes, O.; Jensen, J.O.; Trulsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitating protons in the energy range 1-100 keV are regularly present in the auroral ionosphere. These protons will produce enhancements in the intensity of the upshifted plasma line of the incoherently scattered spectrum. Similarly, secondary electrons produced by the precipitating protons give rise to enhanced plasma line intensities. For a quantitative discussion of these effects an experimentally measured proton flux is adapted and the corresponding secondary electron flux calculated. These particle fluxes are then applied in connection with the EISCAT radar facility. Both fluxes give rise to enhancements of the order of 20. It is possible to separate between proton and electron contributions to the enhanced plasma lines for scattering heights above the source region of secondary electrons. (Auth.)

  10. Structure functions and final-state properties in deeply inelastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharraziha, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, we give a description of the detailed structure of the proton and a description of the final-state properties in electron-proton scattering. Qualitative results, in a purely gluonic scenario with the leading log approximation, and quantitative results, where quarks are included and some sub-leading corrections have been made, are presented. The quantitative results are in fair agreement with available experimental data and a Monte Carlo event generator for electron-proton scattering is presented. Further, a computer program for calculating QCD colour factors is presented

  11. Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, Jean

    1965-02-01

    This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr

  12. Proton and neutron densities from elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic electron scattering has now determined extremely fine details of the shape of the nuclear groound state. The combination of (e,e) and muonic X-rays data are giving informations that are among the most precise on nuclear structure. This enables to see all the limitations of existing theories. However, we begin to have a very coherent description of nuclei with the self consistent field theories to a few percent. A very significant progress has been achieved with the calculations of RPA correlations in the round state in a self consistent way. Only recent experiments (on medium and heavy nuclei) of some significance for the understanding of the structure of the nucleus are reviewed

  13. On the determination of the proton RMS-radius from electron scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, F.; Simon, G.G.; Walther, V.H.; Wendling, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the proton rms radius should be determined from fiting a polynomial of second order to the low-q 2 form factors. The commonly used polynomial of first yields radius values which are too small. The proton rms radius has been redetermined from an analysis of the electron scattering data measured at three laboratories. The best fit value is [r 2 sub(E)]sup(1/2) = 0.87 +- 0.02 fm. (orig.) [de

  14. Large Logarithms in the Beam Normal Spin Asymmetry of Elastic Electron--Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanasev; Mykola Merenkov

    2004-06-01

    We study a parity-conserving single-spin beam asymmetry of elastic electron-proton scattering induced by an absorptive part of the two-photon exchange amplitude. It is demonstrated that excitation of inelastic hadronic intermediate states by the consecutive exchange of two photons leads to logarithmic and double-logarithmic enhancement due to contributions of hard collinear quasi-real photons. The asymmetry at small electron scattering angles is expressed in terms of the total photoproduction cross section on the proton, and is predicted to reach the magnitude of 20-30 parts per million. At these conditions and fixed 4-momentum transfers, the asymmetry is rising logarithmically with increasing electron beam energy, following the high-energy diffractive behavior of total photoproduction cross section on the proton.

  15. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gorchtein; P.A.M. Guichon; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  16. Normal Spin Asymmetries in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the two-photon exchange contribution to observables which involve lepton helicity flip in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. This contribution is accessed through the single spin asymmetry for a lepton beam polarized normal to the scattering plane. We estimate this beam normal spin asymmetry at large momentum transfer using a parton model and we express the corresponding amplitude in terms of generalized parton distributions. We further discuss this observable in the quasi-RCS kinematics which may be dominant at certain kinematical conditions and find it to be governed by the photon helicity-flip RCS amplitudes

  17. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peña, C.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GEp, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GEp from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ɛ ) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ɛ at Q2=1.45 GeV2 . This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2 - 3 GeV2 .

  18. The SAMPLE experiment: Parity-violating electron scattering from the proton and deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, M.; Arrington, J.; Beck, D.; Beise, E.; Candell, E.; Cardman, L.; Carr, R.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Duncan, F.; Farkhondeh, M.; Filippone, B.; Forest, T.; Gao, H.; Korsch, W.; Kowalski, S.; Lung, A.; McKeown, R.; Mohring, R.; Mueller, B.; Napolitano, J.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.; Witkowski, M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence on nucleon structure has provided indications that some strange quark matrix elements can be comparable to those involving up and down quarks. The SAMPLE experiment will determine the strange magnetic form factor G s M at Q 2 =0.1 (GeV/c) 2 from a measurement of the asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from the proton. The error on the extraction of G s M is ultimately limited by a theoretical uncertainty---the uncertain electroweak hadronic radiative correction to the axial form factor, R T=1 A . To address this issue, the collaboration is also approved to measure the asymmetry in parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron. The combination of the proton and deuteron measurements will yield a value of G s M that is almost completely free of the uncertainty in R T=1 A

  19. Transverse Beam Spin Asymmetries in Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Robert Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; Charles Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; Richard HASTY; Alice Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; Jianglai Liu; Berenice Loupias; Allison Lung; Dominique Marchand; Jeffery Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; David McKee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vince Sulkosky; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Glen Warren; Steven Wells; Steven Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2007-08-01

    We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely-polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q^2 values of 0.15 and 0.25 (GeV/c)^2 with results of A_n = -4.06 +- 0.99(stat) +- 0.63(syst) and A_n = -4.82 +- 1.87(stat) +- 0.98(syst) ppm. These results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state, and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A_n provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the two-photon exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.

  20. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  1. Measurements of sin2 θ/sub w/ from studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This talk is intended as a brief report on studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons. Measurements of the ratios of muon antineutrino and muon neutrino elastic scattering on protons, and the corresponding ratio for elastic scattering on electrons minimize systematic experimental errors, and lead directly to values of the fundamental parameter of the electroweak interaction, the Weinberg Angle, with minimal ambiguity. Accordingly, the principal motivation in carrying out these studies was the desire to obtain and compare precise values of the Weinberg Angle from both the semileptonic and leptonic reactions as still another test of the basic validity of the standard electroweak theory. 10 refs., 11 figs

  2. First observation of neutral current proton electron scattering at √s = 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    1993-02-01

    Neutral current proton electron scattering at center of mass energy 295 GeV was observed for the first time, using the newly built proton electron collider HERA (Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage) and the general purpose detector ZEUS. The distributions of Q 2 , Bjorken-x(x) and Bjorken-y(y) were compared with the expectation based on the standard electroweak theory and QCD. Regarding the investigation of high-Q 2 region, an event of Q 2 ∼ 1000 GeV 2 was observed for the first time. From the x-distribution of the events, a limit on the mass and the coupling of an exotic s-channel resonance of a quark-lepton system (leptoquark) was obtained. The mass limit is 72 GeV(97 GeV) at 95% confidence level for a scalar type leptoquark with a left-handed (right-handed) electromagnetic coupling to ordinary leptons. The leptoquark is assumed to be weak-isoscalar. To realize this experiment a uranium scintillator sandwich type calorimeter was developed. Equal response to electrons and hadrons (e/h = 1), which is essential for the good energy resolution for hadrons, has been achieved. One of the main characteristics of this calorimeter is a possibility of calibration utilizing of its own uranium radioactivity. The grain variation of each channel can be detected with an accuracy of ± 1 %. (J.P.N.) 65 refs

  3. Exclusive ρ0 production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-07-01

    The exclusive production of ρ 0 mesons in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector. Cross sections have been measured in the range 7 2 2 for γ*p centre of mass (c.m.) energies from 40 to 130 GeV. The γ*p→ρ 0 p cross section exhibits a Q -(4.2±0.8 -0.5 +1.4 ) dependence and both longitudinally and transversely polarised ρ 0 's are observed. The γ*p→ρ 0 p0 cross section rises strongly with increasing c.m. energy, when compared with NMC data at lower energy, which cannot be explained by production through soft pomeron exchange. The data are compared with perturbative QCD calculations where the rise in the cross section reflects the increase in the gluon density at low x. (orig.)

  4. One- and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Botha, N.T.; Burda, O.; Carter, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fransen, C.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Scholten, O.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.; Wambach, J.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states of the nucleus 94 Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2 + states is extracted

  5. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; R. Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; C. Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; R. Hasty; A. Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; J. Liu; Berenice Loupias; A. Lung; Glen MacLachlan; Dominique Marchand; J.W. Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; Daniella Mckee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Melissa Nakos; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; G.R. Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; G. Warren; S.P. Wells; Steven Williamson; S.A. Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2005-06-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q{sup 2} dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  6. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  7. MUSE: Measuring the proton radius with muon-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The proton radius has been measured so far using electron-proton scattering, electronic Hydrogen spectroscopy and muonic Hydrogen spectroscopy, the latter producing a much more accurate, but seven sigma different, result, leading to the now famous proton radius puzzle. The MUSE collaboration aims to complete the set of measurements by using muon scattering to determine the proton radius and to shed light on possible explanations of the discrepancy. The talk gives an overview of the experiment motivation and design and a status report on the progress.

  8. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  9. On the necessity of taking into account the contribution of multiphoton exchanges into electron-proton deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savrin, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that the multiphoton exchanges give a substantial contribution to the electron-proton inclusive scattering is formulated. The hypothesis explains the observed violation of the Bjorken scaling law. As it is shown, the mechanism of such intensification of multiple exchanges may by connected with the properties of the processes of hadron multiproduction in the deep inelastic field. This results in the necessity to calculate the inclusive cross section in all electromagnetic coupling constant orders. This has been done in the framework of the density matrix method. As a result the deep inelastic scattering cross section calculated without application of the perturbation theory reveals a new property of the scaling invariance and leads to the natural relationship of structural functions with electromagnetic proton form-factors on the exclusive threshold

  10. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  11. Beam-Beam Interaction, Electron Cloud and Intrabeam Scattering for Proton Super-bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, Giovanni; Papaphilippou, Y

    2003-01-01

    Super-bunches are long bunches with a flat longitudinal profile, which could potentially increase the LHC luminosity in a future upgrade. We present example parameters and discuss a variety of issues related to such superbunches, including beam-beam tune shift, tune footprints, crossing schemes, luminosity, intrabeam scattering, and electron cloud. We highlight the benefits, disadvantages and open questions.

  12. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  13. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardillier, Johann

    1999-01-01

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q 2 = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 , a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 ± 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  14. Parity-Violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Axial Vector Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at the backward angles at electron beam energy of 125 MeV [Q 2 =0.038 (GeV/c) 2 ]. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon. In addition to the tree level amplitude associated with Z-exchange, the neutral weak axial vector form factor as measured in electron scattering can potentially receive large electroweak corrections, including the anapole moment, that are absent in neutrino scattering. The measured asymmetry A -3.51 ± 0.57 (stat) ± 0.58 (sys) ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at 200 MeV [Q 2 = 0.091 (GeV/c) 2 ] on a deuterium target. The updated results are also consistent with theoretical predictions on the neutral weal axial vector form factor

  15. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  16. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  17. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.; LeRose, J.; Liang, M.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Liyanage, N.; Rutt, P.; Saha, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Chang, T.H.; Holt, R. J.; Nathan, A. M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Wijesooriya, K.; Williamson, S. E.; Dodge, G.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Radyushkin, A.; Sabatie, F.; Weinstein, L. B.; Ulmer, P.; Bosted, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Jiang, X.; Ransome, R.; Strauch, S.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Fonvielle, H.; Roblin, Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Gilad, S.; Rowntree, D.; Zu, Z.; Brown, D.; Chang, G.; Afanasev, A.; Egiyan, K.; Hoohauneysan, E.; Ketikyan, A.; Mailyan, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Hines, J.; Strobel, G.; Templon, J.; Feldman, G.; Morris, C. L.; Gladyshev, V.; Lindgren, R. A.; Calarco, J.; Hersman, W.; Leuschner, M.; Gasparian, A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same nonforward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer; currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supercedes E97-108 which was approved by PAC13

  18. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Q-Weak Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ., Nuruzzaman [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system

  19. A 3% Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Qweak Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyawansa, Dinayadura Buddhini [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. Moreover, it is a potential source of false asymmetry in parity violating electron scattering experiments. The Q{sub weak} experiment uses parity violating electron scattering to make a direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton. The targeted 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton probes for parity violating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The beam normal single spin asymmetry at Q{sub weak} kinematics is at least three orders of magnitude larger than 5 ppb precision of the parity violating asymmetry. To better understand this parity conserving background, the Q{sub weak} Collaboration has performed elastic scattering measurements with fully transversely polarized electron beam on the proton and aluminum. This dissertation presents the analysis of the 3% measurement (1.3% statistical and 2.6% systematic) of beam normal single spin asymmetry in electronproton scattering at a Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. It is the most precise existing measurement of beam normal single spin asymmetry available at the time. A measurement of this precision helps to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process.

  20. Analyses of electron and proton scattering to low excitation isoscalar states in 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Bauhoff, W.

    1983-01-01

    Intermediate energy inelastic proton scattering differential cross section and polarization data from the 2 1 + states in 24 Mg and 28 Si and from the 4 1 + states in 28 Si have been analysed using the Distorted Wave Approximation with large basis models of nuclear structure. These structure models were tested by use in analyses of the longitudinal form factors obtained from inelastic electron scattering, so that analyses of the intermediate energy (p,p') data from the same transitions are then sensitive tests of the two-nucleon t-matrix. Data from these and other 2 1 + transitions in 12 C and 20 Ne at 49 MeV (24 MeV in the case of 20 Ne), were also analysed to compare models of t-matrices at lower energies. An ancilliary study of the momentum transfer dependence of effective charges has been made as both s-d shell and large basis structure models have been used to compare with form factor data up to momentum transfers of 2.5 fm -1 . The deduced momentum dependence of the effective charges is significant

  1. Virtual Compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.

    1996-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction off protons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are photon discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (orig.)

  2. Exclusive $\\varrho^{0}$ production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Grothe, M; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Pfeiffer, M; Rembser, C; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Capua, M; Garfagnini, A; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Iga, Y; Johnson, K; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Mainusch, J; Manczak, O; Monteiro, T; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Brümmer, N; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Fernández, J P; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Martínez, M; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Tickner, J R; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Waters, D S; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Schwarzer, O; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections for events with a large rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction from the reaction ep \\rightarrow jet \\; + \\; X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector. The cross sections refer to jets with transverse energies E_T^{jet}>8~GeV. The data show the characteristics of a diffractive process mediated by pomeron exchange. Assuming that the events are due to the exchange of a pomeron with partonic structure the qith, W H02

  3. Two-Photon Exchange Effects in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Myriam James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Two methods, Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer, can be used to extract the proton form factor ratio μp GEp/GMp, but they do not yield the same results. It is thought that the disagreement is due to two photon exchange corrections to the differential cross sections. High precision proton Rosenbluth extractions were carried out at 102 kinematics points spanning 16 values of momentum transfer Q2, from 0.40 to 5.76 GeV2. Reduced cross sections were found to 1.1% or better for Q2 less than 3 GeV2 increasing to 4% at 5.76 GeV2 The form factor ratios were determined to 1:5-3% for Q2 < 1.5 GeV2, increasing to 9% by 3 GeV2 and rapidly above. Our data agrees with prior Rosenbluth, improving upon it the 1.0 - 2.0 GeV2 range to conclusively show a separation from polarization transfer where it had not been certain before. In addition, reduced cross sections at each Q2 were tested for nonlinearity in the angular variable. Such a departure from linearity would be a signature of two photon exchange effects, and prior data had not been sufficiently precise to show nonzero curvature. Our data begins to hint at negative curvature but does not yet show a significant departure from zero.

  4. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering; Mesure des facteurs de forme etranges du nucleon par asymetrie de violation de parite dans la diffusion elastique electron polarise-proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardillier, Johann [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1999-09-21

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q{sup 2} = 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}, a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 {+-} 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  5. Inelastic proton scattering at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the most essential characteristics of the nucleon-nucleon interaction for probing nuclear structure at bombarding energies between 100 and 800 MeV are considered. With a local representation of the on-shell N-N t-matrix, data for a variety of specific transitions at IUCF and LAMPF energies are discussed with an emphasis on the nuclear structure information sampled by proton scattering. The importance of incorporating constraints on nuclear structure imposed by electron scattering is stressed. Some rather unique aspects of the (p,n) reaction at intermediate energies are discussed in terms of its energy dependence and nuclear structure sum rules. 11 figures

  6. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  7. Neutrino proton scattering and the isosinglet term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Elastic neutrino proton scattering is sensitive to the SU(3) axial isosinglet term which is in turn dependent on the strangeness content of the proton. The uncertainties in the analysis of a neutrino proton elastic scattering experiment are discussed, and an experiment which is insensitive to many of the difficulties of the previous experiment is described

  8. Current-current interaction picture for proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.J.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose that color current - color current interaction is reponsible for small angle elastic proton proton scattering at asymptotic energy. Excellent fits are obtained for all data above 12 GeV/c which covers twelve orders of magnitude

  9. Phenomenological extraction of two-photon exchange amplitudes from elastic electron-proton scattering cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The inconsistency in the results obtained from the Rosenbluth separation method and the high-Q2 recoil polarization results on the ratio μpGEp/GMp implies a systematic difference between the two techniques. Several studies suggest that missing higher-order radiative corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering cross section σR(ɛ ,Q2) and in particular hard two-photon-exchange (TPE) contributions could account for the discrepancy. Purpose: In this work, I improve on and extend to low and high Q2 values the extractions of the ɛ dependence of the real parts of the TPE amplitudes relative to the magnetic form factor, as well as the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) by using world data on σR(ɛ ,Q2) with an emphasis on precise new data covering the low-momentum region which is sensitive to the large-scale structure of the nucleon. Method: I combine cross section and polarization measurements of elastic electron-proton scattering to extract the TPE amplitudes. Because the recoil polarization data were confirmed "experimentally" to be essentially independent of ɛ , I constrain the ratio Pt/Pl(ɛ ,Q2) to its ɛ -independent term (Born value) by setting the TPE contributions to zero. This allows for the amplitude YM(ɛ ,Q2) and σR(ɛ ,Q2) to be expressed in terms of the remaining two amplitudes YE(ɛ ,Q2) and Y3(ɛ ,Q2) which in turn are parametrized as second-order polynomials in ɛ and Q2 to reserve as possible the linearity of σR(ɛ ,Q2) as well as to account for possible nonlinearities in the TPE amplitudes. Furthermore, I impose the Regge limit which ensures the vanishing of the TPE contributions to σR(ɛ ,Q2) and the TPE amplitudes in the limit ɛ →1 . Results: I provide simple parametrizations of the TPE amplitudes, along with an estimate of the fit uncertainties. The extracted TPE amplitudes are compared with previous phenomenological extractions and TPE calculations. The Pl/PlBorn ratio is extracted by using the new parametrizations of the TPE

  10. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  11. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  12. Empirical parametrization of the two-photon-exchange effect contributions to the electron-proton elastic scattering cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qattan, I. A.; Alsaad, A.

    2011-01-01

    The most recent electron-proton elastic scattering data were re-analyzed using an empirical parametrization of the two-photon-exchange (TPE) effect contributions to σ R . The TPE effect contribution F(Q 2 ,ε) was double Taylor series expanded as a polynomial of order n keeping only terms linear in ε to account for the experimentally observed and verified linearity of the Rosenbluth plots. We fix the ratio R=G Ep /G Mp to be that obtained from a fit to the recoil-polarization data and parametrize σ R first by a three-parameter formula (fit I) and then by a two-parameter formula (fit III). In contrast to previous analyses, the fit parameter G Mp 2 as obtained from these fits is either smaller or equal to the values obtained from our conventional Rosenbluth fit (fit II) but never larger. The ratio g(Q 2 )/G Mp 2 which represents the ratio of the TPE and one-photon-exchange (OPE) effect contributions to the intercept of σ R is large and it ranges 3%-88%. The ratio R 1γx2γ =τf(Q 2 )/G Ep 2 which represents the ratio of the TPE and OPE effect contributions to the slope of σ R is also large, reaching a value of 12.0-14.4 at Q 2 = 5.25 (GeV/c) 2 . The ratio R 1γx2γ as obtained from fits I and III is consistent, within error, with those obtained from previous analyses. Our formulas seem to explain the linearity of σ R . Moreover, our analysis shows that the extracted G Ep 2 and G Mp 2 using the conventional Rosenbluth separation method can in fact be broken into the usual OPE and TPE contributions. Therefore, σ R can in fact be derived under weaker conditions than those imposed by the Born approximation. Our results show that the TPE amplitudes, g(Q 2 )/G Mp 2 and f(Q 2 )/G Mp 2 , are sizable and grow with Q 2 value up to Q 2 ∼6 (GeV/c) 2 in agreement with previous studies. A revision of and comparison to previous analyses are also presented.

  13. Proton scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, A.; Layly, V.; Schaeffer, R.

    1977-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of the most recent Saclay data of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on nuclei at incident energies around 1GeV ( 16 O, the Ca isotopes, the Ni isotopes, 90 Zr and 208 Pb). Various theories (Impulse or Glauber approximation) are comapred. It is shown that the reaction mechanism is very well understood at 1GeV and that, at these energies, absorption and distortion is small enough, so one can extract nuclear densities from the experiment. In particular, the shape of the neutron densities is given, and compared to the Hartree-Fock predictions. The uncertainties, especially in the determination of the neutron radii are discussed [fr

  14. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  15. A Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton through Parity Violating Electron Scattering using the Qweak Apparatus: A 21% Result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    After a decade of preparations, the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is making the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q^p_W. This quantity is suppressed in the Standard Model making a good candidate for search for new physics beyond the SM at the TeV scale. Operationally, we measure a small (about -0.200 ppm) parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering in integrating mode while flipping the helicity of the electrons 1000 times per second. Commissioning took place Fall 2010, and we finished taking data in early summer 2012. This dissertation is based on the data taken on an initial two weeks period (Wien0). It will provide an overview of the Qweak apparatus, description of the data acquisition and analysis software systems, and final analysis and results from the Wien0 data set. The result is a 16% measurement of the parity violating electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A = -0.2788 +/- 0.0348 (stat.) +/- 0.0290 (syst.) ppm at Q^2 = 0.0250 +/- 0.0006 (GeV)^2. From this a 21% measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q_w^p(msr)= +0.0952 +/- 0.0155 (stat.) +/- 0.0131 (syst.) +/- 0.0015 (theory) is extracted. From this a 2% measurement of the weak mixing angle, sin^2theta_W(msr)= +0.2328 +/- 0.0039 (stat.) +/- 0.0033 (syst.) +/- 0.0004 (theory) and improved constraints on isoscalar/isovector effective coupling constants of the weak neutral hadronic currents are extracted. These results deviate from the Standard Model by one standard deviation. The Wien0 results are a proof of principle of the Qweak data analysis and a highlight of the road ahead for obtaining full results.

  16. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G E s and G M s ) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q 2 values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c) 2 , respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G E s and G M s at the higher of these Q 2 values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the γ background coming from the decay of π 0 mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to γ conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the background as proposed in this work was combined with the previous A4

  17. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  18. Parity violating asymmetries in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, E.; Marciano, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss parity violating asymmetries between the scattering of right and left-handed electrons on a variety of targets. Implications for gauge theories from recent SLAC results on deep-inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-proton scattering are examined. A derivation of the asymmetry for electron-electron scattering is given, its advantages are pointed out, and the feasibility of such a measurement is discussed. Other proposed or contemplated asymmetry experiments are reviewed and the necessity of including the Collins-Wilczek-Zee hadronic axial isoscalar current contribution in asymmetry predictions is noted

  19. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, P; Schuermann, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Guichon, P A.M. [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee

    1995-06-28

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Virtual compton scattering off protons at moderately large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, P.; Schuermann, M.; Guichon, P.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes for virtual Compton scattering off protons are calculated within the framework of the diquark model in which protons are viewed as being built up by quarks and diquarks. The latter objects are treated as quasi-elementary constituents of the proton. Virtual Compton scattering, electroproduction of photons and the Bethe-Heitler contamination are discussed for various kinematical situations. We particularly emphasize the role of the electron asymmetry for measuring the relative phases between the virtual Compton and the Bethe-Heitler amplitudes. It is also shown that the model is able to describe very well the experimental data for real Compton scattering off protons. (authors). 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Neutron scattering from polarised proton domains

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brandt, B; Kohbrecher, J; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Glattli, H; Leymarie, E; Grillo, I; May, R P; Jouve, H; Stuhrmann, H B; Stuhrmann, H B; Zimmer, O

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent small-angle polarised neutron scattering from domains of polarised protons has been observed at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarisation in a frozen solution of 98% deuterated glycerol-water at 1 K containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres (EHBA-Cr sup V). Simultaneous NMR measurements show that the observed scattering arises from protons around the Cr sup V -ions which are polarised to approx 10% in a few seconds, much faster than the protons in the bulk. (authors)

  2. High-energy proton scattering on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K

    1973-01-01

    High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).

  3. Proton-proton elastic scattering measurements at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    To construct the reliable phase shift analysis (PSA) that can successfully describe the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction it is necessary to measure variety of experimental observables for both proton-proton (pp) and neutron-proton (np) elastic scattering. The polarized beams and targets at COSY-ANKE facility allow a substantial contribution to the existing database. The experiment was carried out in April 2013 at ANKE using a transversely polarized proton beam incident on an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target. Six beam energies of T{sub p}=0.8,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2,2.4 GeV were used. The aim of this talk is to present the preliminary results for the analyzing power (A{sub y}) for the pp elastic scattering in the so-far unexplored 5 <θ{sub cm}<30 angular range. Our measurements are also compared to the world data and current partial wave solutions.

  4. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model. (author)

  5. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model.

  6. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  7. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  8. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  9. Deep-inelastic electron-proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Recent measurements by the H1 collaboration at HERA of the cross section for deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering in which the proton interacts with minimal energy transfer and limited 4-momentum transfer squared are presented in the form of the contribution F 2 D(3) to the proton structure function F 2 . By parametrising the cross section phenomenologically in terms of a leading effective Regge pole exchange and comparing the result with a similar parametrisation of hadronic pp physics, the proton interaction is demonstrated to be dominantly of a diffractive nature. The quantitative interpretation of the parametrisation in terms of the properties of an effective leading Regge pole exchange, the pomeron (IP), shows that there is no evidence for a 'harder' BFKL-motivated IP in such deep-inelastic proton diffraction. The total contribution of proton diffraction to deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering is measured to be ∝10% and to be rather insensitive to Bjorken-x and Q 2 . A first measurement of the partonic structure of diffractive exchange is presented. It is shown to be readily interpreted in terms of the exchange of gluons, and to suggest that the bulk of diffractive momentum transfer is carried by a leading gluon. (orig.)

  10. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  11. Intermediate energy proton scattering from 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.R.; Shute, G.G.; Spicer, R.S.; Henderson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for 200 MeV proton scattering from 10 B. Data for six low lying natural parity levels below 6 MeV excitation energy are presented. Distorted wave analysis using a density dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction has assessed model spectroscopies of these excited states. The significance of the contribution from quadrupole scattering to the elastic cross section is discussed. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs

  12. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  13. Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1964-12-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr

  14. Proton compton scattering in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takanobu.

    1979-12-01

    Differential cross sections of the proton Compton scattering have been measured in the energy range between 400 and 1150 MeV at CMS angles of 130 0 , 100 0 and 70 0 . The recoil proton was detected with a magnetic spectrometer using multi-wire proportional chambers and wire spark chambers. In coincidence with the proton, the scattered photon was detected with a lead glass Cerenkov counter of the total absorption type with a lead plate converter, and horizontal and vertical scintillation counter hodoscopes. The background due to the neutral pion photoproduction, was subtracted by using the kinematic relations between the scattered photon and the recoil proton. Theoretical calculations based on an isobar model with two components, that is, the resonance plus background, were done, and the photon couplings of the second resonance region were determined firstly from the proton Compton data. The results are that the helicity 1/2 photon couplings of P 11 (1470) and S 11 (1535), and the helicity 3/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) are consistent with those determined from the single pion photoproduction data, but the helicity 1/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) has a somewhat larger value than that from the single pion photoproduction data. (author)

  15. High energy proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is restricted to an overall global criticism of what has been produced, experimentally and theoretically, during the past ten years, concerning elastic proton scattering at intermediate energy: theoretical models and approximations, phenomenological analysis, criticisms and suggestions on experimental methods

  16. Radiative pion-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho-Kim, Q.; Lavine, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a non-relativistic calculation of the π +- proton bremsstrahlung cross section at the pion kinetic energy of 298 MeV for backward photon angles. The pion-nucleon interaction is given by models that are based on the p-wave Chew-Low theory. An interaction current is included in an attempt to make the overall bremsstrahlung amplitude gauge-invariant. The predicted cross sections show little of the expected resonance, and are in fair agreement with the data. The authors have also calculated the cross sections at other kinetic energies, and have studied effects of the off-mass-shell electromagnetic vertex. (Auth.)

  17. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  18. Parity Non-Conservation in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, V.R.; B.F. Gibson; J.A. Carlson; R. Schiavilla

    2002-01-01

    The parity non-conserving longitudinal asymmetry in proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering is calculated in the lab-energy range 0-350 MeV using contemporary, realistic strong-interaction potentials combined with a weak-interaction potential comprised of rho- and omega-meson exchanges as exemplified by the DDH model. Values for the rho- and omega-meson coupling constants, h rho rho rho and h rho rho omega , are determined from comparison with the measured asymmetries at 13.6 MeV, 45 MeV, and 221 MeV

  19. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles; Untergrundstudien zur Messung der Strangeness-Vektorfaktoren des Protons durch paritaetsverletzende Elektronenstreuung unter Rueckwaertswinkeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-08-19

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c){sup 2}, respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at the higher of these Q{sup 2} values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the {gamma} background coming from the decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to {gamma} conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the

  20. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  1. Studying the proton 'radius' puzzle with μp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The disagreement between the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen and from electronic measurements is called the proton radius puzzle. The resolution of the puzzle remains unclear and appears to require new experimental results. An experiment to measure muon-proton elastic scattering is presented here

  2. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  3. Theoretically unprejudiced fits to proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobos, A.M.; Mackintosh, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    By using a spline interpolation method applied to all components of the proton optical potential we have fitted elastic scattering from 40 Ca and from 16 O at a range of energies. The potentials are highly oscillatory and we have shown that similar oscillations are found when the spline fitting procedure is applied to pseudo-data generated from potentials of known l-dependence. Moreover, we show how to find an l-independent potential equivalent to one that is l-dependent and we find that it is oscillatory and that various characteristic features of empirical spline fit potentials can be explained. Thus, by fitting the data with model indenpendt l-independent potentials we have found support for the contention that the nucleon optical potential should be viewed as being l-dependent. This work may be regarded as an example of the kind of physical information that can be gained by pursuing exact fits to proton elastic scattering data

  4. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  5. Scattering angle-integrated (total) and magnetic sublevel cross-sections and degree of linear polarization for electron and proton induced excitation [HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5)] of helium

    CERN Document Server

    Merabet, H; Hanni, J; Bailey, M; Godunov, A L; McGuire, J H; Fursa, D V; Bray, I; Bartschat, K; Tseng, H C; Lin, C D

    2003-01-01

    Experimental scattering-angle-integrated (total) cross-sections sigma-bar, (scattering) angle-integrated magnetic sublevel cross-sections sigma-bar sub M sub sub L , and degree of linear polarization data have been measured in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region following decay of HeI (1snp) sup 1 P sup 0 (n=2-5) states induced by electron and proton impact on a neutral helium target. These measurements are compared with a first Born approach as well as more sophisticated theoretical calculations. Specifically, theoretical values for electron impact include convergent close-coupling (CCC) and R-matrix with pseudo states (RMPS) methods in addition to first Born (Born 1) approximation while proton induced excitation cross-sections are compared with atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC) and first Born predictions.

  6. Experimental study of inclusive deep inelastic neutrino--proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; DiBianca, F.A.; Cundy, D.C.; Dunaitsev, A.; Efremenko, V.; Ermolov, P.; Fowler, W.; Hanft, R.; Harigel, G.; Huson, F.R.; Kolganov, V.; Mukhin, A.; Nezrick, F.A.; Rjabov, Y.; Scott, W.G.; Smart, W.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Seidl, A.A.; Velde, J.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    A neutrino--proton scattering experiment has been performed at Fermilab by using a wide-band horn-focused neutrino beam and the 15-ft bubble chamber filled with hydrogen. For the inclusive reaction ν/sub μ/ + p → μ - + hadrons, the mean value of Q 2 is found to increase linearly with energy, as is expected from Bjorken scaling, and a fit to the data gives 2 > = (0.18 +- 0.01) E. The distribution in the Bjorken scaling variable x shows evidence for deviations from predictions based on electron-scattering data and the quark-parton model

  7. Characterization of solar cell materials by Proton Back Scattering Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joynal Abedin, M.; Fazlul Hoque, A.K.M.; Firoz Hasan, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate chemical characterization of samples specially related to electronic and solar cell materials has assumed increasing importance in recent years. The importance of the study of the surfaces of materials of different origin also increased in recent years to a great extent. This need has created a worldwide spurt to develop rapid, accurate and sensitive tools for the characterization of materials. In recent years the proton backscattering spectrometry (PBS) method has been recognized as one of the useful analytical tool in several applications of material analysis and technology. The lack of information of the relevant scattering cross sections as a function of proton energy and the problems arising in conventional data analysis have so far rendered proton backscattering analysis of multielemental samples difficult at low energies. On the other hand advances in the computer evaluation of experimental data have, however, made it possible to utilize low-MeV protons as a sensitive probe for light elements in the μm range. The benefits of the method in comparison to alpha particle backscattering include the relatively higher non-Rutherford scattering cross sections of the light elements and to the lower proton stopping in the target material. These lead to higher sensitivity in detecting and profiling light elements in heavy targets and to significantly larger accessible depths and smaller straggling than with alpha particles. Research works on the development of methodologies of Proton Backscattering Spectrometry (PBS) for the analysis of thin films and surfaces has been in progress in the 3 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator facilities of Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka for some years. The PBS system comprises a target chamber with appropriate sample holders and a Surface Barrier Detector (SBD) with the associated electronics for data acquisition and reduction. For the evaluation of the PBS data RBS Universal Master Package, RUMP has been installed in the

  8. Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The measured value of the proton charge radius from the Lamb shift of energy levels in muonic hydrogen is in strong contradiction, by 7-8 standard deviations, with the value obtained from electronic hydrogen spectroscopy and the value extracted from unpolarized electron-proton scattering data. The dominant unaccounted higher order contribution in scattering experiments corresponds to the two photon exchange (TPE) diagram. The elastic contribution to the TPE correction was studied with the fixed momentum transfer dispersion relations and compared to the hadronic model with off-shell photon-nucleon vertices. A dispersion relation formalism with one subtraction was proposed. Theoretical predictions of the TPE elastic contribution to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering and polarization transfer observables in the low momentum transfer region were made. The TPE formalism was generalized to the case of massive leptons and the elastic contribution was evaluated for the kinematics of upcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE).

  9. Boson structure functions from inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The even /sup 104-110/Pd isotopes and /sup 196/Pt have been investigated at NIKHEF-K by high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. A new IBA-2 calculation has been performed for the Pd isotopes, in which the ratio of the proton and neutron coupling constants is taken from pion scattering. One set of boson structure functions sufficed for the description of the first and second E2-excitations in all Pd isotopes. The data showed no sensitivity for different structure functions for proton and neutron bosons. A preliminary analysis of a number of negative parity states (3/sup -/,5/sup -/ and 7/sup -/), observed in /sup 196/Pt, was performed through the introduction of an f-boson. The first E4-excitation in the palladium isotopes can be reasonably described with a β-structure function, but all other E4-excitations require the introduction of g-boson admixtures

  10. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, T.

    2013-01-01

    An electron scattering facility is under construction in RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan, which is dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. This is the world's first and currently only facility of its type. The construction is nearly completed, and the first electron scattering experiment off short-lived nuclei will be carried out in the beginning of next year. The charge density distributions of short-lived nuclei will be precisely determined by elastic electron scattering for the first time. Physics pursued at this facility including future perspectives are explained

  11. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  12. A glimpse of gluons through deeply virtual compton scattering on the proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defurne, M; Jiménez-Argüello, A Martí; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Mazouz, M; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Camacho, C Muñoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2017-11-10

    The internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons) remains one of the greatest outstanding problems in modern nuclear physics. By scattering high-energy electrons off a proton we are able to resolve its fundamental constituents and probe their momenta and positions. Here we investigate the dynamics of quarks and gluons inside nucleons using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS)-a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton, which subsequently radiates a photon. DVCS interferes with the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process, where the photon is emitted by the electron rather than the proton. We report herein the full determination of the BH-DVCS interference by exploiting the distinct energy dependences of the DVCS and BH amplitudes. In the regime where the scattering is expected to occur off a single quark, measurements show an intriguing sensitivity to gluons, the carriers of the strong interaction.

  13. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Research Center for Electron-Photon Science, Tohoku University, 1-2-1 ... nuclei precisely determined by elastic scattering [1]. .... In order to fulfill these requirements, a window-frame shaped dipole magnet with a gap.

  14. A Glimpse of Gluons through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the Proton

    OpenAIRE

    Defurne, M.; Jiménez-Argüello, A. Martì; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.

    2017-01-01

    The proton is composed of quarks and gluons, bound by the most elusive mechanism of strong interaction called confinement. In this work, the dynamics of quarks and gluons are investigated using deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS): produced by a multi-GeV electron, a highly virtual photon scatters off the proton which subsequently radiates a high energy photon. Similarly to holography, measuring not only the magnitude but also the phase of the DVCS amplitude allows to perform 3D images of...

  15. Spin observables in proton-neutron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.

    1986-05-01

    A summary of np elastic scattering spin measurements at intermediate energy is given. Preliminary results from a LAMPF experiment to measure free neutron-proton elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters are presented. A longitudinally polarized proton target was used. These measurements are part of a program to determine the neutron-proton amplitudes in a model independent fashion at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Some new proton-proton total cross sections in pure helicity states (Δσ/sub L/(pp)) near 3 GeV/c are also given. 37 refs., 2 figs

  16. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  17. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  18. Electron scattering and reactions from exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SCRIT and FAIR/ELISe experiments are the first to attempt to measure directly electron scattering form factors from nuclei far from stability. This will give direct information for the (one-body) charge densities of those systems, about which there is little information available. The SCRIT experiment will be taking data for medium-mass exotic nuclei, while the electron-ion collider at ELISe, when constructed, will be able to measure form factors for a wide range of exotic nuclei, as available from the radioactive ion beams produced by the FAIR experiment. Other facilities are now being proposed, which will also consider electron scattering from exotic nuclei at higher energies, to study short-range correlations in exclusive reactions. This review will consider all available information concerning the current status (largely theoretical) of electron scattering from exotic nuclei and, where possible, complement such information with equivalent information concerning the neutron densities of those exotic systems, as obtained from intermediate energy proton scattering. The issue of long- and short-range correlations will be discussed, and whether extending such studies to the exotic sector will elicit new information. (orig.)

  19. Electron scattering and reactions from exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglidis, S. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Physics, Auckland Park (South Africa); University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    The SCRIT and FAIR/ELISe experiments are the first to attempt to measure directly electron scattering form factors from nuclei far from stability. This will give direct information for the (one-body) charge densities of those systems, about which there is little information available. The SCRIT experiment will be taking data for medium-mass exotic nuclei, while the electron-ion collider at ELISe, when constructed, will be able to measure form factors for a wide range of exotic nuclei, as available from the radioactive ion beams produced by the FAIR experiment. Other facilities are now being proposed, which will also consider electron scattering from exotic nuclei at higher energies, to study short-range correlations in exclusive reactions. This review will consider all available information concerning the current status (largely theoretical) of electron scattering from exotic nuclei and, where possible, complement such information with equivalent information concerning the neutron densities of those exotic systems, as obtained from intermediate energy proton scattering. The issue of long- and short-range correlations will be discussed, and whether extending such studies to the exotic sector will elicit new information. (orig.)

  20. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  1. Computational details of the Monte Carlo simulation of proton and electron tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Brenner, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The code PROTON simulates the elastic and nonelastic interactions of protons and electrons in water vapor. In this paper, the treatment of elastic angular scattering of electrons as utilized in PROTON is described and compared with alternate formalisms. The sensitivity of the calculation to different treatments of this process is examined in terms of proximity functions of energy deposition. 5 figures

  2. Electron scattering by hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    A variational method to calculate the differential cross section of the electron-hydrogen atom scattering process is presented. The second Born approximation is calculated, through a variational calculation using the energy and electronic charge simultaneously as parameters, in order to calculate the differential cross section which is written in a fractional form according to the Schwinger variational principle. Effects due to the electron change are included in the calculations. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Measurement of the polarisation of Jefferson Laboratory electron beam by Compton effect for the HAPPEX parity violation experiment in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, Maud

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports and describes the first measurements of polarisation of the Jlab electron beam by using the Compton polarimeter, and the exploitation of these measurements by the HAPPEX experiment which aims at determining the contribution of strange quarks to nucleon electromagnetic shape factors. The author first presents these shape factors and their compositions in terms of quarks. He describes the experimental installation used by the HAPPEX experiment for the measurement of the parity violation asymmetry. He presents the principle of Compton polarimetry and the experimental installation used at Jlab. Then, he addresses the main part of his research work which addresses the processing and analysis of data acquired during the HAPPEX experiment: measurement of the experimental asymmetry, and determination of the analysis power. HAPPEX results are finally presented and discussed [fr

  4. Wavepacket electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    In this note, the formal analysis of the electron wavepacket produced by a STEM instrument is sketched, and some of the diffraction effects briefly described. It is hoped that this will encourage some needed analysis of the complicated inelastic processes occurring in this experimental geometry. 21 references, 3 figures

  5. Electron scattering off palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.B. van der.

    1986-01-01

    The low-lying states of the even Pd isotopes are characterized by vibrator-like properties. In this thesis the results of an electron scattering experiment on the Pd isotopes, designed to study the description of such nuclei in the Anharmonic Vibrator Model (AVM) and the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), are presented and discussed. Data have been taken at the high-resolution electron scattering facility of NIKHEF-K and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.4 to 2.5 fm -1 . (Auth.)

  6. A study of the internal spin structure of the proton through polarized deep inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegaia, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the internal spin structure of the proton through the measurement performed by the European Muon Collaboration, EMC, at the European Center for Nuclear Research, CERN, of the spin asymmetry in the deep-inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized muons by longitudinally polarized protons. The data obtained considerably extend the kinematic range covered by a previous lower-energy polarized electron-proton scattering experiment. Although the results were found to be in agreement in the region of overlap, the study of the low x range (0.01 1 p was computed and found to be in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. The result seems to indicate that only a small fraction of the proton spin originates from the spins of the quarks

  7. Electron scattering by molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, P.E.

    1999-03-01

    Collisions of electrons with molecules is one of the fundamental processes which occur both in atomic and molecular physics and also in chemistry. These collisions are vital in determining the energy balance and transport properties of electrons in gases and plasmas at low temperatures. There are many important applications for the basic understanding of these collision processes. For example, the study of planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium involves electron collisions with both molecules and molecular ions. In particular, two of the major cooling mechanisms of electrons in the Earth's ionosphere are (i) the fine structure changing transitions of oxygen atoms by electron impact and (ii) the resonant electron-impact vibrational excitation of N 2 . Other applications include magnetohydrodynamic power generation and laser physics. A molecule, by definition, will contain more than one nucleus and consequently the effect of nuclear motion in the molecule leads to many extra processes in electron scattering by molecules which cannot occur in electron-atom scattering. As for atoms, both elastic and inelastic scattering occur, but in the case of inelastic electron scattering by molecules, the target molecule is excited to a different state by the process. The excitation may be one, or some combination, of rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions. Other reactions which may occur include dissociation of the molecule into its constituent atoms or ionisation. Another difficulty arises when considering the interactions between the electron and the molecule, This interaction, which considerably complicates the calculation, is non-spherical and various methods have been developed over the years to represent this interaction. This thesis considers electron scattering by molecular oxygen in the low energy range i.e. 0-15eV. These collisions are of considerable interest in atmospheric physics and chemistry where the electron impact excitation of O 2 has

  8. First Extraction of Transversity from a Global Analysis of Electron-Proton and Proton-Proton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    We present the first extraction of the transversity distribution in the framework of collinear factorization based on the global analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering and in proton-proton collisions with a transversely polarized proton. The extraction relies on the knowledge of dihadron fragmentation functions, which are taken from the analysis of electron-positron annihilation data. For the first time, the transversity is extracted from a global analysis similar to what is usually done for the spin-averaged and helicity distributions. The knowledge of transversity is important for, among other things, detecting possible signals of new physics in high-precision low-energy experiments.

  9. Relativistic total and differential cross section proton--proton electron--positron pair production calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Circle Feynman diagrams for a specific permutation of variables along with their corresponding algebraic expressions are presented to evaluate [H] 2 for proton-proton electron-positron pair production. A Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced and is used to set up the multiple integral expression for the total pair production cross section. The technique is first applied to the Compton scattering problem and then to an arbitrary multiple integral. The relativistic total cross section for proton-proton electron-positron pair production was calculated for eight different values of incident proton energy. A variety of differential cross sections were calculated for the above energies. Angular differential cross section distributions are presented for the electron, positron, and proton. Invariant mass differential cross section distributions are done both with and without the presence of [H] 2 . Both WGHT and log 10 (TOTAL) distributions were also obtained. The general behavioral trends of the total and differential cross sections for proton-proton electron-positron pair production are presented. The range of validity for this calculation is from 0 to about 200 MeV

  10. Experiments on neutron-proton and neutron-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1975-01-01

    The paper reports on zero-energy experiments with neutrons, protons and electrons with a wavelength that is considerably longer than the particle expansion. Scattering amplitudes are measured for the reactions n + p and n + e. A neutron gravity refractometer is used. (WL/AK) [de

  11. Transition densities with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  13. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  14. Collimator scatter and 2D dosimetry in small proton beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, P.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Zelle, H.D.; Schippers, J.M.

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the influence of collimator-scattered protons from a 150 MeV proton beam on the dose distribution behind a collimator. Slit-shaped collimators with apertures between 2 and 20 mm have been simulated. The Monte Carlo code GEANT 3.21 has been

  15. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, P.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10 4 events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10 5 ) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Virtual compton scattering on the proton below pion threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, P.Y.; VCS Collaboration

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an electron-proton interaction experiment carried out with the accelerator of MAMI at Mainz (Germany) for the recording of virtual compton scattering events. More than 2 10{sup 4} events were recorded in a two days run with a liquid hydrogen target. The main limitation for the counting rate comes from the limitation of the acquisition rate (100 Hz) and the single rates (10{sup 5}) in the drift chambers. The aim of this experiment is the understanding of both the low energy expansion and the generalized polarizabilities in order to compare, confirm or exclude the models of Quantum Chromodynamics used for the understanding of the nucleon. (J.S.). 3 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Aspects of the fundamental theory of proton-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A

    1973-01-01

    After recalling the existence of a high energy bound on proton-proton total cross-sections, the author discusses the various phenomena which occur when these cross-sections rise and especially when they have the qualitative behaviour of the bound: rising elastic cross- sections, shrinking diffraction peak, validity of the Pomeranchuk theorem for total and elastic cross-sections, existence of a positive real part of the forward amplitude at high energies. (16 refs).

  18. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    The authors use a geometrical model of high-energy pp elastic scattering as proposed by Chou and Yong to analyse experimental data available at present and consider the predictions of the dipole pomeron model for pp elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies. Theoretical results for differential cross sections are compared with experimental data.

  19. Anisotropy function for proton-proton elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Fazal-e-Aleem; Azhar, I.A. (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics)

    1990-07-01

    By using the generalized Chou-Yang model and the experimental data on pp elastic scattering at 53 GeV, the anisotropy function which reflects the non-isotropic nature of elastic scattering is computed for the reaction pp{yields}pp. (author).

  20. Anisotropy function for proton-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Fazal-e-Aleem; Azhar, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    By using the generalized Chou-Yang model and the experimental data on pp elastic scattering at 53 GeV, the anisotropy function which reflects the non-isotropic nature of elastic scattering is computed for the reaction pp→pp. (author)

  1. Electric giant resonances in sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 4 sup 8 Ca probed with electron and proton scattering coincidence experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Strauch, S

    1999-01-01

    Excitation and particle decay of electric giant resonances in sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 4 sup 8 Ca are studied with electron and proton beams. Recent results of a sup 4 sup 8 Ca(e,e'n) measurement performed at the S-DALINAC in Darmstadt with kinematics that selectively populate electric monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitations are presented. The extracted B(E1) strength distribution is in good agreement with photo nuclear data and the predictions of microscopic calculations. The summed B(E2+E0) strength distribution, however disagrees with the result of these calculations. The neutron emission of the giant dipole resonance in sup 4 sup 8 Ca shows a large fraction of direct decay to sup 4 sup 7 Ca hole states. In addition, isoscalar giant monopole resonance strength in sup 4 sup 0 Ca was extracted from (e,e'alpha sub 0) and (e,e'alpha sub 1) angular correlations. A study of the quadrupole strength in the alpha sub 0 decay channel of sup 4 sup 0 Ca with a (p,p'alpha) coincidence measurement reiterates the unsol...

  2. Improved extraction of two-photon exchange amplitudes from elastic electron-proton scattering cross section data up to Q2=5.20 (GeV/c ) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, I. A.; Homouz, D.; Riahi, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we improve on and extend to low- and high-Q2 values the extractions of the two-photon-exchange (TPE) amplitudes and the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) using world data on electron-proton elastic scattering cross section σR(ɛ ,Q2) with an emphasis on data covering the high-momentum region, up to Q2=5.20 (GeV/c ) 2 , to better constrain the TPE amplitudes in this region. We provide a new parametrization of the TPE amplitudes, along with an estimate of the fit uncertainties. We compare the results to several previous phenomenological extractions and hadronic TPE predictions. We use the new parametrization of the TPE amplitudes to extract the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) , and then compare the results to previous extractions, several theoretical calculations, and direct measurements at Q2=2.50 (GeV/c ) 2 .

  3. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  4. Theoretical study of parity violating asymmetry in proton-proton (pp) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Waris, Atiya

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parity violating asymmetries in the pp scattering and proton-nucleus scattering with polarised protons provide a very useful tool to study the interplay of weak and strong interactions between the nucleons and within the nucleus. In order to understand these processes in terms of the conventional nucleon-nucleon interaction models, new experiments at the intermediate energies of 221 and 450 MeV and in the higher energy of multi GeV range are to be carried out

  5. A model of quasi-free scattering with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation, based on a simple model for spin-free coplanar and asymmetric reaction in 16 O, for 215 MeV incoming polarized protons confirms the use of the strong effective polarization of the knocked-out proton by the spin-orbit coupling and of the strong dependence of free, medium energy, proton-proton cross section on the relative orientation of the proton spins. Effective polarizations, momentum distributions and correlation cross sections have been calculated for the 1p sub(1/2), 1 p sub(3/2) and 1s sub(1/2) states in 16 O, using protons totally polarized orthogonal to the scattering plane. Harmonic oscillator and square wells have been used to generate the bound state wave functions, whereas the optical potentials have been taken spin-independent and purely imaginary [pt

  6. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  7. The EDDA experiment: proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberher, F.

    1996-01-01

    The EDDA experiment is designed to provide a high precision measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV of (lab) incident kinetic energy. It is an internal target experiment utilizing the proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY operated by KFA Juelich. The excitation functions are measured during the acceleration ramp of COSY. (author)

  8. Results in pion proton scattering near the higher resonances (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.

    1961-01-01

    We present briefly the available Information on the total cross sections for pion proton scattering in the energy region from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. We also have collected all results on total cross sections for particular channels like elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and charge exchange. Using new results on the total cross section for neutral events, we have plotted separately the cross section for elastic and for inelastic scattering in the T = 1/2 state. (authors) [fr

  9. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  10. Electron scattering and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1987-01-01

    The search for the appropriate degrees of freedom to describe nuclei is the central focus of nuclear physics today. Therefore the authors explore in this review their current understanding of nuclear structure as defined by electromagnetic data. The precision of the electromagnetic probe allows us to define accurately the limits of present theoretical descriptions. The authors review here a broad range of subjects that have been addressed by recent experiments, from the study of meson exchange currents and single-particle distributions to collective excitations in heavy nuclei. However, they do not discuss elastic magnetic scattering, inelastic excitation of discrete states, or single-nucleon knockout reactions since these reactions were recently reviewed. The principal aim of this review is to offer a fresh perspective on nuclear structure, based on the new generation of electron scattering data presented here and in the above-mentioned articles

  11. Investigation of the hadronic final state in electron-proton interactions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dake, A.

    1995-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the study of the hardronic final state in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering. Theexperiment described in this thesis is performed with such a high resolution that the substructure of the proton is probed by the electron beam with a resolution of less than 10 -15 cm. (orig./HSI)

  12. Investigation of the hadronic final state in electron-proton interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dake, A

    1995-09-18

    The main subject of this thesis is the study of the hardronic final state in deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering. Theexperiment described in this thesis is performed with such a high resolution that the substructure of the proton is probed by the electron beam with a resolution of less than 10{sup -15} cm. (orig./HSI).

  13. Antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at 100 and 200 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.H.; Karchin, P.; Orear, J.; Kalbach, R.M.; Krueger, K.W.; Pifer, A.E.; Baker, W.F.; Eartly, D.P.; Klinger, J.S.; Lennox, A.J.; Rubinstein, R.; McHugh, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    Antiproton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 100 GeV/c for 0.5 2 and at 200 GeV/c for 0.9 2 . The data show that the -tapprox. =1.4 (GeV/c) 2 dip recently observed at 50 GeV/c persists to higher incident momenta. Proton-proton measurements made at the same beam momenta show similar structure

  14. Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenyuk, O.G.; Shklyarevskij, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ambiguities of the phase analysis of the proton-proton scattering amplitude are analysed. It is shown that for five measurements of polarization parameters sets there are ambiguities similar to the Gersten ambiguities in the phase analysis of πN scattering. A problem on additional experiments needed to eliminate these ambiguities is investigated. It is shown that for this purpose it suffices to measure three total cross sections with polarized and nonpolarized protons, thus determining the imaginary parts of amplitudes at THETA=0 and polarization parameters

  15. Proton-proton elastic scattering with massive gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, Werner K.; Ducati, M.B. Gay

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution different approaches to generate a gluon mass are discussed. More specially a recent result for the gluon propagator with a dynamical mass, proposal by Gorbar and Natale, is used in connection with the Landshoff-Nachtmann model for the Pomeron to describe the elastic differential cross section for pp scattering, with good agreement. (author)

  16. Nature of mixed symmetry 2+ states in 94Mo from high resolution electron and proton scattering and line shape of the first excited 1/2+ state in 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Oleksiy

    2007-07-01

    The present work contains two parts. The first one is devoted to the investigation of mixed-symmetry structure in 94 Mo and the second one to the astrophysical relevant line shape of the first excited 1/2 + state in 9 Be. In the first part of the thesis the nature of one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states in 94 Mo is investigated with high-resolution inelastic electron and proton scattering experiments in a combined analysis. The (e,e') experiments were carried out at the 169 magnetic spectrometer at the S-DALINAC. Data were taken at a beam energy E e=70 MeV and scattering angles Θ e =93 -165 . In dispersion-matching mode an energy resolution Δ E =30-45 keV (full width at half maximum) was achieved. The (p,p') measurements were performed at iThemba LABS, South Africa, using a K600 magnetic spectrometer at a proton energy E p=200 MeV and scattering angles Θ p =4.5 -26 . Typical energy resolutions were Δ E ≅35 keV. The combined analysis reveals a dominant one-phonon structure of the transitions to the first and third 2 + states, as well as an isovector character of the transition to the one-phonon mixed-symmetric state within the valence shell. Quantitatively consistent estimates of the one-phonon admixtures are obtained from both experimental probes when two-step contributions to the proton scattering cross sections are taken into account. In the second part of the thesis the line shape of the first excited 1/2 + state in 9 Be is studied. Spectra of the 9 Be(e,e') reaction were measured at the S-DALINAC at an electron energy E e=73 MeV and scattering angles of 93 and 141 with high energy resolution up to excitation energies E x =8 MeV. The form factor of the first excited state has been extracted from the data. The astrophysical relevant 9 Be(γ,n) cross sections have been extracted from the (e,e') data. The resonance parameters of the first excited 1/2 + state in 9 Be are derived in a one-level R-matrix approximation. The deduced

  17. Nature of mixed symmetry 2{sup +} states in {sup 94}Mo from high resolution electron and proton scattering and line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Oleksiy

    2007-07-15

    The present work contains two parts. The first one is devoted to the investigation of mixed-symmetry structure in {sup 94}Mo and the second one to the astrophysical relevant line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be. In the first part of the thesis the nature of one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states in {sup 94}Mo is investigated with high-resolution inelastic electron and proton scattering experiments in a combined analysis. The (e,e') experiments were carried out at the 169 magnetic spectrometer at the S-DALINAC. Data were taken at a beam energy E e=70 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub e}=93 -165 . In dispersion-matching mode an energy resolution {delta}{sub E}=30-45 keV (full width at half maximum) was achieved. The (p,p') measurements were performed at iThemba LABS, South Africa, using a K600 magnetic spectrometer at a proton energy E p=200 MeV and scattering angles {theta}{sub p}=4.5 -26 . Typical energy resolutions were {delta}{sub E}{approx_equal}35 keV. The combined analysis reveals a dominant one-phonon structure of the transitions to the first and third 2{sup +} states, as well as an isovector character of the transition to the one-phonon mixed-symmetric state within the valence shell. Quantitatively consistent estimates of the one-phonon admixtures are obtained from both experimental probes when two-step contributions to the proton scattering cross sections are taken into account. In the second part of the thesis the line shape of the first excited 1/2{sup +} state in {sup 9}Be is studied. Spectra of the {sup 9}Be(e,e') reaction were measured at the S-DALINAC at an electron energy E e=73 MeV and scattering angles of 93 and 141 with high energy resolution up to excitation energies E{sub x}=8 MeV. The form factor of the first excited state has been extracted from the data. The astrophysical relevant {sup 9}Be({gamma},n) cross sections have been extracted from the (e,e') data. The

  18. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 221 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Bland, J.B.; Campbell, J.R.; Green, A.A.; Hamian, A.A.; Lee, L.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Reitzner, S.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Sum, V.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Woo, R.J.; Bowman, J.D.; Mischke, R.E.; Coombes, G.H.; Helmer, R.; Kadantsev, S.; Levy, C.D.P.

    2003-01-01

    TRIUMF experiment 497 has measured the parity-violating longitudinal analyzing power A z in p(vector sign)p elastic scattering at 221.3 MeV incident proton energy. This comprehensive paper includes details of the corrections, some of magnitude comparable to A z itself, required to arrive at the final result. The largest correction was for the effects of first moments of transverse polarization. The addition of the result, A z =[0.84±0.29 (stat.)±0.17 (syst.)]x10 -7 , to the p(vector sign)p parity-violation experimental data base greatly improves the experimental constraints on the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants h ρ pp and h ω pp , and also has implications for the interpretation of electron parity-violation experiments

  19. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  20. Proton dynamics in oxides: insight into the mechanics of proton conduction from quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maths

    2015-01-07

    This article is concerned with the use of quasielastic neutron scattering as a technique for investigation of the dynamical properties of proton conducting oxides. Currently, the main interest in these materials comes from their promise as electrolytes in future electrochemical devices and particularly through their use as electrolytes in next-generation, intermediate-temperature, fuel cells. However, the realization of such devices depends critically on the development of new, more highly proton conducting oxides. Such a development depends on increasing the current understanding of proton conduction in oxides and for this purpose quasielastic neutron scattering is an important mean. The aim of this article is to introduce the non-specialist reader to the basic principles of quasielastic neutron scattering, its advantages and disadvantages, to summarize the work that has been done on proton conducting oxides using this technique, as well as to discuss future opportunities within this field of research.

  1. Parity nonconservation in proton scattering at higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A parity-nonconservation experiment in the scattering of longitudinally-polarized protons at an incident proton momentum of 6 GeV/c is examined. This experiment indicates a sharp rise with energy of the total cross section correlated with proton helicity that was unexpected. This energy dependence is due to the strong part of the interaction and may indicate the role of a diquark component in the nucleon. New experiments at higher energies are needed to confirm such a model. Future experiment can benefit from an analysis of sources of systematic error that have been encountered in the experiment discussed here

  2. Parity nonconservation in proton scattering at higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Parity-nonconservation experiments in the scattering of longitudinally-polarized protons at incident proton momenta of 1.5 GeV/c and 6 GeV/c are examined. These experiments indicate a change with energy of the total cross section correlated with proton helicity that was unexpected. This energy dependence is due to the strong part of the interaction and may indicate the role of a diquark component in the nucleon. New experiments at higher energies are needed to confirm such a model. Future experiments can benefit from an analysis of sources of systematic error that have been encountered in the experiments discussed here. 43 refs., 3 figs

  3. A new impact picture for low and high energy proton-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Wu, Tai Tsun

    1978-05-01

    The impact picture that was used several years ago to predict the increase of total and integrated differential cross sections at high energies was improved significantly. The major improvements consist of the following: (1) the dependence of the Pomeron term on the momentum transfer is taken from a modified version of the relation between matter distribution and charge distribution; (2) Regge backgrounds are properly taken into account; and (3) a simple non-trivial form is used for the hadronic matter current in the proton. For proton-proton elastic scattering, the phenomenological differential cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data in the laboratory momentum range of 14 GeV/c to 2000 GeV/c, and is predicted for ISABELLE energy. Because of the third improvement, predictions are obtained for both polarization and R parameters for proton-proton elastic scattering

  4. Photons emission processes in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Vargas, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The investigations involving the scattering sections arising in virtual an real photon emission processes of electron and positron scattering by an atomic nucleus, have the need for thorough and complete calculations of the virtual photon spectrum and then introduce the distorted wave formulation, which is mathematically involved an numerically elaborated, but accessible to its use in experimental electron scattering facilities. (author) [es

  5. Proton-4He elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Gillespie, J.; Lombard, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    Differential elastic cross sections and polarizations are calculated in a multiple scattering formalism for proton- 4 He scattering for energies in the range 0.6-24GeV and for momentum transfers up to 4.0fmsup(-1). The calculations include Coulomb and spin effects. Corrections due to target-nucleon overlap and charge exchange are estimated. The results are compared with experimental data [fr

  6. Observation of elastic neutrino-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.; Entenberg, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Mann, A.K.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Strait, J.; Sulak, L.; Williams, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    We have observed thirty events of the process νp→νp with a background expectations of seven events. The neutral-current to charged-current ratio sigma (νp→νp)/sigma (νn→μ - p) is measured to be 0.17 +- 0.05 for 0.3 2 2 where -q 2 is the square of the four-momentum transfer to the proton

  7. Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissbach, B.

    1980-01-01

    Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89 Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)

  8. Resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg and $^{21}$Na

    CERN Multimedia

    Di julio, D D; Jansson, K; Rudolph, D; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T; Perea martinez, A

    In our letter-of-intent, INTC-I-051, we discussed the physics case for scattering and transfer reactions involving light nuclei in the break-out region of the rp-process. The Committee found the physics case compelling and supported the letter-of-intent under the premise that beams of proper quality were developed and that an adequate detector set-up was presented. As these two requirements have been met recently we now propose to study resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg to identify the states at 1.733 MeV and 2.575 MeV in $^{23}$Al that have been reported from the $^{24}$Mg($^{7}$Li,$^{8}$He)$\\,^{23}\\!$Al reaction but that remained unobserved in the only resonant proton scattering experiment performed with $^{22}$Mg so far. In particular we should be able to investigate the character of the proton emission of the 2.575 MeV state which may also have a significant inelastic branch. We also propose to perform resonant proton scattering on $^{21}$Na above $\\alpha$-particle threshold with $^{18}$Ne to study ...

  9. Neutron-proton elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-09-06

    The most recent measurements of the differential and total cross sections of neutron-proton elastic scattering from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been explained by using rho as a simple pole and pomeron as a dipole. The predictions are also made regarding the energy dependence of dip and bump structure in angular distribution.

  10. A CGC/saturation approach for angular correlations in proton-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Potashnikova, I. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    We generalized our model for the description of hard processes, and calculate the value of the azimuthal angular correlations (Fourier harmonics v{sub n}), for proton-proton scattering. The energy and multiplicity independence, as well as the value of v{sub n}, turns out to be in accord with the experimental data, or slightly larger. Therefore, before making extreme assumptions on proton-proton collisions, such as the production of a quark-gluon plasma in large multiplicity events, we need to understand how these affect the Bose-Einstein correlations, which have to be taken into account since the Bose-Einstein correlations are able to describe the angular correlations in proton-proton collisions, without including final state interactions. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  12. Resonances in the proton-6Li scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.

    1986-01-01

    The differential cross section and the analyzing power of the p+ 6 Li scattering were measured in the laboratory energy range from 1.6 respectively 2.8 MeV to 10 MeV at 45 respectively 40 energies in full angular distributions. The data were subjected both to an analysis in the optical model which yielded already hints to resonance effects and to a comphrehensive scattering-phase analysis for L=0, 1, and 2 under inclusion of channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixings. The consistent description of all data required the assumption of broad resonance structures. An approximate parametrization by a Breit-Wigner formula allowed the estimation of the resonance parameters. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 230 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, J.; Bowman, J.D.; Davis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Below /similar to/300 MeV six meson-nucleon coupling strengths are required to describe the weak interaction of nucleons. Many experiments have found parity-violating effects in nuclear systems, but only four significant, independent constraints exist. A new measurement is proposed where measurable effects are predicted with minimal dependence on nuclear interaction models, yielding information complementary to previous results. This is a measurement of the parity-violating analyzing power. A/sub z/ in p-p scattering at 230 MeV, which is shown to be sensitive to the weak rho-nucleon coupling. This measurement, at a precision of +- 2 x 10/sup -8/, together with a proposed measurement by the University of Washington group at I.L.L. of the parity-violating neutron spin rotation, will provide the fifth and sixth independent constraints needed to determine the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants

  14. Bremsstrahlung in electron-positronium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Korol, A.V.; Solovyov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation formed in the fast nonrelativistic electron scattering on positronium is calculated. It is shown that all the radiation proceeds via virtual positronium deformations during the collision. An essential difference of bremsstrahlung spectra in electron on positronium and electron on hydrogen scattering is demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things

  16. Electron scattering from 17O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.; Hicks, R.S.; Yen, R.; Auer, I.P.; Caplan, H.S.; Bergstrom, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from 17 O have been measured for momentum transfers up to 1.2 fm -1 . The elastic cross section indicates that the rms charge radii of 17 O and 16 O are equal to within a few parts in a thousand: 2 17 >sup(1/2)/ 2 16 >sub(1/2)=1.0015+-0.0025. Reduced transition probabilities and ground-state radiative widths are deduced for 17 O excited states below 9 MeV. Various aspects of the inelastic spectrum are discussed, with emphasis on the 'single-particle' levels at 0.871 (1/2 + ) and 5.083 (3/2 + ) MeV, the levels at 7.569 (7/2 - ) and 7.378 (5/2 + ) MeV, and the spectrum of electric octupole excitations. (Auth.)

  17. Triple parton scatterings in high-energy proton-proton collisions arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2017-01-01

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (pp) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS. The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5±4.5  mb. Estimates for triple charm (cc¯) and bottom (bb¯) production in pp collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single cc¯, bb¯ cross sections. At s≈100  TeV, about 15% of the pp collisions produce three cc¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  18. Detection of supernova neutrinos by neutrino-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beacom, John F.; Farr, Will M.; Vogel, Petr

    2002-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν+p→ν+p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from ν(bar sign) e +p→e + +n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , ν(bar sign) μ , and ν(bar sign) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  19. Microscopic analysis of proton elastic scattering in the range 80-200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, F.S.; Petrovich, F.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic comparison is made of differential cross-section and analyzing-power data on 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca, 90 Zr, and 208 Pb at 80-200 MeV with calculations based on the single-step folding-model approach to the optical potential. In these calculations, proton densities have been inferred from electron scattering results, with neutron densities either the same as for protons ( 12 C, 28 Si, 40 Ca) or with a small neutron skin consistent with 800-MeV proton scattering results ( 80 Zr, 208 Pb). The effective two-body interactions that have been used are the Love-Franey t-matrix, a density-dependent interaction based on the Paris potential (calculated by von Geramb), and finally the Brieva-Rook density-dependent central interaction used with the spin-orbit part of the Love-Franey interaction

  20. The Proton Coulomb Form Factor from Polarized Inclusive e-p Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher Matthew [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The proton form factors provide information on the fundamental properties of the proton and provide a test for models based on QCD. In 1998 at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) in Newport News, VA, experiment E93026 measured the inclusive e-p scattering cross section from a polarized ammonia (15NH3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from the polarized target and the scattered electron was detected. Data has been analyzed to obtain the asymmetry from elastically scattered electrons from hydrogen in 15NH3. The asymmetry, Ap, has been used to determine the proton elastic form factor GEp. The result is consistent with the dipole model and data from previous experiments. However, due to the choice of kinematics, the uncertainty in the measurement is large.

  1. Neutron-Proton Scattering Experiments at ANKE-COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharava, A.; Chiladze, D.; Chiladze, B.; Keshelashvili, I.; Lomidze, N.; Macharashvili, G.; McHedlishvili, D.; Nioradze, M.; Rathmann, F.; Ströher, H.; Wilkin, C.

    2010-04-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction (NN) is fundamental for the whole of nuclear physics and hence to the composition of matter as we know it. It has been demonstrated that stored, polarised beams and polarised internal targets are experimental tools of choice to probe spin effects in NN-scattering experiments. While the EDDA experiment has dramatically improved the proton-proton date base, information on spin observables in neutron-proton scattering is very incomplete above 800 MeV, resulting in large uncertainties in isoscalar n p phase shifts. Experiments at COSY, using a polarised deuteron beam or target, can lead to significant improvements in the situation through the study of quasi-free reactions on the neutron in the deuteron. Such a measurements has already been started at ANKE by using polarised deuterons on an unpolarised target to study the dp → ppn deuteron charge-exchange reaction and the full program with a polarised storage cell target just has been conducted. At low excitation energies of the final pp system, the spin observables are directly related to the spin- dependent parts of the neutron-proton charge-exchange amplitudes. Our measurement of the deuteron-proton spin correlations will allow us to determine the relative phases of these amplitudes in addition to their overall magnitudes.

  2. Tunneling induced electron transfer between separated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Meier, Christoph; Sola, Ignacio R.

    2018-04-01

    We study electron transfer between two separated protons using local control theory. In this symmetric system one can favour a slow transfer by biasing the algorithm, achieving high efficiencies for fixed nuclei. The solution can be parametrized using a sequence of a pump followed by a dump pulse that lead to tunneling-induced electron transfer. Finally, we study the effect of the nuclear kinetic energy on the efficiency. Even in the absence of relative motion between the protons, the spreading of the nuclear wave function is enough to reduce the yield of electronic transfer to less than one half.

  3. Isobaric intermediate states in proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Lazard, C.; Lombard, R.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of the propagation of isobaric nucleon states in the intermediate steps of the multiple scattering have been studied with application on the proton- 4 He elastic scattering at 1 GeV. The calculations are performed in the Glauber model and results are given for the differential cross section, the polarization and the spin rotation parameter. In our conclusions we stress the large cancellations observed between terms of various orders and the great sensitivity of the effects to the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes

  4. Model independent dispersion approach to proton Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Radescu, E.E.

    1980-12-01

    The proton Compton scattering at low and intermediate energies is studied by means of a dispersion framework which exploits in an optimal way the (fixed momentum transfer) analyticity properties of the amplitudes in conjunction with the consequences of the (s-channel) unitarity. The mathematical background of the work consists of methods specific to boundary value problems for analytic vector-valued functions and interpolation theory. In comparison with previous related work, the external problems to be solved now are much more difficult because of the inclusion of the photoproduction input and also lead to additional computational complications. The lower bounds on the differential cross-section, obtained without any reference to subtractions and annihilation channel contributions, appear sufficiently restrictive to evidentiate rigorously some inconsistencies between results of single pion photoproduction multipole extractions and proton Compton scattering data. (author)

  5. Transverse Imaging of the Proton in Exclusive Diffractive pp Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Weiss; Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman

    2006-01-01

    In a forthcoming paper we describe a new approach to rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, Higgs, etc.) in exclusive double-gap diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions are approximately independent (QCD factorization), and allows us to calculate the RGS probability in a model-independent way in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the colliding protons and the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Here we focus on the transverse momentum dependence of the cross section. By measuring the ''diffraction pattern'', one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton from the data

  6. Parity violation in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2007-09-01

    The elaboration of the electroweak standard model from the discovery of parity violation to the weak neutral current is described in the first chapter. In the second chapter the author discusses the 2 experimental approaches of the parity violation experiments. In the first approach the weak neutral current can be assumed to be well known and can be used as a probe for the hadronic matter. The second approach consists in measuring the weak neutral current between 2 particles with known internal structure in order to test the predictions of the standard model in the low energy range. The chapters 3 and 4 are an illustration of the first approach through the HAPPEx series of experiments that took place in the Jefferson Laboratory from 1998 to 2005. The HAPPEx experiments aimed at measuring the contribution of strange quarks in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon through the violation of parity in the elastic scattering at forward angles. The last chapter is dedicated to the E158 experiment that was performed at the Slac (California) between 2000 and 2003. The weak neutral current was measured between 2 electrons and the high accuracy obtained allowed the physics beyond the standard model to be indirectly constraint up to a few TeV. (A.C.)

  7. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasell, D. K.; OLYMPUS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The OLYMPUS collaboration has recently made a precise measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross section ratio, R 2γ, over a wide range of the virtual photon polarization, 0.456 reasonable agreement with predictions based on phenomenological fits to the available form factor data. The motivation for measuring R 2γ will be presented followed by a description of the OLYMPUS experiment. The importance of radiative corrections in the analysis will be shown also. Then we will present the OLYMPUS results and compare with results from two similar experiments and theoretical calculations.

  8. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Zankel, H. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1983-01-13

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76/sup 0/,85/sup 0/,98/sup 0/,115/sup 0/,132/sup 0/). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results.

  9. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  10. Neutron–Proton Scattering Experiments at ANKE–COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathmann F.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon–nucleon interaction (NN is fundamental for the whole of nuclear physics and hence to the composition of matter as we know it. It has been demonstrated that stored, polarised beams and polarised internal targets are experimental tools of choice to probe spin effects in NN–scattering experiments. While the EDDA experiment has dramatically improved the proton–proton date base, information on spin observables in neutron–proton scattering is very incomplete above 800 MeV, resulting in large uncertainties in isoscalar n p phase shifts. Experiments at COSY, using a polarised deuteron beam or target, can lead to significant improvements in the situation through the study of quasi–free reactions on the neutron in the deuteron. Such a measurements has already been started at ANKE by using polarised deuterons on an unpolarised target to study the dp → {pp}n deuteron charge–exchange reaction and the full program with a polarised storage cell target just has been conducted. At low excitation energies of the final pp system, the spin observables are directly related to the spin– dependent parts of the neutron–proton charge–exchange amplitudes. Our measurement of the deuteron–proton spin correlations will allow us to determine the relative phases of these amplitudes in addition to their overall magnitudes.

  11. The recoil proton polarization in πp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for π + p and π - p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P 3 East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10 7 π - 's/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10 7 π + 's/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  13. Signature for g bosons from medium energy proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.

    1993-01-01

    We apply the recently developed algebraic (1/N expansion) scattering formalism to medium energy proton scattering from 154 Sm and 176 Yb. The nuclear structure effects in this formalism are described by the interacting boson model generalized to arbitrary interactions and types of bosons i.e. s,d,g, etc. We find that, in the sd boson model, a consistent description of cross sections is possible only for the 0 + and 2 + states. The failure of the model with regard to the 4 + states indicates that the effective hexadecapole operator used in the sd model is inadequate. In contrast, the data for scattering to the 0 + , 2 + and 4 + states could be consistently described in the sdg boson model. The spectroscopic data for the low-lying levels usually can not distinguish between the sd and sdg models due to renormalization of parameters, and one has to look at high spin or energy data for evidence of g bosons. The inelastic proton scattering experiments, on the other hand, directly probe the wave functions, and hence could provide a signature for g bosons even in the ground band states

  14. Electron scattering off hydrogen and deuterium at 500 and 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1975-06-01

    The inelastic scattering of electrons for both protons and neutrons has been measured at scattering angles of fifty and sixty degrees and for incident energies between 6.5 GeV and 19.5 GeV. Elastic scattering from protons was also observed. The measurements were made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the 1.6-GeV spectrometer located in End Station A. The experimental techniques used in making the measurements are detailed. The resulting cross sections are large, indicative of a charged point-like substructure within the nucleon and match the extrapolation from previous measurements to the kinematic region to within forty percent. The measurements are found to be compatible with some existing theoretical expectations. The W 1 structure function is not found to ''scale'' in previously suggested scaling variables. The introduction of propagator scale breaking is investigated and shown to be compatible with the measurements. An alternative scaling variable is proposed in which W 1 is found to scale. The elastic scattering measurements are consistent with an inverse fourth power dependence on four-momenta transfer. The measured neutron-proton ratio is in agreement with previous measurements. (55 figures, 27 tables) (auth)

  15. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  16. Inclusive production of large-p/sub T/ protons and quark-quark elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1978-01-01

    A proton-formation process in combination with hard quark-quark scattering is capable of explaining the observed large-p/sub T/ single-proton inclusive production data. This model implies that the inclusive production of two large-p/sub T/ protons at opposite directions is dominated by large-angle elastic scattering of two up quarks, and becomes an ideal place to study elastic quark-quark scattering. This two-proton inclusive production process is also ideal for the study of the spin structure of quark-quark elastic scattering, so the assumptions of pure vector-type quark-quark interaction and of colored quarks can be checked empirically. The consistency of applying the quark-elastic-scattering idea to large-angle elastic proton-proton scattering and to the inclusive production of large-p/sub T/ protons is also demonstrated

  17. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  18. A new description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics); Goldberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both √s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production. (orig.)

  19. New description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshay, S; Goldberg, J

    1987-10-15

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both ..sqrt..s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production.

  20. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  1. Channeling effect in electronic spectra produced by grazing impact of fast protons on insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C D; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: archubi@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Electron emission due to grazing scattering of fast protons from LiF and KCl surfaces is studied under axial incidence conditions. The differential emission probability is calculated within a distorted-wave formalism, taking into account axial channeled trajectories. For different emission angles, electronic spectra for proton incidence along the two principal crystal axes ([100] and [110]) are compared with those corresponding to an impact velocity in a random direction, finding effects associated with the channeling conditions.

  2. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Iachello, F; Rinat, A; Creswell, C

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 ÷ states inthe transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed

  3. 3He electron scattering sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Tornow, V.

    1982-01-01

    Electron scattering sum rules for 3 He are derived with a realistic ground-state wave function. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally measured integrated cross sections. (author)

  4. Nuclear spin response studies in inelastic polarized proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    Spin-flip probabilities S/sub nn/ have been measured for inelastic proton scattering at incident proton energies around 300 MeV from a number of nuclei. At low excitation energies S/sub nn/ is below the free value. For excitation energies above about 30 MeV for momentum transfers between about 0.35 fm/sup /minus/1/ and 0.65 fm/sup / minus/1/ S/sub nn/ exceeds free values significantly. These results suggest that the relative ΔS = 1(ΔS = 0 + ΔS = 1) nuclear spin response approaches about 90% in the region of the enhancement. Comparison of the data with slab response calculations are presented. Decomposition of the measured cross sections into σ(ΔS = 0) and σ(ΔS = 1) permit extraction of nonspin-flip and spin-flip dipole and quadrupole strengths. 29 refs., 11 figs

  5. Precocious scaling in antiproton-proton scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Petrascu, C.; Topor Pop, V.; Popa, V.

    1993-08-01

    The scaling of the diffraction peak in antiproton-proton scattering has been investigated from nera threshold up to 3 GeV/c laboratory momenta. It was shown that the scaling of the differential cross sections are evidentiated with a surprising accuracy not only at high energies, but also at very low ones (e.g. p LAB = 0.1 - 0.5 GeV/c), beyond the resonance and exotic resonance regions. This precocious scaling strongly suggests that the s-channel helicity conservation (SCHC) can be a peculiar property that should be tested in antiproton-proton interaction not only at high energies but also at low energy even below p LAB = 1 GeV/c. (author). 36 refs, 9 figs

  6. Review of high energy diffraction in real and virtual photon proton scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, G.

    2009-07-15

    The electron-proton collider HERA at DESY opened the door for the study of diffraction in real and virtual photon-proton scattering at center-of-mass energies W up to 250 GeV and for large negative mass squared -Q{sup 2} of the virtual photon up to Q{sup 2}=1600 GeV{sup 2}. At W = 220 GeV and Q{sup 2}=4 GeV{sup 2}, diffraction accounts for about 15% of the total virtual photon proton cross section decreasing to {approx}5% at Q{sup 2}=200 GeV{sup 2}. An overview of the results obtained by the experiments H1 and ZEUS on the production of neutral vector mesons and on inclusive diffraction up to the year 2008 is presented. (orig.)

  7. Proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected CBCT image: Feasibility study for adaptive proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang-Kyun, E-mail: ykpark@mgh.harvard.edu; Sharp, Gregory C.; Phillips, Justin; Winey, Brian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: CBCT projection images were acquired from anthropomorphic phantoms and a prostate patient using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. Two previously introduced techniques were used to correct the scattered x-rays in the raw projection images: uniform scatter correction (CBCT{sub us}) and a priori CT-based scatter correction (CBCT{sub ap}). CBCT images were reconstructed using a standard FDK algorithm and GPU-based reconstruction toolkit. Soft tissue ROI-based HU shifting was used to improve HU accuracy of the uncorrected CBCT images and CBCT{sub us}, while no HU change was applied to the CBCT{sub ap}. The degree of equivalence of the corrected CBCT images with respect to the reference CT image (CT{sub ref}) was evaluated by using angular profiles of water equivalent path length (WEPL) and passively scattered proton treatment plans. The CBCT{sub ap} was further evaluated in more realistic scenarios such as rectal filling and weight loss to assess the effect of mismatched prior information on the corrected images. Results: The uncorrected CBCT and CBCT{sub us} images demonstrated substantial WEPL discrepancies (7.3 ± 5.3 mm and 11.1 ± 6.6 mm, respectively) with respect to the CT{sub ref}, while the CBCT{sub ap} images showed substantially reduced WEPL errors (2.4 ± 2.0 mm). Similarly, the CBCT{sub ap}-based treatment plans demonstrated a high pass rate (96.0% ± 2.5% in 2 mm/2% criteria) in a 3D gamma analysis. Conclusions: A priori CT-based scatter correction technique was shown to be promising for adaptive proton therapy, as it achieved equivalent proton dose distributions and water equivalent path lengths compared to those of a reference CT in a selection of anthropomorphic phantoms.

  8. Elastic scattering of protons at the nucleus 6He in the Glauber multiple scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prmantayeva, B.A.; Temerbayev, A.A.; Tleulessova, I.K.; Ibrayeva, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    Calculation is submitted for the differential cross sections of elastic p 6 He-scattering at energies of 70 and 700 MeV/nucleon within the framework of the Glauber theory of multiple diffraction scattering. We used the three-particle wave functions: α-n-n with realistic intercluster potentials. The sensitivity of elastic scattering to the proton-nuclear interaction and the structure of nuclei had been investigated. It is shown that the contribution of small components of the wave function as well as the multiplicity of the scattering operator Ω should be considered to describe a cross-section in broad angular range . A comparison with available experimental data was made. (author)

  9. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  10. Theoretical calculations for electron proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, M. van der

    1990-01-01

    Within an extension of the Higgs structure of the standard model the production of charged Higgs bosons at the ep collider HERA is possible. However it is found that the total production rates are very small. For example, if a mass of 15 GeV is assumed , at most 10 events can be observed at HERA. Therefore it will be clear that the actual performance of HERA must be monitored accurately. This thesis is concerned with the computation of the cross section of e - p → γe - p reaction which has been proposed to be a luminosity monitor for HERA. In ch. 3 the pro-cess is computed at lowest order. Ch. 4 presents the computation of radiative corrections to the process which consist of the virtual corrections and the corrections due to Bremsstrahlung photons. This amounts to computing the cross section of the process e - p → γγ e - p, and must be included to cancel infrared divergent terms in the virtual corrections in the usual way. In ch. 5 a concise expression for the trace of gamma matrices in four dimensions is presented. This expression can be useful in writing a matrix element (at tree level) in terms of contractions of two different tensors. The expression found can be useful in an algebraic manipulation programme. An example is given how the results can be used in a physical process. (H.W.).55 refs.; 11 figs

  11. 35 years of electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Historical aspects of electron reaction physics are presented. The presently understood picture of nuclear structure and the electron-nucleus interactions are discussed within the framework of the standard model

  12. An analytic distorted wave approximation for intermediate energy proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; Amos, K.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic Distorted Wave approximation has been developed for use in analyses of intermediate energy proton inelastic scattering from nuclei. Applications are made to analyse 402 and 800 MeV data from the isoscalar and isovector 1 + and 2 + states in 12 C and to the 800 MeV data from the excitation of the 2 - (8.88MeV) state in 16 O. Comparisons of predictions made using different model two-nucleon t-matrices and different models of nuclear structure are given

  13. Scattering of polarized protons by yttrium, iron and nickel nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melssen, J.P.M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented of scattering experiments performed on yttrium and some iron and nickel isotopes with polarized proton beams at energies around 20 MeV. The angular distributions of the differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured and comparison of these with predictions from theoretical models has led to information about excited nuclear states like spin, parity and details of the wavefunctions. The DWBA has been mostly used to describe the reaction at the bombarding energies and for the target nuclei investigated. (C.F.)

  14. Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.

    2006-01-01

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process $ep \\to e X p$ is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data analysed cover the range \\xpom

  15. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  16. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, P. D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Hauschildt, J.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ihloff, E.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Kiselev, A.; Klassen, P.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Milner, R. G.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Schneekloth, U.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.; Olympus Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R2 γ , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20 ° to 80°. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved gas electron multiplier and multiwire proportional chamber detectors at 12°, as well as symmetric Møller or Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29°. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb-1 was collected. In the extraction of R2 γ, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R2 γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456 <ɛ <0.978 , are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  17. Comparison of dynamical aspects of nonadiabatic electron, proton, and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, Elizabeth; Soudackov, Alexander; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical aspects of a model proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction in solution are analyzed with molecular dynamics simulations. The rate for nonadiabatic PCET is expressed in terms of a time-dependent probability flux correlation function. The impact of the proton donor-acceptor and solvent dynamics on the probability flux is examined. The dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function is dominated by a solvent damping term that depends on the energy gap correlation function. The proton donor-acceptor motion does not impact the dynamical behavior of the probability flux correlation function but does influence the magnitude of the rate. The approximations previously invoked for the calculation of PCET rates are tested. The effects of solvent damping on the proton donor-acceptor vibrational motion are found to be negligible, and the short-time solvent approximation, in which only equilibrium fluctuations of the solvent are considered, is determined to be valid for these types of reactions. The analysis of PCET reactions is compared to previous analyses of single electron and proton transfer reactions. The dynamical behavior is qualitatively similar for all three types of reactions, but the time scale of the decay of the probability flux correlation function is significantly longer for single proton transfer than for PCET and single electron transfer due to a smaller solvent reorganization energy for proton transfer

  18. A novel technique for determining luminosity in electron-scattering/positron-scattering experiments from multi-interaction events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; O'Connor, C.; Bernauer, J. C.; Milner, R.

    2018-01-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment measured the cross-section ratio of positron-proton elastic scattering relative to electron-proton elastic scattering to look for evidence of hard two-photon exchange. To make this measurement, the experiment alternated between electron beam and positron beam running modes, with the relative integrated luminosities of the two running modes providing the crucial normalization. For this reason, OLYMPUS had several redundant luminosity monitoring systems, including a pair of electromagnetic calorimeters positioned downstream from the target to detect symmetric Møller and Bhabha scattering from atomic electrons in the hydrogen gas target. Though this system was designed to monitor the rate of events with single Møller/Bhabha interactions, we found that a more accurate determination of relative luminosity could be made by additionally considering the rate of events with both a Møller/Bhabha interaction and a concurrent elastic ep interaction. This method was improved by small corrections for the variance of the current within bunches in the storage ring and for the probability of three interactions occurring within a bunch. After accounting for systematic effects, we estimate that the method is accurate in determining the relative luminosity to within 0.36%. This precise technique can be employed in future electron-proton and positron-proton scattering experiments to monitor relative luminosity between different running modes.

  19. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  20. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed

  1. Protons, Aerospace, and Electronics: A National Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    The aerospace and semiconductor industries lost approx. 2000 hours annually of research access when IUCF closed. An ad hoc team between the U.S. government and industry was formed to evaluate other facility options. In this presentation, we will discuss: 1) Why aerospace, semiconductor manufacturers, and others are interested in proton facility access, as well as, 2) Some of the basics of a typical test for electronics, and 3) We"ll conclude with the brief current status on progress.

  2. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  3. Pygmy resonances probed with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pygmy resonances in light nuclei excited in electron scattering are discussed. These collective modes will be explored in future electron-ion colliders such as ELISe/FAIR (spokesperson: Haik Simon - GSI). Response functions for direct breakup are explored with few-body and hydrodynamical models, including the dependence upon final state interactions

  4. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  5. Nonelastic electron scattering in mercury telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, O P

    2002-01-01

    By exact solution of the Boltzmann equation, the nonequilibrium charge carrier distribution function is obtained. In the temperature range 4.2 - 300 K, main electron scattering mechanisms are considered by taking into account the nonelastic electron interaction with optical vibrations of the crystal lattice.

  6. Electron Raman scattering in quantum well wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiangfu; Liu Cuihong

    2007-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a semiconductor quantum well wire (QWW) of cylindrical geometry for T=0K and neglecting phonon-assisted transitions. The differential cross-section (DCS) involved in this process is calculated as a function of a scattering frequency and the cylindrical radius. Electron states are confined within a QWW. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules are studied. Singularities in the spectra are interpreted for various cylindrical radii. ERS discussed here can provide direct information about the electron band structure of the system

  7. Electron scattering by trapped fermionic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Jhe, Wonho

    2002-01-01

    Considering the Fermi gases of alkali-metal atoms that are trapped in a harmonic potential, we study theoretically the elastic and inelastic scattering of the electrons by the trapped Fermi atoms and present the corresponding differential cross sections. We also obtain the stopping power for the cases that the electronic state as well as the center-of-mass state are excited both separately and simultaneously. It is shown that the elastic scattering process is no longer coherent in contrast to the electron scattering by the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). For the inelastic scattering process, on the other hand, the differential cross section is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the number of the trapped atoms. In particular, the trapped fermionic atoms display the effect of ''Fermi surface,'' that is, only the energy levels near the Fermi energy have dominant contributions to the scattering process. Moreover, it is found that the stopping power scales as the 7/6 power of the atomic number. These results are fundamentally different from those of the electron scattering by the atomic BEC, mainly due to the different statistics obeyed by the trapped atomic systems

  8. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  9. Electron Capture in Proton Collisions with CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, P. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Kimura, M.; Gu, J.-P.; Hirsch, G.; Buenker, R. J.; Li, Y.

    1999-10-01

    Electron capture by protons following collisions with carbon monoxide is studied with a variety of theoretical approaches including quantal and semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) techniques. The MOCC treatments utilize potential surfaces and couplings computed for a range of H^+-CO orientation angles and C-O separations. Results including integral, differential, electronic state-selective, and vibrational state-selective cross sections will be presented for low- to intermediate-energies. Comparison with experiment will be made where possible and the relevance of the reaction in astrophysics and atmospheric physics will be discussed.

  10. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  11. Nuclear proton-proton elastic scattering via the Trojan Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is a powerful indirect technique to study charged particle two-body reactions at sub-Coulomb energies [1,2]. As known, it makes it possible to extract their cross sections down to the relevant energies without experiencing Coulomb suppression. For this reason, since a couple of decades it is successfully applied to rearrangement reactions of astrophysical interest. Recently, we have investigate the suppression of the Coulomb amplitude when the THM is applied to scattering processes. This was done by considering the p - p scattering at low energy, the simplest case where the Coulomb suppression can be observed. Proton-proton cross section was extensively studied in the past. Its energy trend appears to be very similar to that of n-n or p-n systems (1/E behaviour) except at lower proton relative energies, where a deep minimum shows up (E pp = 191.2 keV, θ cm = 90 o ). This minimum is interpreted as being the signature of the interference between nuclear and Coulomb scattering amplitudes. Therefore, if one considers that a non sizable Coulomb amplitude would make the minimum in the p-p cross section to disappear, the strong interference pattern offers an unique possibility to validate the THM suppression of Coulomb amplitude for scattering. This has been realized by measuring the p - p elastic scattering within the region of the minimum through the 2 H (p, pp)n reaction at 4.8 and 5 MeV in the quasi-free (QF) kinematics regime [3,4]. The THM p-p cross-section was extracted in the framework of the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation [5] down to E lab = 80 keV, and compared with the direct p-p behaviour. No minimum shows up in the THM data, whose trend appears to be smooth, much similar to that of the n-n or n-p cross-section. A detailed formalism was developed to build-up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section, whose behaviour agrees with the THM data, given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is

  12. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ice, L.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Khaneft, D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: OLYMPUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-12-15

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R{sub 2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two- photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ∼20 to 80 . The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved GEM and MWPC detectors at 12 , as well as symmetric Moeller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29 . A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb{sup -1} was collected. In the extraction of R{sub 2γ}, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R{sub 2γ}, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456<ε<0.978, are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  13. Protons scattering on Li isotopes at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Sanfirova, A.V.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The protons scattering differential cross section on the 6,7,8 Li nuclei are calculated within the framework the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory at intermediate energies (from 100 to 1000 MeV). In the calculations the multi-cluster wave functions (αt for 7 Li, αnp for 6 Li, and αtn for 8 Li) considering within potential cluster model have been used. Differential cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 8 Li and 9 Li nuclei are similar: absolute cross sections are almost the same, diffraction minimum for large A shifting to the field of the least scattering angles that reflecting increase of the material radius. For the 11 Li the differential cross section absolute value is smaller about in two time than for the rest isotopes. At present it is reliably established, that the 11 Li nucleus has an exotic structure - the nine-nucleon core ( 9 Li) around which the two-neutron halo is rotating. The principal characteristics of the Li nuclei are presented in tabular form

  14. Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Colm T

    2005-01-01

    Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.

  15. Results from EDDA at COSY: Spin Observables in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohdjess, Heiko

    2003-01-01

    Elastic proton-proton scattering as one of the fundamental hadronic reactions has been studied with the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY/Juelich. A precise measurement of differential cross section, analyzing power and three spin-correlation parameters over a large angular (θc.m. ≅ 35 deg. - 90 deg.) and energy (Tp ≅ 0.5 - 2.5 GeV) range has been carried out in the past years. By taking scattering data during the acceleration of the COSY beam, excitation functions were measured in small energy steps and consistent normalization with respect to luminosity and polarization. The experiment uses internal fiber targets and a polarized hydrogen atomic-beam target in conjunction with a double-layered, cylindrical scintillator hodoscope for particle detection. The results on differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been published and helped to improve phase shift solutions. Recently data taking with polarized beam and target has been completed. Preliminary results for the spin-correlation parameters A NN, ASS, and ASL are presented. The observable ASS has been measured the first time above 800 MeV and our results are in sharp contrast to phase-shift predictions at higher energies. Our analysis shows that some of the ambiguities in the direct reconstruction of scattering amplitudes which also show up as differences between available phase-shift solutions, will be reduced by these new measurements

  16. Modern topics in electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  17. Electron Cloud Simulations of a Proton Storage Ring Using Cold Proton Bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Lee, S.Y.; Macek, R.

    2008-01-01

    Using the ORBIT code we study the sensitivity of electron cloud properties with respect to different proton beam profiles, the secondary electron yield (SEY) parameter, and the proton loss rate. Our model uses a cold proton bunch to generate primary electrons and electromagnetic field for electron cloud dynamics. We study the dependence of the prompt and swept electron signals vs the bunch charge and the recovery of electron clouds after sweeping on the beam loss rate and the SEY. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured at the proton storage ring at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Our simulations indicate that the fractional proton loss rate in the field-free straight section may be an exponential function of proton beam charge and may also be lower than the averaged fractional proton loss rate over the whole ring.

  18. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  19. Electron scattering and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the historical development and the theory necessary to the interpretation of the experimental results is made. Some measurement techniques, experimental results and the technique of analysis of these data are presented. Future perspectives, due to the appearence of continous electron current accelerators, in this field of study are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.Y.; Mills, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains highlights of accomplishments of the past year, for the University of California, Irvine and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee collaboration on surface excitations, and their interactions with low energy electrons. In addition, we present a summary of future research to be carried out in the coming grant year

  1. Study of inelastic proton scattering at isobaric analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.L.

    1974-01-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at isobaric analog resonances (IAR's) was studied using the targets 138 Ba and 92 Mo. Differential cross sections and analyzing powers were measured at the 10.00, 10.63, 11.09, 11.45, and 11.70 MeV resonances in 138 Ba + p and at the 5.89, 6.09, and 6.55 MeV resonances in 92 Mo + p. In addition, a new measurement, the spin flip asymmetry, was developed. The experiment was performed by using a polarized beam to make spin flip measurements. Angular distributions for the spin flip probability and spin flip asymmetry were measured at all of the above energies except for the lowest three resonances in 138 Ba, where only the spin flip probability was measured. A DWBA code modified to include the coherent addition of resonance amplitudes was used to analyze the 138 Ba data. The partial widths extracted from this analysis were converted to expansion coefficients for parent states in 139 Ba. The coefficients were found to be in good agreement with unified model calculations. For 92 Mo, inelastic polarizations, deduced from the spin flip and spin flip asymmetry, were found to be large. Attempts using Hauser Feshbach theory to describe both the cross section and polarization data repeatedly failed for both the 6.55 and 5.87 MeV IAR's. This failure represents strong evidence that Hauser Feshbach theory is not valid when extended to describe scattering at an IAR. The 92 Mo data were analyzed using a reaction theory modified to include channel-channel correlations. This theory predicts that the enhanced compound scattering is identical to the resonance scattering. Good fits have been obtained with the use of this modified Hauser Feshbach theory. (U.S.)

  2. Analysing power for quasi-elastic pp scattering in carbon and for elastic pp scattering on free protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, J.; Deregel, J.; Lehar, F.

    1984-01-01

    The ratio of the analysing powers for quasi-elastic pp scattering in carbon and for elastic scattering on free protons was measured from T = 0.52 to 2.8 GeV by scattering of the SATURNE II polarized proton beam on carbon and CH 2 . It was found to have a maximum at about 0.8 GeV. The energy dependence for quasi-elastic scattering on carbon had not been measured before above 1 GeV. The observed effect was not expected from simple models

  3. Proton-antiproton colliding beam electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility of effective cooling of high-energy pp tilde beams (E=10 2 -10 3 GeV) in the colliding mode by accompanying radiationally cooled electron beam circulating in an adjacent storage ring is studied. The cooling rate restrictions by the pp tilde beam interaction effects while colliding and the beam self-heating effect due to multiple internal scattering are considered. Some techniques permitting to avoid self-heating of a cooling electron beam or suppress its harmful effect on a heavy particle beam cooling are proposed. According to the estimations the cooling time of 10 2 -10 3 s order can be attained [ru

  4. Forward two-photon exchange in elastic lepton-proton scattering and hyperfine-splitting correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We relate the forward two-photon exchange (TPE) amplitudes to integrals of the inclusive lepton-proton scattering cross sections. These relations yield an alternative way for the evaluation of the TPE correction to hyperfine-splitting (HFS) in the hydrogen-like atoms with an equivalent to the standard approach (Iddings, Drell and Sullivan) result implying the Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule. For evaluation of the individual effects (e.g., elastic contribution) our approach yields a distinct result. We compare both methods numerically on examples of the elastic contribution and the full TPE correction to HFS in electronic and muonic hydrogen. (orig.)

  5. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-Proton and Proton-Water Scattering at 1.5 GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; MacArthur, D.; Nagle, D. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R. L.

    1984-07-01

    Experiments searching for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 1.5 GeV/c (800 MeV) polarized protons from an unpolarized water target and a liquid hydrogen target are described. The intensity of the incident proton beam was measured upstream and downstream of the target by a pair of ionization detectors. The beam helicity was reversed at a 30-Hz rate. Auxiliary detectors monitored beam properties that could give rise to false effects. The result for the longitudinal asymmetry from the water is A{sub L} = (1.7 +- 3.3 +- 1.4) x 10{sup -7}, where the first error is statistical and the second is an estimate of systematic effects. The hydrogen data yield a preliminary result of A{sub L} = (1.0 +- 1.6) x 10{sup -7}. The systematic errors for p-p are expected to be < 1 x 10{sup -7}.

  6. Electron clearing for the ISA proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The circulating protons in the ISABELLE intersecting storage ring accelerator will collide with the residual gas in the vacuum chamber. The electrons produced will tend to be captured by the potential well of the beam itself and result in a neutralization of the space charge of the beam. A detailed analysis is given of the various mechanisms which can be used to reduce the net degree of beam neutralization. It is concluded that the average neutralization will be about 10 -4 for a residual gas pressure of 3 x 10 -11 torr of hydrogen

  7. Dynamic properties of electrons in solids by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1980-12-01

    Illustrative cases of the use of neutron scattering in the study of the electronic properties of materials discussed here include scattering by localised electrons, narrow band materials and electron plasmas. (U.K.)

  8. Multiple scattering of slow muons in an electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C.D.; Arista, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of the angular dispersion of slow muons in an electron gas is performed using 3 dielectric models which represent the case of metals (Lindhard model for a free electron gas) and the cases of semiconductors and insulators (Levine and Louie model and Brandt and Reinheimer model for systems with a band gap) and a non-linear model for both cases at very low velocities. The contribution of collective electronic excitations according to the dielectric model are found to be negligible. The results from the calculation using Lindhard expressions for the angular half width are consistent with the result of a multiple scattering model. In particular, the effects produced by the band gap of the material are analyzed in detail. Finally, as the recoil effect is negligible, there is an almost exact scaling, for a given velocity, between the proton and the muon results. (authors)

  9. Neutrino oscillations and neutrino-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.; Rosen, S.P.

    1980-10-01

    Neutrino flavor oscillations can significantly alter the cross section for neutrino-electron scattering. As a result, such oscillations can affect the comparison between existing reactor data and theories of neutral-current processes. They may also lead to strikingly large effects in high-energy accelerator experiments

  10. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.; Iachello, F.; Creswell, C.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 + states in the transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    A review is given of elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Recent experimental results are reviewed and the current problems in interpretation of these results are pointed out. Some questions for future experiments are posed, and a preview of possible future measurements is presented. 28 references

  12. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  13. Proton polarizing system with Ar-ion laser for p-vector-RI scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, T.; Hatano, M.; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.; Tamii, A.

    2005-01-01

    A proton polarizing system for use in scattering experiments with radioactive isotope beams is described. Protons in a naphthalene crystal doped with pentacene are polarized in a magnetic field of 0.3T at 100K by transferring a large population difference among the photo-excited triplet states of pentacene to the hydrogen nuclei. An Ar-ion laser, which demands minimal maintenance during scattering experiments, is employed to excite the pentacene molecules. A proton polarization of 37% is obtained

  14. Relativistic corrections to the elastic electron scattering from 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, H.; Sauer, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the present work we have calculated the differential cross sections for the elastic electron scattering from 208 Pb using the charge distributions resulting from various corrections. The point proton and neutron mass distributions have been calculated from the spherical wave functions for 208 Pb obtained by Kolb et al. The relativistic correction to the nuclear charge distribution coming from the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon has been accomplished by assuming a linear superposition of Gaussian shapes for the proton and the neutron charge form factor. Results of this calculation are quite similar to an earlier calculation by Bertozzi et al., who have used a different wave function for 208 Pb and have assumed exponential smearing for the proton corresponding to the dipole fit for the form factor. Also in the present work, reason for the small spin orbit contribution to the effective charge distribution is discussed in some detail. It is also shown that the use of a single Gaussian shape for the proton smearing usually underestimates the actual theoretical cross section

  15. Spin structure function measurements with polarized protons and electrons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.D.; Deshpande, A.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Useful insights into the spin structure functions of the nucleon can be achieved by measurements of spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA. Such an experiment would be a natural extension of the polarized lepton-nucleon scattering experiments presently carried out at CERN and SLAC. We present here estimates of possible data in the extended kinematic range of HERA and associated statistical errors. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear structure of 41Ca from inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, P.B.; Cline, D.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1977-01-01

    Angular distributions have been measured for inelastic and elastic scattering of 19 MeV protons on 40 41 Ca. A total of 89 levels were identified below 6.4 MeV in 41 Ca with an energy resolution of 12 keV. Inelastic transition strengths have been extracted using DWBA theory with a vibrational model form factor. These transition strengths correlate well with inelastic α-scattering and electromagnetic values. The quadrupole strengths are interpreted in terms of the coexistence model and imply that the excited-core admixture in the ground states of both 40 Ca and 41 Ca are approximately 5%. The octupole strengths in 41 Ca exhibits features characteristic of the weak coupling of an fsub(7/2) neutron to the lowest 3 - state in 40 Ca. The l = 5 strength exhibits a similar weak-coupling behavior. In both cases the microscopic structure appreciably reduces the transition strength for the highest spin member of the weak-coupling multiplets. (Auth.)

  17. Electron inelastic scattering by compound nuclei and giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavadov, A.V.; Mukhtarov, A.I.; Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Multipole giant resonances in heavy nuclei have been investigated with the application of the Danos-Greiner dynamic collective theory to the Tassi model. The monopole giant resonance has been studied in 158 Gd, 166 Er, 184 W, 232 Th and 238 V nuclei at the incident electron energy E=200 MeV. Dependences of the form factor square of electron scattering by a 166 Er nucleus on the scattering angle obtained in the distorted-wave high-energy approximation (DWHEA) are presented. Giant dipole and quadrupole resonances in 60 Ni and 90 Zr nuclei have been studied. A comparison has been made of theoretical results obtained in the DWHEA for the dependence of the form factor square on the effective momentum transfer with the experimental data. The analysis of the obtained results led to the following conclusions. To draw a conclusion about the validity of one or another nuclear model and methods for calculating form factors, it is necessary to investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, electron scattering at great angles (THETA>=70 deg). To obtain a good agreement it is necessary to take account of the actual proton and neutron distributions in the ground state and their dynamic properties in an excited state [ru

  18. Review of two-photon exchange in electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, P. G. Blunden, W. Melnitchouk

    2011-10-01

    We review the role of two-photon exchange (TPE) in electron-hadron scattering, focusing in particular on hadronic frameworks suitable for describing the low and moderate Q^2 region relevant to most experimental studies. We discuss the effects of TPE on the extraction of nucleon form factors and their role in the resolution of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio puzzle. The implications of TPE on various other observables, including neutron form factors, electroproduction of resonances and pions, and nuclear form factors, are summarized. Measurements seeking to directly identify TPE effects, such as through the angular dependence of polarization measurements, nonlinear epsilon contributions to the cross sections, and via e+p to e-p cross section ratios, are also outlined. In the weak sector, we describe the role of TPE and gamma-Z interference in parity-violating electron scattering, and assess their impact on the extraction of the strange form factors of the nucleon and the weak charge of the proton.

  19. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  20. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-10

    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  1. Detection of forward-scattered protons in photon-induced reactions on the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koop, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The study of excitation spectra of hadrons can contribute to a better understanding of the strong interaction. A method is the photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon. Because of the width of the excited states a consideration of polarization observables is helpful in order to be abble to separate overlapping states. In this thesis an experiment for the study of the polarization of the recoil proton is presented. The setup presented here is part of the BGO-OD experiment at the ELSA electron accelerator of the Bonn university. BGO-OD consists of an electromagnetic calorimeter, which surrounds the target, several track detectors in forward direction, and a dipole magnet for the momentum measurement of charged particles. The presented detector is located immediately behind the liquid hydrogen target. In order to be able to determine the polarization of the recoil proton these are scattered on an analyzer, whereby the distribution of the scattering angles is polarization dependent. In this thesis a detector was developed in order to determine the track of the charged particles before and behind the target and by this the scattering angle. Furthermore simulations were performed, which show the realizability of the experiment.

  2. Measurements of Compton Scattering on the Proton at 2 - 6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danagoulian, Areg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Similar to elastic electron scattering, Compton Scattering on the proton at high momentum transfers(and high p⊥) can be an effective method to study its short-distance structure. An experiment has been carried out to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering (RCS) on the proton for 2.3-5.7 GeV electron beam energies and a wide distribution of large scattering angles. The 25 kinematic settings sampled a domain of s = 5-11(GeV/c)2,-t = -7(GeV/c)2 and -u = 0.5-6.5(GeV/c)2. In addition, a measurement of longitudinal and transverse polarization transfer asymmetries was made at a 3.48 GeV beam energy and a scattering angle of θcm = 120°. These measurements were performed to test the existing theoretical mechanisms for this process as well as to determine RCS form factors. At the heart of the scientific motivation is the desire to understand the manner in which a nucleon interacts with external excitations at the above listed energies, by comparing and contrasting the two existing models – Leading Twist Mechanism and Soft Overlap “Handbag” Mechanism – and identify the dominant mechanism. Furthermore, the Handbag Mechanism allows one to calculate reaction observables in the framework of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD), which have the function of bridging the wide gap between the exclusive(form factors) and inclusive(parton distribution functions) description of the proton. The experiment was conducted in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility(Jefferson Lab). It used a polarized and unpolarized electron beam, a 6% copper radiator with the thickness of 6.1% radiation lengths (to produce a bremsstrahlung photon beam), the Hall A liquid hydrogen target, a high resolution spectrometer with a focal plane polarimeter, and a photon hodoscope calorimeter. Results of the differential cross sections are presented, and discussed in the general context of the scientific motivation.

  3. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  4. Quasielastic electron scattering from 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Schmitt, W.M.; Osborn, M.; Deady, M.; Zimmerman, P.D.; Blatchley, C.C.; Seth, K.K.; Sarmiento, M.; Parker, B.; Jin, Y.; Wright, L.E.; Onley, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differential cross sections for quasielastic electron scattering on 40 Ca have been measured at laboratory scattering angles of 45.5 degree, 90 degree, and 140 degree with bombarding energies ranging from 130 to 840 MeV. Transverse and longitudinal response functions have been extracted for momentum transfers from 300 to 500 MeV/c. Contrary to some previously reported results, the total observed longitudinal strength agrees with the relativistic Fermi gas prediction to within ±18%. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  6. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Yates, Brent; Hong, Ling; Khakoo, Murtadha A. [California State University at Fullerton, CA (US). Physics Department; Bettega, Marcio H.F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Costa, Romarly F. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Lima, Marco A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  7. Reaction Mechanism and Structure Interplay for Proton Elastic Scattering from Halo Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering cross sections can not, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  8. Reaction mechanism and structure interplay for proton elastic scattering from halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering crosssections cannot, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  9. Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter ρ(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.

  10. Probing the phase of the elastic pp scattering amplitude with vortex proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, I. P. [IFPA, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, batiment B5a, 4000 Liege, Belgium Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Koptyug avenue 4, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    We show that colliding vortex proton beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. In elastic pp scattering, this will open a novel way to measure the parameter {rho}(t) and probe the real part of the Pomeron.

  11. Incoherent imaging using dynamically scattered coherent electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellist, P.D.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We use a Bloch wave approach to show that, even for coherent dynamical scattering from a stationary lattice with no absorption, annular dark-field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope gives a direct incoherent structure image of the atomic-column positions of a zone-axis-aligned crystal. Although many Bloch waves may be excited by the probe, the detector provides a filtering effect so that the 1s-type bound states are found to dominate the image contrast for typical experimental conditions. We also find that the column intensity is related to the transverse kinetic energy of the 1s states, which gives atomic number, Z, contrast. The additional effects of phonon scattering are discussed, in particular the reasons why phonon scattering is not a prerequisite for transverse incoherence. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Electron Scattering from MERCURY-198 and Mercury -204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksanaboonsong, Jarungsaeng

    This experiment is the first electron scattering study on mercury isotopes. Electron scattering from ^{198}Hg and ^{204 }Hg has been performed at the NIKHEF-K Medium Energy Accelerator. Measured cross sections cover an effective momentum transfer range from 0.4 to 2.9 fm^ {-1}. Elastic cross sections were determined for scattering from both isotopes. Cross section for inelastic excitations in ^{198}Hg below 3 MeV were also determined. Measured cross sections were fit using DWBA phase shift codes to determine coefficients for Fourier-Bessel expansions of ground state and transition charge densities. Differences between the ground state charge densities of the two isotopes reveal the effect of the polarization of the proton core in response to the addition of neutrons. Spin and parity of several excited states of ^{198}Hg were determined. Extracted transition densities of these states show their predominantly collective nature. Charge densities for members of the ground state rotational band were compared with axially symmetric Hartree-Fock and geometrical model predictions.

  13. Electron, proton, neutron as spheroidical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagge, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to describe the electron and the proton at rest within the framework of Dirac's relativistic theory of particles as electro-magnetic stable, spheroidal particles like balloons with very thin envelopes. Their properties, especially their spins and their magnetic momenta, are exactly those, which have been measured at first and later on derived by Dirac. In this picture the neutron plays the role of a system of two concentric and synchronically rotating balloons with a small distance between them at a positive energetic minimum of balance at 1.26 MeV. The magnetic moment of this particle has a negative sign and is of the correct size. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical Analysis of Proton Relays in Electrochemical Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Benjamin; Fernandez, Laura; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of long-range electron transfer to proton transport over multiple sites plays a vital role in many biological and chemical processes. Recently a molecule with a hydrogen-bond relay inserted between the proton donor and acceptor sites in a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) system was studied electrochemically. The standard rate constants and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured experimentally for this system and a related single proton transfer system. In the present paper, these systems are studied theoretically using vibronically nonadiabatic rate constant expressions for electrochemical PCET. Application of this approach to proton relays requires the calculation of multidimensional proton vibrational wavefunctions and incorporation of multiple proton donor-acceptor motions. The calculated KIEs and relative standard rate constants for the single and double proton transfer systems are in agreement with the experimental data. The calculations indicate that the standard rate constant is lower for the double proton transfer system because of the smaller overlap integral between the ground state reduced and oxidized proton vibrational wavefunctions for this system, resulting in greater contributions from excited electron-proton vibronic states with higher free energy barriers. The decrease in proton donor-acceptor distances due to thermal fluctuations and the contributions from excited electron-proton vibronic states play important roles in proton relay systems. The theory suggests that the PCET rate constant may be increased by decreasing the equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distances or modifying the thermal motions of the molecule to facilitate the concurrent decrease of these distances. The submission of this journal article in ERIA is a requirement of the EFRC subcontract with Pennsylvania State University collaborators to get publications to OSTI.

  15. Electron scattering and collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear collective degrees of freedom are investigated through the study of the radial dependance of their wave function. Inelastic electron scattering is shown to be the appropriate tool to extract such a detailed information. Some recent results on spherical as well as deformed nuclei are discussed and the most recent extensions to the mean field approach are compared to these data in order to clarify the present status of our understanding of the dynamical properties of complex nuclei

  16. Cosmic ray electrons and protons, and their antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezio, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays are a sample of solar, galactic, and extragalactic matter. Their origin, acceleration mechanisms, and subsequent propagation toward Earth have intrigued scientists since their discovery. These issues can be studied via analysis of the energy spectra and composition of cosmic rays. Protons are the most abundant component of the cosmic radiation, and many experiments have been dedicated to the accurate measurement of their spectra. Complementary information is provided by electrons, which comprise about 1% of the cosmic radiation. Because of their low mass, electrons experience severe energy losses through synchrotron emission in the galactic magnetic field and inverse Compton scattering of radiation fields. Electrons therefore provide information on the local galactic environment that is not accessible from the study of the cosmic ray nuclei. Antiparticles, namely antiprotons and positrons, are produced in the interaction between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar matter. They are therefore intimately linked to the propagation mechanisms of the parent nuclei. Novel sources of primary cosmic ray antiparticles of either astrophysical (e.g., positrons from pulsars) or exotic origin (e.g., annihilation of dark matter particles) may exist. The nature of dark matter is one of the most prominent open questions in science today. An observation of positrons from pulsars would open a new observation window on these sources. Several experiments equipped with state-of-the art detector systems have recently presented results on the energy spectra of electrons, protons, and their antiparticles with a significant improvement in statistics and better control of systematics The status of the field will be reviewed, with a focus on these recent scientific results. (author)

  17. Spin structure of the proton from polarized inclusive deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, Guenter; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjorkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; de Botton, N.; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, Stephen L.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; van Dantzig, R.; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Giorgi, M.; von Goeler, E.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gulmez, Erhan; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kishi, A.; Kiselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kramer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kroger, W.; Kurek, K.; Kyynarainen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; van Middelkoop, G.; Miller, D.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Parks, D.P.; Penzo, A.; Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Reyhancan, I.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Rosado, A.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schuler, K.P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sever, F.; Shanahan, P.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simeoni, F.; Smirnov, G.I.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A.; Stiegler, U.; Stuhrmann, H.; Szleper, M.; Teichert, K.M.; Tessarotto, F.; Tlaczala, W.; Trentalange, S.; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vogt, J.; Voss, R.; Weinstein, R.; Whitten, C.; Windmolders, R.; Willumeit, R.; Wislicki, W.; Witzmann, A.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the spin-dependent structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of polarized muons off polarized protons, in the kinematic range $0.003 < x < 0.7$ and $1\\gevtwo < Q^2 < 60\\gevtwo$. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis is used to evolve the measured $\\gpone(x,Q^2)$ to a fixed $Q^2_0$. The first moment of $\\gpone$ at $Q^2_0 = 10\\gevtwo$ is $\\gammap = 0.136\\pm 0.013 \\,(\\mbox{stat.}) \\pm 0.009\\,(\\mbox{syst.})\\pm 0.005\\ (\\mbox{evol.})$. This result is below the prediction of the Ellis--Jaffe sum rule by more than two standard deviations. The singlet axial charge $\\dsigt$ is found to be $0.28 \\pm 0.16$. In the Adler--Bardeen factorization scheme, $\\Delta g \\simeq 2$ is required to bring $\\Delta \\Sigma$ in agreement with the Quark-Parton Model. A combined analysis of all available proton and deuteron data confirms the Bjorken sum rule.

  18. Study of the proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies through eikonal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Alvaro Favinha

    1995-01-01

    The proton-proton elastic scattering in the center of mass energy region 23 to 63 GeV is investigated through a multiple diffraction model. As an introduction to the subject, a detailed review of the fundamental basis of the Multiple Diffraction Formalism and a survey of the multiple diffraction models (geometrical) currently used are presented. The goal of this investigation is to reformulate one of these models, which makes use of an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude purely imaginary and is not able to predict the ρ-parameter (the ratio of the forward real and imaginary parts of the hadronic amplitude). Introducing a real part for the elementary amplitude proportional to the imaginary part, improvements in the formalism are obtained. It is shown that this new approach is able to reproduce all experimental data on differential and integrated cross sections (total, elastic and inelastic), but not the ρ-parameter as function of the energy. Then, starting from fitting of this parameter an overall reproduction of the physical observables is obtained, with the exception of the dip region (diffractive minimum in the differential cross section) overall description are also not firmly reached in all these models. Finally, alternatives to improve the results in a future research are suggested and discussed. (author)

  19. Electronic isotope shifts, muonic atoms, and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of electronic isotope shift, muonic atom, and electron scattering experiments in studying the nuclear charge distribution are discussed in terms of the potentials of each probe. Barium isotope shift data are presented as an example of a combined muonic-optical analysis and the results are compared with droplet and IBA model predictions. A survey of muonic and (e,e) results is presented with emphasis on shell-structure related features

  20. Thermal diffuse scattering in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, B.D.; D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Van Dyck, D. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); LeBeau, J.M. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Stemmer, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    In conventional transmission electron microscopy, thermal scattering significantly affects the image contrast. It has been suggested that not accounting for this correctly is the main cause of the Stobbs factor, the ubiquitous, large contrast mismatch found between theory and experiment. In the case where a hard aperture is applied, we show that previous conclusions drawn from work using bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy and invoking the principle of reciprocity are reliable in the presence of thermal scattering. In the aperture-free case it has been suggested that even the most sophisticated mathematical models for thermal diffuse scattering lack in their numerical implementation, specifically that there may be issues in sampling, including that of the contrast transfer function of the objective lens. We show that these concerns can be satisfactorily overcome with modest computing resources; thermal scattering can be modelled accurately enough for the purpose of making quantitative comparison between simulation and experiment. Spatial incoherence of the source is also investigated. Neglect or inadequate handling of thermal scattering in simulation can have an appreciable effect on the predicted contrast and can be a significant contribution to the Stobbs factor problem. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the numerical requirements for accurate simulation of TDS in CTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TDS can be simulated to high precision using the Born-Oppenheimer model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such calculations establish the contribution of TDS to the Stobbs factor problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treating spatial incoherence using envelope functions increases image contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rigorous treatment of spatial incoherence significantly reduces image contrast.

  1. Electron scattering cross sections pertinent to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1978-01-01

    Some elements of the physics that determine cross sections are discussed, and various sources of data are indicated that should be useful for analytical microscopy. Atoms, molecules, and to some extent, solids are considered. Inelastic and elastic scattering of electrons and some solid-state effects are treated. 30 references

  2. Electron distortion effects in quasi-eleastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanhe.

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: dirac single particle shell model; dirac free states in Coulomb and optical potentials; deep inelastic electron scattering; plane wave born approximation and Rosenbluth separation; analysis of the 40 Ca(e,e') experimental data; and analysis of the exclusive (e,e'p) experimental data

  3. Why the Real Part of the Proton-Proton Forward Scattering Amplitude Should be Measured at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrely, C.; Martin, Andre; Soffer, Jacques; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2006-01-01

    For the energy of 14 TeV, to be reached at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have had for some time accurate predictions for both the real and imaginary parts of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude. LHC is now scheduled to start operating in two years, and it is timely to discuss some of the important consequences of the measurements of both the total cross-section and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part. We stress the importance of measuring the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude at LHC, because a deviation from existing theoretical predictions could be a strong sign for new physics.

  4. Prospects for Measuring $\\Delta$G from Jets at HERA with Polarized Protons and Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    De Roeck, A.; Kunne, F.; Maul, M.; Schafer, A.; Wu, C.Y.; Mirkes, E.; Radel, G.

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the polarized gluon distribution function Delta G(x) from photon-gluon fusion processes in electron-proton deep inelastic scattering producing two jets has been investigated. The study is based on the MEPJET and PEPSI simulation programs. The size of the expected spin asymmetry and corresponding statistical uncertainties for a possible measurement with polarized beams of electrons and protons at HERA have been estimated. The results show that the asymmetry can reach a few percent, and is not washed out by hadronization and higher order processes.

  5. Prospects for measuring ΔG from jets at HERA with polarized protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, A. de; Feltesse, J.; Kunne, F.; Maul, M.; Schaefer, A.; Wu, C.Y.; Mirkes, E.; Raedel, G.

    1996-09-01

    The measurement of the polarized gluon distribution function ΔG(x) from photon-gluon fusion processes in electron-proton deep inelastic scattering producing two jets has been investigated. The study is based on the MEPJET and PEPSI simulation programs. The size of the expected spin asymmetry and corresponding statistical uncertainties for a possible measurement with polarized beams of electrons and protons at HERA have been estimated. The results show that the asymmetry can reach a few percent, and is not washed out by hadronization and higher order processes. (orig.)

  6. A fully microscopic model of 200 MeV proton-12C elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.; Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.; de Swiniarski, R.

    1996-01-01

    An effective two nucleon (NN) interaction in the nuclear medium is defined from an accurate mapping of the NN g matrices obtained by solving the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations for infinite nuclear matter. That effective interaction is used in a fully microscopic calculation of the nonlocal effective proton- 12 C interaction from which are obtained predictions of the differential cross section and analysing power for 200 MeV elastic scattering. The relative motion wave functions so found are used as the distorted waves in a distorted wave approximation (DWA) study of select inelastic scattering events. The effective NN interaction is used as the transition operator in those calculations. The relevant nuclear spectroscopy for the elastic and DWA (p, p') calculations is found from a full (0 + 2) ℎω shell model evaluation of the positive parity states while a restricted (1 + 3)ℎω has been used to give the negative parity states. Results are compared with those of the 0p-shell model of Cohen and Kurath or with those based upon axially symmetric, projected Hartree-Fock calculations. The diverse structure model wave functions are assessed by using them in calculations to compare with measured longitudinal, transverse electric and transverse magnetic form factors from electron scattering to many of the excited states of 12 C. Using those models of the structure of 12 C in the completely microscopic model of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons, good fits have been found to the cross section and analysing power data. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs

  7. Measurement of the spin-spin correlation parameter C/sub LL/(THETA) in proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    The experimental procedures and methods of data analysis used to measure the spin-spin correlation parameter C/sub LL/(THETA) in proton-proton scattering at thirteen different energies in the range 300 to 800 MeV are presented. The results compare favorably with previous data. Good agreement is found with phase shift predictions at energies below 500 MeV

  8. Medium energy inelastic proton-nucleus scattering with spin dependent NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Auger, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The previously proposed effective profile expansion method for the Glauber multiple scattering model calculation has been extended to the case of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering with spin dependent NN interaction. Using the method which turns out to be computationally simple and of relatively wider applicability, a study of sensitivity of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering calculation to the sometimes neglected momentum transfer dependence of the NN scattering amplitude has been made. We find that the calculated polarization is particularly sensitive in this respect. (author)

  9. Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, G. Cara Romeo F.; Corradi, M.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; Palmonari, F.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Pellegrino, A.

    The semi-inclusive reaction e(+)p -> e(+) Xp was studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA with an integrated luminosity of 12.8 pb(-1). The final-state proton, which was detected with the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer, carried a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x(L) > 0.32, and its

  10. Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Ernest [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Stemmer, Susanne [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maracas, George [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2014-02-25

    The ability to correlate the atomic- and nanoscale-structure of condensed matter with physical properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, catalytic, and optical) and functionality forms the core of many disciplines. Directing and controlling materials at the quantum-, atomic-, and molecular-levels creates enormous challenges and opportunities across a wide spectrum of critical technologies, including those involving the generation and use of energy. The workshop identified next generation electron scattering and diffraction instruments that are uniquely positioned to address these grand challenges. The workshop participants identified four key areas where the next generation of such instrumentation would have major impact: A – Multidimensional Visualization of Real Materials B – Atomic-scale Molecular Processes C – Photonic Control of Emergence in Quantum Materials D – Evolving Interfaces, Nucleation, and Mass Transport Real materials are comprised of complex three-dimensional arrangements of atoms and defects that directly determine their potential for energy applications. Understanding real materials requires new capabilities for three-dimensional atomic scale tomography and spectroscopy of atomic and electronic structures with unprecedented sensitivity, and with simultaneous spatial and energy resolution. Many molecules are able to selectively and efficiently convert sunlight into other forms of energy, like heat and electric current, or store it in altered chemical bonds. Understanding and controlling such process at the atomic scale require unprecedented time resolution. One of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics is to understand, and ultimately control, emergent phenomena in novel quantum materials that necessitate developing a new generation of instruments that probe the interplay among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom with intrinsic time- and length-scale resolutions. Molecules and soft matter require imaging and

  11. Proton-proton elastic scattering at the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at √ s = 7 TeV in dedicated runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close as seven times the transverse beam size (σbeam) from the outgoing beams. After careful study of the accelerator optics and the detector alignment, |t| , the square of four-momentum transferred in the elastic scattering process, has been determined with an uncertainty of δ t = 0.1 GeV √ |t|. In this letter the...

  12. Elastic scattering of protons at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080719; Csanád, Máté; Niewiadomski, Hubert

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC at CERN is optimized to measure elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC and measures the total proton-proton cross-section with\tthe luminosity-independent method. The TOTEM experiment uses the special technique of movable beam pipe insertions -- called Roman Pots -- to detect very forward protons. The reconstruction of the forward proton kinematics requires the precise understanding of the LHC beam optics. A new method of LHC optics determination is reported, which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered proton-proton data measured by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM experiment. The method has been successfully applied to data samples recorded since 2010. The interpretation of the proton-proton elastic differential cross-section is a challenging task. The geometrical model of proton-proton elastic scattering of Bialas and Bzdak is fitted to ISR data and to data measured by the TOTEM experiment at LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The Bialas-Bzdak model is g...

  13. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies

  14. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); McEachran, R. P. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-21

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.

  15. A study of the internal spin structure of the proton through inclusive and semi-inclusive polarized deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, V.

    1988-01-01

    The internal spin structure of the proton was studied in a deep-inelastic scattering experiment a CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, by the European Muon Collaboration, using a longitudinally polarized muon beam and a longitudinally polarized target at irradiated ammonia. The spin asymmetry was studied as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x and the results were in agreement over the region of overlap with previous experiments that used lower-energy polarized electron beams. The higher energies of the experiment allowed to study with precision the previously unexplored region of x below 0.1 and to compute the integral of the spin-dependent structure function g 1 of the proton. This integral was found to be in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule which could imply either a breakdown of the SU(3) symmetry in the decays of the members of the baryon octet or a significant polarization of the strange-quark sea of the proton opposite to the proton spin. In either case and assuming the validity of the Bjorken sum rule that relates the integrals of the spin-dependent structure functions of the proton and the neutron, the total helicity of all the quarks is found to account for only a small fraction of the proton helicity. In addition, spin asymmetries in the semi-inclusive reactions where a hadron of definite sign is observed in the final state were studied. The results are consistent with the down quarks being polarized opposite to the proton spin, as expected by symmetry arguments. Implication of the results on different areas in particle physics are presented. Some future prospects for spin physics are discussed and predictions are given for deep-inelastic-scattering experiments on polarized deuterium targets and the spin structure of the neutron

  16. Quasi-four-particle first-order Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace terms in proton-helium scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzade, Zohre; Akbarabadi, Farideh Shojaei; Fathi, Reza; Brunger, Michael J.; Bolorizadeh, Mohammad A.

    2017-06-01

    The Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace equations, which are typically used for solving three-particle scattering problems, are based on the assumption of target having one active electron while the other electrons remain passive during the collision process. So, in the case of protons scattering from helium or helium-like targets, in which there are two bound-state electrons, the passive electron has a static role in the collision channel to be studied. In this work, we intend to assign a dynamic role to all the target electrons, as they are physically active in the collision. By including an active role for the second electron in proton-helium-like collisions, a new form of the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace integral equations is needed, in which there is no disconnected kernel. We consider the operators and the wave functions associated with the electrons to obey the Pauli exclusion principle, as the electrons are indistinguishable. In addition, a quasi-three-particle collision is assumed in the initial channel, where the electronic cloud is represented as a single identity in the collision.

  17. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  18. Hadron-proton elastic scattering at 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, C.W.; Kotthaus, R.; Loveless, R.L.; Meyer, D.I.; Ambats, I.; Meyer, W.T.; Ward, C.E.W.; Eartly, D.P.; Lundy, R.A.; Pruss, S.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Rust, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Elastic scattering of hadrons on protons has been measured at momenta of 50, 100, and 200 GeV/c. The meson-proton scattering is found to be independent of momentum and meson type for -t > 0.8 (GeV/c) 2 . The momentum dependence of the pp dip at -t = 1.4 (GeV/c) 2 was investigated. Slope parameters are given

  19. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  20. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  1. Electron--molecule scattering in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.

    1979-01-01

    We examine the Fourier transform of the Schroedinger equation for electron--molecule scattering, treated as potential scattering from a multicenter distribution of charged fixed in space. When the angle theta between R,the internuclear vector of a diatomic target, and q, the momentum transfer, is held fixed during the collision, then the directions of incidence and scattering are fixed relative to R. The process is then described as having a dynamical dependence on the magnitude of q, q, from which the scattering angle is determined, and a parametric dependence on q's direction relative to R. This approximation is used routinely at high energies in the calculation of the Born amplitude. Fixed--nuclei coordinate--space studies suggest that this approximation can be extended to low energies, provided the amplitude is taken from the solution of the integral equation of momentum space rather than from its inhomogeneity, proportional to the Born amplitude. We constrain R to be in the same direction relative to q', a virtual momentum transfer belonging to the kernel, as it is to q.Calculations are performed for the e, H 2 scattering in the static approximation, and cross sections averaged over theta/sub R/ are shown to be in good agreement with cross sections calculated by use of coupled spherical and coupled spheroidal partial wave theories. The angular distribution in the static approximation is also calculated at an incident energy close to 7 eV, where exchange is relatively unimportant. This result is in reasonably good agreement with that of R matrix theory in the static--exchange approximation. The extension of the theory to treat exchange is formulated and discussed. Also its extension to treat more complicated molecular targets is discussed

  2. The forward rainbow scattering of low energy protons by a graphene sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2018-05-01

    This article studies the rainbow scattering of 5-keV protons by the single sheet of free-standing graphene and its possible use as a tool for investigation of the ion-graphene interaction. The proton-graphene interaction potential was constructed by using the Doyle-Turner, ZBL, and Molière proton-carbon interaction potentials. The thermal motion of carbon atoms was included by averaging the potentials according to the Debye model. Proton trajectories were obtained by numerical solution of the corresponding Newton equations of motion. They were used to obtain the mapping of the proton initial positions to their scattering angles. Morphological properties of the introduced mapping including its multiplicity and the rainbow singularities were used to explain important features of the obtained angular distributions of transmitted protons.

  3. Measurement of the Ratio of the Neutron and Proton Structure Functions $F_2$ in Inelastic Muon Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Robert D. [UC, San Diego

    1992-01-01

    The ratio of the neutron and proton structure functions $F_2$ has been measured to very low $X_{bj}$ using inelastic muon scattering. Data were taken in 1990 using 475 GeV muons incident on hydrogen and deuterium targets. Electromagnetic calorimetry has been used to remove radiative backgrounds and muon-electron elastic scattering. Results of the measurement are presented which cover the kinematic region 0.0001 $\\le$ $X_{bj} \\le$ 0.4 and 0.1 GeV$^2$ /$c^2$ $\\le$ $Q^2$ $\\le$ 100.0 GeV$^2$ /c$^2$.

  4. Proton optical potential and scattering matrix for tin nuclei at sub-coulomb energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzhovskij, B.Ya.; Dzyuba, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    A unified set of parameters of the proton optical potential (OP) for the n nuclei is searched for in the below-Coulomb-barrier energy range. The set must describe well the experimental data on the pn-reaction total cross sections and on the angular distributions of elastically scattered protons at E [ru

  5. Elastic proton scattering on tritium below the n-3He threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazauskas R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic calculations using Faddeev-Yakubovski equations in configuration space are performed for low energy elastic proton scattering on 3H nucleus. Realistic nuclear Hamiltonians are used. Coulomb repulsion between the protons as well as isospin breaking effects are rigorously treated.

  6. Advances in positron and electron scattering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Krishnakumar, E.; Petrović, Zoran; Sullivan, James; Tanuma, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    The topical issue on Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering" combines contributions from POSMOL 2015 together with others devoted to celebrate the unprecedented scientific careers of our loyal colleagues and trusted friends Steve Buckman (Australian National University, Australia) and Michael Allan (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) on the occasion of their retirements. POSMOL 2015, the XVIII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XIX International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, from 17-20 July 2015. The international workshop and symposium allowed to achieve a very privileged forum of sharing and developing our scientific expertise on current aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and related topics, as well as electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent developments in the study of swarms are also fully addressed.

  7. Elastic and inelastic electron scattering on tensor polarized deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevakov, S.A.; Barkov, L.M.; Arenkhovel', Kh.

    2006-01-01

    The components T 20 and T 21 of the tensor analysis capability of the elastic electron scattering on deuteron are measured in the momentum transfer range of 8.4-21.6 fm -2 . The form factors of deuteron G C and G Q are defined in the momentum transfer range where the monopole charge form factor G C turns into zero. The preliminary measuring results of T 20 , T 21 and T 22 of the deuteron photodisintegration reaction in the photon energy range of 25-500 MeV and the proton departure angles equal to 20 deg-40 deg and 75 deg-105 deg are presented. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions [ru

  8. Electron scattering and few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1983-08-01

    Recent result obtained by electron scattering in the few-nucleon systems (A 3 He charge and magnetic form factors are discussed. New theoretical results indicate that three body forces improve considerably the saturation properties of 3 He, 4 He and nuclear matter, but are not able to reconcile experiment and theory for the charge form factors of 3 He and 4 He. Calculations of meson exchange effects with different theoretical approaches bring the theory into reasonable agreement with the experimental charge and magnetic form factor fo 3 He. Recent results of the measurements of the two and three body break-up of 3 He are discussed

  9. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gien, T.E. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-28

    An analytic model potential for the e[sup -]-Rb[sup +] system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author).

  10. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gien, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic model potential for the e - -Rb + system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author)

  11. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  12. Leading proton production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    The semi-inclusive reaction e + p→e + Xp was studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 12.8 pb -1 . The final-state proton, which was detected with the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer, carried a large fraction of the incoming proton energy, x L >0.32, and its transverse momentum squared satisfied p T 2 2 ; the exchanged photon virtuality, Q 2 , was greater than 3 GeV 2 and the range of the masses of the photon-proton system was 45 L , p T 2 , Q 2 and the Bjorken scaling variable, x. (orig.)

  13. Electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Bueltmann, S.; Careccia, S.L.; Dharmawardane, K.V.; Dodge, G.E.; Guler, N.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L.B.; Zhang, J.; Butuceanu, C.; Griffioen, K.A.; Baillie, N.; Fersch, R.G.; Funsten, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Asryan, G.; Dashyan, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    We report results from an experiment measuring the semiinclusive reaction 2 H(e,e ' p s ) in which the proton p s is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum p → s , and momentum transfer Q 2 . The data are compared to a simple plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. Within the framework of the simple spectator model, a 'bound neutron structure function' F 2n eff was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where the effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p s >0.4 GeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F 2n eff in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A dependence of the bound neutron structure function on the neutron's 'off-shell-ness' is one possible effect that can cause the observed deviation

  14. An application of the Dipole Pomeron model to the pion-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covolan, R.J.M.; Leite, E.E.; Montanha, J.; Soares, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Pomeron model is applied to the pion-proton elastic scattering aiming to describe the total and differential cross sections and the ρ ratio between the scattering amplitude real and imaginary parts. It is also discussed how far the present available experimental results lead to the necessity of adopting a (α 0 > 1) supercritical trajectory. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Study of nuclei by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Yoshiharu; Saito, Teijiro; Ito, Kohei; Terasawa, Tatsuo; Hosoyama, Kenji.

    1974-01-01

    It is urgently required to clarify the physical meaning of the quasi-elastic scattering associated with the background, in order to develop rapidly the study of giant resonance. The experimental works performed in the present term aimed at the synthetic understanding of both giant resonance and quasi-elastic scattering, and presented the possibility of the separability of giant resonance from quasi-elastic scattering. The object of this experiment was to measure higher order multi-pole moment of 51 V by using relatively high energy electron beam. Targets of chemically pure 51 V had thickness of 68.2 or 100.5 mg/cm 2 . The measurement was made at the position where scattering angle was 155 0 . The state of M7 can be well explained by the model with (fsub(7/2)) 3 coordination. This may be because the nuclei with stretched configuration such as 51 V do not have any contribution of orbital motion, but have the contribution of eigen magnetic moment to the highest multiplicity. States of M3 and M5 are a little complicated. Since in the experimental equipment used, the contribution of charge distribution was so large, that it was difficult to make the precision measurement of M3 and M5. In 51 V, however, it can be considered that M3 and M5 decreased by the contribution of 2Psub(3/2) and 1fsub(5/2). On the other hand, there is no contribution from these energy states to M7. (Tai, I.)

  16. Beam heating in solar flares - Electrons or protons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Karlicky, M.; Mackinnon, A.L.; Van Den Oord, G.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of electron and proton beam models as candidates for the impulsive phase heating of solar flares is discussed in relation to observational constants and theoretical difficulties. It is concluded that, while the electron beam model for flare heating still faces theoretical and observational problems, the problems faced by low and high energy proton beam models are no less serious, and there are facets of proton models which have not yet been studied. At the present, the electron beam model remains the most viable and best developed of heating model candidates. 58 refs

  17. Parity violation in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    The weak forces are responsible for the decay of radioactive nuclei, and it was in these decay processes where parity non-conservation was first observed. Beta decay occurs through emission of e + or e - particles, indicating that the weak force can carry charge of both signs, and it was natural to speculate on the existence of a neutral component of the weak force. Even though weak neutral forces had not been observed it was conjectured that a neutral component of weak decay could exist, and Zel'dovich in 1957 suggested that parity violating effects may be observable in electron scattering and in atomic spectra. More than twenty years have passed since the early conjectures, and a great deal has been learned. Progress in quantum field theory led to the development of the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions and provided a renormalizable theory with a minimum of additional assumptions. Gauge theories predicted the existence of a new force, the neutral current interaction. This new interaction was first seen in 1973 in the Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN. Today the neutral currents are accepted as well established, and it is the details of the neutral current structure that occupy attention. In particular the role that electrons play cannot be tested readily in neutrino beams (recent neutrino-electron scattering experiments are, however, rapidly improving this situation) and therefore interest in electron-hadron neutral current effects has been high. Parity violation is a unique signature of weak currents, and measurements of its size are a particularly important and sensitive means for determining the neutral current structure

  18. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p- 3 He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm -1 . The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since 3 He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p- 3 He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for 3 He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Study of elastic scattering of polarized proton with 6He by folding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseri, Y.; Tanifuji, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Hiyama, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental data of the elastic scattering of 6 He with polarized proton target has been analyzed using a simple folding model. As we regard 6 He as three bodies consisting of 4 He+n+n, the potential between the proton and 6 He is obtained by folding the two potentials, one between a proton and 4 He and another between a proton and a neutron, with the density distribution of 6 He. Calculated results of both the differential cross section and the vector analyzing power reproduce the experimental data satisfactorily. It is shown that the vector analyzing power of the p- 6 He scattering is mainly due to the spin orbit interaction between the proton and 4 He. (S. Funahashi)

  20. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 2 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, J.W.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 2 2 . These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q 2 range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab

  1. Modeling the electron-proton telescope on Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Sebastian; Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Electron Proton Telescope (EPT) is one of four sensors in the Energetic Particle Detector suite for Solar Orbiter. It investigates low energy electrons and protons of solar events in an energy range from 20 - 400 keV for electrons and 20 keV - 7 MeV for protons. It distinguishes electrons from protons using a magnet/foil technique with silicon detectors. There will be two EPT units, each with double-barreled telescopes, one looking sunwards/antisunwards and the other north/south. We set up a Monte Carlo model of EPT using the GEANT4 framework, which we can use to simulate interactions of energetic particles in the sensor. Here we present simulation results of the energy coverage for different ion species, and we study how it is possible to distinguish between them.

  2. Dynamic of non relativistic electrons and protons in the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Junior, O.; Pinto Junior, O.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the dynamics of electrons and protons inside the plasmasphere is presented. These particles are subjected to the geomagnetic field and to plasmaspheric electric fields, given by simple static models, during magnetically quiet and disturbed periods. (author) [pt

  3. Electron-electron scattering in the Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Hideharu

    1988-01-01

    The Weinberg theory is generally believed to have been established in recent years. At distances smaller than 10 -16 cm, the strength of weak interactions becomes almost equal to that of the electromagnetic interactions. The grand unified theories proposed so far are based on the idea that the coupling constants for the Abelian U(1) field, the non-Abelian SU(2) field and the non-Abelian SU(3) color field depend on momentum transfer, or distance. At distances smaller than 10 -29 cm, weak electromagnetic and strong interactions are assumed to become almost the same strength. The question here is whether nature has no new features in the vast range from 10 -16 cm (10 2 GeV) to 10 -29 cm (10 15 GeV) and whether the substructure of quark or lepton can be expected to be revealed at the next accelerator energy region. The Weinberger-Salam theory may lose its validity even in near future experiments. In any case, it must be overhauled from various aspects. From this point of view, by using the Weinberger-Salam theory, calculation of the differential cross section for elastic electron-electron scattering is re-examined to make clear the difference with the results of QED. In addition, as an example of experiments which could investigate the Weinberger-Salam theory more in detail, a short account is given of the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized electron target. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaewon [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\

  5. Influence of proton scattering angles on the energy radiograph in proton radiotherapy : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A.K.; Takatsu, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; van der Graaf, E.R.; van Goethem, M-J.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment quality of cancer patients with a proton beam critically depends on accurate predictions of proton stopping powers. Uncertainties in proton range that occur from translation of an X-ray CT patient image, of typical 3–4% or more, lead to necessary enlargements of contours around the

  6. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning : a Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; Nakaji, Taku; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; Koffeman, E.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images,

  7. MIXING THE SOLAR WIND PROTON AND ELECTRON SCALES: EFFECTS OF ELECTRON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE OBLIQUE PROTON FIREHOSE INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Viñas, A., E-mail: yana.maneva@wis.kuleuven.be [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons, unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma β and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  8. Mixing the Solar Wind Proton and Electron Scales: Effects of Electron Temperature Anisotropy on the Oblique Proton Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A.; Poedts, S.

    2016-01-01

    The double adiabatic expansion of the nearly collisionless solar wind plasma creates conditions for the firehose instability to develop and efficiently prevent the further increase of the plasma temperature in the direction parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field. The conditions imposed by the firehose instability have been extensively studied using idealized approaches that ignore the mutual effects of electrons and protons. Recently, more realistic approaches have been proposed that take into account the interplay between electrons and protons,? unveiling new regimes of the parallel oscillatory modes. However, for oblique wave propagation the instability develops distinct branches that grow much faster and may therefore be more efficient than the parallel firehose instability in constraining the temperature anisotropy of the plasma particles. This paper reports for the first time on the effects of electron plasma properties on the oblique proton firehose (PFH) instability and provides a comprehensive vision of the entire unstable wave-vector spectrum, unifying the proton and the smaller electron scales. The plasma ß and temperature anisotropy regimes considered here are specific for the solar wind and magnetospheric conditions, and enable the electrons and protons to interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters, simultaneous electron and PFH instabilities can be observed with a dispersion spectrum of the electron firehose (EFH) extending toward the proton scales. Growth rates of the PFH instability are markedly boosted by the anisotropic electrons, especially in the oblique direction where the EFH growth rates are orders of magnitude higher.

  9. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  10. Identification and angle reconstruction of the scattered electron with the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeker, T.

    1992-10-01

    For the analysis of deep-inelastic electron-proton events with the ZEUS detector, a key ingredient is the reliable and efficient identification of a scattered electron. To this end an essential mean is the information from the uranium-scintillator calorimeter. In this work an algorithm is presented which uses the segmentation properties of the ZEUS calorimeter to identify the scattered electron in neutral current events. For energy deposits in adjacent calorimeter cells the algorithm determines the probability that these deposits result from an electromagnetic shower. Furthermore several methods of measuring the scattering angle of the final state electron are compared. An angular resolution of about 3 mrad is obtained. (orig.) [de

  11. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  12. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  13. Anisotropy function for pion-proton elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, Haris

    1988-09-01

    By using the generalised Chou-Yang model and the experimental data on ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering at 200 GeV/c, the anisotropy function which reflects the non-isotropic nature of elastic scattering is computed for the reaction ..pi../sup -/p -> ..pi../sup -/p.

  14. Anisotropy function for pion-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Mohammad; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, Haris

    1988-01-01

    By using the generalised Chou-Yang model and the experimental data on π - p elastic scattering at 200 GeV/c, the anisotropy function which reflects the non-isotropic nature of elastic scattering is computed for the reaction π - p → π - p. (author)

  15. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  16. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavia Vieira

    2008-01-01

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  17. STARCODES, Stopping Power and Ranges for Electrons, Protons, He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The 'STAR CODES', ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR, calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, and helium ions (alphas), according to methods described in ICRU Reports 37 and 39. 2 - Method of solution: Collision stopping powers are calculated from the theory of Bethe (1930, 1932), with a density-effect correction evaluated according to Sternheimer (1952, 1982). The stopping-power formula contains an important parameter, the mean excitation energy (I-value), which characterizes the stopping properties of a material. The codes provide output for electrons in any stopping material (279 provided) and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials. The calculations include the 1) Collision stopping power, 2) Radiative stopping power (electrons only), 3) Nuclear stopping power (protons and helium ions), 4) Total stopping power, 5) CSDA range, 6) Projected range (protons and helium ions), 7) Density effect parameter (electrons), 8) Radiation yield (electrons), and 9) Detour factor (protons and helium ions). Standard energy grids and files of elements w/ionization-excitation information are included with lookup table capabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The minimum energies used in the calculations are at 1 KeV (protons and helium ions) and 10 KeV (electrons), and the maximum are 1 GeV. The standard energy grids are set at 81 for electrons, equally spaced (logarithmically), 133 for protons, and 122 for helium ions. The lower energy electron calculations (< 10 KeV) have up to 5-10% errors and are considered too fallable

  18. Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A brief introduction to the topic of Compton scattering from bound electrons is presented. The fundamental nature of this process in understanding quantum phenomena is reviewed. Methods for accurate theoretical evaluation of the Compton scattering cross section are presented. Examples are presented for scattering of several keV photons from helium

  19. Some remarks on electron scattering in a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1988-01-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field is reconsidered. Some remarks are made on the validity of the Kroll-Watson scattering formula and on the close connection of this formula with the classical transition rate of scattering in a radiation field. (17 refs.)

  20. Electron scattering with polarized targets at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Belostotski, S.

    2000-11-01

    Measurements of polarized electron-nucleon scattering can be realized at the TESLA linear collider facility with projected luminosities that are about two orders of magnitude higher than those expected of other experiments at comparable energies. Longitudinally polarized electrons, accelerated as a small fraction of the total current in the e + arm of TESLA, can be directed onto a solid state target that may be either longitudinally or transversely polarized. A large variety of polarized parton distribution and fragmentation functions can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, many of them for the first time. A main goal of the experiment is the precise measurement of the x- and Q 2 -dependence of the experimentally totally unknown quark transversity distributions that will complete the information on the nucleon's quark spin structure as relevant for high energy processes. Comparing their Q 2 -evolution to that of the corresponding helicity distributions constitutes an important precision test of the predictive power of QCD in the spin sector. Measuring transversity distributions and tensor charges allows access to the hitherto unmeasured chirally odd operators in QCD which are of great importance to understand the role of chiral symmetry. The possibilities of using unpolarized targets and of experiments with a real photon beam turn TESLA-N into a versatile next-generation facility at the intersection of particle and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.

    2012-04-18

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep \\rightarrow eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss xIP < 0.1 and covers the range 0.1 < |t| < 0.7 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 < Q2 < 110 GeV2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to |t| < 1 GeV2 are in agreement with next-toleading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models.

  2. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Ceccopieri, F.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P. van; Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C.; Dobre, M.; Placakyte, R.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Grab, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; Joensson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Stella, B.; Sykora, T.; Tsakov, I.; Wegener, D.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep→eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x P 2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4 2 2 in photon virtuality. The differential cross sections extrapolated to vertical stroke t vertical stroke 2 are in agreement with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [Univ. of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (ME); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Barrelet, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Univ. Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris (France); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grell, B.R.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kraemer, M.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Petrukhin, A.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Inst. of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A. [CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [Univ. of Belgrade, Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (RS); Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  4. Proton position near QB and coupling of electron and proton transfer in photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, R V; Poltev, S V; Kukushkin, A K

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy levels and wavefunctions of a proton in a histidine (His)-plastoquinone (PQ) system in the reaction centre (RC) of photosystem 2 of higher plants and the RC of purple bacteria for different redox states of PQ Q B . For oxidized Q B , the proton is located near His. For once-reduced PQ, it is positioned in the middle between the nitrogen of His and the oxygen of PQ. For twofold-reduced PQ, the proton is localized near the oxygen of PQ. Using the values of total energy of the system in these states, we have also estimated the frequency of proton oscillations. On the basis of these results we propose a hypothesis about the coupling of electron-proton transfer

  5. Depolarization in the elastic scattering of 17 MeV polarized protons from 9Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    The Wolfenstein depolarization parameter D(theta) was measured for the elastic scattering of 17-MeV protons from 9 Be at laboratory scattering angles between 70 0 and 120 0 in 10 0 steps with uncertainties ranging from 0.05 to 0.07. The reaction was initiated by polarized protons and the polarization of those protons elastically scattered by the 9 Be analyzed using a high-resolution, silicon polarimeter. Several of the measured values of D(theta) differed significantly from unity, indicating non-zero probability for proton spin-flip in the elastic scattering process. Theoretical estimates of the depolarization-parameter angular distribution have been made using a multipole expansion of the elastic-scattering amplitude in terms of the amount of angular momentum transferred to the target nucleus during the scattering process. Here the J = 0, 1 and 2 contributions to the scattering amplitude have been explicitly treated for the scattering from 9 Be(I = 3 / 2 ). The J = 0 terms are calculated using the standard, spherical optical-model. The J = 1 and 2 terms can be calculated using DWBA. Both spherical and tensor forms are considered for the J = 1 interaction. The spin-flip probabilities predicted assuming reasonable strengths for the J = 1 potentials are much smaller than those observed experimentally. The J = 2 contribution to the spin-flip probability is calculated assuming a rotational model for 9 Be. Predictions of the J = 2, elastic spin-flip probability are substantially larger than the predictions for the J = 1 contribution and are in rough agreement with the present data. The results of recent coupled-channels calculations also support the conclusion that large elastic spin-flip probabilities can be produced by the J = 2 term in the elastic scattering amplitude

  6. Electron scattering studies by means of various nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaniyazov, Sh.; Juraev, Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a general case of various interaction processes of electrons with nuclei. The study of the scattering o electrons of nuclei is the source of information on the structure of nuclei. At collision of fast electrons with nuclei, both elastic and inelastic scattering can be observed. Elastic scattering gives information on the sizes of nuclei, whereas the electrons inelastic scattering processes give important information on the dynamical properties of nuclei. In the first case, the characteristics of excited states, energy levels, their widths and others, and in the second case, momentum distribution of nucleons and other particles in nuclei are studied. Let us denote the momentum and the energy of the incident electron before and after the scattering as k and ε, and k' and ε', respectively. The angle between the vectors k and k' is denoted as θ. The scattering process is characterized by three parameters: k, k' and θ. However, it is convenient to introduce three other parameters instead of the indicated above. They are: energy ω ε - ε' and momentum q = k - k', transferred by electron at scattering, and the scattering angle θ. It is worth of mentioning the two reasons why the study of electron scattering is very effective tool to study the nuclear structure. First of all, the character of electron interaction with nucleus is a well-known electromagnetic interaction of electron with current and charge in nucleus. Secondly, this interaction is relatively weak (e 2 /ℎc) 2 = ω 2 is possible (since the photon mass is zero). In case of electrons, at fixed energy transfer ω various momentum transfer are possible. Therefore, at electron scattering study one can establish the dependence of the matrix elements of q, which are the Fourier-representations of the charge and current densities. Thus, it is possible to determine directly the spatial distribution of charge and current in nucleus. The inelastic scattering is accompanied by

  7. Resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Soroka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses peculiarities of the resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerators. The expediency of the use has been confirmed by experiment. Peculiarities are caused because elastic resonance scattering through the stage of compound nucleus is always accompanied by potential and Coulomb scattering. These three components interfere and for that reason the resonance form de-pends on a scattering angle and total angular moment of a compound nucleus level. However, possessing neces-sary information in the given field of nuclear spectroscopy enables the selection of resonance with the character-istics suitable for the calibration purpose. Considerable increase of the scattering cross section in the resonance region saves the time and simplifies the experiment technical maintenance. The experiments were performed at the 10 MeV tandem accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, after its modernization. Silicon and oxygen were used as the targets. Silicon targets were of two types of thickness: 1 the target of complete absorption, 2 the target with the thickness in which the loss of protons ener-gy exceeded the width of the selected resonance. The elastic and non elastic scattering from silicon were used in region of the 3,100 MeV proton energy resonance. Oxygen target, as component of the surface oxidizing layer on beryllium had the thickness which in terms of the loss of proton energy was less than the width of the selected elastic narrow resonance at 3,470 MeV proton energy. As result of the measurement the corrections concerning the energy scale of the accelerator and protons energy spread in the beam were proposed.

  8. Electron scattering studies of nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand (India); Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V. P. and R. P. T. P. Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Two quantum mechanical models used to find TCS for e-NO{sub 2} from 0.5 to 2000 eV. •R-matrix method at low energies (<15 eV) and SCOP at high energies (16 to 2000 eV). •Besides CS, R-matrix method predicts resonances and possibility of DEA formation. •SCOP formalism is used to find total inelastic and elastic CS at high energies. •Resonances detected at 1.33, 3 and 8.41 eV is associated with O{sup −} anion formation by DEA. -- Abstract: Present work reports total cross sections for e-NO{sub 2} scattering over an extensive range of impact energy from 0.5 eV to 2000 eV, through a composite formalism. The ab initio R-matrix method is employed for calculations up to 15 eV while the spherical complex optical potential formalism is used beyond that energy. The electronic excitation cross sections are computed from ground state X{sup 2}A{sub 1} to seven electronically allowed excited states {sup 2}B{sub 1}, {sup 2}B{sub 2}, {sup 2}A{sub 2}, {sup 4}A{sub 2}, {sup 4}B{sub 2}, {sup 4}A{sub 1}, {sup 4}A{sub 1} and {sup 4}B{sub 1}. The eigenphase diagrams presented here reproduces the resonances identified earlier. The structures detected at 1.33, 3 and 8.41 eV can be associated with the observed O{sup −} anion formation through dissociative electron attachment process.

  9. No surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentzen, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article it is argued that the far-field expansion of electron scattering, a pillar of electron diffraction theory, is wrong (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). It is further argued that in the first Born approximation of electron scattering the intensity of the electron wave is not conserved to first order in the scattering potential. Thus a “mystery of the missing phase” is investigated, and the supposed flaw in scattering theory is seeked to be resolved by postulating a standing spherical electron wave (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). In this work we show, however, that these theses are wrong. A review of the essential parts of scattering theory with careful checks of the underlying assumptions and limitations for high-energy electron scattering yields: (1) the traditional form of the far-field expansion, comprising a propagating spherical wave, is correct; (2) there is no room for a missing phase; (3) in the first Born approximation the intensity of the scattered wave is conserved to first order in the scattering potential. The various features of high-energy electron scattering are illustrated by wave-mechanical calculations for an explicit target model, a Gaussian phase object, and for a Si atom, considering the geometric conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: Treacy and Van Dyck (2012) argue that the far-field expansion of electron scattering is wrong. The chief theses of that former work are wrong. There is no room for the missing phase proposed by Treacy and Van Dyck. There is no violation of the intensity conservation to first order in the scattering potential. Calculations for a phase object and an atomic target confirm traditional scattering theory

  10. Progress in Fast Ignition Studies with Electrons and Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Akli, K. U.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Chen, C. D.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chowdhury, E.; Fedosejevs, R.; Freeman, R. R.; Hey, D.; Higginson, D.; Key, M. H.; King, J. A.; Link, A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Offermann, D.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Pasley, J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Schumacher, D. W.; Stephens, R. B.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Wei, M. S.; Van Woerkom, L. D.

    2009-09-01

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) concept for initiating burn in a fusion capsule. In order to investigate critical aspects needed for a FI point design, experiments were performed to study 1) laser-to-electrons or protons conversion issues and 2) laser-cone interactions including prepulse effects. A large suite of diagnostics was utilized to study these important parameters. Using cone—wire surrogate targets it is found that pre-pulse levels on medium scale lasers such as Titan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produce long scale length plasmas that strongly effect coupling of the laser to FI relevant electrons inside cones. The cone wall thickness also affects coupling to the wire. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled as a function of target thickness, material. Conclusions from the proton and electron source experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed. In conclusion, a program of study will be presented based on understanding the fundamental physics of the electron or proton source relevant to FI.

  11. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2On after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.

  12. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects. PMID:26798842

  13. Core polarisation and configuration mixing in 58Ni studied by high resolution electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, H.

    1986-01-01

    The nucleus 58 Ni is studied by inelastic electron-scattering. This nucleus has two valence neutrons outside a closed 58 Ni core which implies that no valence protons contribute to the transitions and thus, besides configuration mixing of the valence neutrons, proton-core polarization can be studied in detail. From inelastic electron-scattering data one obtains the charge- and current-transition densities by determining the Fourier-Bessel transform of the cross sections measured over a wide range of linear momenta transferred to the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the excitation of two 0 ++ states at low-momentum transfer are presented. These transitions are particularly interesting for studying core-polarization contributions. (Auth.)

  14. Spin dependence in superelastic electron scattering from Na(3P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.J.; Kelley, M.H.; Celotta, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements are presented of spin asymmetries for superelastic scattering of 10-eV spin polarized electrons from the excited Na(3P/sub 3/2/) state created by linearly polarized laser optical pumping. Asymmetries as large as 16% are observed in scattering from a state which is not spin-polarized. Results are shown both as a function of scattering angle with fixed laser polarization direction, and as a function of the laser polarization direction at a fixed scattering angle

  15. On the electron to proton mass ratio and the proton structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole L.

    2013-01-01

    We derive an expression for the electron to nucleon mass ratio from a reinterpreted lattice gauge theory Hamiltonian to describe interior baryon dynamics. We use the classical electron radius as our fundamental length scale. Based on expansions on trigonometric Slater determinants for a neutral s...... and d valence quarks of the proton....

  16. Electron scattering from nucleons and deuterons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1985-04-01

    Recent results from electron scattering of nucleons and deuterons are discussed. A tentative physics program for ELSA employing the polarized electron beams as well as the polarized nucleon and deuteron target facilities is outlined. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of multiplicity distributions to the negative binomial distribution in muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.

    1987-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in the deep inelastic muon-proton scattering at 280 GeV are analysed in various rapidity intervals, as a function of the total hadronic centre of mass energy W ranging from 4-20 GeV. Multiplicity distributions for the backward and forward hemispheres are also analysed separately. The data can be well parameterized by binomial distributions, extending their range of applicability to the case of lepton-proton scattering. The energy and the rapidity dependence of the parameters is presented and a smooth transition from the binomial distribution via Poissonian to the ordinary binomial is observed. (orig.)

  18. Inelastic scattering of polarized protons and nuclear deformation in 16O, 18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Swiniarski, R.; Pham, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Many data concerning inelastic scattering of polarized protons at intermediate energy are now available. We have analyzed some of these data coming from LAMPF at 800 MeV for 16 O (6) and 18 O (7) in order to further study nuclear deformations for these light nuclei. Analyzing powers (A(theta)) and cross-sections ((σ/theta)) for elastic and inelastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from 16 O and 18 O have been analyzed in the coupled-channels (CC) collective model using the code ECIS from Raynal

  19. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC)

  20. Role of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahniman Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene is studied using semi-classical Monte Carlo simulation. The D’yakonov-P’erel mechanism is considered for spin relaxation. It is found that electron-electron scattering causes spin relaxation length to decrease by 35% at 300 K. The reason for this decrease in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate at room temperature, which causes change in spin relaxation profile due to electron-electron scattering.

  1. Why the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude should be measured at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J. [Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 6207 b, CNRS-Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Khuri, N.N. [Rockfeller Univ., (2) Physics Dept., New York, N.Y. (United States); Martin, A.; Tai Tsun Wu, J. [Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Theory Div., Geneve (Switzerland); Tai Tsun Wu, J. [Harvard Univ., Gordon Mc Kay Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    For the energy of 14 TeV, to be reached at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have had for some time accurate predictions for both the real and imaginary parts of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude. LHC is now scheduled to start operating in 2 years, and it is timely to discuss some of the important consequences of the measurements of both the total cross-section and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part ({rho}). An accurate prediction is given by the BSW model: {rho} = 0.122 with {sigma}(total) = 103.6 mb (at the LHC energy {radical}(s) = 14 TeV. If the experiment gives numbers compatible with those above, it will mean that the scale of violation is very much above the LHC energy or that the corresponding minimal size is much smaller. On the contrary a disagreement would give indication for new physics and we stress the importance of measuring the real part of the proton-proton forward scattering amplitude at LHC, because a deviation from existing theoretical predictions could be a strong sign for new physics.

  2. Electron Cooling of Protons in a Nested Penning Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.S.; Gabrielse, G.

    1996-01-01

    Trapped protons cool via collisions with trapped electrons at 4 K.This first demonstration of sympathetic cooling by trapped species of opposite sign of charge utilizes a nested Penning trap. The demonstrated interaction of electrons and protons at very low relative velocities, where recombination is predicted to be most rapid, indicates that this may be a route towards the study of low temperature recombination. The production of cold antihydrogen is of particular interest, and electron cooling of highly stripped ions may also be possible. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances of high energy resolution (ΔE approx. 30 keV FWHM) inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer (q -1 ) using selected experimental data from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator are discussed. Strong emphasis is given to a comparison of the data with theoretical nuclear model predictions. Of the low multipolarity electric transitions investigated, as examples only E1 transitions to unnatural parity states in 11 B and E2 transitions of the very fragmented isoscalar quadrupole giant resonance in 208 Pb are considered. In 11 B the role of the Os hole in the configuration of the 1/2 + , 3/2 + and 5/2 + states is quantitatively determined via an interference mechanism in the transition probability. By comparison of the high resolution data with RPA calculations the E2 EWSR in 208 Pb is found to be much less exhausted than anticipated from previous medium energy resolution (e,e) and hadron scattering experiments. In the case of M1 transitions it is shown that the simplest idealized independent particle shell-model prediction breaks down badly. In 28 Si, ground-state correlations influence largely the detected M1 strength and such ground-state correlations are also responsible for the occurence of a strong M1 transition to a state at Ex = 10.319 MeV in 40 Ca. In 90 Zr only about 10% of the theoretically expected M1 strength is seen in (e,e) and in 140 Ce and 208 Pb none (detection limit 1-2 μ 2 K). In the case of 208 Pb high resolution spectra exist now up to an excitation energy of Ex = approx. 12MeV. The continuous decrease of the M1 strength with mass number is corroborated by the behaviour of strong but very fragmented M2 transitions which are detected in 28 Si, 90 Zr, 140 Ce and 208 Pb concentrated at an excitation energy E x approx. 44A -1 / 3 MeV. In 90 Zr, the distribution of spacings and widths of the many Jπ = 2 states are consistent with a Wigner and Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 ARA

  4. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  5. A personal view of nucleon structure as revealed by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstadter, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this article the author charts his scientific career from graduation in 1935. His work on the No I (T1) scintillator detector developed a widely used tool for particle physicists. He later used these detectors in experiments to study nucleon structure via inelastic electron scattering, working mainly with deuterium, alpha particles and beryllium. Proton and neutron ''size'' were early successes of the fifties, with nucleon form factors following after several years' more work. (UK)

  6. Scattering of a proton with the Li{sub 4} cluster: Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics description based on time-dependent density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A., E-mail: acastro@bifi.es [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI) and Zaragoza Scientific Center for Advanced Modelling (ZCAM), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isla, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Jose I. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, ES-28049 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: Two trajectories for the collision of a proton with the Lithium tetramer. On the left, the proton is scattered away, and a Li{sub 2} molecule plus two isolated Lithium atoms result. On the right, the proton is captured and a LiH molecule is created. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattering of a proton with Lithium clusters described from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description based on non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic structure is described with time-dependent density-functional theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to discern reaction channels depending on initial parameters. - Abstract: We have employed non-adiabatic molecular dynamics based on time-dependent density-functional theory to characterize the scattering behavior of a proton with the Li{sub 4} cluster. This technique assumes a classical approximation for the nuclei, effectively coupled to the quantum electronic system. This time-dependent theoretical framework accounts, by construction, for possible charge transfer and ionization processes, as well as electronic excitations, which may play a role in the non-adiabatic regime. We have varied the incidence angles in order to analyze the possible reaction patterns. The initial proton kinetic energy of 10 eV is sufficiently high to induce non-adiabatic effects. For all the incidence angles considered the proton is scattered away, except in one interesting case in which one of the Lithium atoms captures it, forming a LiH molecule. This theoretical formalism proves to be a powerful, effective and predictive tool for the analysis of non-adiabatic processes at the nanoscale.

  7. Elastic scattering of protons on 8Li nucleus in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Ibraeva, E.T.; Sanfirova, A.B.; Imambekov, O.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper the proton elastic scattering on 8 Li in inverse kinematics is studies. The inverse kinematics means that a beam of radioactive nuclei is scattered on a stable hydrogen target. Proton as a target has an advantage during the interaction since it is stable and mechanism of proton-nucleus scattering is quite simple. 8 Li nucleus is considered in the three-body αtn-model with realistic potential of inter-cluster interactions. The wave function of this nucleus is calculated in the work where it was shown that such model well describes the main spectroscopic characteristics of the nucleus, root-mean square radius, binding energy, location of low laying energy levels, magnetic momentum and also total cross section and 7 Li(n, γ) 8 Li reaction rate at a wide energy region. Within Glauber-Sitenko multiply scattering theory, the differential cross section of elastic p 8 Li-scattering has been calculated. The first and the second multiplicities of scattering on nucleons and clusters of the nucleus were taken into account in Ω multiply scattering operator. There were considered several cases when as the initial parameters both amplitudes of nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-cluster scattering were taken. Sensitivity of the differential cross section both to the different wave functions of the target-nucleus and to the parameters of the elementary amplitudes and sensitivity to the scattering multiplicities at several beam energies has been investigated. Comparison with differential cross sections of elastic p 6 Li- and p 7 Li scattering has been carried out

  8. Electron Scattering by biomass molecular fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels from renewable sources may not be a definite answer for greenhouse gas emissions problems, but it is a good step towards a sustainable energy strategy. Few per cent of ethanol is being mixed to gasoline in many countries and in some of them, like Brazil, a very aggressive program has been developed, using, in large scale, flex fuel engines that can run with any mixture of gasoline and ethanol, including 100% ethanol. Important points are how to produce ethanol in a sustainable way and with which technology? Biomass is a good candidate to enhance the first generation (produced from Corn in USA and from sugarcane in Brazil) production towards the so-called second-generation ethanol, since it has cellulose and hemicellulose as source of sugars. In order to liberate these sugars for fermentation, it is important to learn how to separate the main components. Chemical routes (acid treatment) and biological routes (enzymatic hydrolysis) are combined and used for these purposes. Atmospheric plasmas can be useful for attacking the biomass in a controlled manner and low energy electrons may have an important role in the process. Recently, we have been studying the interaction of electrons with lignin subunits (phenol, guaiacol, p-coumaryl alcohol), cellulose components, β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1-4) linked glucose dimer) and hemicellulose components [2] (β-D-xylose). We also obtained results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1-4) linked glucose dimer). Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical-chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production. In order to describe a more realistic system (where molecules are ``wet''), we have obtained the shape resonance spectra of phenol-water clusters, as obtained previously from elastic electron scattering calculations. Our results, obtained in a simple

  9. Proton location in metal hydrides using electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of dilute paramagnetic ions establishes the site symmetry of these ions. In the case of metal hydrides the site symmetry is determined by the number and location of neighboring protons. Typical ESR spectra for trivalent erbium in scandium and yttrium hydrides are presented and analyzed, and this technique is shown to be a versatile microscopic probe of the location, net charge and occupation probability of nearby protons

  10. Is there an Ay problem in low-energy neutron-proton scattering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    We calculate Ay in neutron-proton scattering for the interactions models WJC-1 and WJC-2 in the Covariant Spectator Theory. We find that the recent 12 MeV measurements performed at TUNL are in better agreement with our results than with the Nijmegen Phase Shift Analysis of 1993, and after reviewing the low energy data, conclude that there is no Ay problem in low-energy np scattering.

  11. Progress On Neutrino-Proton Neutral-Current Scattering In MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Stephen [New Mexico State U.

    2017-01-16

    The MicroBooNE Experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, an 89-ton active mass liquid argon time projection chamber, affords a unique opportunity to observe low-$Q^2$ neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering events. Neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering at $Q^2 < 1$ GeV$^2$ is dominated by the proton's axial form factor, which can be written as a combination of contributions from the up, down, and strange quarks: $G_A(Q^2) = \\frac{1}{2}[-G_A^u(Q^2)+G_A^d(Q^2)+G_A^s(Q^2)]$. The contribution from up and down quarks has been established in past charged-current measurements. The contribution from strange quarks at low $Q^2$ remains unmeasured; this is of great interest since the strange quark contribution to the proton spin can be determined from the low-$Q^2$ behavior: $\\Delta S = G_A^s(Q^2=0)$. MicroBooNE began operating in the Booster Neutrino Beam in October 2015. I will present the status in observing isolated proton tracks in the MicroBooNE detector as a signature for neutral-current neutrino-proton events. The sensitivity of the MicroBooNE experiment for measuring the strange quark contribution to the proton spin will be discussed.

  12. Deep inelastic scattering with leading protons or large rapidity gaps at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The dissociation of virtual photons, {gamma}{sup *}p{yields} Xp, in events with a large rapidity gap between X and the outgoing proton, as well as in events in which the leading proton was directly measured, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The data cover photon virtualities Q{sup 2}> 2 GeV{sup 2} and {gamma}{sup *}p centre-of-mass energies 40 2 GeV, where M{sub X} is the mass of the hadronic final state, X. Leading protons were detected in the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer. The cross section is presented as a function of t, the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and {phi}, the azimuthal angle between the positron scattering plane and the proton scattering plane. It is also shown as a function of Q{sup 2} and x{sub P}, the fraction of the proton's momentum carried by the diffractive exchange, as well as {beta}, the Bjorken variable defined with respect to the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  13. Deep inelastic scattering with leading protons or large rapidity gaps at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    The dissociation of virtual photons, γ * p→ Xp, in events with a large rapidity gap between X and the outgoing proton, as well as in events in which the leading proton was directly measured, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The data cover photon virtualities Q 2 > 2 GeV 2 and γ * p centre-of-mass energies 40 X > 2 GeV, where M X is the mass of the hadronic final state, X. Leading protons were detected in the ZEUS leading proton spectrometer. The cross section is presented as a function of t, the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and Φ, the azimuthal angle between the positron scattering plane and the proton scattering plane. It is also shown as a function of Q 2 and x P , the fraction of the proton's momentum carried by the diffractive exchange, as well as β, the Bjorken variable defined with respect to the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  14. Study of the proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies through eikonal models; Estudo do espalhamento elastico proton-proton a altas energias atraves de modelos eiconais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Alvaro Favinha

    1995-12-31

    The proton-proton elastic scattering in the center of mass energy region 23 to 63 GeV is investigated through a multiple diffraction model. As an introduction to the subject, a detailed review of the fundamental basis of the Multiple Diffraction Formalism and a survey of the multiple diffraction models (geometrical) currently used are presented. The goal of this investigation is to reformulate one of these models, which makes use of an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude purely imaginary and is not able to predict the {rho}-parameter (the ratio of the forward real and imaginary parts of the hadronic amplitude). Introducing a real part for the elementary amplitude proportional to the imaginary part, improvements in the formalism are obtained. It is shown that this new approach is able to reproduce all experimental data on differential and integrated cross sections (total, elastic and inelastic), but not the {rho}-parameter as function of the energy. Then, starting from fitting of this parameter an overall reproduction of the physical observables is obtained, with the exception of the dip region (diffractive minimum in the differential cross section) overall description are also not firmly reached in all these models. Finally, alternatives to improve the results in a future research are suggested and discussed. (author) 69 refs., 69 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Scattering of electrons from argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The scattering of electrons from argon atoms is studied by the method of polarized orbitals. The 3p→d perturbed orbital calculated using the Sternheimer approximation gives the polarizability 14.29a 0 3 . The perturbation of the orbitals 1s, 2s, 2p, and 3s is taken into account by renormalizing the 3p→d orbitals to give the experimental value 11.06a 0 3 . Using only the modified orbital in the total wave function, phase shifts for various partial waves have been calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the results of the previous calculations. The calculated total elastic, differential, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The elastic total cross sections obtained in the polarized-orbital approximation agree very closely with the recently measured cross sections by Jost et al. and Nickel et al. The critical point (the value of k 2 and theta at which the differential cross section is minimum) is at 0.306 eV and 80 0 , in good agreement with the measurements of Weyhreter et al

  16. Electron-electron scattering and mobilities in semiconductors and quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of electron-electron scattering on the mobility in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells is examined. A general exact formula is derived for the mobility, when the electron-electron collision rate is much faster than other scattering rates such as those by ionized impurities and phonons. In this limit, the transport relaxation rate is independent of the carrier's energy and contributions to the inverse mobility from individual scattering mechanism add up. The mobility becomes significantly reduced from its value in the absence of electron-electron scattering. When the collision rates are not necessarily dominated by electron-electron scattering, the mobility is calculated by the Kohler-Sondheimer variational method in the presence of ionized-impurity scattering and acoustic-phonon scattering in a nondegenerate two-dimensional quantum well

  17. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV

  18. Amplitude correlations for inelastic proton scattering from 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitudes and relative signs of inelastic proton channel amplitudes were determined for three decay channels for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. The reduced widths in each channel follow a Porter-Thomas distribution, but extremely large amplitude correlations are observed - for one pair of channel amplitudes the relative sign is positive for 43 of 45 resonances. These results provide the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter reduced width amplitude distribution. (orig.)

  19. Scattering of photons from atomic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; Zhou, B.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Pisk, K.; Suric, T.

    1990-01-01

    Validity of simpler approaches for elastic and inelastic photon scattering by atoms and ions is assessed by comparison with second-order S-matrix predictions. A simple scheme for elastic scattering based on angle-independent anomalous scattering factors has been found to give useful predictions near and below photoeffect thresholds. In inelastic scattering, major deviations are found from A 2 -based calculations. Extension of free-atom and free-ion cross sections to the dense plasma regime is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs

  20. On the idea of low-energy nuclear reactions in metallic lattices by producing neutrons from protons capturing "heavy" electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennfors, Einar

    2013-02-01

    The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.

  1. Electron scattering in dense atomic and molecular gases: An empirical correlation of polarizability and electron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupnik, K.; Asaf, U.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear correlation exists between the electron scattering length, as measured by a pressure shift method, and the polarizabilities for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe gases. The correlative algorithm has excellent predictive capability for the electron scattering lengths of mixtures of rare gases, simple molecular gases such as H 2 and N 2 and even complex molecular entities such as methane, CH 4

  2. Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.

  3. CHARGE-2/C, Flux and Dose Behind Shield from Electron, Proton, Heavy Particle Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucker, W.R.; Lilley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The CHARGE code computes flux spectra, dose and other response rates behind a multilayered spherical or infinite planar shield exposed to isotopic fluxes of electrons, protons and heavy charged particles. The doses, or other responses, to electron, primary proton, heavy particle, electron Bremsstrahlung, secondary proton, and secondary neutron radiations are calculated as a function of penetration into the shield; the materials of each layer may be mixtures of elements contained in the accompanying data library, or supplied by the user. The calculation may optionally be halted before the entire shield is traversed by specifying a minimum total dose rate; the computation stops when the dose drops below this value. The ambient electron, proton and heavy particle spectra may be specified in tabular or functional form. These incident charged particle spectra are divided into energy bands or groups, the number or spacing of which are controlled by input data. The variation of the group boundary energies and group spectra as a function of shield penetration uniquely determines charged particle dose rates and secondary particle production rates. The charged particle shielding calculation is essentially the integration of the range- energy equation which expresses the variation of particle energy wit distance travelled. 2 - Method of solution: The 'straight-ahead' approximation is used throughout, that is the changes in particle direction of motion due to elastic scattering are ignored. This approximation is corrected, in the case of electrons, by applying transmission factors obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. Inelastic scattering between protons and the shielding material is assumed to produce two classes of secondaries 1) Cascade protons and neutrons, emitted in the same direction as the primaries 2) Evaporation neutrons, emitted isotropically. The transmission of secondary protons is analyzed in exactly the same way as the

  4. RAMAN LIGHT SCATTERING IN PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON MODEL AT STRONG PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.Mysakovych

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.

  5. Schwinger–Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuehua, E-mail: suyh@ytu.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger–Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  6. A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2012-01-01

    A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.

  7. Studies of electron and proton isochoric heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Beg, F; Clarke, R; Clarke, D; Chen, M; Chung, H; Chen, S; Freeman, R; Green, J; Gu, P; Gregori, G; Highbarger, K; Habara, H; Hatchett, S; Hey, D; Heathcote, R; Hill, J; King, J; Kodama, R; Koch, J; Lancaster, K; Langdon, B; Murphy, C; Norreys, P; Neely, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nakamura, H; Patel, N; Patel, P; Pasley, J; Snavley, R; Stephens, R; Stoeckl, C; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Theobald, W; Storm, M; Tanaka, K; Tempo, M; Toley, M; Town, R; Wilks, S; VanWoerkom, L; Weber, R; Yabuuchi, T; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) proposal to use this technique to initiate burn in a fusion capsule. Experiments designed to investigate electron isochoric heating have measured heating in two limiting cases of interest to fast ignition, small planar foils and hollow cones. Data from Cu Kα fluorescence, crystal x-ray spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, and XUV imaging at 68eV and 256 eV are used to test PIC and Hybrid PIC modeling of the interaction. Isochoric heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi-shell and from a sub hemi-shell inside a cone have been studied with the same diagnostic methods plus imaging of proton induced Kα. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled. Conclusions from the proton and electron heating experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed

  8. Comparison of surface doses from spot scanning and passively scattered proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Cox, James; Lee, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Proton therapy for the treatment of cancer is delivered using either passively scattered or scanning beams. Each technique delivers a different amount of dose to the skin, because of the specific feature of their delivery system. The amount of dose delivered to the skin can play an important role in choosing the delivery technique for a specific site. To assess the differences in skin doses, we measured the surface doses associated with these two techniques. For the purpose of this investigation, the surface doses in a phantom were measured for ten prostate treatment fields planned with passively scattered proton beams and ten patients planned with spot scanning proton beams. The measured doses were compared to evaluate the differences in the amount of skin dose delivered by using these techniques. The results indicate that, on average, the patients treated with spot scanning proton beams received lower skin doses by an amount of 11.8% ± 0.3% than did the patients treated with passively scattered proton beams. That difference could amount to 4 CGE per field for a prescribed dose of 76 CGE in 38 fractions treated with two equally weighted parallel opposed fields. (note)

  9. Neutron-proton elastic scattering between 200 and 500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.S.; Gibson, D.R.; Axen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements over an extensive angular range of the Dsub(t) and P parameters in free neutron-proton elastic scattering at laboratory energies of 220, 325, 425 and 495 MeV are reported. Experimental and analytical details are given. (author)

  10. Collective effects in even-mass samarium isotopes by polarized-proton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, R.M.A.L.; Hall, van P.J.; Klein, S.S.; Moonen, W.H.L.; Nijgh, G.J.; Overveld, van C.W.A.M.; Poppema, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    The even-mass samarium isotopes 148,...,152Sm have been investigated by polarized proton scattering at 20.4 MeV beam energy. The data have been analysed with an 'extended' optical model, where the intensities of the first maxima of the main inelastic channels are fitted in a coupled-channels

  11. Additive quark model and double scattering of pions and protons in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.; Czyz, W.; Kisielewska, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the additive quark model is compatible with the data on double scattering of pions and protons in deuterium. The cross-section for interaction of the hadrons created in the first collision with the second nucleon of the target is determined to be 20-25 mb. (author)

  12. Changes in the hydration structure of imidazole upon protonation: Neutron scattering and molecular simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Mason, Philip E.; Fischer, H. E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 18 (2017), č. článku 185102. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : imidazole protonation * molecular dynamics * neutron scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  13. Antiproton-proton elastic scattering at 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The predictions, based on the generalized Chou-Yang model, are made for the most recent measurements of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at √s = 1.8 TeV. These results have been compared with the recent theoretical predictions of various models. (author)

  14. Antiproton-proton elastic scattering at 1. 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M. (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics); Yodh, G.B. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-01

    The predictions, based on the generalized Chou-Yang model, are made for the most recent measurements of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. These results have been compared with the recent theoretical predictions of various models. (author).

  15. Recent progress in electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, S. J. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, AMPL, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Sullivan, J. P.; Palihawadana, P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, AMPL, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Chiari, L.; Pettifer, Z. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Duque, H. V. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Masin, Z.; Gorfinkiel, J. D. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo, 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-03-05

    We present and discuss recent results, both experimental and theoretical (where possible), for electron impact excitation of the 3s[3/2 ]{sub 1} and 3s′[1/2 ]{sub 1} electronic states in neon, elastic electron scattering from the structurally similar molecules benzene, pyrazine, and 1,4-dioxane and excitation of the electronic states of the important bio-molecule analogue α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. While comparison between theoretical and experimental results suggests that benchmarked cross sections for electron scattering from atoms is feasible in the near-term, significant further theoretical development for electron-molecule collisions, particularly in respect to discrete excitation processes, is still required.

  16. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 2 to 10 MeV protons by lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurat, M.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental set-up which has been devised for carrying out spectrometric and absolute cross-section measurements on the reactions induced by protons accelerated in a 12 MeV Van de Graaff Tandem. The particles are detected by silicon junctions; the weight of the targets (about ten μg/cm 2 ) is determined by the quartz method. The experimental equipment has been controlled by a study of proton scattering by lithium-6, and has made it possible to evaluate the elastic and inelastic scattering (1. level excitation) by lithium 7 of 2 to 9 MeV protons. The most probable spin and parity values for the six levels of 8 Be between 19 and 25 MeV excitation energy have been determined from a knowledge of the observed structure. (author) [fr

  17. Emittance growth induced by electron cloud in proton storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Coppa, G

    2006-01-01

    In proton and positron storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, a large number of electrons can accumulate in the beam pipe due to various mechanisms (photoemission, residual gas ionization, beam-induced multipacting). The so-formed electron cloud interacts with the positively charged bunches, giving rise to instabilities, emittance growth and losses. This phenomenon has been observed in several existing machines such as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), whose operation has been constrained by the electron-cloud problem, and it is a concern for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN. The interaction between the beam and the electron cloud has features which cannot be fully taken into account by the conventional and known theories from accelerators and plasma physics. Computer simulations are indispensable for a proper prediction and understanding of the instability dynamics. The main feature which renders the beam-cloud interactions so peculiar is that the the electron cloud...

  18. Physics results from the first electron-proton collider HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeck, A de

    1995-03-01

    After two years of experimenting at the new ep collider HERA many new results have been obtained. In this report we have presented results on interactions of high energy photons with matter, and showed that similar to hadronic interactions, hard scattering is observed in these collisions. The different photoproduction processes have been isolated, and a first attempt was made to measure the structure of the photon at HERA. A new region has been explored for deep inelastic scattering interactions. The proton structure is probed to very small values of Bjorken-x, showing a large increase of with decreasing x. Events with a large rapidity gap have been observed and are identified as diffractive scattering. The first electroweak results became available by studying the production of charged current events. Searches for new, exotic phenomena were made, but no evidence for the breakdown of the standard model has been found. (orig.)

  19. Elastic scattering of polarized protons from 3He at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.; Bracco, A.; Gubler, H.P.

    1982-09-01

    Using the polarized proton beam facility of the TRIUMF cyclotron, differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured in the angular range 20 0 - 150 0 c.m. for proton elastic scattering from 3 He at incident proton energies of 200, 300, 415 and 515 MeV. The differential cross sections exhibit a minimum at t = -0.33 (GeV/c) 2 which becomes more pronounced with increasing energy. There is evidence for the onset of a second minimum corresponding to the interference between double and triple scattering amplitudes. Large analyzing powers are observed at the lower energies. The data from the present analysis, together with data obtained from the literature in the energy range 100-1000 MeV, have been analyzed within the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering formalism. Nucleon-nucleon scattering parameters were taken from a global phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering data. Reasonable agreement with the data is obtained

  20. Two-photon exchange in elastic electron-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, P.G.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tjon, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of two-photon exchange in unpolarized and polarized elastic electron-nucleon scattering is presented, taking particular account of nucleon finite size effects. Contributions from nucleon elastic intermediate states are found to have a strong angular dependence, which leads to a partial resolution of the discrepancy between the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G E /G M . The two-photon exchange contribution to the longitudinal polarization transfer P L is small, whereas the contribution to the transverse polarization transfer P T is enhanced at backward angles by several percent, increasing with Q 2 . This gives rise to a small, E /G M obtained from the polarization transfer ratio P T /P L at large Q 2 . We also compare the two-photon exchange effects with data on the ratio of e + p to e - p cross sections, which is predicted to be enhanced at backward angles. Finally, we evaluate the corrections to the form factors of the neutron and estimate the elastic intermediate state contribution to the 3 He form factors

  1. Properties of a new magnetic dipole mode discovered in low energy electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohle, D.; Guhr, T.; Hartmann, U.; Hummel, K.D.; Kilgus, G.; Milkau, U.; Richter, A.

    1986-01-01

    In a large range of nuclei low lying J π =1 + states have been found that are excited predominantly by a new M1 mode. Four properties of the new mode will be discussed in detail. Firstly, from the excitation energy systematics observed the strength of the Majorana force of the interacting boson model (IBA) is deduced. Secondly, through the comparison of electron scattering and proton scattering experiments it is shown that the new mode is largely due to the orbital motion of protons with respect to neutrons. Thirdly, taking the nucleus 164 Dy as an example, g-factors and effective boson charges of the M1-, E2- and M3 IBA transition operators, respectively, are studied. The F-scalar magnetic octupol g-factor Ω S is derived for the first time. Finally, the distribution of M1 strength in 156 Gd will be discussed in the light of recent theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  2. Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers

  3. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  4. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two electrons and two muons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event with two identified muons and two identified electrons from a proton- proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: one Z decays to two muons, the other to two electrons. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. The two muons are picked out as red tracks penetrating right through the detector. The two electrons are picked out as green tracks in the central, inner detector, matching narrow green clusters of energy in the barrel part of the calorimeters. The inset at the bottom right shows a map of the energy seen in the detector: the two big yellow spikes correspond to the two electrons.

  5. Stimulated Raman scattering and hot-electron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.; Campbell, E.M.; Wang, C.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Williams, E.A.; Kruer, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    High-intensity laser light can excite parametric instabilities that scatter or absorb it. One instability that can arise when laser light penetrates a plasma is sub-quarter-critical stimulated Raman (SQSR) scattering. It occurs below the quarter-critical density of the incident light and involves the decay of the incident light wave into a scattered light wave and electron plasma wave. The scattered-light wavelength ranges from 1 to 2 times that of the incident light, depending on the plasma density and temperature. This article reports studies of SQSR scattering and hot-electron production in plasmas produced by irradiating thick gold targets with up to 4 kJ of 0.53-μm light in 1-ns (FWHM) pulses. These studies have important implications for laser fusion. Hot electrons attributed to the SQSR instability can increase the difficulty of achieving high-gain implosions by penetrating and preheating the fusion fuel

  6. Scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    A source of spin polarized electrons with remarkable characteristics based on negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs has recently been developed. It constitutes a unique tool to investigate spin dependent interactions in electron scattering processes. The characteristics and working principles of the source are briefly described. Some theoretical aspects of the scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals are discussed. Finally, the results of the first polarized low-energy electron diffraction experiment using the NEA GaAs source are reviewed; they give information about the surface magnetization of ferromagnetic Ni (110). (Author) [pt

  7. Inelastic Proton Scattering on 21Na in Inverse Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roby

    2009-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, S. Reeve, Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, A.G. Tuff, O. Roberts, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods, T. Davinson, G. J. Lotay, University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; H. Al Falou, G.C. Ball, M. Djongolov, A. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, J.N. Orce, C.J. Pearson, S. Triambak, S.J. Williams, TRIUMF; C. Andreiou, D.S. Cross, N. Galinski, R. Kshetri, Simon Fraser University; C. Sumithrarachchi, M.A. Schumaker, University of Guelph; M.P. Jones, S.V. Rigby, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; T.E. Drake, University of Toronto; We describe an experiment and associated technique [1] to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. At the TRIUMF ISAC-II radioactive beam accelerator facility in Canada, particles inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics are detected with Bambino, a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with the charged particles to cleanly select inelastic scattering events. We measured resonances above the alpha threshold in ^22Mg of relevance to the rate of break-out from the hot-CNO cycle via the reaction ^ 18Ne(α,p)^21Na. [1] PJ Woods et al. Rex-ISOLDE proposal 424 Cern (2003).

  8. Interaction of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches with dense plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss the possibility of employment of ultrarelativistic electron and proton bunches for generation of high plasma wakefields in dense plasmas due to the Cherenkov resonance plasma-bunch interaction. We estimate the maximum amplitude of such a wake and minimum system length at which the maximum amplitude can be generated at the given bunch parameters.

  9. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p-/sup 3/He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm/sup -1/. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since /sup 3/He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p-/sup 3/He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for /sup 3/He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Polarization measurements in high energy elastic scattering of pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons on protons and comparison with Regge phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidot, A.; Bruneton, C.; Bystricky, J.; Cozzika, G.; Deregel, J.; Ducros, Y.; Khantine-Langlois, F.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Merlo, J.P.; Miyashita, S.; Movchet, J.; Pierrard, J.; Raoul, J.C.; Van Rossum, L.; Kanavets, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic scattering on polarized protons, of π - , K - and anti-p at 40GeV/c and of π + , K + and p at 45GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from -0.08 to -1.8(GeV/c) 2 for π - p and pp, and from -0.08 to -1.2(GeV/c) 2 for π + , K + or K - and anti-p [fr

  11. Excitation function for the population of the 4.51 MeV state of 27Al inelastic proton scattering. Evidence for 6- strength?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.; Koutsoliotas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The excitation function for emission of 2.30 MeV gamma rays from the 4.51 MeV state of 27 Al formed in inelastic proton scattering has been measured for proton energies from 5.6 to 7.3 MeV. A resonance previously seen in both inelastic electron and proton scattering from 28 Si at 17.35 MeV has been observed as a resonance in the excitation function, as well as seven other resonances, all of which are narrow (i.e., less than 100 keV wide). It is suggested that these may represent fragments of 6 - strength in 28 Si. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Selection and acquisition of data for the measurement of the spin rotation parameters in pion-proton scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    The experiment consists in measuring the polarisation of the recoil protons from elastic scattering of positive or negative pions on a polarised proton target (L. M. N.). The polarimeter consists in carbon plates alternated with wire spark chambers, The associated electronics has the following main functions: selective triggering of the spark chambers, acquisition and transcription on magnetic tape of all relevant information, continuous check of the various parts of the equipment. About one hundred scintillation counters provide information on the geometry of the pion-proton scattering. A fast logic treats these information. This logic, made of integrated circuits MECL, generates the selective trigger with a transit time of less than 150 ns, it reduces the triggering rate on background events by almost one order of magnitude. A small computer is used for acquisition and transcription of the data, and for the control of the experiment. (author) [fr

  13. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Valishev, A; Vorobiev, L G; Assmann, R; Kabantsev, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  14. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams

  15. Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Schülke, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    The book offers the first comprehensive review of experimental methods, theory, and successful applications of synchrotron radiation based inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy, which enables the investigation of electron dynamics in condensed matter (correlated motion and excitation).

  16. Electron scattering from the octupole band in 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, A.; Creswell, C.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Hynes, M.V.; Kowalski, S.; Miska, H.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sargent, C.P.; Sasanuma, T.; Turchinetz, W.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model for nuclear surface vibrations in permanently deformed nuclei does well in reproducing electron scattering cross sections of rotational levels built on a K/sup π/= 0 - intrinsic octupole vibration in 238 U

  17. Relativistic effects in elastic scattering of electrons in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, Axel; Scheerschmidt, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy typically works with highly accelerated thus relativistic electrons. Consequently the scattering process is described within a relativistic formalism. In the following, we will examine three different relativistic formalisms for elastic electron scattering: Dirac, Klein-Gordon and approximated Klein-Gordon, the standard approach. This corresponds to a different consideration of spin effects and a different coupling to electromagnetic potentials. A detailed comparison is conducted by means of explicit numerical calculations. For this purpose two different formalisms have been applied to the approaches above: a numerical integration with predefined boundary conditions and the multislice algorithm, a standard procedure for such simulations. The results show a negligibly small difference between the different relativistic equations in the vicinity of electromagnetic potentials, prevailing in the electron microscope. The differences between the two numeric approaches are found to be small for small-angle scattering but eventually grow large for large-angle scattering, recorded for instance in high-angle annular dark field.

  18. Expansions for model-independent analyses of inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.F.; Hilton, J.M.; Roberts, A.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the commonly-used Fourier-Bessel expansion for the transition density for inelastic electron scattering depends sensitively on an arbitrary parameter and is not realistic at large distances. Alternative expansions are suggested. (author)

  19. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  20. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  1. Runaway relativistic electron scattering on the plazma oscillations in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskij, V.B.; Razdorski, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of fast electrons in a tolamak plasma with the presence of the constant external electric field have been inveatigated. It is shown that the occurrence of the relativistic electrons ''tail'' of the distribution function is followed by an intensive plasma oscillation swinging under conditions of the anomalous Doppler effect and their large angle scattering in the momentum space. A part of scattered electrons is captured by tokamak inhomogeneous magnetic field and causes the occurrence of a new low frequency alfven instability under conditions of magnetic drift resonance followed by quasilinear diffusion of relativistic electrons along the small radius of the torus. The flux of runaway electrons scattered on plasma oscillations has been found. A nonlinear diffusion equation has been derived for the flux of captured electrons. The equation defines the carrying out of fast particles from the plasma filament center to its periphery depending on the external magnetic field and plasma parameters

  2. Neutron scattering and proton spin conversion in solid CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushington, K.J.; Morrison, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The total neutron cross section of pure and O 2 -doped condensed CH 4 has been measured in the temperature range 0.75< T<100 K. The neutron wave length was sufficiently long (4.7 A) so that changes in cross section could be directly related to changes in γI(I + 1)μ, the mean squared proton nuclear angular momentum per molecule, to a sensitivity of about 1%. The temperature dependences of γI(I + 1)μ for the pure and doped specimens differ considerably in solid phase II(T<20.4 K). For the former specimen, the change in cross section is consistent with conversion occurring between the nuclear spin symmetry species on the orientationally disordered sublattices only. The addition of oxygen enhances the rate of conversion such that the value of γI(I + 1)μ corresponds to conversion on both the disordered and ordered sublattices. The characteristic lifetimes of the catalyzed and uncatalyzed conversion processes have been estimated. (author)

  3. Study on proton spin flip in scattering by Ti and Fe nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbetskij, E.V.; Prokopenko, V.S.; Sklyarenko, V.D.; Chernievskij, V.K.; Shustov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    Spin-orbital effects and mechanisms of inelastic scattering of protons with energy of 6.9 MeV by sup(14, 48)Ti and sup(54, 56, 58)Fe are studied by the analysis of experimental results within the framework of the method of coupled channels. Simultaneously angular dependences of cross sections of elastic and inelastic (two first 2 + levels) scatterings and a probability of spin flip of proton at inelastic scattering are analysed. Experimental data were used for analysis, obtained in the given work, as well as the data published earlier. Targets are used in experiment which are in the form of self-sustaining fine (1-2 mg cm -2 ) films, enriched with corresponding isotope. Cross section determination error is 8% in the average. Obtained angular dependences of spin flip probability for sup(54, 56)Fe at Esub(p)=6.9 MeV are very similar in form and close in value to analogous at Esub(p)= 6 MeV, and differ greatly for 56 Fe at Esub(p)=5.88 MeV. Angular distributions of spin flip probabilities of protons from sup(54, 56)Fe (ppsub(1)) reaction at energies of 10, 11 and 12 MeV show the sufficient energy dependence of their shape and value. Experimental data are described satisfactorily witohin the framework of the cupled channel method namely - differential cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering and angular dependences of the probability of spin flip at the interaction of protons with 6.9 MeV energy with sup(46, 48)Ti and sup(54, 56, 58)Fe nuclei. Difficulties, appearing in the description of cross sections of elastic scattering in case of sup(46, 48)Ti and of inelastic one for 56 Fe show that indirect processes are of importance in the present energy range and they should be taken into consideration [ru

  4. Inelastic electron photon scattering at moderate four momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Grigull, R.; Lackas, W.; Raupach, F.; Klovning, A.; Lillestoel, E.; Skard, J.A.; Ackermann, H.; Buerger, J.

    1980-10-01

    We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section on Q 2 , the four momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector Dominance and the quark model. (orig.)

  5. Analytical fits to Fink's electron scattering amplitudes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shigeo

    1984-01-01

    Numerical data of the direct and spin-flip amplitudes for elastic electron scattering, calculated previously by Fink and co-workers, were expressed in the form Σc 1 exp(-c 2 x+ic 3 +ic 4 ), where x=1-cos theta,theta being a scattering angle. The adjustable c-parameters were determined by the use of a simplex method. Results are reported for carbon at incident electron energies of 25-1000eV. (author)

  6. Electron Raman scattering in a cylindrical quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qinghu; Yi Xuehua

    2012-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a CdS cylindrical quantum dot (QD). The differential cross section is calculated as a function of the scattering frequency and the size of the QD. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed, and singularities in the spectrum are found and interpreted. The selection rules for the processes are also studied. The ERS studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structure of these systems. (semiconductor physics)

  7. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  8. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons by hydrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.C.G.; Mu-Tao, L.; Botelho, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The coherent version of the Renormalized Multiple-Centre Potential Model (RMPM) has been extended to treat the elastic scattering of low energy electrons by H2 molecule. The intramolecular Multiple Scattering (MS) effect has also been included. The comparison against the experimental data shows that the inclusion of the MS improves significantly with experiment. The extension of the present method to study electron-polyatomic molecule interaction is also discussed. (author) [pt

  9. Jacob's ladder of approximations to paraxial dynamic electron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Lubk, A.; Rusz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical scattering theory describes the dominant scattering process of beam electrons at targets in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Hence, practically every quantitative TEM study has to consider its ramifications, typically by some approximate modeling. Here, we elaborate on a hierarchy within the various approximations focusing on the two principal approaches used in practice, Bloch wave and multislice. We reveal characteristic differences in the capability of these methods to...

  10. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  11. Analyzing power for proton elastic scattering from the neutron-rich 6He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Kawabata, T.; Sasamoto, Y.; Iseri, Y.; Amos, K.; Aoi, N.; Hiyama, E.; Sekiguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Satou, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Itoh, M.; Matsuo, R.; Wakui, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Iwasaki, H.; Kuboki, H.

    2010-01-01

    Vector analyzing power for the proton- 6 He elastic scattering at 71 MeV/nucleon has been measured for the first time, with a newly developed polarized proton solid target, which works at a low magnetic field of 0.09 T. The results are found to be incompatible with a t-matrix folding model prediction. Comparisons of the data with g-matrix folding analyses clearly show that the vector analyzing power is sensitive to the nuclear structure model used in the reaction analysis. The α-core distribution in 6 He is suggested to be a possible key for understanding the nuclear structure sensitivity.

  12. Secondary-electron-bremsstrahlung imaging for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsutaka; Nagao, Yuto [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan); Ando, Koki; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, 1-1-1 Hirate-cho, Kita-Ku, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kataoka, Jun [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kawachi, Naoki [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    A feasibility study on an imaging technique of a therapeutic proton-beam trajectory using a gamma camera by measuring secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB) was performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a beam-irradiation experiment. From the simulation and experimental results, it was found that a significant amount of SEB yield exists between the beam-injection surface and the range position along the beam axis and the beam trajectory is clearly imaged by the SEB yield. It is concluded that the SEB imaging is a promising technique for monitoring of therapeutic proton-beam trajectories.

  13. Total cross sections for electron scattering by He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, F.J.; Jansen, R.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no inelastic processes occur, the total cross sections for scattering are equal to those for elastic scattering. Above 19.8 eV total cross sections for scattering of electrons have been evaluated by adding those for ionisation, excitation and elastic scattering. The total cross sections thus obtained are probably accurate to about 5% over a large part of the energy range. They appear to be in very good agreement with the recent experimental results of Blaauw et al. (J. Phys. B.; 10:L299 (1977)). The present results have already proved useful for application in the dispersion relation for forward scattering in electron-helium collisions. (author)

  14. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  15. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-03-01

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep→epγ interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A UL and A LU which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A LL dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin φ and cos(0φ) amplitudes are observed for A UL and A LL respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2φ) amplitude for A UL . The results for the A UL and A LL asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A LU amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  16. Microscopic description of inelastic proton scattering from 88Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouw, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    A microscopic description of the 88 Sr(p,p') reaction at 25 and 31 MeV, 200 MeV and 65 MeV is given. In the analysis several excited states are considered. For the nuclear structure of these states wave functions calculated from a one broken-pair model in a 4hw model space are used which give in general a good description of the shape of the transition charge and current densities as measured in (e,e') scattering. Also a macroscopic analysis has been made of some collective transitions. For 24, 31 and 65 MeV the effective HJ and the JLM interaction were employed, the effective Paris interaction was used at 200 MeV and the M3YP interaction at 65 MeV. At 65 and 200 MeV some calibration factors were needed. It is shown that the nonlocality of the distortion potential is closely related to the nonlocality of the transition potential. The influence of a spin-orbit potential and nonlocality in the single-particle potential on the electromagnetic current operator is discussed. In an impulse approximation of the electromagnetic coupling the presence of these terms would lead to violation of charge conservation. Starting from a Lagrangian formulation a current operator is derived that conserves explicitly electric charge. (Auth.)

  17. The boundary-corrected second Born (B2B) approximation: proton-hydrogen electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, D.P.; Bransden, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    The probability amplitude for proton-hydrogen ground-state electron capture at 125 keV in the boundary-corrected second Born approximation has been evaluated numerically by retaining all significant bound and continuum hydrogenic intermediate states for which the orbital angular momentum l ≤ 3. The differential cross section is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for scattering angles less than about 1 mrad in the centre of mass system. The value of the boundary-corrected second Born total cross section is similar to that obtained in the boundary-corrected first Born approximation. (author)

  18. Proton-proton elastic scattering at the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00062364; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Janda, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Magaletti, L.; Magazzu, G.; Mercadante, A.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Novak, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Perrot, A.L.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petajajarvi, J.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at √ s = 7 TeV in dedicated runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close as seven times the transverse beam size (σbeam) from the outgoing beams. After careful study of the accelerator optics and the detector alignment, |t| , the square of four-momentum transferred in the elastic scattering process, has been determined with an uncertainty of δ t = 0.1 GeV √ |t|. In this letter the first results of the differential cross section are presented covering a |t|-range from 0.36 to 2.5 GeV**2. The differential cross-section in the range 0.36 < |t| < 0.47 GeV**2 is described by an exponential with a slope parameter B = (23.6±0.5stat ±0.4syst)GeV**−2, followed by a significant diffractive minimum at |t| = (0.53±0.01stat±0.01syst)GeV**2. For |t|-values larger than ∼ 1:5GeV**2, the cross-section exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent of -7.8 ± 0.3stat ±0.1syst. When compared to...

  19. Alignment creation by elastic electron scattering. A quantum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    2004-01-01

    Alignment creation by elastic heavy particle scattering has been studied by many authors. A formula for the alignment creation cross section by elastic scattering is obtained by quantum-mechanical methods. The formula obtained differs from the analogous formula relevant for inelastic electron scattering. In the case of a J=1 to J=1 transition according to the inelastic formula, the alignment created is proportional to the quantity σ (1) - σ (0) where σ (M) is the excitation cross section of the M magnetic sublevel and thus σ (1) = (σ 1-1 + σ 10 + σ 11 )/3 and σ (0) = (σ 0-1 +σ 00 + σ 01 )/3 where σ MM' refers to the cross section of the electron impact induced M' to M transition. In the elastic scattering alignment creation formula obtained in the case of a J=1 to J=1 elastic scattering, the alignment created is proportional to the quantity q(1) - q(0) where q(1) σ (1) - σ 11 /3 and q(0) = σ 00 /3. Thus in obtaining q(M), the elastic scattering cross section by the M magnetic sublevel, σ MM' , is subtracted. This derivation considered only direct scattering, i.e. the incident electron was considered distinguishable from the target electrons. (Y.Kazumata)

  20. Effects of target plasma electron-electron collisions on correlated motion of fragmented H2+ protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to examined the effects of plasma target electron-electron collisions on H 2 + protons traversing it. Specifically, the target is deuterium in a plasma state with temperature T e =10 eV and density n=10 23 cm -3 , and proton velocities are v p =v th , v p =2v th , and v p =3v th , where v th is the electron thermal velocity of the target plasma. Proton interactions with plasma electrons are treated by means of the dielectric formalism. The interactions among close protons through plasma electronic medium are called vicinage forces. It is checked that these forces always screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H 2 + ion decreasing their relative distance. They also align the interproton vector along the motion direction, and increase the energy loss of the two protons at early dwell times while for longer times the energy loss tends to the value of two isolated protons. Nevertheless, vicinage forces and effects are modified by the target electron collisions. These collisions enhance the calculated self-stopping and vicinage forces over the collisionless results. Regarding proton correlated motion, when these collisions are included, the interproton vector along the motion direction overaligns at slower proton velocities (v p =v th ) and misaligns for faster ones (v p =2v th , v p =3v th ). They also contribute to a great extend to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H 2 + ion. This later effect is more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  1. Study of electron and proton isochoric heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Chen, M.H.; Chung, H.K.; Foord, M.E.; Gregori, G.; Hatchett, S.P.; Koch, J.A.; Lasinski, B.F.; Langdon, B.; MacKinnon, A.J.; Patel, P.; Snavely, R.A.; Tabak, M.; Town, R.; Wilks, S.C.; Akli, K.; Freeman, R.R.; Gu, P.; Hey, D.; Hill, J.M.; King, J.A.; Patel, N.; Zhang, B.; Freeman, R.R.; Stephens, R.B.; Beg, F.; Pasley, J.; Green, J.S.; Lancaster, K.; Murphy, C.D.; Norreys, P.A.; Green, J.S.; Murphy, C.D.; Habara, H.; Kodama, R.; Tanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.

    2006-01-01

    Isochoric heating by electrons has been measured in the two limiting cases of small area thin foils with dominant refluxing and cone-long-wire geometry with negligible refluxing in the wire. Imaging of Cu Kα cone fluorescence, crystal X-ray spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, and X UV imaging at 68 eV and 256 eV are discussed. Laser power on target was typically 0.5 PW in 0.7 ps. Heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi-shell and from a sub hemi-shell inside 30 degrees cone has been studied with the same diagnostic methods plus imaging of proton induced Kα. Conversion efficiency to protons has been measured and modeled. Conclusions from the experiments, links to theoretical understanding and relevance to fast ignition are outlined. (authors)

  2. Spin flip in inelastic scattering of protons on 28Si nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Syn Chan; Komsan, M.N.Kh.; Osetinskij, G.M.; Golubev, S.L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Likhosherstov, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    We measured the energy and angular dependences of the spin-flip probability and of the differential cross section for inelastic scattering of protons in the resonance region of the reaction 28 Si(p,p') 23 Si* (2 + , 1.78 MeV) at E sub(p) = 3.095 and 3.34 MeV. The energy dependence of the spin-flip probability was found to have a resonance character. The angular distribution of the inelastic scattering and of the spin-flip probability is asymmetrical with respect to 90 deg in the c.m.s

  3. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-water Scattering at 800 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, D. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; Mischke, R. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R.

    1982-01-01

    A search has been made for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an unpolarized water target. The result is for the longitudinal asymmetry, A{sub L} = +(6.6 +- 3.2) x 10{sup -7}. Control runs with Pb, using a thickness which gave equivalent beam broadening from Coulomb multiple scattering, but a factor of ten less nuclear interactions than the water target, gave A{sub L} = -(0.5 +- 6.0) x 10{sup -7}.

  4. Determination of the negatively charged pion-proton scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2003-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to the hadronic scattering length extracted from a hydrogenic atom with an extended charge and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order ((alpha)**2)(log(alpha)) in the limit of a non-relativistic approach. A hadronic negatively charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5), in units of inverse charged pion-mass, is deduced, leading to a pion-nucleon coupling constant from the GMO relation equals to 14.00(19).

  5. Study of the electrons elastic scattering by atoms through pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettega, M.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudopotentials allow an extraordinary simplification in the calculation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and crystals. Though they have been used extensively for electronic structure calculations, little is known of their applicability to scattering. A study of the pseudopotentials of Bachelet, Hamann and Schuter in the electron scattering by atoms was made, calculating phase-shifts and cross sections for angular momenta 1=0,1 and 2 and energy up to 5 R y. The results for the pseudopotential were compared all-electron calculations. The agreement is very good in a broad energy band. A simplification of the calculation of scattering by complex molecules where an all-electron calculation is impossible is aimed. (author)

  6. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off longitudinally polarised protons at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, David Francis

    2010-06-15

    This thesis details the simultaneous extraction of three polarisation-dependent asymmetries in the distribution of real photons from the ep{yields}ep{gamma} interaction and its indistinguishable deeply virtual Compton scattering and Bethe-Heitler processes at the HERMES fixed-target experiment at Desy. The data analysed were taken using a longitudinally polarised 27.57 GeV positron beam incident on a longitudinally polarised hydrogen gas target. The extracted asymmetries include two single-spin asymmetries A{sub UL} and A{sub LU} which depend on the polarisation of the target and beam respectively, averaged over all other polarisation states. The double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} dependent on the product of the beam and target polarisations is extracted for the first time. The asymmetry amplitudes extracted relate to combinations of Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs), predominantly H and H. The extracted amplitudes are presented across the HERMES kinematic range alongside theoretical predictions from a GPD model based on double distributions. Large sin {phi} and cos(0{phi}) amplitudes are observed for A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} respectively, with an unexpectedly large sin(2{phi}) amplitude for A{sub UL}. The results for the A{sub UL} and A{sub LL} asymmetries are broadly compatible with theory predictions, and the extracted A{sub LU} amplitudes are compatible with HERMES results extracted from a significantly larger data set. It is foreseen that these results will form input to future global data-based GPD models which aim to provide a better understanding of GPDs. (orig.)

  7. Inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on O7+ projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Grabbe, S.; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree target electrons on H-like projectiles have been measured. Electron spectra for 20.25-MeV O 7+ projectiles on an H 2 target were measured. The spectra contain a resonant contribution from the 3l3l ' doubly excited states of O 6+ , which decay predominantly to the 2l states of the O 7+ via autoionization, and a nonresonant contribution from the direct excitation of the projectiles to the O 7+ (2l) state by the quasifree target electrons. Close-coupling R-matrix calculations for the inelastic scattering of free electrons on O 7+ ions were performed. The relation between the electron-ion inelastic scattering calculation and the electron DDCS close-quote s for the ion-atom collision was established by using the inelastic scattering model (ISM). We found excellent agreement between the theoretical and measured resonant peak positions and relative peak heights. The calculated absolute double differential cross sections for the resonance processes are also in good agreement with the measured data. The implication is that collisions of highly charged ions on hydrogen can be used to obtain high-resolution, angle- resolved differential inelastic electron-scattering cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chuang; Feng Feng; Li Ying-Jun

    2016-01-01

    As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. (paper)

  9. Scattering of electrons in copper by a Frenkel pair defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, A.; Rijsdijk, G.A.; Bukman, D.J.; Baratta, A.J.; Molenaar, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function extended-defect formalism, used to describe the scattering of Bloch electrons in a dilute alloy, is generalised to include an asymmetric defect centred on a lattice site. The revised theory is then used to investigate conduction electron scattering from Frenkel pairs in Cu. Such defects consist of two self-interstitial atoms centred on a vacant lattice site forming a dumb-bell oriented along the <100> axis. The generalised formalism allows one to calculate the cluster t matrix T for the Frenkel pair cluster including the surrounding displaced nearest neighbours. It was found that the interstitials at the vacant lattice site could still be treated within the muffin-tin potential as a central scatterer characterised by a t matrix which is non-diagonal in the angular momentum. Electron scattering rates and Dingle temperatures are calculated and discussed in view of preliminary experimental results.

  10. Scattering of electrons in copper by a Frenkel pair defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodder, A.; Rijsdijk, G.A.; Bukman, D.J.; Baratta, A.J.; Molenaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function extended-defect formalism, used to describe the scattering of Bloch electrons in a dilute alloy, is generalised to include an asymmetric defect centred on a lattice site. The revised theory is then used to investigate conduction electron scattering from Frenkel pairs in Cu. Such defects consist of two self-interstitial atoms centred on a vacant lattice site forming a dumb-bell oriented along the axis. The generalised formalism allows one to calculate the cluster t matrix T for the Frenkel pair cluster including the surrounding displaced nearest neighbours. It was found that the interstitials at the vacant lattice site could still be treated within the muffin-tin potential as a central scatterer characterised by a t matrix which is non-diagonal in the angular momentum. Electron scattering rates and Dingle temperatures are calculated and discussed in view of preliminary experimental results. (author)

  11. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  12. Unified semimicroscopic approach scattering of low energy protons and alpha-particles by nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao Tien Khoa; Kukhtina, I.N.; Knyaz'kov, O.M.; Feofilov, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The unified approach has been developed to the description of the interaction of low energy nucleons and α-particles with nuclei. The analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering of 25.05 MeV protons and 104 MeV α-particles from 90 Zr is made. The differences in deformations of neutron and proton density distributions for 90 Zr nucleus are extracted. The energy dependence of the obtained α-particle - nucleus semimicroscopic potential is investigated, including the energy dependence for the geometry of the potential. The feaures of angular distributions of elastic α-particle scattering and the role of nucleon-nucleon correlations are analysed as a function of α-particle energy

  13. Angular distribution of elastic scattering of 17F and 18Ne on proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaohui; Wu Heyu; Hu Rongjiang; Zhu Yongtai; Zhang Baoguo; Li Zuyu; Wei Zhiyong; Duan Liming; Wang Hongwei; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Sufang; Jin Genming; Guo Zhongyan; Xiao Guoqing; Zhu Haidong; Liu Yongying; Chen Keliang; Chen Tao; Li Xiangqing; Li Zhihuan

    2002-01-01

    Under reverse kinematics, elastic scattering of 17 F and 18 Ne on proton is studied. The experimental differential cross sections were measured. A kind of global optical potential with the CH89 parameters is used to describe the radioactive nucleus as an initial optical potential parameters. The experimental differential cross section data are analyzed by using the theoretical calculation code DWUCK4 with the distorted-wave Born approximation and parameter search subroutine ABOD which automatically searches the suitable parameters. Then the optical potential parameters of scattering 17 F and 18 Ne on proton are obtained. From the analyses of the optimized parameters, the real central potential mean-square radii of 17 F and 18 Ne, 3.239 fm and 3.317 fm are deduced, respectively

  14. Quantal inversion of cross-section for the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed energy quantal inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-section from the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12 C. Ambiguities in obtaining the scattering function from the differential cross-section are discussed and by means of example it is illustrated that not all scattering functions lead to physically reasonable potentials. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Angular momentum effects in electron scattering from atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J F; Cvejanovie, D; Samarin, S; Pravica, L; Napier, S; Sergeant, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns angular momentum-dependent phenomena in excited gas-phase atoms using incident photons or electrons in scattering experiments. A brief overview indicates the main capabilities of experimental techniques and the information which can be deduced about atomic structure and dynamics from conservation of momenta with measurement of polarization and detection of the number of emerging electrons, photons and ions. Maximum information may be obtained when the incident particles and the targets are state-selected both before and after scattering. The fundamental scattering amplitudes and their relative phases, and consequently derived quantities such as the parameters describing the electron charge cloud of the atomic target, have enabled significant advances of understanding of collision mechanisms. The angular momentum-dependent scattering probabilities change when, for example, the spin-orbit interaction for the target electrons becomes large compared with the Coulomb electron-electron interactions and also when electron exchange and the relative orientation of the electron spins change. Several examples are discussed to indicate significant principles and recent advances. Major contributions to this field from the technology associated with electron spin production and detection time, as well as time-coincidence detection, are discussed. New results from the authors' laboratory are presented

  16. A fully microscopic model of 200 MeV proton-{sup 12}C elastic and inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglidis, S; Dortmans, P J; Amos, K; de Swiniarski, R

    1996-03-01

    An effective two nucleon (NN) interaction in the nuclear medium is defined from an accurate mapping of the NN g matrices obtained by solving the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations for infinite nuclear matter. That effective interaction is used in a fully microscopic calculation of the nonlocal effective proton-{sup 12}C interaction from which are obtained predictions of the differential cross section and analysing power for 200 MeV elastic scattering. The relative motion wave functions so found are used as the distorted waves in a distorted wave approximation (DWA) study of select inelastic scattering events. The effective NN interaction is used as the transition operator in those calculations. The relevant nuclear spectroscopy for the elastic and DWA (p, p`) calculations is found from a full (0 + 2) {Dirac_h}{omega} shell model evaluation of the positive parity states while a restricted (1 + 3){Dirac_h}{omega} has been used to give the negative parity states. Results are compared with those of the 0p-shell model of Cohen and Kurath or with those based upon axially symmetric, projected Hartree-Fock calculations. The diverse structure model wave functions are assessed by using them in calculations to compare with measured longitudinal, transverse electric and transverse magnetic form factors from electron scattering to many of the excited states of {sup 12}C. Using those models of the structure of {sup 12}C in the completely microscopic model of the elastic and inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons, good fits have been found to the cross section and analysing power data. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  17. THEORY OF ELECTRON-DEUTERON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, L. III

    1963-06-15

    Information on the electromagnetic form factors of the neutron is obtained from the theory of inelastic electrondeuteron scattering. Problems in the analysis of these experiments that are related to the detailed structure of the deuteron and to the strong final state interactions between the emergent nucleons are considered. Problems arising from an ambiguity in the sign of the Dirac or charge form factor are also discussed. (C.E.S.)

  18. Measurements of Electron Proton Elastic Cross Sections for 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Arshak Asaturyan; Steven Avery; Baker, O.; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; Bochna, C.W.; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; Brown, D.S.; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Fox, B.; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Martin, J.W.; Kevin Mcilhany; David Mckee; David Meekins; Miller, M.A.; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Rodney Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; Rollinde, E.; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; Smith, C.; Samuel Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 distinct kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q2 < 5.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q2 range, where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This data set shows good agreement with previous cross section measurements, indicating that if a heretofore unknown systematic error does exist in the cross section measurements, then it is intrinsic to all such measurements

  19. Enrico Fermi: The First Chain Reactor (with Film) and Pion-Proton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Ron

    2003-01-01

    A twenty minute film will be shown depicting the first nuclear chain reactor at the University of Chicago on December 2, 1942. The film was made of a re-enactment in 1952 and is narrated by Arthur Compton and Enrico Fermi. After the film, Ronald Martin will talk about his experiences on pion-proton scattering with Enrico Fermi at the Chicago synchrocyclotron in the fifties.

  20. Active target with plastic scintillating fibers for hyperon-proton scattering experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Arvieux, H.; Bassalleck, B.; Chung, M. S.; En'yo, H.; Fukuda, T.; Funahashi, H.; Golovkin, SV.; Gorin, AM.; Goto, Y.; Hanabata, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Ieiri, M.; Imai, K.; Ishino, M.; Kanda, H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kondo, Y.; Kozarenko, E. N.; Kreslo, I. E.; Lee, J. M.; Masaike, A.; Mihara, S.; Nakai, K.; Nakazawa, K.; Ozawa, K.; Sato, A.; Sato, H. D.; Sim, K. S.; Tabaru, T.; Takeutchi, F.; Tlustý, Pavel; Torii, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2002), s. 592-596 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048304; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : active target * hyperon-proton scattering * scintillating fibers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2002

  1. The effect of proton correlations in the M1 scattering strengths of even calcium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, L.; Poves, A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton correlations are evaluated in Ca isotopes using the wave functions obtained in an extended shell model calculation in the [1dsub(3/2), 1fsub(7/2), 1fsub(5/2)] valence space. The inclusion of 2p-2h correlations in M1 scattering strengths and magnetic moments improves the agrreement with the experimental data. The M1 strength in 40 Ca is correctly reproduced. (orig.)

  2. Effect of proton transfer on the electronic coupling in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, Janusz; Makowska, Joanna; Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of single and double proton transfer within Watson-Crick base pairs on donor-acceptor electronic couplings, V da , in DNA are studied on the bases of quantum chemical calculations. Four dimers [AT,AT], [GC,GC], [GC,AT] and [GC,TA)] are considered. Three techniques - the generalized Mulliken-Hush scheme, the fragment charge method and the diabatic states method - are employed to estimate V da for hole transfer between base pairs. We show that both single- and double proton transfer (PT) reactions may substantially affect the electronic coupling in DNA. The electronic coupling in [AT,AT] is predicted to be most sensitive to PT. Single PT within the first base pair in the dimer leads to increase in the hole transfer efficiency by a factor of 4, while proton transfer within the second pair should substantially, by 2.7 times, decrease the rate of charge transfer. Thus, directional asymmetry of the PT effects on the electronic coupling is predicted. The changes in the V da matrix elements correlate with the topological properties of orbitals of donor and acceptor and can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of resonance structures of donor and acceptor. Atomic pair contributions to the V da matrix elements are also analyzed

  3. Halo structure of 8B determined from intermediate energy proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, G. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Egelhof, P.; Estradé, A.; Dillmann, I.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Ilieva, S.; Ke, Y.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kurcewicz, J.; Le, X. C.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petrov, G. E.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sergeev, L. O.; Simon, H.; Takechi, M.; Tang, S.; Volkov, V.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Weick, H.; Yatsoura, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The absolute differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the proton-rich 8B nucleus has been measured in inverse kinematics for the first time. The experiment was performed using a secondary radioactive beam with an energy of 0.7 GeV/u at GSI, Darmstadt. The active target, namely hydrogen-filled time projection ionization chamber IKAR, was used to measure the energy, angle and vertex point of the recoil protons. The scattering angle of the projectiles was simultaneously determined by the tracking detectors. The measured differential cross section is analyzed on the basis of the Glauber multiple scattering theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. The radial density distribution deduced for 8B exhibits a halo structure with the root-mean-square (rms) matter radius Rm = 2.58 (6) fm and the rms halo radius Rh = 4.24 (25) fm. The results on 8B are compared to those on the mirror nucleus 8Li investigated earlier by the same method. A comparison is also made with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions for both nuclei.

  4. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep{yields}eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data sample covers the range x{sub P} < 0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4scattering. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive ep cross section is studied as a function of Q{sup 2}, {beta} and x{sub P}. (orig.)

  6. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, L.J. van; Zee, W. van der; Huizenga, H.

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight

  7. Electron identification and hadron contamination studies in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashi, Anisa [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The continuum of electron-positron pairs, produced in heavy-ion collisions, provides an excellent probe of the quark-gluon plasma and a possible chiral symmetry restoration, since these particles do not undergo strong final state interactions and hence carry information about the in-medium properties of hadrons to the detectors. To extract possible signatures, it is important to work with an electron sample of high purity, i.e. not contaminated by other particles. Dielectrons are also studied in proton-proton collisions to provide a crucial reference for the measurement in heavy-ion collisions. This poster presents an analysis performed on a data set of pp collisions at √(s) = 7 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The aim of this work is to optimize the electron identification and to reduce the hadron contamination. For that, three different combinations of particle identification (PID) criteria are compared regarding the statistical significance S/σ{sub S} of their dielectron signals and their electron purities. The analysis shows that one can achieve good electron identification efficiencies and high electron purities by combining the specific energy loss signals measured in the Inner Tracking System and the Time Projection Chamber with the information of the Time of Flight detector. With such a PID selection one obtains a dielectron signal with a purity higher than 82% reaching up to 96%, depending on the invariant mass.

  8. Inclusive and exclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, J.

    1985-11-01

    In this talk, I will present some deep inelastic electron scattering experiments done recently at Saclay with the purpose of studying high momentum components in the nucleus, many body effects as correlations, exchange currents, and the electron-nucleon interaction inside the nuclear medium. For that purpose we have performed (e,e') and (ee'p) experiments. When we detect only the scattered electron, we get some average properties less sensitive to final state interaction; in ee'p measurements we are more specific

  9. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  10. Challenges in reduction of dinitrogen by proton and electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Cornelis J M; Koper, Marc T M; Hetterscheid, Dennis G H

    2014-08-07

    Ammonia is an important nutrient for the growth of plants. In industry, ammonia is produced by the energy expensive Haber-Bosch process where dihydrogen and dinitrogen form ammonia at a very high pressure and temperature. In principle one could also reduce dinitrogen upon addition of protons and electrons similar to the mechanism of ammonia production by nitrogenases. Recently, major breakthroughs have taken place in our understanding of biological fixation of dinitrogen, of molecular model systems that can reduce dinitrogen, and in the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen at heterogeneous surfaces. Yet for efficient reduction of dinitrogen with protons and electrons major hurdles still have to be overcome. In this tutorial review we give an overview of the different catalytic systems, highlight the recent breakthroughs, pinpoint common grounds and discuss the bottlenecks and challenges in catalytic reduction of dinitrogen.

  11. Effects of electrons on the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michno, M. J.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Among the kinetic microinstabilities, the firehose instability is one of the most efficient mechanisms to restrict the unlimited increase of temperature anisotropy in the direction of an ambient magnetic field as predicted by adiabatic expansion of collision-poor solar wind. Indeed, the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy detected near 1 AU shows that it is constrained by the marginal firehose condition. Of the two types of firehose instabilities, namely, parallel and oblique, the literature suggests that the solar wind data conform more closely to the marginal oblique firehose condition. In the present work, however, it is shown that the parallel firehose instability threshold is markedly influenced by the presence of anisotropic electrons, such that under some circumstances, the cumulative effects of both electron and proton anisotropies could describe the observation without considering the oblique firehose mode.

  12. Influence of scattering processes on electron quantum states in nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of quantum perturbation theory the self-consistent method of calculation of electron scattering rates in nanowires with the one-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit is worked out. The developed method allows both the collisional broadening and the quantum correlations between scattering events to be taken into account. It is an alternativeper seto the Fock approximation for the self-energy approach based on Green’s function formalism. However this approach is free of mathematical difficulties typical to the Fock approximation. Moreover, the developed method is simpler than the Fock approximation from the computational point of view. Using the approximation of stable one-particle quantum states it is proved that the electron scattering processes determine the dependence of electron energy versus its wave vector.

  13. Neutrino-electron scattering. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We present here a progress report on an experiment to measure the cross section for nu/sub μ/e scattering at the Brookhaven AGS. A wide band focussing horn is used with a neutrino beam energy centered at 1.5 GeV. We have in hand measurements with nu/sub μ/ and anti nu/sub μ/ beams but we present preliminary data on the nu/sub μ/ beam running only. We also measure the reactions: nu/sub μ/ + n → μ - + p and nu/sub e/ + n → e - + p which will be used in normalization and in background estimation

  14. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering: Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.

    2016-01-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, \\ud R\\ud 2\\ud γ\\ud , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillato...

  15. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Brian; Ice, Lauren; Ates, Ozgur; Avetisyan, Albert; Beck, Reinhard; Belostotski, Stanislav; Bessuille, Jason; Brinker, Frank; Calarco, John; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Khaneft, Dmitry; Contalbrigo, Marco; De Leo, R.

    2017-01-01

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, $\\it R_{2 \\gamma}$, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillator...

  16. How Do We Know Protons, Electrons, and Quarks Really Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Scientific explanations often make use of things that cannot be seen or felt, such as protons, electrons, and quarks. Do these things really exist? If so, how do is it known that they exist? Imagine being enclosed in a completely dark room with no light at all and not being able to see a thing. Being chained to a chair somewhere in the room, and…

  17. Double electron capture by protons in collisions with H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Zepeda, M.H.; Gleason, Cristian; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hinojosa, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Double electron capture of protons in collisions with molecular hydrogen in the energy range 1.5-10 keV was studied by measuring the resulting H - velocity distributions. In this paper, a technique that provides experimental evidence about double capture mechanisms is proposed. In addition, cross-sections for this process were measured in the energy range of 1-5 keV.

  18. Proton-proton elastic scattering from 150 to 515 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, D.V.; Edginton, J.A.; Amsler, C.

    1977-12-01

    The parameters D, R, R' and P for pp elastic scattering have been measured in the centre of mass angular range 13 to 58 0 with an accuracy of about +- 0.02 at 209, 324, 379, 425 and 515 MeV. These results are incorporated with earlier data into a phase shift analysis. Phase shifts are generally in agreement with theoretical predictions of the Paris group, although the F wave spin-orbit combination is rather stronger than predicted. The fitted value for the π 0 p anti p coupling constant is g 0 2 = 14.06 +- 0.65. (author)

  19. Equipment and software for the experiment on polarized proton scattering on hydrogen and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buklej, A.E.; Govorun, N.N.; Zhurkin, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Installation for the conduction of polarization measurements upon the beam of polarized protons with the 2.1 GeV/c momentum using ITEP synchrotron is described. The installation is designed for polarization measurement in elastic pp-scattering and asymmetry in summary (elastic and inelastic without meson production) scattering of polarized protons upon nuclei in the angle range up to 180 mrad, as well as polarization in elastic pn-scattering. The installation consists of 18 two-coordinate magnetostriction wire spark chambers (s.c.), emitting counters, the system of veto-counters surrounding the target, liquid hydrogen or (deuterium) target and magnet to conduct pulse analysis of scattered particles in the background measurements. Primary processing of the material is conducted on the basis of modernized programs using the M-220 and BESM-6 computers. With a help of the experimental installation described asymmetry measurement on hydrogen, Li, C, Al, Ca have been conducted. The prospect of use of the method described to separate elastic reactions in the range of very small momentum transmitted, where the background of inelastic interactions can be decreased to the negligibly low level, for precise measurement of elastic reactions cross sections and the study of polarization phenomena in the range of coulomb interference is underlined [ru

  20. 200 MeV proton scattering on nuclei. Energetic proton analysis at large angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigne, G.

    1983-01-01

    By means of a magnetic spectrometer for which has been realized an acceptance's programme, cross-sections for backward emission have been measured (100 MeV till the cinematic limit) (102 0 to 106 0 ) in the interaction proton-nucleus at 200 MeV from light, medium and heavy target. Our experimental set-up used from a polyethylene target (CH2) allowed to obtain, for the elastic cross-section (p,p), values in agreement with those ones determined by an analyse in phase-shift at 200 MeV. A comparison of our experimental spectra with the theory based on the Q.T.B.S. model (Quasi Two Body Scaling) and on a more conventional one of intranuclear cascades showed that the knock out mechanisms inside the nucleus are always unknown [fr

  1. Variational methods in electron-atom scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nesbet, Robert K

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of scattering phenomena is a major theme of modern physics. A scattered particle provides a dynamical probe of the target system. The practical problem of interest here is the scattering of a low­ energy electron by an N-electron atom. It has been difficult in this area of study to achieve theoretical results that are even qualitatively correct, yet quantitative accuracy is often needed as an adjunct to experiment. The present book describes a quantitative theoretical method, or class of methods, that has been applied effectively to this problem. Quantum mechanical theory relevant to the scattering of an electron by an N-electron atom, which may gain or lose energy in the process, is summarized in Chapter 1. The variational theory itself is presented in Chapter 2, both as currently used and in forms that may facilitate future applications. The theory of multichannel resonance and threshold effects, which provide a rich structure to observed electron-atom scattering data, is presented in Cha...

  2. Background Rejection of Charged Particles in the Simbol-X Telescope: Preliminary Study of Protons Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orto, E.; Barbera, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Mineo, T.; Pareschi, G.; Rigato, V.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    X-ray telescopes equipped with focusing optics in high eccentric orbit, as e.g. Newton-XMM and Chandra, showed a degradation of the detector performance and an important increase of the noise due to soft protons with energy between a few tens of keV and a few MeV, that are focused on the detector through the mirror module. It should be noted that the focusing of the protons by Wolter optics was an unexpected phenomenon. In Simbol-X a magnetic diverter will be implemented to deflect protons, in order to reduce the flux of charged particles impinging upon the focal plane. Obviously the design of the diverter should take into consideration the protons distribution at the exit of the mirror module; for this reason a detailed simulation about the interaction of particles with the mirror surface is necessary. Here we will present the scattering protons models currently under consideration, suggesting a preliminary solution for the design of the magnetic diverter. We will also discuss an ad hoc experiment to study this problem.

  3. Background Rejection of Charged Particles in the Simbol-X Telescope: Preliminary Study of Protons Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orto, E.; Barbera, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Malaguti, G.; Mineo, T.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Rigato, V.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray telescopes equipped with focusing optics in high eccentric orbit, as e.g. Newton-XMM and Chandra, showed a degradation of the detector performance and an important increase of the noise due to soft protons with energy between a few tens of keV and a few MeV, that are focused on the detector through the mirror module. It should be noted that the focusing of the protons by Wolter optics was an unexpected phenomenon. In Simbol-X a magnetic diverter will be implemented to deflect protons, in order to reduce the flux of charged particles impinging upon the focal plane. Obviously the design of the diverter should take into consideration the protons distribution at the exit of the mirror module; for this reason a detailed simulation about the interaction of particles with the mirror surface is necessary. Here we will present the scattering protons models currently under consideration, suggesting a preliminary solution for the design of the magnetic diverter. We will also discuss an ad hoc experiment to study this problem.

  4. Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules

  5. Microscopic model analyses of proton elastic scattering from diverse targets in the energy range 65 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two nucleon (NN) effective interactions based upon two-nucleon g matrices have been used in fully microscopic calculations of nonlocal proton-nucleus optical potentials for protons with energies between 65 and 400 MeV. Excellent predictions of the differential cross sections, analysing powers and spin rotations for scattering angles to 60 deg result. (authors)

  6. Parity nonconservation in polarized electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1979-10-01

    Recent observations of parity violation in inelastic scattering of electrons at high energy is discussed with reference to the process e(polarized) + D(unpolarized) → e + X. The kinetics of this process, the idealized case of scattering from free quark targets, experimental techniques and results, and relations to atomic physics of parity violation in bismuth and thallium atoms with a model independent analysis. 17 references

  7. Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce 3+ (4f 1 ) in single crystals of LuPO 4 and Er 3+ (4f 11 ) in single crystals of ErPO 4 . 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs

  8. Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs

  9. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  10. Nucleons, mesons and quarks: the electron scattering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    A few examples of the research carried out by electron scattering in order to elucidate the relevant degrees of freedom for nuclear physics. Is considered first quasielastic scattering from 3 He which gives some insight into the properties of the nucleon in the nuclear medium. Then examples of meson exchange currents are presented. Finally, the present status of our understanding of shorter range effects is discussed

  11. Forward elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibotti, C.R. (Instituto de Fisica Teorica, R. Pamplona 145, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Massaro, P.A. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1978-01-11

    The available theoretical and experimental values for the elastic, inelastic and ionization cross-sections of electrons by hydrogen atoms are used to obtain the total cross-section. The optical theorem and a dispersion relation are used to calculate the forward e-H scattering amplitude for medium and high energies. Using this quantity the reliability of the Born expansion for elastic e-H scattering is tested.

  12. Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Quantum Electron Gas with Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Terahertz (THz) plasma waves in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with quantum effects, the electron scattering, the thermal motion of electrons and electron exchange-correlation. We find that, while the electron scattering, the wave number along y direction and the electron exchange-correlation suppress the radiation power, but the thermal motion of electrons and the quantum effects can amplify the radiation power. The radiation frequency decreases with electron exchange-correlation contributions, but increases with quantum effects, the wave number along y direction and thermal motion of electrons. It is worth mentioning that the electron scattering has scarce influence on the radiation frequency. These properties could be of great help to the realization of practical THz plasma oscillations in nanometer FET. (paper)

  13. Electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Pertica, A.

    2013-04-22

    The build up of electron clouds inside a particle accelerator vacuum chamber can produce strong transverse and longitudinal beam instabilities which in turn can lead to high levels of beam loss often requiring the accelerator to be run below its design specification. To study the behaviour of electron clouds at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron, a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) based electron cloud detector has been developed. The detector is based on the Retarding Field Analyser (RFA) design and consists of a retarding grid, which allows energy analysis of the electron signal, and a MCP assembly placed in front of the collector plate. The MCP assembly provides a current gain over the range 300 to 25K, thereby increasing the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range of the measurements. This paper presents the first electron cloud observations at the ISIS Proton Synchrotron. These results are compared against signals from a beam position monitor and a fast beam loss monitor installed at the same location.

  14. Proton-proton elastic scattering at the LHC energy of \\chem{\\sqrt{s} = 7\\,TeV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOTEM Collaboration; Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M. G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Janda, M.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajíček, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Rodríguez, F. Lucas; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Magazzù, G.; Mercadante, A.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Perrot, A.-L.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petäjäjärvi, J.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spinella, F.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2011-08-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at \\sqrt{s} = 7\\,TeV in dedicated runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close as seven times the transverse beam size (σbeam) from the outgoing beams. After careful study of the accelerator optics and the detector alignment, |t|, the square of four-momentum transferred in the elastic scattering process, has been determined with an uncertainty of \\delta t = 0.1\\,\\rm{GeV} \\sqrt{\\vert t\\vert } . In this letter, first results of the differential cross-section are presented covering a |t|-range from 0.36 to 2.5 GeV2. The differential cross-section in the range 0.36 < |t| < 0.47 GeV2 is described by an exponential with a slope parameter B = (23.6 ± 0.5stat ± 0.4syst) GeV-2, followed by a significant diffractive minimum at |t| = (0.53 ± 0.01stat ± 0.01syst) GeV2. For |t|-values larger than ~1.5 GeV2, the cross-section exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent of -7.8 ± 0.3stat ± 0.1syst. When compared to predictions based on the different available models, the data show a strong discriminative power despite the small t-range covered.

  15. Electron scattering by 52Cr, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Ken; Okazaki, Yukio; Oyamada, Masayuki; Torizuka, Yoshiharu; Arita, K.

    1974-01-01

    The ground state of 52 Cr has relatively simple coordination, i.e., it is the closed shell for neutrons and has fsub(7/2) 4 state of protons. Several excitation states can be generated from this only one coordination. These states are characterized by seniority as well as spin and parity. Because of the requirement of anti-symmetry of wave functions, really probable states are those with seniority V=2 and angular momentum J=2, 4 and 6, and those with V=4 and J=2, 4, 5 and 8. These states are expected to have low exciting energy. As to the transition among these states or the excitation from ground states, seniority selection rule restricts the transition, therefore all transition of ΔV=4 is forbidden. The electrical transition of ΔV=0 is also forbidden. In some experiments, however, the γ ray emissive transition from 6 + state of V=2 to both 4 + state of V=2 and 4 + state of V=4 has been observed. Moreover, the forbidden γ ray transition from 4 + state of V=2 to 2 + state of V=2 has been observed. It is interpreted that the occurrence of such forbidden transition is due to the seniority mixing in each state. The experiment, reported in this paper, shows that this phenomenon of forbidden transition can not be explained only by employing the seniority mixing. (Tai, I.)

  16. Measurement of proton-proton inelastic scattering cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, R.A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Mäki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has measured the inelastic proton-proton cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in a β* = 90 m run with low inelastic pile-up. The measurement was based on events with at least one charged particle in the T2 telescope acceptance of 5.3 < |η| < 6.5 in pseudorapidity. Combined with data from the T1 telescope, covering 3.1 < |η| < 4.7, the cross-section for inelastic events with at least one |η| < 6.5 final state particle was determined to be 70.5 2.9 mb. Based on models for low mass diffraction, the total inelastic cross-section was deduced to be 73.7 3.4 mb. An upper limit of 6.31 mb at 95 % confidence level on the cross-section for events with diffractive masses below 3.4 GeV was obtained from the difference between the overall inelastic cross-section obtained by TOTEM using elastic scattering and the cross-section for inelastic events with at least one |η| < 6.5 final state particle.

  17. Measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, R.A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajıcek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macrı, M.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Rodrıguez, F.L.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vıtek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, under various beam and background conditions, luminosities, and Roman Pot positions, TOTEM has measured the differential cross-section for proton-proton elastic scattering as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared t. The results of the different analyses are in excellent agreement demonstrating no sizeable dependence on the beam conditions. Due to the very close approach of the Roman Pot detectors to the beam center ( around 5 $\\sigma$ beam) in a dedicated run with $\\beta$* = 90m, abs(t)-values down to 5 10**-3 GeV**2 were reached. The exponential slope of the differential elastic cross-section in this newly explored abs(t)-region remained unchanged and thus an exponential fit with only one constant B = (19.90+/-0.3)GeV-2 over the large abs(t)-range from 0.005 to 0.2GeV**2 describes the differential distribution well. The high precision of the measurement and the large fit range lead to an error on the slope parameter B which is remarkably small compared to p...

  18. WE-F-16A-03: 3D Printer Application in Proton Therapy: A Novel Method to Deliver Passive-Scattering Proton Beams with a Fixed Range and Modulation for SRS and SRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Witztum, A; Liang, X; Reiche, M; Lin, H; Teo, B; Yin, L; Fiene, J; McDonough, J; Kassaee, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel technique to deliver passive-scattering proton beam with fixed range and modulation using a 3D printed patient-specific bolus for proton stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. Methods: A CIRS head phantom was used to simulate a patient with a small brain lesion. A custom bolus was created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) to compensate for the different water equivalent depths from the patient surface to the target from multiple beam directions. To simulate arc therapy, a plan was created on the initial CT using three passive-scattering proton beams with a fixed range and modulations irradiating from different angles. The DICOM-RT structure file of the bolus was exported from the TPS and converted to STL format for 3D printing. The phantom was rescanned with the printed custom bolus and head cup to verify the dose distribution comparing to the initial plan. EBT3 films were placed in the sagital plane of the target to verify the delivered dose distribution. The relative stopping power of the printing material(ABSplus-P430) was measured using the Zebra multi-plate ion chamber. Results: The relative stopping power of the 3D printing material, ABSplus-P430 was 1.05 which is almost water equivalent. The dose difference between verification CT and Initial CT is almost negligible. Film measurement also confirmed the accuracy for this new proton delivery technique. Conclusion: Our method using 3D printed range modifiers simplify the treatment delivery of multiple passive-scattering beams in treatment of small lesion in brain. This technique makes delivery of multiple beam more efficient and can be extended to allow arc therapy with proton beams. The ability to create and construct complex patient specific bolus structures provides a new dimension in creating optimized quality treatment plans not only for proton therapy but also for electron and photon therapy

  19. WE-F-16A-03: 3D Printer Application in Proton Therapy: A Novel Method to Deliver Passive-Scattering Proton Beams with a Fixed Range and Modulation for SRS and SRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X; Witztum, A; Liang, X; Reiche, M; Lin, H; Teo, B; Yin, L; Fiene, J; McDonough, J; Kassaee, A [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel technique to deliver passive-scattering proton beam with fixed range and modulation using a 3D printed patient-specific bolus for proton stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. Methods: A CIRS head phantom was used to simulate a patient with a small brain lesion. A custom bolus was created in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) to compensate for the different water equivalent depths from the patient surface to the target from multiple beam directions. To simulate arc therapy, a plan was created on the initial CT using three passive-scattering proton beams with a fixed range and modulations irradiating from different angles. The DICOM-RT structure file of the bolus was exported from the TPS and converted to STL format for 3D printing. The phantom was rescanned with the printed custom bolus and head cup to verify the dose distribution comparing to the initial plan. EBT3 films were placed in the sagital plane of the target to verify the delivered dose distribution. The relative stopping power of the printing material(ABSplus-P430) was measured using the Zebra multi-plate ion chamber. Results: The relative stopping power of the 3D printing material, ABSplus-P430 was 1.05 which is almost water equivalent. The dose difference between verification CT and Initial CT is almost negligible. Film measurement also confirmed the accuracy for this new proton delivery technique. Conclusion: Our method using 3D printed range modifiers simplify the treatment delivery of multiple passive-scattering beams in treatment of small lesion in brain. This technique makes delivery of multiple beam more efficient and can be extended to allow arc therapy with proton beams. The ability to create and construct complex patient specific bolus structures provides a new dimension in creating optimized quality treatment plans not only for proton therapy but also for electron and photon therapy.

  20. Recoil-proton polarization in πp elastic scattering at 547 and 625 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.; Adrian, S.D.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Taragin, M.F.; Sadler, M.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Pillai, C.

    1989-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton in π + p and π - p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses

  1. PROBING THE STANDARD MODEL AND NUCLEON STRUCTURE VIA PARITY VIOLATING ELECTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humensky, T

    2003-10-28

    Parity-violating electron scattering has developed over the last 25 years into a tool to study both the structure of electroweak interactions and the structure of nucleons. Work on two parity-violation experiments is reported in this thesis. They are the Hall A Proton Parity EXperiment (HAPPEX), which ran at Jefferson Laboratory in 1998-1999, and SLAC E-158, which had its first physics running in 2002. HAPPEX measured the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e-p scattering at a momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 0.477 GeV{sup 2} and a scattering angle of 12{sup o}. This asymmetry is sensitive to the presence of strange sea quarks in the proton. In particular, it is sensitive to the proton's strange elastic form factors. An asymmetry of A{sub LR}{sup ep} = -15.05 {+-} 0.98 {+-} 0.56 ppm was measured, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Combining this asymmetry measurement with existing measurements of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and neutron allowed HAPPEX to set new constraints on the strange elastic form factors of the proton G{sub E}{sup s} + 0.392G{sub M}{sup s} = 0.025 {+-} 0.020 {+-} 0.014, where G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} are the strange electric and magnetic form factors of the proton, respectively. The first error is the quadrature sum of the experimental errors and the second error is due to uncertainty in the electromagnetic form factors. This result is consistent with the absence of a contribution from strange quarks. This thesis reports an analysis of the 1999 data set, with a particular focus on the determination of the raw asymmetry and the corrections to the raw asymmetry to account for helicity-correlated asymmetries in properties of the electron beam.

  2. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of electron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, R.

    1994-04-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo model is described which simulates the transport of electrons penetrating a medium without energy loss. The trajectory of each electron is constructed as a series of successive interaction events - elastic or inelastic scattering. Differential elastic scattering cross sections, elastic and inelastic mean free paths are used to describe the interaction process. It is presumed that the cross sections data are available and the Monte Carlo algorithm does not include their evaluation. Electrons suffering successive elastic collisions are followed until they escape from the medium or (if the absorption is negligible) their path length exceeds a certain value. The inelastic events are thus treated as absorption. The medium geometry is a layered infinite slab. The electron source could be an incident electron beam or electrons created inside the material. The objective is to obtain the angular distribution, the path length and depth distribution and the collision number distribution of electrons emitted through the surface of the medium. The model is applied successfully to electrons with energy between 0.4 and 20 keV reflected from semi-infinite homogeneous materials with different scattering properties. 16 refs, 9 figs

  3. Experimental study of intensive electron beam scattering in melting channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagura, V.S.; Kurilko, V.I.; Safronov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple scattering of an intensive electron beam at 28 keV energy passing through a melting channel in iron targets is experimentally studied. The dependence of scattering on the melting current value is established. The material density in the channel on the basis of the binary collision method is evaluated. It is shown that these density values are of three orders less than the estimations made on the basis of the data on energy losses of electrons in the channel. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Optical-potential model for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.; Oza, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the addition of a matrix optical potential to a close-coupling calculation should lead to improved results in studies of electron-atom scattering. This procedure is described with use of a pseudostate expansion to evaluate the optical potential. The integro-differential equations are solved by a linear-algebraic method. As a test case, applications are made to electron-hydrogen scattering, and the results are compared with those obtained by other calculational procedures, and with experiment

  5. Electron scattering and correlation structure of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the short-range correlations due to the repulsive part of the nuclear interaction is exhibited in the nuclear form factors as obtained from high energy electron scattering. In this work the harmonic oscillator basis functions are used. The nuclear form factors as obtained from elastic electron scattering are calculated, with Jastrow's technique by means of the cluster expansion of Iwamoto Yamada, in the Born approximation. The correlated wave function is given. The results for nuclear form factors calculated with the wave function are presented for some light nuclei. (Auth.)

  6. Hybrid Theory of Electron-Hydrogenic Systems Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate electron-hydrogen and electron-hydrogenic cross sections are required to interpret fusion experiments, laboratory plasma physics and properties of the solar and astrophysical plasmas. We have developed a method in which the short-range and long-range correlations can be included at the same time in the scattering equations. The phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the scattering lengths have rigorous upper bounds. The phase shifts in the resonance region can be used to calculate very accurately the resonance parameters.

  7. Study of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radia­tion field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation. The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons. It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle. We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  8. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  9. Diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Coppens, Y. R.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C. L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-12-01

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep→eXp is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data analysed cover the range xIP<0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.08<|t|<0.5 GeV-2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, 2proton dissociation contributions in the latter. Within uncertainties, the dependence of the cross section on x and Q2 can thus be factorised from the dependences on all studied variables which characterise the proton vertex, for both the pomeron and the sub-leading exchange.

  10. The studies of radiation distorations in CdS single crystals by using a proton back-scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Dikij, N.P.; Matyash, P.P.; Nikolajchuk, L.I.; Pivovar, L.I.

    1974-01-01

    The radiation defects in semiconducting CdS single crystals induced during doping with 140 keV Na ions (10 15 -2.10 16 ion/cm 2 ) were studied by the orientation dependence of 700 keV proton backscattering. The absence of discrete peaks in the scattered proton eneryg spectra indicates a small contribution of direct scattering at large angles. The defects formed during doping increase the fractionof dechanneled particles, which are then scattered at large anlges. No amorphization of CdS was observed at high Na ion dose 2x10 16 ion/cm 2

  11. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron

  12. Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering with a Leading Proton at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    The cross section for the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process $ep \\to e X p$ is measured, with the leading final state proton detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The data analysed cover the range \\xpom <0.1 in fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss, 0.08 < |t| < 0.5 GeV^{-2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, 2 < Q^2 < 50 GeV^2 in photon virtuality and 0.004 < \\beta = x / \\xpom < 1, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. For $\\xpom \\lapprox 10^{-2}$, the differential cross section has a dependence of approximately ${\\rm d} \\sigma / {\\rm d} t \\propto e^{6 t}$, independently of \\xpom, \\beta and Q^2 within uncertainties. The cross section is also measured triple differentially in \\xpom, \\beta and Q^2. The \\xpom dependence is interpreted in terms of an effective pomeron trajectory with intercept $\\alpha_{\\pom}(0)=1.114 \\pm 0.018 ({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 0.012 ({\\rm syst.}) ^{+0.040}_{-0.020} ({\\rm model})$ and a sub-leading exchange. The data are in...

  13. Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.

    1981-01-01

    The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for delta electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations

  14. submitter A model for the accurate computation of the lateral scattering of protons in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bellinzona, EV; Embriaco, A; Ferrari, A; Fontana, A; Mairani, A; Parodi, K; Rotondi, A; Sala, P; Tessonnier, T

    2016-01-01

    A pencil beam model for the calculation of the lateral scattering in water of protons for any therapeutic energy and depth is presented. It is based on the full Molière theory, taking into account the energy loss and the effects of mixtures and compounds. Concerning the electromagnetic part, the model has no free parameters and is in very good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. The effects of the nuclear interactions are parametrized with a two-parameter tail function, adjusted on MC data calculated with FLUKA. The model, after the convolution with the beam and the detector response, is in agreement with recent proton data in water from HIT. The model gives results with the same accuracy of the MC codes based on Molière theory, with a much shorter computing time.

  15. Optimal inequalities for the subtraction functions of the proton Compton scattering dispersion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.

    1982-06-01

    Upper and lower bounds upon the subtraction functions required in the dispersion theory of the proton Compton process are derived in a framework wbich optimally exploits the gauge invariance, the fixed-t analyticity and the s-u crossing properties of the scattering amplitudes, together with the consequences of the s, u-channel unitarity. The bounds, which are expressed only in terms of measurable s, u-channel physical quantities, without any reference to model dependent annihilation channel contributions, appear to be quite restrictive for some values of the momentum transfer t. The results are significant for removing the sign ambiguity of the pion decay constant. Fsub(p) and for the estimation of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  16. Multiple electron processes of He and Ne by proton impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhin, Pavel Nikolaevich; Montenegro, Pablo; Quinto, Michele; Monti, Juan; Fojon, Omar; Rivarola, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    A detailed investigation of multiple electron processes (single and multiple ionization, single capture, transfer-ionization) of He and Ne is presented for proton impact at intermediate and high collision energies. Exclusive absolute cross sections for these processes have been obtained by calculation of transition probabilities in the independent electron and independent event models as a function of impact parameter in the framework of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory. A binomial analysis is employed to calculate exclusive probabilities. The comparison with available theoretical and experimental results shows that exclusive probabilities are needed for a reliable description of the experimental data. The developed approach can be used for obtaining the input database for modeling multiple electron processes of charged particles passing through the matter.

  17. Electron capture by fast protons from helium-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R.; Purkait, M.

    2011-01-01

    Four-body formalism of boundary corrected continuum intermediate state (BCCIS-4B) approximation have been applied to calculate the single-electron capture cross sections by fast protons through some helium-like ions in a large energy range from 30-1000 keV. In this model, distortion has been taken into account in the entrance channel. In the final channel, the passive electron plays the role of screening of the target ion. However, continuum states of the projectile and the electron in the field of the residual target ion are included. The comparison of the results is made with those of other theoretical investigations and experimental findings. The present calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental findings. (authors)

  18. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons with Sr atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Static-exchange, plus correlation-polarization-potential calculations are performed for elastic low-energy electron scattering from Sr atoms while paying attention to the low-lying shape resonances. The correlation potential is calculated both with and without a scaling factor. A 2 D-shape resonance is produced at 1.0 eV with a parameter-free, and at 1.25 eV with a scaled, correlation potential. No 2 P-shape resonances are predicted, but evidence to support the existence of a stable negative ion Sr - in the 5s 2 5p electron configuration is given from the viewpoint of electron scattering. The bound energy of the extra electron in the negative ion is estimated by transforming the phase shift of the corresponding partial wave into the polarization quantum-defect number and extrapolating the number from positive to negative energies

  19. Electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Emoto, T.; Furukawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We have established a novel method which make electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei come into being. This novel method was named SCRIT (Self-Confining RI ion Target). It was based on the well known "ion trapping" phenomenon in electron storage rings. Stable nucleus, 133 Cs, was used as target nucleus in the R&D experiment. The luminosity of interaction between stored electrons and Cs ions was about 1.02(0.06) × 10 26 cm -2 s -1 at beam current around 80 mA. The angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons from trapped Cs ions was measured. And an online luminosity monitor was used to monitor the change of luminosity during the experiment. (author)

  20. Spot Scanning and Passive Scattering Proton Therapy: Relative Biological Effectiveness and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shingo; Yamada, Maho; Shibata, Hiroki; Yasui, Keisuke; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Omachi, Chihiro; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Manabe, Yoshihiko; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-05-01

    To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and contribution of the indirect effect of spot scanning proton beams, passive scattering proton beams, or both in cultured cells in comparison with clinically used photons. The RBE of passive scattering proton beams at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) was determined from dose-survival curves in 4 cell lines using 6-MV X rays as controls. Survival of 2 cell lines after spot scanning and passive scattering proton irradiation was then compared. Biological effects at the distal end region of the SOBP were also investigated. The OER of passive scattering proton beams and 6 MX X rays were investigated in 2 cell lines. The RBE and OER values were estimated at a 10% cell survival level. The maximum degree of protection of radiation effects by dimethyl sulfoxide was determined to estimate the contribution of the indirect effect against DNA damage. All experiments comparing protons and X rays were made under the same biological conditions. The RBE values of passive scattering proton beams in the 4 cell lines examined were 1.01 to 1.22 (average, 1.14) and were almost identical to those of spot scanning beams. Biological effects increased at the distal end of the SOBP. In the 2 cell lines examined, the OER was 2.74 (95% confidence interval, 2.56-2.80) and 3.08 (2.84-3.11), respectively, for X rays, and 2.39 (2.38-2.43) and 2.72 (2.69-2.75), respectively, for protons (Pcells between X rays and protons). The maximum degree of protection was significantly higher for X rays than for proton beams (P<.05). The RBE values of spot scanning and passive scattering proton beams were almost identical. The OER was lower for protons than for X rays. The lower contribution of the indirect effect may partly account for the lower OER of protons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.