Interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roesch, O.; Gunnarsson, O.; Han, J.E.; Crespi, V.H.
2005-01-01
We discuss the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions for alkali-doped fullerides and high temperature superconductors. Due to the similarity of the electron and phonon energy scales, retardation effects are small for fullerides. This raises questions about the origin of superconductivity, since retardation effects are believed to be crucial for reducing effects of the Coulomb repulsion in conventional superconductors. We demonstrate that by treating the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on an equal footing, superconductivity can be understood in terms of a local pairing. The Jahn-Teller character of the important phonons in fullerides plays a crucial role for this result. To describe effects of phonons in cuprates, we derive a t-J model with phonons from the three-band model. Using exact diagonalization for small clusters, we find that the anomalous softening of the half-breathing phonon as well as its doping dependence can be explained. By comparing the solution of the t-J model with the Hartree-Fock approximation for the three-band model, we address results obtained in the local-density approximation for cuprates. We find that genuine many-body results, due to the interplay between the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, play an important role for the the results in the t-J model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Electron-phonon interactions in correlated systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysokinski, K.I.
1996-01-01
There exist attempts to describe the superconducting mechanism operating in HTS as based on antiferromagnetic fluctuations. It is not our intention to dwell on the superconducting mechanism, even though this is very a important issue. The main aim is to discuss the problem of interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in correlated systems. We believe such analysis can be of importance for various materials and not only HTS'S. We shall however mainly refer to experiments on this last class of superconductors. Severe complications are to be expected by studying the problem. As is well known electron correlations are very important in narrow band systems, where the relevant electronic scale E F is quite small. In those circumstances, the phonon energy scale ω D is of comparable magnitude, with the ratio ω D /E F of order 1 signalling a possible break down of the Migdal - Eliashberg description of the electron-phonon interaction in metals. Here we shall assume the validity of the Migdal-Eliashberg approximation and concentrate on the mutual influence of electron and phonon subsystems. In the next section we shall discuss experimental motivation for and theoretical work related to the present problem. Section 3 contains a brief discussion of our theory. It is a self-consistent theory a la Migdal with strong correlations treated with an auxiliary boson technique. We conclude with results and their discussion. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szczesniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa (Poland); Durajski, A.P.; Duda, A.M. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)
2017-04-15
The properties of the superconducting and the anomalous normal state were described by using the Eliashberg method. The pairing mechanism was reproduced with the help of the Hamiltonian, which models the electron-phonon and the electron-electron-phonon interaction (EEPh). The set of the Eliashberg equations, which determines the order parameter function (φ), the wave function renormalization factor (Z), and the energy shift function (χ), was derived. It was proven that for the sufficiently large values of the EEPh potential, the doping dependence of the order parameter (φ/Z) has the analogous course to that observed experimentally in cuprates. The energy gap in the electron density of states is induced by Z and χ - the contribution from φ is negligible. The electron density of states possesses the characteristic asymmetric form and the pseudogap is observed above the critical temperature. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Electron-phonon interaction on an Al(001) surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyadneva, I Yu; Chulkov, E V; Echenique, P M
2008-01-01
We report an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction and its contribution to the lifetime broadening of excited hole (electron) surface states on Al(001). The calculations based on density-functional theory were carried out using a linear response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results show that both the electron-phonon coupling and the linewidth experience a weak variation with the energy and momentum position of a hole (electron) surface state in the energy band. An analysis of different contributions to the e-ph coupling reveals that bulk phonon modes turn out to be more involved in the scattering processes of excited electrons and holes than surface phonon modes. It is also shown that the role of the e-ph coupling in the broadening of the Rayleigh surface phonon mode is insignificant compared to anharmonic effects
Electron-phonon interaction in Chevrel-phase compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer, D.; Pobell, F.
1981-03-01
Experiments on the electron-phonon interaction in Chevrel-phase compounds (CPC) and a theoretical discussion of their results are presented. The authors particularly discuss measurements of the isotope effect of the transition temperature in Mo 6 Se 8 and SnMo 6 S 8 and tunneling spectroscopy experiments on Cu 1 . 8 Mo 6 S 8 and PbMo 6 S 8 . These investigations have been performed to get information about the strength of the electron-phonon interaction in CPC, and about the question whether there are phonon modes which couple particularly strongly to the electrons in these compounds. (orig./GSCH)
The Electron-Phonon Interaction as Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, D.W.
2004-01-01
With recent advances in energy and angle resolution, the effects of electron-phonon interactions are manifest in many valence-band photoelectron spectra (PES) for states near the Fermi level in metals
Interaction Between Electrons, Magnons and Phonons in Nickel. RCN Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frikkee, E.
1971-02-01
By means of inelastic neutron scattering, a localized electron excitation was observed in Ni and (4% Fe). The excitation interacts with magnons and phonons, and is assumed to correspond with transitions between the nearly-degenerate electronstates Δ 6 ↑ and Δ 7 ↑ near X, which are situated just below the Fermi level.Selection rules for electron-phonon and electronmagnon scattering are determined by means of group theory. It is found that in particular the transverse (Δ 5 ) phonons in the [100] direction are perturbed. The observed neutron-electron scattering turns out to be an indirect process, which is only possible due to the interaction between the (Δ 6 , Δ 7 ) electrons and the lattice. The basic mechanism for the observed effects is the electron spin-orbit coupling, which establishes the interaction between the electron spin system and the lattice. (author)
The Electron-Phonon Interaction in Strongly Correlated Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellani, C.; Grilli, M.
1995-01-01
We analyze the effect of strong electron-electron repulsion on the electron-phonon interaction from a Fermi-liquid point of view and show that the electron-electron interaction is responsible for vertex corrections, which generically lead to a strong suppression of the electron-phonon coupling in the v F q/ω >>1 region, while such effect is not present when v F q/ω F is the Fermi velocity and q and ω are the transferred momentum and frequency respectively. In particular the e-ph scattering is suppressed in transport properties which are dominated by low-energy-high-momentum processes. On the other hand, analyzing the stability criterion for the compressibility, which involves the effective interactions in the dynamical limit, we show that a sizable electron-phonon interaction can push the system towards a phase-separation instability. Finally a detailed analysis of these ideas is carried out using a slave-boson approach for the infinite-U three-band Hubbard model in the presence of a coupling between the local hole density and a dispersionless optical phonon. (author)
Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia
2014-01-01
We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of $\\Gamma$ point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic...
Effective electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the Hubbard-Holstein model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aprea, G.; Di Castro, C.; Grilli, M. . E-mail marco.grilli@roma1.infn.it; Lorenzana, J.
2006-01-01
We investigate the interplay between the electron-electron and the electron-phonon interaction in the Hubbard-Holstein model. We implement the flow-equation method to investigate within this model the effect of correlation on the electron-phonon effective coupling and, conversely, the effect of phonons in the effective electron-electron interaction. Using this technique we obtain analytical momentum-dependent expressions for the effective couplings and we study their behavior for different physical regimes. In agreement with other works on this subject, we find that the electron-electron attraction mediated by phonons in the presence of Hubbard repulsion is peaked at low transferred momenta. The role of the characteristic energies involved is also analyzed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)
2008-08-13
In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M
2008-01-01
In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokkedee, J.J.J.
1963-01-01
As predicted by harmonic theory the coherent inelastic spectrums of neutrons, scattered by a single, non-conducting crystal, for a particular angle of scattering consists of a number of delta-function peaks superposed on a continuous background. The peaks correspond to one-phonon processes in which one phonon is absorbed or emitted by the neutron; the background arises from multi-phonon processes. When anharmonic forces (phonon-phonon interactions) are present, the delta-function peaks are broadened into finite peaks, while their central frequencies are shifted with respect to the harmonic values. In the case of a metal there is in addition to phonon-phonon interactions an interaction between phonons and conduction electrons, which also gives a contribution to the displacement and broadening oftheone-phononpeaks. Continuing earlier work of Van Hove (sho considered the relatively simple case of a non-conductin crystal in its ground state (T = 0 o K) ), we have studied the shifts and widths of the scattering peaks as a 'result of the above-mentioned interactions by means of many particle perturbation theory, making extensive use of diagram techniques. Prerequisite to the entire discussion is the assumption that, independent of the strength of the interactions, the width of each peak is small compared to the value of the frequency at its centre; only then the peaks can be considered as being well defined with respect to the background to higher order in the interactions. This condition is expected to be fulfilled for temperatures which are not too high and values of the phonon wave vector which are not too large. Our procedure yields closed formulae for the partial scattering function describing the peaks, which can be evaluated to arbitrarily high accuracy. In particular an expansion for calculating the line shift and line width in powers of u/d and in terms of simple connected diagrams is obtained (u is an average atomic or ionic displacement, d is the smallest
Assili, M.; Haddad, S.
2014-09-01
We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of Γ-point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic spectrum, induced by the strain, results in a polarization dependence of the LO and TO modes. This dependence is in agreement with the experimental results showing a periodic modulation of the Raman intensity of the split G peak. Moreover, the anomalous behavior of the frequency shift reported in undeformed graphene is found to be robust under strain.
Signature of electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinod Ashokan
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of thermal conductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTS based on electron and phonon line width (life times formulation is developed with Quantum dynamical approach of Green's function. The frequency line width is observed as an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of HTS as a collection of large number of scattering processes. The role of resonance scattering and electron-phonon interaction processes is found to be most prominent near critical temperature. The theory successfully explains the spectacular behaviour of high Tc superconductors in the vicinity of transition temperature. A successful agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained by analyzing the thermal conductivity data for the sample La1.8Sr0.2CuO4 in the temperature range 0 − 200K. The theory is equally and successfully applicable to all other high Tc superconductors.
Electron-phonon interactions and the phonon anomaly in β-phase NiTi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, G.L.; Harmon, B.N.
1993-01-01
The electronic structure of β-phase NiTi has been calculated using a first-principles linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals method. The resulting band structure was fitted with a nonorthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian from which electron-phonon matrix elements were evaluated. The soft phonon near Q 0 =(2/3, 2) / (3 ,0)π/a, which is responsible for the premartensitic phase transition in β-phase NiTi, is found to arise from the strong electron-phonon coupling of nested electronic states on the Fermi surface. Thermal vibrations and changes in electronic occupation cause a smearing of the nested features, which in turn cause a hardening of the phonon anomaly
Electron-phonon interaction and scattering in Si and Ge: Implications for phonon engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tandon, Nandan; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2015-01-01
We report ab-initio results for electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and display the existence of a large variation in the coupling parameter as a function of electron and phonon dispersion. This variation is observed for all phonon modes in Si and Ge, and we show this for representative cases where the initial electron states are at the band gap edges. Using these e-ph matrix elements, which include all possible phonon modes and electron bands within a relevant energy range, we evaluate the imaginary part of the electron self-energy in order to obtain the associated scattering rates. The temperature dependence is seen through calculations of the scattering rates at 0 K and 300 K. The results provide a basis for understanding the impacts of phonon scattering vs. orientation and geometry in the design of devices, and in analysis of transport phenomena. This provides an additional tool for engineering the transfer of energy from carriers to the lattice
Unraveling the acoustic electron-phonon interaction in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.
2012-01-01
Using a first-principles approach we calculate the electron-phonon couplings in graphene for the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons. Analytic forms of the coupling matrix elements valid in the long-wavelength limit are found to give an almost quantitative description of the first...... that the intrinsic effective acoustic deformation potential of graphene is Ξeff=6.8 eV and that the temperature dependence of the mobility μ~T-α in the Bloch-Gru¨neisen regime increases beyond an α=4 dependence even in the absence of screening when the true coupling matrix elements are considered. The α>4...
Features of electron-phonon interactions in nanotubes with chiral symmetry in magnetic field
Kibis, O V
2001-01-01
Interaction of the electrons with acoustic phonons in the nanotube with chiral symmetry by availability of the magnetic field, parallel to the nanotube axis, is considered. It is shown that the electron energy spectrum is asymmetric relative to the electron wave vector inversion and for that reason the electron-phonon interaction appears to be different for similar phonons with mutually contrary directions of the wave vector. This phenomenon leads to origination of the electromotive force by the spatially uniform electron gas heating and to appearance of the quadrupole component in the nanotube volt-ampere characteristics
Strong electron-phonon interaction in the high-Tc superconductors: Evidence from the infrared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timusk, T.; Porter, C.D.; Tanner, D.B.
1991-01-01
We show that low-frequency structure in the infrared reflectance of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 results from the electron-phonon interaction. Characteristic antiresonant line shapes are seen in the phonon region of the spectrum and the frequency-dependent scattering rate of the mid-infrared electronic continuum has peaks at 150 cm -1 (19 meV) and at 360 cm -1 (45 meV) in good agreement with phonon density-of-states peaks in neutron time-of-flight spectra that develop in superconducting samples. The interaction between the phonons and the charge carriers can be understood in terms of a charged-phonon model
Interaction of non-equilibrium phonons with electron-hole plasmas in germanium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirch, S.J.
1985-01-01
This thesis presents results of experiments on the interaction of phonons and photo-excited electron-hole plasmas in Ge at low temperature. The first two studies involved the low-temperature fluid phase known as the electron-hole liquid (EHL). The third study involved a wider range of temperatures and includes the higher temperature electron-hole plasma (EHP). In the first experiment, superconducting tunnel junctions are used to produce quasi-monochromatic phonons, which propagate through the EHL. The magnitude of the absorption of these non-equilibrium phonons gives a direct measure of the coupling constant, the deformation potential. In the second experiment, the nonequilibrium phonons are generated by laser excitation of a metal film. An unusual sample geometry allows examination of the EHL-phonon interaction near the EHL excitation surface. This coupling is examined for both cw and pulsed EHL excitation. In the third experiment, the phonons are byproducts of the photo-excited carrier thermalization. The spatial, spectral and temporal dependence of the recombination luminescence is examined. A phonon wind force is observed to dominate the transport properties of the EHL and the EHP. These carriers are never observed to move faster than the phonon velocity even during the laser pulse
Wang, Hongyue; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Yu, Qian; Mottaghizadeh, Alireza; Ulysse, Christian; Zimmers, Alexandre; Dubertret, Benoit; Aubin, Herve
2015-03-01
We present a tunnel spectroscopy study of the electronic spectrum of single PbS Quantum Dots (QDs) trapped between nanometer-spaced electrodes, measured at low temperature T=5 K. The carrier filling of the QD can be controlled either by the drain voltage in the shell filling regime or by a gate voltage. In the empty QD, the tunnel spectrum presents the expected signature of the 8x degenerated excited levels. In the drain controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the global electrostatic Coulomb energy of the QD; in the gate controlled shell filling regime, the levels degeneracies are lifted by the intra-Coulomb interactions. In the charged quantum dot, electron-phonons interactions lead to the apparition of Franck-Condon side bands on the single excited levels and possibly Franck Condon blockade at low energy. The sharpening of excited levels at higher gate voltage suggests that the magnitude of electron-phonon interactions is decreased upon increasing the electron filling in the quantum dot. This work was supported by the French ANR Grants 10-BLAN-0409-01, 09-BLAN-0388-01, by the Region Ile-de-France in the framework of DIM Nano-K and by China Scholarship Council.
Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus.
Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Liang, Liangbo; Parkin, William M; Tatsumi, Yuki; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Puretzky, Alexander A; Das, Paul Masih; Sumpter, Bobby G; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Saito, Riichiro; Drndic, Marija; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2016-04-13
Orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and other layered materials, such as gallium telluride (GaTe) and tin selenide (SnSe), stand out among two-dimensional (2D) materials owing to their anisotropic in-plane structure. This anisotropy adds a new dimension to the properties of 2D materials and stimulates the development of angle-resolved photonics and electronics. However, understanding the effect of anisotropy has remained unsatisfactory to date, as shown by a number of inconsistencies in the recent literature. We use angle-resolved absorption and Raman spectroscopies to investigate the role of anisotropy on the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in BP. We highlight, both experimentally and theoretically, a nontrivial dependence between anisotropy and flake thickness and photon and phonon energies. We show that once understood, the anisotropic optical absorption appears to be a reliable and simple way to identify the crystalline orientation of BP, which cannot be determined from Raman spectroscopy without the explicit consideration of excitation wavelength and flake thickness, as commonly used previously.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2015-01-01
In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering
Confinement of acoustical modes due to the electron-phonon interaction within 2D-electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochelap, V.A.; Gulseren, O.
1992-09-01
We study the confinement of acoustical modes within 2DEG due only to the electron-phonon interaction. The confined modes split out from the bulk phonons even at uniform lattice parameters, when the 2DEG is created by means of modulation doping. The effect is more pronounced when the wave vector q of the modes increases and is maximum at q = 2 k F (k F is the Fermi wave vector). In the case of several electron sheets the additional features of the confinement effect appear. In the limit of the strong electron-phonon coupling and high surface concentration of the electrons the considered system can suffer Peierls-type phase transition. In this case periodical deformation of the lattice and charge density wave are confined within the electron sheet. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lü, Jing-Tao, E-mail: jtlu@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhou, Hangbo [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117551 Singapore (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Jiang, Jin-Wu [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai University, 200072 Shanghai (China); Wang, Jian-Sheng [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117551 Singapore (Singapore)
2015-05-15
The topic of this review is the effects of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) on the transport properties of molecular nano-conductors. A nano-conductor connects to two electron leads and two phonon leads, possibly at different temperatures or chemical potentials. The EPI appears only in the nano-conductor. We focus on its effects on charge and energy transport. We introduce three approaches. For weak EPI, we use the nonequilibrium Green’s function method to treat it perturbatively. We derive the expressions for the charge and heat currents. For weak system-lead couplings, we use the quantum master equation approach. In both cases, we use a simple single level model to study the effects of EPI on the system’s thermoelectric transport properties. It is also interesting to look at the effect of currents on the dynamics of the phonon system. For this, we derive a semi-classical generalized Langevin equation to describe the nano-conductor’s atomic dynamics, taking the nonequilibrium electron system, as well as the rest of the atomic degrees of freedom as effective baths. We show simple applications of this approach to the problem of energy transfer between electrons and phonons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lü, Jing-Tao; Zhou, Hangbo; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Jian-Sheng
2015-01-01
The topic of this review is the effects of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) on the transport properties of molecular nano-conductors. A nano-conductor connects to two electron leads and two phonon leads, possibly at different temperatures or chemical potentials. The EPI appears only in the nano-conductor. We focus on its effects on charge and energy transport. We introduce three approaches. For weak EPI, we use the nonequilibrium Green’s function method to treat it perturbatively. We derive the expressions for the charge and heat currents. For weak system-lead couplings, we use the quantum master equation approach. In both cases, we use a simple single level model to study the effects of EPI on the system’s thermoelectric transport properties. It is also interesting to look at the effect of currents on the dynamics of the phonon system. For this, we derive a semi-classical generalized Langevin equation to describe the nano-conductor’s atomic dynamics, taking the nonequilibrium electron system, as well as the rest of the atomic degrees of freedom as effective baths. We show simple applications of this approach to the problem of energy transfer between electrons and phonons
The lattice dynamical studies of rare earth compounds: electron-phonon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jha, Prafulla K.; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Singh, R.K.
2002-01-01
During the last two decades chalcogenides and pnictides of rare earth (RE) atoms have drawn considerable attention of the solid state physicists because of their peculiar electronic, magnetic, optical and phonon properties. Some of these compounds e.g. sulphides and selenides of cerium (Ce), samarium (Sm), yttrium (Y), ytterbium (Yb), europium (Eu) and thulium (Tm) and their alloys show nonintegral valence (between 2 and 3), arising due to f-d electron hybridization at ambient temperature and pressure. The rare earth mixed valence compounds (MVC) reviewed in this article crystallize in simple cubic structure. Most of these compounds show the existence of strong electron-phonon coupling at half way to the zone boundary. This fact manifests itself through softening of the longitudinal acoustic mode, negative value of elastic constant C 12 etc. The purpose of this contribution is to review some of the recent activities in the fields of lattice dynamics and allied properties of rare earth compounds. The present article is primarily devoted to review the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of rare earth compounds by using the lattice dynamical model theories based on charged density deformations and long-range many body forces. While the long range charge transfer effect arises due to f-d hybridization of nearly degenerate 4f-5d bands of rare earth ions, the density deformation comes into the picture of breathing motion of electron shells. These effects of charge transfer and charge density deformation when considered in the lattice dynamical models namely the three body force rigid ion model (TRM) and breathing shell model (BSM) are quite successful in explaining the phonon anomalies in these compounds and undoubtedly unraveled many important physical process governing the phonon anomalies in rare earth compounds
Large calculated electron-phonon interactions in La2-xMxCuO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krakauer, H.; Pickett, W.E.; Cohen, R.E.
1993-01-01
Results of self-consistent linearized-augmented-plane-wave calculations within the local-density-functional approximation (LDA) are presented of the electron-phonon-induced linewidths and interaction strength of selected phonons in La 2-xMx CuO 4 at x=0.15. Through the use of a supercell geometry, rigid-ion-type approximations are avoided and the full electron-phonon matrix elements are determined from finite differences of the LDA potentials corresponding to frozen-in phonon at Γ X, and Z. At the X point, all fully symmetric A g modes (i.e., having the symmetry of the oxygen planar-breathing mode) as well as three modes having B 3g symmetry are examined. Small linewidths were found for the three B 3g modes, and moderate linewidths for the A g modes, the largest corresponding to ratios γ q,ν /ω q,ν =0.02 for the oxygen breathing and axial modes
Electron-phonon interactions and intrinsic nonadiabatic state of superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banacky, Pavol
2007-01-01
Study of band structure of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has shown that electron coupling to A g , B 2g and B 3g modes results in fluctuation of saddle point of one of the CuO plane d-pσ band in Y point of 1st BZ across Fermi level. It represents breakdown of adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation and transition of the system into intrinsic nonadiabatic state, ω > E F . Results show that system is stabilized in this state at distorted nuclear geometry. Stabilization effect is mainly due to strong dependence of the electronic motion on instantaneous nuclear momenta. On the lattice scale, the intrinsic nonadiabatic state is geometrically degenerate at broken translation symmetry - system has fluxional nuclear configuration of O2, O3 atoms in CuO planes. It enables formation of mobile bipolarons that can move in the lattice without dissipation. Described effects are absent in non-superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6
Electron phonon interactions and intrinsic nonadiabatic state of superconductors
Baňacký, Pavol
2007-09-01
Study of band structure of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 has shown that electron coupling to A g, B 2g and B 3g modes results in fluctuation of saddle point of one of the CuO plane d-pσ band in Y point of 1st BZ across Fermi level. It represents breakdown of adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation and transition of the system into intrinsic nonadiabatic state, ω > EF. Results show that system is stabilized in this state at distorted nuclear geometry. Stabilization effect is mainly due to strong dependence of the electronic motion on instantaneous nuclear momenta. On the lattice scale, the intrinsic nonadiabatic state is geometrically degenerate at broken translation symmetry - system has fluxional nuclear configuration of O2, O3 atoms in CuO planes. It enables formation of mobile bipolarons that can move in the lattice without dissipation. Described effects are absent in non-superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 6.
Electromagnetic microwaves in metal films with electron-phonon interaction and a dc magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasselberg, L.E.
1976-01-01
A quantum-mechanical treatment of electromagnetic microwaves is performed for a metal film. The directions of the exterior ac and dc fields are taken to be arbitrary and boundary conditions for the electrons are assumed to be specular. The relation between the current and the electromagnetic field...... in the transmission spectrum can perhaps be obtained by assuming a finite Debye temperature and specular reflections of the electrons at the boundary surfaces. A sharp peak entirely caused by the finite electron-phonon interaction is also discussed....
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jacoboni, C
1997-01-01
A theoretical and computational analysis of the quantum dynamics of charge carriers in presence of electron-phonon interaction based on the Wigner function is here applied to the study of transport in mesoscopic systems...
Theory of electron-phonon-dislon interacting system—toward a quantized theory of dislocations
Li, Mingda; Tsurimaki, Yoichiro; Meng, Qingping; Andrejevic, Nina; Zhu, Yimei; Mahan, Gerald D.; Chen, Gang
2018-02-01
We provide a comprehensive theoretical framework to study how crystal dislocations influence the functional properties of materials, based on the idea of a quantized dislocation, namely a ‘dislon’. In contrast to previous work on dislons which focused on exotic phenomenology, here we focus on their theoretical structure and computational power. We first provide a pedagogical introduction that explains the necessity and benefits of taking the dislon approach and why the dislon Hamiltonian takes its current form. Then, we study the electron-dislocation and phonon-dislocation scattering problems using the dislon formalism. Both the effective electron and phonon theories are derived, from which the role of dislocations on electronic and phononic transport properties is computed. Compared with traditional dislocation scattering studies, which are intrinsically single-particle, low-order perturbation and classical quenched defect in nature, the dislon theory not only allows easy incorporation of quantum many-body effects such as electron correlation, electron-phonon interaction, and higher-order scattering events, but also allows proper consideration of the dislocation’s long-range strain field and dynamic aspects on equal footing for arbitrary types of straight-line dislocations. This means that instead of developing individual models for specific dislocation scattering problems, the dislon theory allows for the calculation of electronic structure and electrical transport, thermal transport, optical and superconducting properties, etc, under one unified theory. Furthermore, the dislon theory has another advantage over empirical models in that it requires no fitting parameters. The dislon theory could serve as a major computational tool to understand the role of dislocations on multiple materials’ functional properties at an unprecedented level of clarity, and may have wide applications in dislocated energy materials.
Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M.; H. Funke, Hans; Nagpal, Prashant
2014-10-01
Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain
On the Boltzmann Equation of Thermal Transport for Interacting Phonons and Electrons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The thermal transport in a solid can be determined by means of the Boltzmann equations regarding its distributions of phonons and electrons, when the solid is subjected to a thermal gradient. After solving the coupled equations, the related thermal conductivities can be obtained. Here we show how to determine the coupled equations for phonons and electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Hyung-sun; Koh, Young Ha; Jin, Jae Sik [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
The aim of this study is to understand the phonon transfer characteristics of a silicon thin film transistor. For this purpose, the Joule heating mechanism was considered through the electron-phonon interaction model whose validation has been done. The phonon transport characteristics were investigated in terms of phonon mean free path for the variations in the device power and silicon layer thickness from 41 nm to 177 nm. The results may be used for developing the thermal design strategy for achieving reliability and efficiency of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistor, further, they will increase the understanding of heat conduction in SOI systems, which are very important in the semiconductor industry and the nano-fabrication technology.
Pishtshev, A.; Kristoffel, N.
2017-05-01
We outline our novel results relating to the physics of the electron-TO-phonon (el-TO-ph) interaction in a polar crystal. We explained why the el-TO-ph interaction becomes effectively strong in a ferroelectric, and showed how the electron density redistribution establishes favorable conditions for soft-behavior of the long-wavelength branch of the active TO vibration. In the context of the vibronic theory it has been demonstrated that at the macroscopic level the interaction of electrons with the polar zone-centre TO phonons can be associated with the internal long-range dipole forces. Also we elucidated a methodological issue of how local field effects are incorporated within the vibronic theory. These result provided not only substantial support for the vibronic mechanism of ferroelectricity but also presented direct evidence of equivalence between vibronic and the other lattice dynamics models. The corresponding comparison allowed us to introduce the original parametrization for constants of the vibronic interaction in terms of key material constants. The applicability of the suggested formula has been tested for a wide class of polar materials.
Electron-phonon interaction and its manifestation in high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksimov, E.G.
1995-01-01
Different types of band structure approaches for a description of electrons in systems with strong correlations are discussed. It is shown that all methods considered give different electron energy dispersions and Fermi surfaces. The good agreement between measured Fermi surfaces and those calculated by LDA shows that the spatial dispersion of the correlation interaction is not so important in HTSC systems. The same conclusion can be obtained from the optical and photoemission spectra. It is shown that the most important contribution beyond a band structure approach is given by an energy dependence of the electron self-energy. The most likely interaction responsible for this energy dependence is the electron-phonon one. Evidences about this fact are given
Rigid muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon interaction in transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, W.H.
1980-01-01
Progress in calculating the electron-phonon parameters of transition metals has been based on either the rigid muffin-tin approximation (RMTA) or the fitted modified tight-binding approximation (FMTBA). The RMTA has been shown to be remarkably accurate for average electron-phonon properties, but there are indications that RMTA matrix elements may be too small at low momentum transfer. An attempt is made to demonstrate these assertions concerning the accuracy of RMTA and the numerous electron-phonon calculations are placed in a broader perspective by a demonstration of how they can be used to explain the trends in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling among the transition metals and the A-15 compounds
Rigid muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon interaction in transition metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, W.H.
1980-01-01
Progress in calculating the electron-phonon parameters of transition metals has been based on either the rigid muffin-tin approximation (RMTA) or the fitted modified tight-binding approximation (FMTBA). The RMTA has been shown to be remarkably accurate for average electron-phonon properties, but there are indications that RMTA matrix elements may be too small at low momentum transfer. An attempt is made to demonstrate these assertions concerning the accuracy of RMTA and the numerous electron-phonon calculations are placed in a broader perspective by a demonstration of how they can be used to explain the trends in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling among the transition metals and the A-15 compounds. (GHT)
Electron-phonon coupling in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.; Baldea, I.
1981-08-01
The Ward identity is derived for the electron-phonon coupling in one dimension and the spectrum of elementary excitations is calculated by assuming that the Fermi distribution is not strongly distorted by interaction. The electron-phonon vertex is renormalized in the case of the forward scattering and Migdal's theorem is discussed. A model is proposed for the giant Kohn anomaly. The dip in the phonon spectrum is obtained and found to be in agreement with the experimental data for KCP. (author)
Phonon limited electronic transport in Pb
Rittweger, F.; Hinsche, N. F.; Mertig, I.
2017-09-01
We present a fully ab initio based scheme to compute electronic transport properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity σ and thermopower S, in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. We explicitly investigate the \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Säkkinen, Niko; Leeuwen, Robert van; Peng, Yang; Appel, Heiko
2015-01-01
We study ground-state properties of a two-site, two-electron Holstein model describing two molecules coupled indirectly via electron-phonon interaction by using both exact diagonalization and self-consistent diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory. The Hartree and self-consistent Born approximations used in the present work are studied at different levels of self-consistency. The governing equations are shown to exhibit multiple solutions when the electron-phonon interaction is sufficiently strong, whereas at smaller interactions, only a single solution is found. The additional solutions at larger electron-phonon couplings correspond to symmetry-broken states with inhomogeneous electron densities. A comparison to exact results indicates that this symmetry breaking is strongly correlated with the formation of a bipolaron state in which the two electrons prefer to reside on the same molecule. The results further show that the Hartree and partially self-consistent Born solutions obtained by enforcing symmetry do not compare well with exact energetics, while the fully self-consistent Born approximation improves the qualitative and quantitative agreement with exact results in the same symmetric case. This together with a presented natural occupation number analysis supports the conclusion that the fully self-consistent approximation describes partially the bipolaron crossover. These results contribute to better understanding how these approximations cope with the strong localizing effect of the electron-phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydoruk, O.; Solymar, L.; Shamonina, E.; Kalinin, V.
2010-01-01
Traveling-wave interaction between optical phonons and electrons drifting in diatomic semiconductors has potential for amplification and generation of terahertz radiation. Existing models of this interaction were developed for infinite materials. As a more practically relevant configuration, we studied theoretically a finite semiconductor slab surrounded by a dielectric. This paper analyzes the optical-phonon instability in the slab including the Lorentz force and compares it to the instability in an infinite material. As the analysis shows, the slab instability occurs because of the interaction of surface optical-phonon polaritons with surface plasmon polaritons in the presence of electron drift. The properties of the instability depend on the slab thickness when the thickness is comparable to the wavelength. For large slab thicknesses, however, the dispersion relation of the slab is similar to that of an infinite material, although the coupling is weaker. The results could be used for the design of practical terahertz traveling-wave oscillators and amplifiers.
Ovchinnikov, Sergey G.; Makarov, Ilya A.; Kozlov, Peter A.
2017-03-01
In this work dependences of the electron band structure and spectral function in the HTSC cuprates on magnitude of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) and temperature are investigated. We use three-band p-d model with diagonal and offdiagonal EPI with breathing and buckling phonon mode in the frameworks of polaronic version of the generalized tight binding (GTB) method. The polaronic quasiparticle excitation in the system with EPI within this approach is formed by a hybridization of the local multiphonon Franck-Condon excitations with lower and upper Hubbard bands. Increasing EPI leads to transfer of spectral weight to high-energy multiphonon excitations and broadening of the spectral function. Temperature effects are taken into account by occupation numbers of local excited polaronic states and variations in the magnitude of spin-spin correlation functions. Increasing the temperature results in band structure reconstruction, spectral weight redistribution, broadening of the spectral function peak at the top of the valence band and the decreasing of the peak intensity. The effect of EPI with two phonon modes on the polaron spectral function is discussed.
Electron-phonon coupling from finite differences
Monserrat, Bartomeu
2018-02-01
The interaction between electrons and phonons underlies multiple phenomena in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Examples include superconductivity, electronic transport, and the temperature dependence of optical spectra. A first-principles description of electron-phonon coupling enables the study of the above phenomena with accuracy and material specificity, which can be used to understand experiments and to predict novel effects and functionality. In this topical review, we describe the first-principles calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences. The finite differences approach provides several advantages compared to alternative methods, in particular (i) any underlying electronic structure method can be used, and (ii) terms beyond the lowest order in the electron-phonon interaction can be readily incorporated. But these advantages are associated with a large computational cost that has until recently prevented the widespread adoption of this method. We describe some recent advances, including nondiagonal supercells and thermal lines, that resolve these difficulties, and make the calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences a powerful tool. We review multiple applications of the calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences, including the temperature dependence of optical spectra, superconductivity, charge transport, and the role of defects in semiconductors. These examples illustrate the advantages of finite differences, with cases where semilocal density functional theory is not appropriate for the calculation of electron-phonon coupling and many-body methods such as the GW approximation are required, as well as examples in which higher-order terms in the electron-phonon interaction are essential for an accurate description of the relevant phenomena. We expect that the finite difference approach will play a central role in future studies of the electron-phonon interaction.
Pamuk, Betül; Zoccante, Paolo; Baima, Jacopo; Mauri, Francesco; Calandra, Matteo
2018-04-01
The effect of the exchange interaction on the vibrational properties and on the electron-phonon coupling were investigated in several recent works. In most of the cases, exchange tends to enhance the electron-phonon interaction, although the motivations for such behaviour are not completely understood. Here we consider the class of weakly doped two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors and we demonstrate that a more global picture emerges. In particular we show that in these systems, at low enough doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. We demonstrate the applicability of the theory by performing random phase approximation and first principles calculations in transition metal chloronitrides. We find that exchange is responsible for the enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature in LixZrNCl and that much larger Tcs could be obtained in intercalated HfNCl if the synthesis of cleaner samples could remove the Anderson insulating state competing with superconductivity.
Bosonic Spectral Function and the Electron-Phonon Interaction in HTSC Cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksimov, E. G.; Tamm, I. E.; Kulic, M.L.; Kulic, M.L.; Dolgov, O. V.
2010-01-01
In this paper we discuss experimental evidence related to the structure and origin of the bosonic spectral function a2F(ο) in high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates at and near optimal doping. Global properties of a2F(ο), such as number and positions of peaks, are extracted by combining optics, neutron scattering, ARPES and tunnelling measurements. These methods give evidence for strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) with 1<λep <3.5 in cuprates near optimal doping. We clarify how these results are in favor of the modified Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory for HTSC cuprates near optimal doping. In Section 2 we discuss theoretical ingredients such as strong EPI, strong correlations which are necessary to explain the mechanism of d-wave pairing in optimally doped cuprates. These comprise the ME theory for EPI in strongly correlated systems which give rise to the forward scattering peak. The latter is supported by the long-range part of EPI due to the weakly screened Madelung interaction in the ionic-metallic structure of layered HTSC cuprates. In this approach EPI is responsible for the strength of pairing while the residual Coulomb interaction and spin fluctuations trigger the d-wave pairing.
Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems
Itai, K.
1992-01-01
The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.
Borroni, S.; Baldini, E.; Katukuri, V. M.; Mann, A.; Parlinski, K.; Legut, D.; Arrell, C.; van Mourik, F.; Teyssier, J.; Kozlowski, A.; Piekarz, P.; Yazyev, O. V.; Oleś, A. M.; Lorenzana, J.; Carbone, F.
2017-09-01
Symmetry breaking across phase transitions often causes changes in selection rules and emergence of optical modes which can be detected via spectroscopic techniques or generated coherently in pump-probe experiments. In second-order or weakly first-order transitions, fluctuations of the ordering field are present above the ordering temperature, giving rise to intriguing precursor phenomena, such as critical opalescence. Here, we demonstrate that in magnetite (Fe3O4 ) light excitation couples to the critical fluctuations of the charge order and coherently generates structural modes of the ordered phase above the critical temperature of the Verwey transition. Our findings are obtained by detecting coherent oscillations of the optical constants through ultrafast broadband spectroscopy and analyzing their dependence on temperature. To unveil the coupling between the structural modes and the electronic excitations, at the origin of the Verwey transition, we combine our results from pump-probe experiments with spontaneous Raman scattering data and theoretical calculations of both the phonon dispersion curves and the optical constants. Our methodology represents an effective tool to study the real-time dynamics of critical fluctuations across phase transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Funabishi, K.; Hamill, W.H.
The continuous-time-random-walk (CTRW) model which was developed for electron scavenging reactions in polar glasses is extended to the phenomenon of spectral relaxation of electrons in shallow traps esub(t) - in a wider range of systems. The central role of electron-phonon coupling in understanding the initial electron localization, the ''pre-existing trap'', and electron transfer processes are emphasized. The reactivity of esub(t) - with scavengers, including protons, is discussed in terms of the theory of multi-phonon non-radiative transitions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kokkedee, J J.J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University of Utrecht (Netherlands)
1963-01-15
As predicted by harmonic theory the coherent inelastic spectrums of neutrons, scattered by a single, non-conducting crystal, for a particular angle of scattering consists of a number of delta-function peaks superposed on a continuous background. The peaks correspond to one-phonon processes in which one phonon is absorbed or emitted by the neutron; the background arises from multi-phonon processes. When anharmonic forces (phonon-phonon interactions) are present, the delta-function peaks are broadened into finite peaks, while their central frequencies are shifted with respect to the harmonic values. In the case of a metal there is in addition to phonon-phonon interactions an interaction between phonons and conduction electrons, which also gives a contribution to the displacement and broadening oftheone-phononpeaks. Continuing earlier work of Van Hove (sho considered the relatively simple case of a non-conductin crystal in its ground state (T = 0{sup o}K) ), we have studied the shifts and widths of the scattering peaks as a 'result of the above-mentioned interactions by means of many particle perturbation theory, making extensive use of diagram techniques. Prerequisite to the entire discussion is the assumption that, independent of the strength of the interactions, the width of each peak is small compared to the value of the frequency at its centre; only then the peaks can be considered as being well defined with respect to the background to higher order in the interactions. This condition is expected to be fulfilled for temperatures which are not too high and values of the phonon wave vector which are not too large. Our procedure yields closed formulae for the partial scattering function describing the peaks, which can be evaluated to arbitrarily high accuracy. In particular an expansion for calculating the line shift and line width in powers of u/d and in terms of simple connected diagrams is obtained (u is an average atomic or ionic displacement, d is the smallest
Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.
2018-05-01
The effect of spin-orbit coupling on the electron-phonon interaction in a (4/3)-monolayer of Pb on Si(111) is investigated within the density-functional theory and linear-response approach in the mixed-basis pseudopotential representation. We show that the spin-orbit interaction produces a large weakening of the electron-phonon coupling strength, which appears to be strongly overestimated in the scalar relativistic calculations. The effect of spin-orbit interaction is largely determined by the induced modification of Pb electronic bands and a stiffening of the low-energy part of phonon spectrum, which favor a weakening of the electron-phonon coupling strength. The state-dependent strength of the electron-phonon interaction in occupied Pb electronic bands varies depending on binding energy rather than electronic momentum. It is markedly larger than the value averaged over electron momentum because substrate electronic bands make a small contribution to the phonon-mediated scattering and agrees well with the experimental data.
Electrons and Phonons in Semiconductor Multilayers
Ridley, B. K.
1996-11-01
This book provides a detailed description of the quantum confinement of electrons and phonons in semiconductor wells, superlattices and quantum wires, and shows how this affects their mutual interactions. It discusses the transition from microscopic to continuum models, emphasizing the use of quasi-continuum theory to describe the confinement of optical phonons and electrons. The hybridization of optical phonons and their interactions with electrons are treated, as are other electron scattering mechanisms. The book concludes with an account of the electron distribution function in three-, two- and one-dimensional systems, in the presence of electrical or optical excitation. This text will be of great use to graduate students and researchers investigating low-dimensional semiconductor structures, as well as to those developing new devices based on these systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.
2015-01-01
First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes
Nonlinear electron-phonon heat exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, L.M.; Mahan, G.D.
1998-01-01
A calculation of the energy exchange between phonons and electrons is done for a metal at very low temperatures. We consider the energy exchange due to two-phonon processes. Second-order processes are expected to be important at temperatures less than 1 K. We include two different second-order processes: (i) the Compton-like scattering of phonons, and (ii) the electron-dual-phonon scattering from the second-order electron-phonon interaction. It is found that the Compton-like process contains a singular energy denominator. The singularity is removed by introducing quasiparticle damping. For pure metals we find that the energy exchange depends upon the lifetime of the electrons and it is proportional to the temperature of the lattice as T L 8 . The same calculation is performed for the electron-dual-phonon scattering and it is found that the temperature dependence is T L 9 . The results can be applied to quantum dot refrigerators. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Phonon limited electronic transport in Pb
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rittweger, Florian; Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Mertig, Ingrid
2017-01-01
We present a fully ab initio based scheme to compute electronic transport properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity σ and thermopower S, in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. We explicitly investigate the k-dependent structure of the Éliashberg spectral function, the coupling strength...
Lattice dynamics and electron/phonon interactions in epitaxial transition-metal nitrides
Mei, Antonio Rodolph Bighetti
the films are completely dense with smooth surfaces (roughness = 1.3 nm, consistent with atomic-force microscopy analyses). Based upon temperature-dependent electronic transport measurements, epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) layers have a room-temperature resistivity rho 300K of 12.0 muO-cm, a temperature coefficient of resistivity between 100 and 300 K of 5.6x10-8 O-cm K -1, a residual resistivity rhoo below 30 K of 0.78 muO-cm (corresponding to a residual resistivity ratio rho300K/rho 15K = 15), and the layers exhibit a superconducting transition temperature Tc = 10.4 K. The relatively high residual resistivity ratio, combined with long in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray coherence lengths, xi|| = 18 nm and xi⊥ = 161 nm, indicates high crystalline quality with low mosaicity. The reflectance of ZrN(001), as determined by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, decreases slowly from 95% at 1 eV to 90% at 2 eV with a reflectance edge at 3.04 eV. Interband transitions dominate the dielectric response above 2 eV. The ZrN(001) nanoindentation hardness and modulus are 22.7+/-1.7 and 450+/-25 GPa. Transport electron/phonon coupling parameters and Eliashberg spectral functions alphatr2F(ho) are determined for Group-IV TM nitrides TiN, ZrN, and HfN, and the rare-earth (RE) nitride CeN using an inversion procedure based upon temperature-dependent (4 electron/phonon coupling parameters lambdatr vary from 1.11 for ZrN to 0.82 for HfN, 0.73 for TiN, and 0.44 for CeN. The small variation in lambda tr among the TM nitrides and the weak coupling in CeN are consistent with measured Tc values: 10.4 (ZrN), 9.18 (HfN), 5.35 (TiN), and electron/phonon coupling in conventional superconductors. Spectral peaks in alpha2F(ho), corresponding to regions in energy-space for which electrons couple to acoustic hoac and optical ho op phonon modes, are centered at ho ac = 33 and hoop = 57 meV for TiN, 25 and 60 meV for ZrN, 18 and 64 meV for HfN, and 21 and 39 meV for CeN. The acoustic modes soften with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modarresi, M.; Roknabadi, M.R.; Shahtahmasbi, N.; Vahedi Fakhrabad, D.; Arabshahi, H.
2011-01-01
In this research, we have studied the effect of inelastic electron-phonon interactions on current-voltage characteristic and tunneling magnetoresistance of a polythiophene molecule that is sandwiched between two cobalt electrodes using modified Green's function method as proposed by Walczak. The molecule is described with a modified Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian. The ground state of the molecule is obtained by Hellman-Feynman theorem. Electrodes are described in the wide-band approximation and spin-flip is neglected during conduction. Our calculation results show that with increase in voltage the currents increase and tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. Change in tunneling magnetoresistance due to inelastic interactions is limited in a small bias voltage interval and can be neglected in the other bias voltages. -- Research Highlights: →We investigate the effect of inelastic interaction on transport properties. →Due to inelastic interactions tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. →Decrease in TMR is restricted in a small voltage interval.
Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Bayervand, A.
2015-03-01
Based on Kubo's linear response formalism, temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional impure (magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities) Rashba electron gas in the presence of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions is analyzed theoretically. We will show that the temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity is determined by the relaxation rates due to these interactions. At low temperature, the elastic lifetimes ( and are determined by magnetic and nonmagnetic impurity concentrations which are independent of the temperature, while the inelastic lifetimes ( and related to the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, decrease when the temperature increases. We will also show that since the spin-Hall conductivity is sensitive to temperature, we can distinguish the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rademaker, Louk [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnston, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-08-18
Here, the discovery of an enhanced superconducting transition temperature T_{c} in monolayers of FeSe grown on several oxide substrates has opened a new route to high-T_{c} superconductivity through interface engineering. One proposal for the origin of the observed enhancement is an electronphonon (e-ph) interaction across the interface that peaked at small momentum transfers. In this paper, we examine the implications of such a coupling on the phononic properties of the system. We show that a strong forward scattering leads to a sizable broadening of phonon lineshape, which may result in charge instabilities at long-wavelengths. However, we further find that the inclusion of Coulombic screening significantly reduces the phonon broadening. Our results show that one might not expect anomalously broad phonon linewidths in the FeSe interface systems, despite the fact that the e-ph interaction has a strong peak in the forward scattering (small \\bfq ) direction.
Nonlinear interaction of photons and phonons in electron-positron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Taniuti, T.
1990-03-01
Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves and acoustic modes in an electron-positron plasma is investigated. The plasma of electrons and positrons is quite plastic so that the imposition of electromagnetic (EM) waves causes depression of the plasma and other structural imprints on it through either the nonresonant or resonant interaction. Our theory shows that the nonresonant interaction can lead to the coalescence of photons and collapse of plasma cavity in higher (≥ 2) dimensions. The resonant interaction, in which the group velocity of EM waves is equal to the phase velocity of acoustic waves, is analyzed and a set of basic equations of the system is derived via the reductive perturbation theory. We find new solutions of solitary types: bright solitons, kink solitons, and dark solitons as the solutions to these equations. Our computation hints their stability. An impact of the present theory on astrophysical plasma settings is expected, including the cosmological relativistically hot electron-positron plasma. 20 refs., 9 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeenkov, S.; Moraes, F.; Furtado, C.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2010-01-01
By mapping a Hubbard-like model describing a two-component polymer in the presence of strong enough electron-phonon interactions (κ) onto the system of two coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with U(2) symmetry group, some nontrivial correlations between topological solitons mediated charge Q and spin S degrees of freedom are obtained. Namely, in addition to a charge fractionalization and reentrant like behavior of both Q(κ) and S(κ), the model also predicts a decrease of soliton velocity with κ as well as spin-charge conversion effects which manifest themselves through an explicit S(Q,Ω) dependence (with Ω being a mixing angle between spin-up and spin-down electron amplitudes). A possibility to observe the predicted effects in low-dimensional systems with charge and spin soliton carriers is discussed.
Alloy Dependence of Electron-Phonon Interactions in Double Barrier Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wallis, Corinne
1996-01-01
...)As double barrier structures as a function of the alloy concentration in the barrier. We have measured current-voltage and conductance-voltage curves associated with phonon-assisted tunneling with magnetic fields from 0 to 6.8 Tesla...
Dilmi, S.; Saib, S.; Bouarissa, N.
2018-06-01
Structural, electronic, electron-phonon coupling and superconducting properties of the intermetallic compound LuC2 are investigated by means of ab initio pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters yielded a very good accord with experiment. There is no imaginary phonon frequency in the whole Brillouin zone supporting thus the dynamical stability in the material of interest. The average electron-phonon coupling parameter is found to be 0.59 indicating thus a weak-coupling BCS superconductor. Using a reasonable value of μ* = 0.12 for the effective Coulomb repulsion parameter, the superconducting critical temperature Tc is found to be 3.324 which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 3.33 K. The effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the superconducting properties of the material of interest has been examined and found to be weak.
Tahir, M.; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Shaukat, A.
2013-01-01
Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements.
Tahir, M.
2013-12-10
Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahir, M.; Sabeeh, K.; Shaukat, A.; Schwingenschlögl, U.
2013-01-01
Since the discovery of graphene, a lot of interest has been attracted by the zeroth Landau level, which has no analog in the conventional two dimensional electron gas. Recently, lifting of the spin and valley degeneracies has been confirmed experimentally by capacitance measurements, while in transport experiments, this is difficult due to the scattering in the device. In this context, we model interaction effects on the quantum capacitance of graphene in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, finding good agreement with experiments. We demonstrate that the valley degeneracy is lifted by the substrate and by Kekule distortion, whereas the spin degeneracy is lifted by Zeeman interaction. The two cases can be distinguished by capacitance measurements
Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueta, T
2010-01-01
Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.
Wang, Y.; Nakatsukasa, K.; Rademaker, L.; Berlijn, T.; Johnston, S.
2016-05-01
Mono- and multilayer FeSe thin films grown on SrTiO3 and BiTiO3 substrates exhibit a greatly enhanced superconductivity over that found in bulk FeSe. A number of proposals have been advanced for the mechanism of this enhancement. One possibility is the introduction of a cross-interface electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction between the FeSe electrons and oxygen phonons in the substrates that is peaked in the forward scattering (small {q}) direction due to the two-dimensional nature of the interface system. Motivated by this, we explore the consequences of such an interaction on the superconducting state and electronic structure of a two-dimensional system using Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory. This interaction produces not only deviations from the expectations of conventional phonon-mediated pairing but also replica structures in the spectral function and density of states, as probed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and quasiparticle interference imaging. We also discuss the applicability of ME theory for a situation where the e-ph interaction is peaked at small momentum transfer and in the FeSe/STO system.
Atlas of point contact spectra of electron-phonon interactions in metals
Khotkevich, A V
1995-01-01
The characteristics of electrical contacts have long attracted the attention of researchers since these contacts are used in every electrical and electronic device. Earlier studies generally considered electrical contacts of large dimensions, having regions of current concentration with diameters substantially larger than the characteristic dimensions of the material: the interatomic distance, the mean free path for electrons, the coherence length in the superconducting state, etc. [110]. The development of microelectronics presented to scientists and engineers the task of studying the characteristics of electrical contacts with ultra-small dimensions. Characteristics of point contacts such as mechanical stability under continuous current loads, the magnitudes of electrical fluctuations, inherent sensitivity in radio devices and nonlinear characteristics in connection with electromagnetic radiation can not be understood and altered in the required way without knowledge of the physical processes occurring in c...
Electron-phonon superconductivity in YIn3
Billington, D.; Llewellyn-Jones, T. M.; Maroso, G.; Dugdale, S. B.
2013-08-01
First-principles calculations of the electron-phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn3. The electron-phonon coupling constant was found to be λep = 0.42. Using the Allen-Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a Tc of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron-phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound.
Phonon excess heating in electronic relaxation theory in quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Lin, Ch. Y.
2008-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 20 (2008), s. 3439-3460 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantum dots * electron -phonon interaction * electron ic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2008
Effects of the electron-phonon coupling activation in collision cascades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarkadoula, Eva, E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Samolyuk, German [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Weber, William J. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
2017-07-15
Using the two-temperature (2T-MD) model in molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the condition of switching the electronic stopping term off when the electron-phonon coupling is activated in the damage production due to 50 keV Ni ion cascades in Ni and equiatomic NiFe. Additionally, we investigate the effect of the electron-phonon coupling activation time in the damage production. We find that the switching condition has negligible effect in the produced damage, while the choice of the activation time of the electron-phonon coupling can affect the amount of surviving damage. - Highlights: •The electron-phonon interactions in irradiation affect the energy dissipation. •The resulting damage depends on the electron-phonon interaction activation time. •The electronic stopping acts on the ions before the electron-phonon interactions.
Electron-phonon contribution to the phonon and excited electron (hole) linewidths in bulk Pd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyadneva, I Yu; Leonardo, A; Echenique, P M; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V
2006-01-01
We present an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and its contribution to the phonon linewidths and to the lifetime broadening of excited electron and hole states in bulk Pd. The calculations, based on density-functional theory, were carried out using a linear-response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results for the Eliashberg spectral function α 2 F(ω), e-ph coupling constant λ, and the contribution to the lifetime broadening, Γ e-ph , show strong dependence on both the energy and momentum of an electron (hole) state. The calculation of phonon linewidths gives, in agreement with experimental observations, an anomalously large broadening for the transverse phonon mode T 1 in the Σ direction. In addition, this mode is found to contribute most strongly to the electron-phonon scattering processes on the Fermi surface
Mutual interactions of phonons, rotons, and gravity
Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo
2018-04-01
We introduce an effective point-particle action for generic particles living in a zero-temperature superfluid. This action describes the motion of the particles in the medium at equilibrium as well as their couplings to sound waves and generic fluid flows. While we place the emphasis on elementary excitations such as phonons and rotons, our formalism applies also to macroscopic objects such as vortex rings and rigid bodies interacting with long-wavelength fluid modes. Within our approach, we reproduce phonon decay and phonon-phonon scattering as predicted using a purely field-theoretic description of phonons. We also correct classic results by Landau and Khalatnikov on roton-phonon scattering. Finally, we discuss how phonons and rotons couple to gravity, and show that the former tend to float while the latter tend to sink but with rather peculiar trajectories. Our formalism can be easily extended to include (general) relativistic effects and couplings to additional matter fields. As such, it can be relevant in contexts as diverse as neutron star physics and light dark matter detection.
Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W., E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)
2013-12-21
Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.
Electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsing, B.; Eiguren, A.; Chulkov, E.V.
2002-01-01
Chemical reactions at metal surfaces are influenced by inherent dissipative processes which involve energy transfer between the conduction electrons and the nuclear motion. We shall discuss how it is possible to model this electron-phonon coupling in order to estimate its importance. A relevant quantity for this investigation is the lifetime of surface-localized electron states. A surface state, quantum well state or surface image state is located in a surface-projected bandgap and becomes relatively sharp in energy. This makes a comparison between calculations and experimental data most attractive, with a possibility of resolving the origin of the lifetime broadening of electron states. To achieve more than an order of magnitude estimate we point out the importance of taking into account the phonon spectrum, electron surface state wavefunctions and screening of the electron-ion potential. (author)
Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Qian
Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific...
Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plummer, Ward E.
2010-08-04
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.
Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das
1996-01-01
We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac......We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron......-electron interactions, The leading-order dynamical screening approximation (GW approximation) is used to obtain the electron self-energy, the quasiparticle spectral function, and the quasiparticle damping rate in our calculation by treating electrons and phonons on an equal footing. Our theory includes effects (within...... theoretical results for quasiparticle properties....
Spin waves in terbium. II. Magnon-phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, J.G.
1975-01-01
The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scatttering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed by Liu. The coupled magnon--transverse-phonon system for the c direction of Tb is analyzed in detail, and the strengths of the couplings are deduced as a function of wave vector by combining the experimental studies with the theory
Electron-optical phonon coupling in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rietschel, H.
1975-01-01
The role of the optical phonons in superconductivity is investigated in the case of compounds with different atomic masses Msub(k). It is shown that the electron mass enhancement factor lambda is independent of Msub(k) if the force constant matrix is mass independent. However, when using lambda to calculate Tsub(c), it must be decomposed into its acoustical and optical contributions, which depend separately on Msub(k). Interference scattering from a light and a heavy mass is studied and its contributions to lambda within the free electron approximation. Numerical results are presented for a rocksalt structure crystal with nearest and next nearest neighbour coupling. These results indicate that the optical phonon contributions to lambda may substantially increase Tsub(c). (orig.) [de
Coupled electron-phonon transport from molecular dynamics with quantum baths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Jing Tao; Wang, J. S.
2009-01-01
Based on generalized quantum Langevin equations for the tight-binding wavefunction amplitudes and lattice displacements, electron and phonon quantum transport are obtained exactly using molecular dynamics (MD) in the ballistic regime. The electron-phonon interactions can be handled with a quasi...
Rigorous bounds on the free energy of electron-phonon models
Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel
1997-01-01
We present a collection of rigorous upper and lower bounds to the free energy of electron-phonon models with linear electron-phonon interaction. These bounds are used to compare different variational approaches. It is shown rigorously that the ground states corresponding to the sharpest bounds do
Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.
2010-01-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.
Effect of magnon-phonon interaction on transverse acoustic phonon excitation at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Taimin; Li Lin; Xianyu Ze
2007-01-01
A magnon-phonon interaction model is developed on the basis of two-dimensional square Heisenberg ferromagnetic system. By using Matsubara Green function theory transverse acoustic phonon excitation is studied and transverse acoustic phonon excitation dispersion curves is calculated on the main symmetric point and line in the first Brillouin zone. On line Σ it is found that there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon on small wave vector zone (nearby point Γ), there is softening for transverse acoustic phonon on the softening zone and there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon near point M. On line Δ it is found there is no softening and hardening for transverse acoustic phonon. On line Z it is found that there is softening for transverse acoustic phonon on small wave vector zone (nearby point X) and there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon nearby point M. The influences of various parameters on transverse acoustic phonon excitation are also explored and it is found that the coupling of the magnon-phonon and the spin wave stiffness constant play an important role for the softening of transverse acoustic phonon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melkonyan, S.V.
2012-01-01
The problem of electron mobility variance is discussed. It is established that in equilibrium semiconductors the mobility variance is infinite. It is revealed that the cause of the mobility variance infinity is the threshold of phonon emission. The electron-phonon interaction theory in the presence of an electric field is developed. A new mechanism of electron scattering, called electron-phonon field-induced tunnel (FIT) scattering, is observed. The effect of the electron-phonon FIT scattering is explained in terms of penetration of the electron wave function into the semiconductor band gap in the presence of an electric field. New and more general expressions for the electron-non-polar optical phonon scattering probability and relaxation time are obtained. The results show that FIT transitions have principle meaning for the mobility fluctuation theory: mobility variance becomes finite.
Quantum Kinetic Theory and Applications Electrons, Photons, Phonons
Vasko, Fedir T
2006-01-01
This lecture-style monograph is addressed to several categories of readers. First, it will be useful for graduate students studying theory. Second, the topics covered should be interesting for postgraduate students of various specializations. Third, the researchers who want to understand the background of modern theoretical issues in more detail can find a number of useful results here. The phenomena covered involve kinetics of electron, phonon, and photon systems in solids. The dynamical properties and interactions of electrons, phonons, and photons are briefly described in Chapter 1. Further, in Chapters 2-8, the authors present the main theoretical methods: linear response theory, various kinetic equations for the quasiparticles under consideration, and diagram technique. The presentation of the key approaches is always accompanied by solutions of concrete problems to illustrate ways to apply the theory. The remaining chapters are devoted to various manifestations of quantum transport in solids. The choice...
Stern, Mark J.; René de Cotret, Laurent P.; Otto, Martin R.; Chatelain, Robert P.; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Sutton, Mark; Siwick, Bradley J.
2018-04-01
Despite their fundamental role in determining material properties, detailed momentum-dependent information on the strength of electron-phonon and phonon-phonon coupling (EPC and PPC, respectively) across the entire Brillouin zone has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast electron diffuse scattering (UEDS) directly provides such information. By exploiting symmetry-based selection rules and time resolution, scattering from different phonon branches can be distinguished even without energy resolution. Using graphite as a model system, we show that UEDS patterns map the relative EPC and PPC strength through their profound sensitivity to photoinduced changes in phonon populations. We measure strong EPC to the K -point TO phonon of A1' symmetry (K -A1' ) and along the entire TO branch between Γ -K , not only to the Γ -E2 g phonon. We also determine that the subsequent phonon relaxation of these strongly coupled optical phonons involve three stages: decay via several identifiable channels to TA and LA phonons (1 -2 ps), intraband thermalization of the non-equilibrium TA/LA phonon populations (30 -40 ps) and interband relaxation of the TA/LA modes (115 ps). Combining UEDS with ultrafast angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy will yield a complete picture of the dynamics within and between electron and phonon subsystems, helping to unravel complex phases in which the intertwined nature of these systems has a strong influence on emergent properties.
Nonlocal electron-phonon coupling in the pentacene crystal: Beyond the Γ-point approximation
Yi, Yuanping
2012-01-01
There is currently increasing interest in understanding the impact of the nonlocal (Peierls-type) electron-phonon mechanism on charge transport in organic molecular semiconductors. Most estimates of the non-local coupling constants reported in the literature are based on the Γ-point phonon modes. Here, the influence of phonon modes spanning the entire Brillouin zone (phonon dispersion) on the nonlocal electron-phonon couplings is investigated for the pentacene crystal. The phonon modes are obtained by using a supercell approach. The results underline that the overall nonlocal couplings are substantially underestimated by calculations taking sole account of the phonons at the Γ point of the unit cell. The variance of the transfer integrals based on Γ-point normal-mode calculations at room temperature is underestimated in some cases by 40% for herringbone-type dimers and by over 80% for cofacial dimers. Our calculations show that the overall coupling is somewhat larger for holes than for electrons. The results also suggest that the interactions of charge carriers (both electrons and holes) with acoustic and optical phonons are comparable. Therefore, an adequate description of the charge-transport properties in pentacene and similar systems requires that these two electron-phonon coupling mechanisms be treated on the same footing. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Zhang, Zu-Quan; Lü, Jing-Tao
2017-09-01
Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we consider heat transport in an insulating ferromagnetic spin chain model with spin-phonon interaction under an external magnetic field. Employing the Holstein-Primakoff transformation to the spin system, we treat the resulted magnon-phonon interaction within the self-consistent Born approximation. We find the magnon-phonon coupling can change qualitatively the magnon thermal conductance in the high-temperature regime. At a spectral mismatched ferromagnetic-normal insulator interface, we also find thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance due to the magnon-phonon interaction. We show that these effects can be effectively tuned by the external applied magnetic field, a convenient advantage absent in anharmonic phonon and electron-phonon systems studied before.
Thermal transport across metal–insulator interface via electron–phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen; Lü, Jing-Tao
2013-01-01
The thermal transport across a metal–insulator interface can be characterized by electron–phonon interaction through which an electron lead is coupled to a phonon lead if phonon–phonon coupling at the interface is very weak. We investigate the thermal conductance and rectification between the electron part and the phonon part using the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. It is found that the thermal conductance has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of average temperature or the coupling strength between the phonon leads in the metal part and the insulator part. The metal–insulator interface shows a clear thermal rectification effect, which can be reversed by a change in average temperature or the electron–phonon coupling. (paper)
Electron-phonon coupling in the rare-earth metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mertig, I.
1990-01-01
-phonon parameters were calculated within the Gaspari-Gyorffy formulation. For the heavier rare earths Gd–Tm spin polarization was included both in the band-structure calculations and in the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling to take into account the spin splitting of the conduction electrons induced by the 4...
First-principles method for electron-phonon coupling and electron mobility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt
2016-01-01
We present density functional theory calculations of the phonon-limited mobility in n-type monolayer graphene, silicene, and MoS2. The material properties, including the electron-phonon interaction, are calculated from first principles. We provide a detailed description of the normalized full......-band relaxation time approximation for the linearized Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) that includes inelastic scattering processes. The bulk electron-phonon coupling is evaluated by a supercell method. The method employed is fully numerical and does therefore not require a semianalytic treatment of part...... of the problem and, importantly, it keeps the anisotropy information stored in the coupling as well as the band structure. In addition, we perform calculations of the low-field mobility and its dependence on carrier density and temperature to obtain a better understanding of transport in graphene, silicene...
Phonon-induced renormalization of the electron spectrum of biased bilayer graphene
Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar, E. I.
2018-05-01
The effect of the electron-phonon interaction on the electron subsystem of the bilayer graphene has been investigated in the case when there is a potential bias between the graphene layers. The electron-phonon interaction has been shown to lead to increasing of the curvature of the lower dispersion branch of the conduction band of the bigraphene in the vicinity of the Dirac point. The latter corresponds to the decreasing of the absolute value of the electron effective mass. The corresponding correction to the effective mass has been calculated. Dependence of this correction on the bias has been investigated. Influence of such effect on the bigraphene conductivity is discussed.
The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mardaani, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad-m@sci.sku.ac.ir; Rabani, Hassan, E-mail: rabani-h@sci.sku.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Shahrekord University, 8818634141 Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-08-07
A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance.
The effect of driven electron-phonon coupling on the electronic conductance of a polar nanowire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardaani, Mohammad; Rabani, Hassan; Esmaili, Esmat; Shariati, Ashrafalsadat
2015-01-01
A semi-classical model is proposed to explore the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the coherent electronic transport of a polar chain which is confined between two rigid leads in the presence of an external electric field. To this end, we construct the model by means of Green's function technique within the nearest neighbor tight-binding and harmonic approximations. For a time-periodic electric field, the atomic displacements from the equilibrium positions are obtained precisely. The result is then used to compute the electronic transport properties of the chain within the Peierls-type model. The numerical results indicate that the conductance of the system shows interesting behavior in some special frequencies. For each special frequency, there is an electronic quasi-state in which the scattering of electrons by vibrating atoms reaches maximum. The system electronic conductance decreases dramatically at the strong electron-phonon couplings and low electron energies. In the presence of damping forces, the electron-phonon interaction has a less significant effect on the conductance
Electron-Mediated Phonon-Phonon Coupling Drives the Vibrational Relaxation of CO on Cu(100)
Novko, D.; Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J. I.
2018-04-01
We bring forth a consistent theory for the electron-mediated vibrational intermode coupling that clarifies the microscopic mechanism behind the vibrational relaxation of adsorbates on metal surfaces. Our analysis points out the inability of state-of-the-art nonadiabatic theories to quantitatively reproduce the experimental linewidth of the CO internal stretch mode on Cu(100) and it emphasizes the crucial role of the electron-mediated phonon-phonon coupling in this regard. The results demonstrate a strong electron-mediated coupling between the internal stretch and low-energy CO modes, but also a significant role of surface motion. Our nonadiabatic theory is also able to explain the temperature dependence of the internal stretch phonon linewidth, thus far considered a sign of the direct anharmonic coupling.
Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.
2008-11-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.
Observation of magnon-phonon interaction at short wavelengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolling, G.; Cowley, R.A.
1966-01-01
Measurements have been made of the magnon and phonon dispersion relations in uranium dioxide at 9 o K. These measurements provide evidence of a strong interaction between the magnon and phonon excitations and enable a value to be deduced for the coupling constant. The interaction of long-wavelength magnons in ferromagnetic materials has been studied previously with ultrasonic techniques; however, inelastic scattering of slow neutrons enables both the magnon and phonon dispersion relations to be determined for short wavelengths. In those magnetic materials which have been studied by earlier workers, the magnons and phonons either interacted with one another very weakly or else their frequencies were very different. The results could then be understood without introducing any magnon-phonon interaction. In this note we report measurements of both the magnon and the phonon spectra of antiferromagnetic uranium dioxide, which lead to a magnon-phonon coupling constant of 9.6 ± 1.6 o K. Since the Neel temperature is 30.8 o K, this coupling constant is of a similar magnitude to the direct magnetic interactions. (author)
Design of materials configurations for enhanced phononic and electronic properties
Daraio, Chiara
The discovery of novel nonlinear dynamic and electronic phenomena is presented for the specific cases of granular materials and carbon nanotubes. This research was conducted for designing and constructing optimized macro-, micro- and nano-scale structural configurations of materials, and for studying their phononic and electronic behavior. Variation of composite arrangements of granular elements with different elastic properties in a linear chain-of-sphere, Y-junction or 3-D configurations led to a variety of novel phononic phenomena and interesting physical properties, which can be potentially useful for security, communications, mechanical and biomedical engineering applications. Mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes with different atomic arrangements and microstructures were also investigated. Electronic properties of Y-junction configured carbon nanotubes exhibit an exciting transistor switch behavior which is not seen in linear configuration nanotubes. Strongly nonlinear materials were designed and fabricated using novel and innovative concepts. Due to their unique strongly nonlinear and anisotropic nature, novel wave phenomena have been discovered. Specifically, violations of Snell's law were detected and a new mechanism of wave interaction with interfaces between NTPCs (Nonlinear Tunable Phononic Crystals) was established. Polymer-based systems were tested for the first time, and the tunability of the solitary waves speed was demonstrated. New materials with transformed signal propagation speed in the manageable range of 10-100 m/s and signal amplitude typical for audible speech have been developed. The enhancing of the mitigation of solitary and shock waves in 1-D chains were demonstrated and a new protective medium was designed for practical applications. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D strongly nonlinear system have been investigated providing a broad impact on the whole area of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics and creating experimental basis for new
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, X.J.
2010-04-30
thought possible only a decade ago. This revolution of the ARPES technique and its scientific impact result from dramatic advances in four essential components: instrumental resolution and efficiency, sample manipulation, high quality samples and well-matched scientific issues. The purpose of this treatise is to go through the prominent results obtained from ARPES on cuprate superconductors. Because there have been a number of recent reviews on the electronic structures of high-T{sub c} materials, we will mainly present the latest results not covered previously, with a special attention given on the electron-phonon interaction in cuprate superconductors. What has emerged is rich information about the anomalous electron-phonon interaction well beyond the traditional views of the subject. It exhibits strong doping, momentum and phonon symmetry dependence, and shows complex interplay with the strong electron-electron interaction in these materials. ARPES experiments have been instrumental in identifying the electronic structure, observing and detailing the electron-phonon mode coupling behavior, and mapping the doping evolution of the high-T{sub c} cuprates. The spectra evolve from the strongly coupled, polaronic spectra seen in underdoped cuprates to the Migdal-Eliashberg like spectra seen in the optimally and overdoped cuprates. In addition to the marked doping dependence, the cuprates exhibit pronounced anisotropy with direction in the Brillouin zone: sharp quasiparticles along the nodal direction that broaden significantly in the anti-nodal region of the underdoped cuprates, an anisotropic electron-phonon coupling vertex for particular modes identified in the optimal and overdoped compounds, and preferential scattering across the two parallel pieces of Fermi surface in the antinodal region for all doping levels. This also contributes to the pseudogap effect. To the extent that the Migdal-Eliashberg picture applies, the spectra of the cuprates bear resemblance to that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, X.J.
2010-01-01
only a decade ago. This revolution of the ARPES technique and its scientific impact result from dramatic advances in four essential components: instrumental resolution and efficiency, sample manipulation, high quality samples and well-matched scientific issues. The purpose of this treatise is to go through the prominent results obtained from ARPES on cuprate superconductors. Because there have been a number of recent reviews on the electronic structures of high-T c materials, we will mainly present the latest results not covered previously, with a special attention given on the electron-phonon interaction in cuprate superconductors. What has emerged is rich information about the anomalous electron-phonon interaction well beyond the traditional views of the subject. It exhibits strong doping, momentum and phonon symmetry dependence, and shows complex interplay with the strong electron-electron interaction in these materials. ARPES experiments have been instrumental in identifying the electronic structure, observing and detailing the electron-phonon mode coupling behavior, and mapping the doping evolution of the high-T c cuprates. The spectra evolve from the strongly coupled, polaronic spectra seen in underdoped cuprates to the Migdal-Eliashberg like spectra seen in the optimally and overdoped cuprates. In addition to the marked doping dependence, the cuprates exhibit pronounced anisotropy with direction in the Brillouin zone: sharp quasiparticles along the nodal direction that broaden significantly in the anti-nodal region of the underdoped cuprates, an anisotropic electron-phonon coupling vertex for particular modes identified in the optimal and overdoped compounds, and preferential scattering across the two parallel pieces of Fermi surface in the antinodal region for all doping levels. This also contributes to the pseudogap effect. To the extent that the Migdal-Eliashberg picture applies, the spectra of the cuprates bear resemblance to that seen in established
Electronic Contributions to the Phonon Damping in Metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Rune
1968-07-15
An imaginary part of the dielectric matrix is derived based on a first order perturbation expansion of the valence electron states in a local potential model of the crystal. The results are used to estimate the electronic contributions to the phonon damping in aluminum and lead. The corrections which have been obtained are of the same order of magnitude at small phonon momenta as the damping earlier calculated for the free electrons. However, the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental results still remain. The major contribution to damping seems to originate in anharmonic effects, even at 80 deg K.
Dynamics of impurity modes and electron–phonon interaction in Heavy Fermion (HF) systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shadangi, N.; Sahoo, J.; Mohanty, S.; Nayak, P.
2014-01-01
A theoretical explanation is provided to understand the effect of small concentration of impurities characterized by change in mass and nearest neighbor force constants on the phonon spectrum as well as on the electron–phonon interaction in some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems in the normal state within theoretical framework of the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM). Three different mechanisms of the electron–phonon interactions, namely, the usual interaction between the phonons with the electrons in the f-bands, electrons arising from that of hybridization term of PAM and the local electron–phonon coupling at the impurity sites are considered. Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) is used to evaluate the configuration averaged self–energy and the total Green function. For simplicity of calculation the CPA self–energy is evaluated in Average t -matrix Approximation (ATA). The analytical analysis is carried out for finite T in the long wavelength limit. The influence of impurity mass parameter λ and other system parameters such as d, the position of f-level, the effective coupling strength g on the calculated re-normalized phonon frequency and the excitation spectrum through the spectral function is studied. The numerical analysis of the results does show the influence of impurities as evident from different plots in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, J.D.; Malozovsky, Y.M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The sign reversal of pair interaction in momentum space is proved. • It is also shown that electron-phonon interaction in fact leads to the pairing-break effect. • Transition temperature into superconductivity depends on competition between electron-phonon and Coulomb interactions. • Calculated exponent α of the isotope effect shows the possibility equal to, greater or less than 0.5, and even negative. -- Abstract: Based on our previously proven theorem that the interaction between a pair of quasiparticles in the normal Fermi liquid has an opposite sign to the interaction between particles, we consider pair correlation between a pair of quasiparticles when the interaction between particles is repulsive. For the convenience of statements, we have presented in this article once again the proof of the theorem in terms of an exact equation for the thermodynamic potential due to interaction between particles and based on the Green’s function method. Further, we have derived the Landau expansion of the thermodynamic potentials in terms of the variation of the quasiparticle distribution function. We have also derived the expansion of the thermodynamic potential in terms of the variation of an exact single particle (not quasiparticles), these derivations lead to the relationship between the interaction function for two quasiparticles and the interaction energy between two particles as shown. According to the proven theorem the interaction between a pair of quasiparticles is attractive in this case, the pairing – Cooper’s pairing between a pair of quasiparticles is possible. We solve the Bethe–Salpeter type equation for paring of two quasiparticles when both interactions – the Coulomb repulsive and electron–phonon interaction are present. We show that the electron–phonon interaction, in fact, leads to the pair breaking effect, in contrast to the common belief that electron–phonon interaction is the main mechanism for Cooper’s pair
Phonon interactions with methyl radicals in single crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James W. Wells
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The high temperature ESR spectra’s anomalous appearance at very low temperatures for the methyl radical created in single crystals is explained by magnetic dipole interactions with neighboring protons. These protons acting via phonon vibrations induce resonant oscillations with the methyl group to establish a very temperature sensitive ‘‘relaxation’’ mode that allows the higher energy ‘‘E’’ state electrons with spin 12 to ‘‘decay’’ into ‘‘A’’ spin 12 states. Because of the amplitude amplification with temperature, the ‘‘E’’ state population is depleted and the ‘‘A’’ state population augmented to produce the high temperature ESR spectrum. This phenomenon is found to be valid for all but the very highest barriers to methyl group tunneling. In support, a time dependent spin population study shows this temperature evolution in the state populations under this perturbation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezuglyi, A.I.; Shklovskii, V.A.
1997-01-01
The theoretical analysis of experiments on pulsed laser irradiation of metallic films sputtered on insulating supports is usually based on semiphenomenological dynamical equations for the electron and phonon temperatures, an approach that ignores the nonuniformity and the nonthermal nature of the phonon distribution function. In this paper we discuss a microscopic model that describes the dynamics of the electron-phonon system in terms of kinetic equations for the electron and phonon distribution functions. Such a model provides a microscopic picture of the nonlinear energy relaxation of the electron-phonon system of a rapidly heated film. We find that in a relatively thick film the energy relaxation of electrons consists of three stages: the emission of nonequilibrium phonons by 'hot' electrons, the thermalization of electrons and phonons due to phonon reabsorption, and finally the cooling of the thermalized electron-phonon system as a result of phonon exchange between film and substrate. In thin films, where there is no reabsorption of nonequilibrium phonons, the energy relaxation consists of only one stage, the first. The relaxation dynamics of an experimentally observable quantity, the phonon contribution to the electrical conductivity of the cooling film, is directly related to the dynamics of the electron temperature, which makes it possible to use the data of experiments on the relaxation of voltage across films to establish the electron-phonon and phonon-electron collision times and the average time of phonon escape from film to substrate
Schütt, Michael; Orth, Peter P.; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael M.
2018-01-01
Ultrafast perturbations offer a unique tool to manipulate correlated systems due to their ability to promote transient behaviors with no equilibrium counterpart. A widely employed strategy is the excitation of coherent optical phonons, as they can cause significant changes in the electronic structure and interactions on short time scales. One of the issues, however, is the inevitable heating that accompanies these resonant excitations. Here, we explore a promising alternative route: the nonequilibrium excitation of acoustic phonons, which, due to their low excitation energies, generally lead to less heating. We demonstrate that driving acoustic phonons leads to the remarkable phenomenon of a momentum-dependent effective temperature, by which electronic states at different regions of the Fermi surface are subject to distinct local temperatures. Such an anisotropic effective electronic temperature can have a profound effect on the delicate balance between competing ordered states in unconventional superconductors, opening a so far unexplored avenue to control correlated phases.
Superfluidity of nuclei and the nucleon--phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadmenskii, S.G.; Luk'yanovich, P.A.
1989-01-01
The Lehmann expansion for the exact one-particle Green function in a system with superfluidity is obtained. Expressions for the correlation function and mass operator are derived with allowance for a retarded nucleon--phonon interaction. Within the scope of the formalism developed, equations for the superfluidity of nuclei allowing for quasiparticle fragmentation effects are derived. It is concluded that the retarded nucleon--phonon interaction in the particle--particle channel causes a decrease of the fragmentation of the one-particle force in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. It is shown that inclusion of a nonretarded vacuum interaction of two nucleons and of a retarded interaction due to the exchange between two nucleons of low-lying highly collectivized quadrupole phonons is sufficient to provide the necessary scale of attraction in the description of pair correlations of nucleons in nuclei with developed superfluidity
Electron mobility limited by optical phonons in wurtzite InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires
Liu, W. H.; Qu, Y.; Ban, S. L.
2017-09-01
Based on the force-balance and energy-balance equations, the optical phonon-limited electron mobility in InxGa1-xN/GaN core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) is discussed. It is found that the electrons tend to distribute in the core of the CSNWs due to the strong quantum confinement. Thus, the scattering from first kind of the quasi-confined optical (CO) phonons is more important than that from the interface (IF) and propagating (PR) optical phonons. Ternary mixed crystal and size effects on the electron mobility are also investigated. The results show that the PR phonons exist while the IF phonons disappear when the indium composition x < 0.047, and vice versa. Accordingly, the total electron mobility μ first increases and then decreases with indium composition x, and reaches a peak value of approximately 3700 cm2/(V.s) when x = 0.047. The results also show that the mobility μ increases as increasing the core radius of CSNWs due to the weakened interaction between the electrons and CO phonons. The total electron mobility limited by the optical phonons exhibits an obvious enhancement as decreasing temperature or increasing line electron density. Our theoretical results are expected to be helpful to develop electronic devices based on CSNWs.
Electron-Phonon Coupling and Resonant Relaxation from 1D and 1P States in PbS Quantum Dots.
Kennehan, Eric R; Doucette, Grayson S; Marshall, Ashley R; Grieco, Christopher; Munson, Kyle T; Beard, Matthew C; Asbury, John B
2018-05-31
Observations of the hot-phonon bottleneck, which is predicted to slow the rate of hot carrier cooling in quantum confined nanocrystals, have been limited to date for reasons that are not fully understood. We used time-resolved infrared spectroscopy to directly measure higher energy intraband transitions in PbS colloidal quantum dots. Direct measurements of these intraband transitions permitted detailed analysis of the electronic overlap of the quantum confined states that may influence their relaxation processes. In smaller PbS nanocrystals, where the hot-phonon bottleneck is expected to be most pronounced, we found that relaxation of parity selection rules combined with stronger electron-phonon coupling led to greater spectral overlap of transitions among the quantum confined states. This created pathways for fast energy transfer and relaxation that may bypass the predicted hot-phonon bottleneck. In contrast, larger, but still quantum confined nanocrystals did not exhibit such relaxation of the parity selection rules and possessed narrower intraband states. These observations were consistent with slower relaxation dynamics that have been measured in larger quantum confined systems. These findings indicated that, at small radii, electron-phonon interactions overcome the advantageous increase in energetic separation of the electronic states for PbS quantum dots. Selection of appropriately sized quantum dots, which minimize spectral broadening due to electron-phonon interactions while maximizing electronic state separation, is necessary to observe the hot-phonon bottleneck. Such optimization may provide a framework for achieving efficient hot carrier collection and multiple exciton generation.
Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stauber, T; Peres, N M R
2008-01-01
We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of ℎω 0 ∼ 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid
Interaction between confined phonons and photons in periodic silicon resonators
Iskandar, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Younes, J.; Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Tabbal, M.; Lerondel, G.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that phonons and photons of different momenta can be confined and interact with each other within the same nanostructure. The interaction between confined phonons and confined photons in silicon resonator arrays is observed by means of Raman scattering. The Raman spectra from large arrays of dielectric silicon resonators exhibited Raman enhancement accompanied with a downshift and broadening. The analysis of the Raman intensity and line shape using finite-difference time-domain simulations and a spatial correlation model demonstrated an interaction between photons confined in the resonators and phonons confined in highly defective regions prompted by the structuring process. It was shown that the Raman enhancement is due to collective lattice resonance inducing field confinement in the resonators, while the spectra downshift and broadening are signatures of the relaxation of the phonon wave vector due to phonon confinement in defective regions located in the surface layer of the Si resonators. We found that as the resonators increase in height and their shape becomes cylindrical, the amplitude of their coherent oscillation increases and hence their ability to confine the incoming electric field increases.
Phonon spectra, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of WS2 nanotubes.
Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Kovalenko, Alexey V
2017-11-15
Hybrid density functional theory calculations are performed for the first time on the phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of WS 2 -based single-wall nanotubes. Symmetry analysis is presented for phonon modes in nanotubes using the standard (crystallographic) factorization for line groups. Symmetry and the number of infra-red and Raman active modes in achiral WS 2 nanotubes are given for armchair and zigzag chiralities. It is demonstrated that a number of infrared and Raman active modes is independent on the nanotube diameter. The zone-folding approach is applied to find out an impact of curvature on electron and phonon band structure of nanotubes rolled up from the monolayer. Phonon frequencies obtained both for layers and nanotubes are used to compute the thermal contributions to their thermodynamic functions. The temperature dependences of energy, entropy, and heat capacity of nanotubes are estimated with respect to those of the monolayer. The role of phonons in the stability estimation of nanotubes is discussed based on Helmholtz free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Toward single electron resolution phonon mediated ionization detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirabolfathi, Nader, E-mail: mirabolfathi@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University (United States); Harris, H. Rusty; Mahapatra, Rupak; Sundqvist, Kyle; Jastram, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University (United States); Serfass, Bruno; Faiez, Dana; Sadoulet, Bernard [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley (United States)
2017-05-21
Experiments seeking to detect rare event interactions such as dark matter or coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering are striving for large mass detectors with very low detection threshold. Using Neganov-Luke phonon amplification effect, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is reaching unprecedented RMS resolutions of ∼14 eV{sub ee}. CDMSlite is currently the most sensitive experiment to WIMPs of mass ∼5 GeV/c{sup 2} but is limited in achieving higher phonon gains due to an early onset of leakage current into Ge crystals. The contact interface geometry is particularly weak for blocking hole injection from the metal, and thus a new design is demonstrated that allows high voltage bias via vacuum separated electrode. With an increased bias voltage and a×2 Luke phonon gain, world best RMS resolution of sigma ∼7 eV{sub ee} for 0.25 kg (d=75 mm, h=1 cm) Ge detectors was achieved. Since the leakage current is a function of the field and the phonon gain is a function of the applied voltage, appropriately robust interface blocking material combined with thicker substrate (25 mm) will reach a resolution of ∼2.8 eV{sub ee}. In order to achieve better resolution of ∼ eV, we are investigating a layer of insulator between the phonon readout surface and the semiconductor crystals.
Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons
Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael
The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter
2010-01-01
treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced...
Optical-phonon-induced frictional drag in coupled two-dimensional electron gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
The role of optical phonons in frictional drag between two adjacent but electrically isolated two-dimensional electron gases is investigated. Since the optical phonons in III-V materials have a considerably larger coupling to electrons than acoustic phonons (which are the dominant drag mechanism ...
Rossani, A.
2017-12-01
If electrons (e) and holes (h) in metals or semiconductors are heated to the temperatures T_e and T_h greater than the lattice temperature, the electron-phonon interaction causes energy relaxation. In the non-uniform case a momentum relaxation occurs as well. In view of such an application, a new model, based on an asymptotic procedure for solving the kinetic equations of carriers, phonons, and photons, is proposed, which gives naturally the displaced Maxwellian at the leading order. Several generation-recombination (GR) events occur in bipolar semiconductors. In the presence of photons the most important ones are the radiative GR events, direct, indirect, and exciton-catalyzed. Phonons and photons are treated here as a participating species, with their own equation. All the phonon-photon interactions are accounted for. Moreover, carrier-photon (Compton) interactions are introduced, which make complete the model. After that, balance equations for the electron number, hole number, energy densities, and momentum densities are constructed, which constitute now a system of macroscopic equations for the chemical potentials (carriers), the temperatures (carriers and bosons), and the drift velocities (carriers and bosons). In the drift-diffusion approximation the constitutive laws are derived and the Onsager relations recovered, even in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Shen, Xiaohan
With the rapid advances in the development of nanotechnology, nowadays, the sizes of elementary unit, i.e. transistor, of micro- and nanoelectronic devices are well deep into nanoscale. For the pursuit of cheaper and faster nanoscale electronic devices, the size of transistors keeps scaling down. As the miniaturization of the nanoelectronic devices, the electrical resistivity increases dramatically, resulting rapid growth in the heat generation. The heat generation and limited thermal dissipation in nanoscale materials have become a critical problem in the development of the next generation nanoelectronic devices. Copper (Cu) is widely used conducting material in nanoelectronic devices, and the electron-phonon scattering is the dominant contributor to the resistivity in Cu nanowires at room temperature. Meanwhile, phonons are the main carriers of heat in insulators, intrinsic and lightly doped semiconductors. The thermal transport is an ensemble of phonon transport, which strongly depends on the phonon frequency. In addition, the phonon transport in nanoscale materials can behave fundamentally different than in bulk materials, because of the spatial confinement. However, the size effect on electron-phonon scattering and frequency dependent phonon transport in nanoscale materials remain largely unexplored, due to the lack of suitable experimental techniques. This thesis is mainly focusing on the study of carrier dynamics and acoustic phonon transport in nanoscale materials. The weak photothermal interaction in Cu makes thermoreflectance measurement difficult, we rather measured the reflectivity change of Cu induced by absorption variation. We have developed a method to separately measure the processes of electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon scattering in epitaxial Cu films by monitoring the transient reflectivity signal using the resonant probe with particular wavelengths. The enhancement on electron-phonon scattering in epitaxial Cu films with thickness
Damping of acoustic flexural phonons in silicene: influence on high-field electronic transport
Rengel, Raúl; Iglesias, José M.; Mokhtar Hamham, El; Martín, María J.
2018-06-01
Silicene is a two-dimensional buckled material with broken horizontal mirror symmetry and Dirac-like dispersion. Under such conditions, flexural acoustic (ZA) phonons play a dominant role. Consequently, it is necessary to consider some suppression mechanism for electron–phonon interactions with long wavelengths in order to reach mobilities useful for electronic applications. In this work, we analyze, by means of an ensemble Monte Carlo simulator, the influence of several possibilities for the description of the effect of ZA phonon damping on electronic transport in silicene. The results show that a hard cutoff situation (total suppression for phonons with a wavelength longer than a critical one), as it has been proposed in the literature, does not yield a realistic picture regarding the electronic distribution function, and it artificially induces a negative differential resistance at moderate and high fields. Sub-parabolic dispersions, on the other hand, may provide a more realistic description in terms of the behavior of the electron distribution in the momentum space, but need extremely short cutoff wavelengths to reach functional mobility and drift velocity values.
Effect of electron-photon interaction on the knight shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathi, G.S.; Misra, C.M.; Tripathi, P.; Misra, P.K.
1990-01-01
The effect of electron-phonon interaction is considered on the spin (K s ), orbital (K o ) and spin-orbit (K so ) contributions to the Knight shift. In case of K s , it is found that the modifications caused due to the magnetic field dependence of electron self-energy in the presence of electron-phonon interaction is cancelled by the electron-phonon mass enhancement. However, in the presence of both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, the exchange enhancement parameter α is modified to α(1+γ) -1 where γ is the electron-phonon mass enhancement parameter. The orbital and spin-orbital contributions are mainly modified through the changes in the one-electron energies and wave functions. (orig.)
Zhu, Hanyu; Yi, Jun; Li, Ming-yang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Lifa; Yang, Chih-Wen; Kaindl, Robert A.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2018-01-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Zhu, Hanyu
2018-02-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Electron-phonon coupling in quasi free-standing graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christian Johannsen, Jens; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco
2013-01-01
Quasi free-standing monolayer graphene can be produced by intercalating species like oxygen or hydrogen between epitaxial graphene and the substrate crystal. If the graphene is indeed decoupled from the substrate, one would expect the observation of a similar electronic dispersion and many......-body effects, irrespective of the substrate and the material used to achieve the decoupling. Here we investigate the electron-phonon coupling in two different types of quasi free-standing monolayer graphene: decoupled from SiC via hydrogen intercalation and decoupled from Ir via oxygen intercalation. Both...
Electronic response and longitudinal phonons of a charge-density-wave distorted linear chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giuliani, G.
1978-01-01
The longitudinal-phonon spectrum of an incommensurate charge-density-wave distorted linear chain at T = 0 K are calculated. This is done by direct numerical evaluation of the full static-electronic-response matrix. The electronic band structure assumed for this purpose is that of a mean-field theory 1-D Peierls insulator. The present results show how, within this simplified, but self-consistent picture, the phase and amplitude modes connect to, and interact with, the ordinary longitudinal-phonon branch. Effects due to our inclusion of (0,2ksub(F)) scattering along with the usual (-2ksub(F), 2ksub(F)) are also pointed out. An alternative approximate expression for the 1-D electronic-response matrix is also given. (author)
Kinks in the σ Band of Graphene Induced by Electron-Phonon Coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin; Yakimova, Rosita
2013-01-01
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals pronounced kinks in the dispersion of the band of graphene. Such kinks are usually caused by the combination of a strong electron-boson interaction and the cutoff in the Fermi-Dirac distribution. They are therefore not expected for the band...... of graphene that has a binding energy of more than 3:5 eV. We argue that the observed kinks are indeed caused by the electron-phonon interaction, but the role of the Fermi-Dirac distribution cutoff is assumed by a cutoff in the density of states. The existence of the effect suggests a very weak coupling...
Electron hopping and optic phonons in Eu3S4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guentherodt, G.
1981-01-01
Raman scattering on single crystals of Eu 3 S 4 does not show the allowed q=o phonon modes in the cubic phase and exhibits no new modes in the distorted low temperature phase (T 2- ions. This mode does not show any anomaly near the charge order -disorder phase transition Tsub(t)=186 K. Temperature tunable spin fluctuations associated with the temperature activated Eu 2+ → Eu 3+ electron hopping are detected in the scattering intensity, superimposed on the usual thermal spin disorder. (author)
Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene
Stauber, T.; Peres, N. M. R.
2007-01-01
We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of one percent. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo-formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach which does not include inter-band transition and can thus not treat optica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2015-01-01
Several dynamic thermal and nonthermal scattering processes affect ultrafast heat transfer in metals after short-pulsed laser heating. Even with decades of measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, the role of thermal vs. nonthermal electron and phonon scattering on overall electron energy transfer to the phonons remains unclear. In this work, we derive an analytical expression for the electron-phonon coupling factor in a metal that includes contributions from equilibrium and nonequilibrium distributions of electrons. While the contribution from the nonthermal electrons to electron-phonon coupling is non-negligible, the increase in the electron relaxation rates with increasing laser fluence measured by thermoreflectance techniques cannot be accounted for by only considering electron-phonon relaxations. We conclude that electron-electron scattering along with electron-phonon scattering have to be considered simultaneously to correctly predict the transient nature of electron relaxation during and after short-pulsed heating of metals at elevated electron temperatures. Furthermore, for high electron temperature perturbations achieved at high absorbed laser fluences, we show good agreement between our model, which accounts for d-band excitations, and previous experimental data. Our model can be extended to other free electron metals with the knowledge of the density of states of electrons in the metals and considering electronic excitations from non-Fermi surface states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortier, Dominique.
1976-07-01
Besides the three phonon scattering mechanisms generally considered in insulators, i.e. boundary effect, isotopic scattering and phonon-phonon interaction, the electron-phonon scattering mechanism was studied with special reference to the scattering of thermal phonons by donor impurities in silicon. In order to demonstrate clearly the effect of the electronic structure of the impurity on this scattering, three donor centres were investigated: Li, Li-O and P. On the basis of the calculated relaxation times it was possible from theoretical analysis to account for the main results and to explain why the Li centre scatters thermal phonons more efficiently than Li-O and P centres in the isolated impurity range [fr
Heat Exchange Between Electrons and Phonons in Nanosystems at Sub-Kelvin Temperatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anghel Dragoş-Victor
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Ultra-sensitive nanoscopic detectors for electromagnetic radiation consist of thin metallic films deposited on dielectric membranes. The metallic films, of thickness d of the order of 10 nm, form the thermal sensing element (TSE, which absorbs the incident radiation and measures its power flux or the energies of individual photons. To achieve the sensitivity required for astronomical observations, the TSE works at temperatures of the order of 0.1 K. The dielectric membranes are used as support and for thermal insulation of the TSE and are of thickness L − d of the order of 100 nm (L being the total thickness of the system. In such conditions, the phonon gas in the detector assumes a quasi-two-dimensional distribution, whereas quantization of the electrons wavenumbers in the direction perpendicular to the film surfaces leads to the formation of quasi two-dimensional electronic sub-bands. The heat exchange between electrons and phonons has an important contribution to the performance of the device and is dominated by the interaction between the electrons and the antisymmetric acoustic phonons.
Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene.
Shang, Jingzhi; Yu, Ting; Lin, Jianyi; Gurzadyan, Gagik G
2011-04-26
Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied by UV pump/white-light probe spectroscopy. Transient differential transmission spectra of monolayer graphene are observed in the visible probe range (400-650 nm). Kinetics of the quasiparticle (i.e., low-energy single-particle excitation with renormalized energy due to electron-electron Coulomb, electron-optical phonon (e-op), and optical phonon-acoustic phonon (op-ap) interactions) was monitored with 50 fs resolution. Extending the probe range to near-infrared, we find the evolution of quasiparticle relaxation channels from monoexponential e-op scattering to double exponential decay due to e-op and op-ap scattering. Moreover, quasiparticle lifetimes of mono- and randomly stacked graphene films are obtained for the probe photon energies continuously from 1.9 to 2.3 eV. Dependence of quasiparticle decay rate on the probe energy is linear for 10-layer stacked graphene films. This is due to the dominant e-op intervalley scattering and the linear density of states in the probed electronic band. A dimensionless coupling constant W is derived, which characterizes the scattering strength of quasiparticles by lattice points in graphene.
Electronic, phononic, and thermoelectric properties of graphyne sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevinçli, Hâldun; Sevik, Cem
2014-01-01
Electron, phonon, and thermoelectric transport properties of α-, β-, γ-, and 6,6,12-graphyne sheets are compared and contrasted with those of graphene. α-, β-, and 6,6,12-graphynes, with direction dependent Dirac dispersions, have higher electronic transmittance than graphene. γ-graphyne also attains better electrical conduction than graphene except at its band gap. Vibrationally, graphene conducts heat much more efficiently than graphynes, a behavior beyond an atomic density differences explanation. Seebeck coefficients of the considered Dirac materials are similar but thermoelectric power factors decrease with increasing effective speeds of light. γ-graphyne yields the highest thermoelectric efficiency with a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as ZT = 0.45, almost an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene
Nam, Sae Woo
1999-10-01
Observations have shown that galaxies, including our own, are surrounded by halos of ``dark matter''. One possibility is that this may be an undiscovered form of matter, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). This thesis describes the development of silicon based cryogenic particle detectors designed to directly detect interactions with these WIMPs. These detectors are part of a new class of detectors which are able to reject background events by simultaneously measuring energy deposited into phonons versus electron hole pairs. By using the phonon sensors with the ionization sensors to compare the partitioning of energy between phonons and ionizations we can discriminate between electron recoil events (background radiation) and nuclear recoil events (dark matter events). These detectors with built-in background rejection are a major advance in background rejection over previous searches. Much of this thesis will describe work in scaling the detectors from / g prototype devices to a fully functional prototype 100g dark matter detector. In particular, many sensors were fabricated and tested to understand the behavior of our phonon sensors, Quasipartice trapping assisted Electrothermal feedback Transition edge sensors (QETs). The QET sensors utilize aluminum quasiparticle traps attached to tungsten superconducting transition edge sensors patterned on a silicon substrate. The tungsten lines are voltage biased and self-regulate in the transition region. Phonons from particle interactions within the silicon propogate to the surface where they are absorbed by the aluminum generating quasiparticles in the aluminum. The quasiparticles diffuse into the tungsten and couple energy into the tungsten electron system. Consequently, the tungsten increases in resistance and causes a current pulse which is measured with a high bandwidth SQUID system. With this advanced sensor technology, we were able to demonstrate detectors with xy position sensitivity with electron and
Electron and phonon drag in thermoelectric transport through coherent molecular conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegård, Per
2016-01-01
We study thermoelectric transport through a coherent molecular conductor connected to two electron and two phonon baths using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We focus on the mutual drag between electron and phonon transport as a result of ‘momentum’ transfer, which happens only when...
Electron-phonon and spin-phonon coupling in NaV2O5 : Charge fluctuations effects
Sherman, E.Ya.; Fischer, M.; Lemmens, P; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Güntherodt, G.
1999-01-01
We show that the asymmetric crystal environment of the V site in the ladder compound NaV2O5 leads to a strong coupling of vanadium 3d electrons to phonons. This coupling causes fluctuations of the charge on the V ions, and favors a transition to a charge-ordered state at low temperatures. In the low
Kinks in the σ band of graphene induced by electron-phonon coupling.
Mazzola, Federico; Wells, Justin W; Yakimova, Rositza; Ulstrup, Søren; Miwa, Jill A; Balog, Richard; Bianchi, Marco; Leandersson, Mats; Adell, Johan; Hofmann, Philip; Balasubramanian, T
2013-11-22
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals pronounced kinks in the dispersion of the σ band of graphene. Such kinks are usually caused by the combination of a strong electron-boson interaction and the cutoff in the Fermi-Dirac distribution. They are therefore not expected for the σ band of graphene that has a binding energy of more than ≈3.5 eV. We argue that the observed kinks are indeed caused by the electron-phonon interaction, but the role of the Fermi-Dirac distribution cutoff is assumed by a cutoff in the density of σ states. The existence of the effect suggests a very weak coupling of holes in the σ band not only to the π electrons of graphene but also to the substrate electronic states. This is confirmed by the presence of such kinks for graphene on several different substrates that all show a strong coupling constant of λ≈1.
Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huetzen, Roland
2013-01-01
technique and is numerically exact. Within a finite memory time the scheme fully takes into account all time-nonlocal correlations within the self energies of the leads and we extended it to also handle time-nonlocal interactions originating from the electron-phonon coupling. The latter was possible by exactly mapping the Anderson-Holstein model to an effective three-state-system and the introduction of a spin 1 auxiliary field within each short-time propagator of the real-time path-integral. An extrapolation scheme which is based on a least dependence approach then allows to eliminate the errors introduced by the finite memory time and the time discretization in a systematic way. We benchmarked our scheme against three other analytical methods, valid in three different corners of the parameter space where approximative expansions are possible. Finally we could demonstrate with our method the persistence of the Franck-Condon blockade in a deep quantum regime, inaccessible by the other methods.
Transport through interacting quantum dots with Majorana fermions or phonons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huetzen, Roland
2013-07-04
technique and is numerically exact. Within a finite memory time the scheme fully takes into account all time-nonlocal correlations within the self energies of the leads and we extended it to also handle time-nonlocal interactions originating from the electron-phonon coupling. The latter was possible by exactly mapping the Anderson-Holstein model to an effective three-state-system and the introduction of a spin 1 auxiliary field within each short-time propagator of the real-time path-integral. An extrapolation scheme which is based on a least dependence approach then allows to eliminate the errors introduced by the finite memory time and the time discretization in a systematic way. We benchmarked our scheme against three other analytical methods, valid in three different corners of the parameter space where approximative expansions are possible. Finally we could demonstrate with our method the persistence of the Franck-Condon blockade in a deep quantum regime, inaccessible by the other methods.
Phonon properties of americium phosphide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arya, B. S., E-mail: bsarya13@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Narmada P G College, Hoshangabad -461001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C. S. A. Govt. P. G. College Sehore-46601 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)
2016-05-23
Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khurgin, Jacob B., E-mail: jakek@jhu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-12-28
Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.
Wette, Frederik
1991-01-01
In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weger, M.; Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Peter, M.; Santi, G.
1995-01-01
We solve the Eliashberg equations for the case of an explicit vector k dependence of the interactions, and of the resulting self-energies Σ 1 ( vector k,ω), Σ 2 ( vector k,ω). We consider a strong energy-dependence of the electron-electron scattering-rate τ ee -1 , which is associated with a strong energy-dependence of the electron-phonon matrix element g(k,k'). We characterize this energy-dependence by a cutoff ξ 1 , which is of the order of the phonon frequency ω ph . We find that we can account for a large number of unexpected features of the superconductivity of the cuprates by the BCS electron-phonon theory, if we consider very large values of the McMillan coupling constant λ ph , and small values of the cutoff ξ 1 . Specifically, the Coulomb interaction is found not to depress T c ; the isotope effect is strongly reduced when ξ 1 ph . We find solutions in which the gap function Δ( vector k,ω) has extended s-wave symmetry but is very anisotropic. We suggest that the underlying cause of the strong energy-dependence is a very small electronic screening parameter at the Fermi surface; the electron-phonon matrix element g is abnormally large, and this accounts for the high transition temperatures of the cuprates. An order of magnitude estimate suggests that the electron-phonon mechanism can account for transition temperatures up to about 200 K. We thus propose a very-strong-coupling theory, in which the renormalization functions, in particular the energy-renormalization X, depend very strongly on the superconducting gap Δ, and thus display a very strong temperature-dependence between T c and T=0. An experimental manifestation of the very strong coupling with a small cutoff is a zero bias anomaly sometimes observed in tunneling experiments. (orig.)
Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seebeck, Jan
2009-03-10
In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non
Electron-phonon relaxation and excited electron distribution in gallium nitride
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhukov, V. P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya st. 91, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tyuterev, V. G., E-mail: valtyut00@mail.ru [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya st. 60, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Lenin st. 36, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chulkov, E. V. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tomsk State University, Lenin st. 36, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, UPV/EHU and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CFM-MPC and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P. M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, UPV/EHU and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CFM-MPC and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)
2016-08-28
We develop a theory of energy relaxation in semiconductors and insulators highly excited by the long-acting external irradiation. We derive the equation for the non-equilibrium distribution function of excited electrons. The solution for this function breaks up into the sum of two contributions. The low-energy contribution is concentrated in a narrow range near the bottom of the conduction band. It has the typical form of a Fermi distribution with an effective temperature and chemical potential. The effective temperature and chemical potential in this low-energy term are determined by the intensity of carriers' generation, the speed of electron-phonon relaxation, rates of inter-band recombination, and electron capture on the defects. In addition, there is a substantial high-energy correction. This high-energy “tail” largely covers the conduction band. The shape of the high-energy “tail” strongly depends on the rate of electron-phonon relaxation but does not depend on the rates of recombination and trapping. We apply the theory to the calculation of a non-equilibrium distribution of electrons in an irradiated GaN. Probabilities of optical excitations from the valence to conduction band and electron-phonon coupling probabilities in GaN were calculated by the density functional perturbation theory. Our calculation of both parts of distribution function in gallium nitride shows that when the speed of the electron-phonon scattering is comparable with the rate of recombination and trapping then the contribution of the non-Fermi “tail” is comparable with that of the low-energy Fermi-like component. So the high-energy contribution can essentially affect the charge transport in the irradiated and highly doped semiconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, A.T.; Cabrera, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Penn, M.J.; Pronko, J.G.; Tamura, S.
1996-01-01
We present measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in silicon at ∼380 mK. The detectors used for these experiments consist of a 300-μm-thick monocrystal of silicon instrumented with superconducting titanium transition-edge sensors. These sensors detect the initial wavefront of athermal phonons and give a pulse height that is sensitive to changes in surface-energy density resulting from the focusing of ballistic phonons. Nuclear recoils were generated by neutron bombardment of the detector. A Van de Graaff proton accelerator and a thick 7 Li target were used. Pulse-height spectra were compared for neutron, x-ray, and γ-ray events. A previous analysis of this data set found evidence for an increase in the ballistic-phonon component for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils at a 95% confidence level. An improved understanding of the detector response has led to a change in the result. In the present analysis, the data are consistent with no increase at the 68% confidence level. This change stems from an increase in the uncertainty of the result rather than a significant change in the central value. The increase in ballistic phonon energy for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils as a fraction of the total phonon energy (for equal total phonon energy events) was found to be 0.024 +0.041 -0.055 (68% confidence level). This result sets a limit of 11.6% (95% confidence level) on the ballistic phonon enhancement for nuclear recoils predicted by open-quote open-quote hot spot close-quote close-quote and electron-hole droplet models, which is the most stringent to date. To measure the ballistic-phonon component resulting from electron recoils, the pulse height as a function of event depth was compared to that of phonon simulations. (Abstract Truncated)
Caruso, Fabio; Verdi, Carla; Poncé, Samuel; Giustino, Feliciano
2018-04-01
We develop a first-principles approach based on many-body perturbation theory to investigate the effects of the interaction between electrons and carrier plasmons on the electronic properties of highly doped semiconductors and oxides. Through the evaluation of the electron self-energy, we account simultaneously for electron-plasmon and electron-phonon coupling in theoretical calculations of angle-resolved photoemission spectra, electron linewidths, and relaxation times. We apply this methodology to electron-doped anatase TiO2 as an illustrative example. The simulated spectra indicate that electron-plasmon coupling in TiO2 underpins the formation of satellites at energies comparable to those of polaronic spectral features. At variance with phonons, however, the energy of plasmons and their spectral fingerprints depends strongly on the carrier concentration, revealing a complex interplay between plasmon and phonon satellites. The electron-plasmon interaction accounts for approximately 40% of the total electron-boson interaction strength, and it is key to improve the agreement with measured quasiparticle spectra.
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara
2016-01-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...
Ab initio study of the electron-phonon coupling at the Cr(001) surface
Peters, L.; Rudenko, A. N.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2018-04-01
It is experimentally well established that the Cr(001) surface exhibits a sharp resonance around the Fermi level. However, there is no consensus about its physical origin. It is proposed to be either due to a single particle dz2 surface state renormalized by electron-phonon coupling or the orbital Kondo effect involving the degenerate dx z/ dy z states. In this paper we examine the electron-phonon coupling of the Cr(001) surface by means of ab-initio calculations in the form of density functional perturbation theory. More precisely, the electron-phonon mass-enhancement factor of the surface layer is investigated for the 3d states. For the majority and minority spin dz2 surface states we find values of 0.19 and 0.16. We show that these calculated electron-phonon mass-enhancement factors are not in agreement with the experimental data even if we use realistic values for the temperature range and surface Debye frequency for the fit of the experimental data. More precisely, then experimentally an electron-phonon mass-enhancement factor of 0.70 ±0.10 is obtained, which is not in agreement with our calculated values of 0.19 and 0.16. Our findings suggest that the experimentally observed resonance at the Cr(001) surface is not due to electron-phonon effects but due to electron-electron correlation effects.
Electron–phonon interaction and scattering in phosphorene
Fan, Xiaolin; Zhao, Guojun; Wang, Shudong
2018-04-01
The electron–phonon scattering of phosphorene is investigated via performing first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that the scattering rates are negligible at the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum, but they are much larger away from the band edges. The scattering rates increase with the rising temperature. The relaxation times run up to ~850 fs around the VBM at 1 K, and they will decrease with the increasing temperature. In addition, we find that the mean free paths (MFPs) are anisotropic. The MFPs along the armchair direction are two times larger than that along the zigzag direction near the band edges. According to our results, we predict that the extraction of hot holes is best achieved along the armchair direction in phosphorene with a 65 nm range at 1 K. The best extraction range of hot electrons is less than 30 nm along the armchair direction at 1 K. On the other hand, the extraction range of hot holes and hot electrons will decrease to 15 nm along both directions in phosphorene at 300 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillenbrand, Rainer
2004-01-01
Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10 nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (λ=633 nm and 10 μm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si 3 N 4 . Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics--a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics
The strong thermoelectric effect in nanocarbon generated by the ballistic phonon drag of electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eidelman, E D; Vul', A Ya
2007-01-01
The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit for carbon nanostructure consisting of graphite-like (sp 2 ) and diamond-like (sp 3 ) regions have been investigated. The probability of electron collisions with quasi-ballistic phonons in sp 2 regions has been analysed for the first time. We have shown that the probability is not small. We have analysed the influence of various factors on the process of the electron-ballistic phonon drag (the phonon drag effect). The thermoelectric power and thermoelectric figure of merit under conditions of ballistic transport were found to be substantially higher than those in the cases of drag by thermalized phonons and of electron diffusion. The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in the case of a ballistic phonon contribution to the phonon drag of electrons should be 50 times that for chaotic phonons and 500 times that in the case of the diffusion process. In that case ZT should be a record (ZT≥2-3)
Doping-controlled Coherent Electron-Phonon Coupling in Vanadium Dioxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appavoo, Kannatassen [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States) Interdisciplinary Materials Science; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Wang, Bin [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nag, Joyeeta [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sfeir, Matthew Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Haglund, Richard F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States) Interdisciplinary Materials Science and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2015-05-10
Broadband femtosecond transient spectroscopy and density functional calculations reveal that substitutional tungsten doping of a VO_{2} film changes the coherent phonon response compared to the undoped film due to altered electronic and structural dynamics.
Electronic, phonon and superconducting properties of LaPtBi half-Heusler compound
Shrivastava, Deepika; Sanyal, Sankar P.
2018-05-01
In the framework of density functional theory based on plane wave pseudopotential method and linear response technique, we have studied the electronic, phonon and superconducting properties of LaPtBi half-Heusler compound. The electronic band structure and density of states show that it is gapless semiconductor which is consistent with previous results. The positive phonon frequencies confirm the stability of this compound in cubic MgAgAs phase. Superconductivity is studied in terms of Eliashberg spectral function (α2F(ω)), electron-phonon coupling constants (λ). The value of electron-phonon coupling parameter is found to be 0.41 and the superconducting transition temperature is calculated to be 0.76 K, in excellent agreement with the experimentally reported values.
Electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling in layered copper oxide superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickett, W.E.; Cohen, R.E.; Krakauer, H.
1991-01-01
Experimental data on the layered Cu-O superconductors seem more and more to reflect normal Fermi-liquid behavior and substantial correspondence with band structure predictions. Recent self-consistent, microscopic band theoretic calculations of the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon frequencies, and electron-phonon coupling characteristics and strength for La 2 CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 are reviewed. A dominant feature of the coupling is a novel Madelung-like contribution which would be screened out in high density of states superconductors but survives in cuprates because of weak screening. Local density functional theory correctly predicts the instability of (La, Ba) 2 CuO 4 to both the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (below room temperature) and the lower-temperature tetragonal phase (below 50 K). (orig.)
Yousefvand, H. R.
2017-12-01
We report a study of the effects of hot-electron and hot-phonon dynamics on the output characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using an equivalent circuit-level model. The model is developed from the energy balance equation to adopt the electron temperature in the active region levels, the heat transfer equation to include the lattice temperature, the nonequilibrium phonon rate to account for the hot phonon dynamics and simplified two-level rate equations to incorporate the carrier and photon dynamics in the active region. This technique simplifies the description of the electron-phonon interaction in QCLs far from the equilibrium condition. Using the presented model, the steady and transient responses of the QCLs for a wide range of sink temperatures (80 to 320 K) are investigated and analysed. The model enables us to explain the operating characteristics found in QCLs. This predictive model is expected to be applicable to all QCL material systems operating in pulsed and cw regimes.
Small Fermi energy, strong electron-phonon effects and anharmonicity in MgB2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cappelluti, E.; Pietronero, L.
2007-01-01
The investigation of the electron-phonon properties in MgB 2 has attracted a huge interest after the discovery of superconductivity with T c 39 K in this compound. Although superconductivity is often described in terms of the conventional Eliashberg theory, properly generalized in the multiband/multigap scenario, important features distinguish MgB 2 from other conventional strong-coupling superconductors. Most important it is the fact that a large part of the total electron-phonon strength seems to be concentrated here in only one phonon mode, the boron-boron E 2g stretching mode. Another interesting property is the small Fermi energy of the σ bands, which are strongly coupled with the E 2g mode. In this contribution, we discuss how the coexistence of both these features give rise to an unconventional phenomenology of the electron-phonon properties
Polariton-acoustic-phonon interaction in a semiconductor microcavity
Cassabois, G.; Triques, A. L. C.; Bogani, F.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.; Piermarocchi, C.
2000-01-01
The broadening of polariton lines by acoustic phonons is investigated in a semiconductor microcavity by means of interferometric correlation measurements with subpicosecond resolution. A decrease of the polariton-acoustic phonon coupling is clearly observed for the lower polariton branch as one approaches the resonance between exciton and photon states. This behavior cannot be explained in terms of a semiclassical linear dispersion theory but requires a full quantum description of the microcavity in the strong-coupling regime.
Hybrid functional calculation of electronic and phonon structure of BaSnO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Bog G.; Jo, J.Y.; Cheong, S.W.
2013-01-01
Barium stannate, BaSnO 3 (BSO), with a cubic perovskite structure, has been highlighted as a promising host material for the next generation transparent oxide electrodes. This study examined theoretically the electronic structure and phonon structure of BSO using hybrid density functional theory based on the HSE06 functional. The electronic structure results of BSO were corrected by extending the phonon calculations based on the hybrid density functional. The fundamental thermal properties were also predicted based on a hybrid functional calculation. Overall, a detailed understanding of the electronic structure, phonon modes and phonon dispersion of BSO will provide a theoretical starting-point for engineering applications of this material. - Graphical Abstract: (a) Crystal structure of BaSnO 3 . The center ball is Ba and small (red) ball on edge is oxygen and SnO 6 octahedrons are plotted as polyhedron. (b) Electronic band structure along the high symmetry point in the Brillouin zone using the HSE06 hybrid functional. (c) The phonon dispersion curve calculated using the HSE06 hybrid functional (d) Zone center lowest energy F 1u phonon mode. Highlights: ► We report the full hybrid functional calculation of not only the electronic structure but also the phonon structure for BaSnO 3 . ► The band gap calculation of HSE06 revealed an indirect gap with 2.48 eV. ► The effective mass at the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum was calculated. ► In addition, the phonon structure of BSO was calculated using the HSE06 functional. ► Finally, the heat capacity was calculated and compared with the recent experimental result.
Montagnese, Matteo; Otter, Marian; Zotos, Xenophon; Fishman, Dmitry A; Hlubek, Nikolai; Mityashkin, Oleg; Hess, Christian; Saint-Martin, Romuald; Singh, Surjeet; Revcolevschi, Alexandre; van Loosdrecht, Paul H M
2013-04-05
Thirty-five years ago, Sanders and Walton [Phys. Rev. B 15, 1489 (1977)] proposed a method to measure the phonon-magnon interaction in antiferromagnets through thermal transport which so far has not been verified experimentally. We show that a dynamical variant of this approach allows direct extraction of the phonon-magnon equilibration time, yielding 400 μs for the cuprate spin-ladder system Ca(9)La(5)Cu(24)O(41). The present work provides a general method to directly address the spin-phonon interaction by means of dynamical transport experiments.
Phonon, magnon and electron contributions to low temperature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
method to estimate the specific heat contributions of phonons and magnons. .... Dstiff (or D) is the spin stiffness, which is a linear combination of the exchange .... relevant as it is a direct measurement of fundamental pro- perty of metallic ...
Anharmonic vibrational properties in periodic systems: energy, electron-phonon coupling, and stress
Monserrat, Bartomeu; Drummond, N. D.; Needs, R. J.
2013-01-01
A unified approach is used to study vibrational properties of periodic systems with first-principles methods and including anharmonic effects. Our approach provides a theoretical basis for the determination of phonon-dependent quantities at finite temperatures. The low-energy portion of the Born-Oppenheimer energy surface is mapped and used to calculate the total vibrational energy including anharmonic effects, electron-phonon coupling, and the vibrational contribution to the stress tensor. W...
Temperature Dependent Variations of Phonon Interactions in Nanocrystalline Cerium Oxide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sugandha Dogra Pandey
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The temperature dependent anharmonic behavior of the phonon modes of nanocrystalline CeO2 was investigated in the temperature range of 80–440 K. The anharmonic constants have been derived from the shift in phonon modes fitted to account for the anharmonic contributions as well as the thermal expansion contribution using the high pressure parameters derived from our own high pressure experimental data reported previously. The total anharmonicity has also been estimated from the true anharmonicity as well as quasiharmonic component. In the line-width variation analysis, the cubic anharmonic term was found to dominate the quartic term. Finally, the phonon lifetime also reflected the trend so observed.
Phonon-assisted hopping of an electron on a Wannier-Stark ladder in a strong electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emin, D.; Hart, C.F.
1987-01-01
With the application of a spatially constant electric field, the degeneracy of electronic energy levels of geometrically equivalent sites of a crystal is generally lifted. As a result, the electric field causes the electronic eigenstates of a one-dimensional periodic chain to become localized. In particular, they are Wannier-Stark states. With sufficiently large electric-field strengths these states become sufficiently well localized that it becomes appropriate to consider electronic transport to occur via a succession of phonon-assisted hops between the localized Wannier-Stark states. In this paper, we present calculations of the drift velocity arising from acoustic- and optical-phonon-assisted hopping motion between Wannier-Stark states. When the intersite electronic transfer energy is sufficiently small so that the Wannier-Stark states are essentially each confined to a single atomic site, the transport reduces to that of a small polaron. In this regime, while the drift velocity initially rises with increasing electric field strength, the drift velocity ultimately falls with increasing electric-field strength at extremely large electric fields. More generally, for common values of the electronic bandwidth and electric field strength, the Wannier-Stark states span many sites. At sufficiently large electric fields, the energy separation between Wannier-Stark states exceeds the energy uncertainty associated with the carrier's interaction with phonons. Then, it is appropriate to treat the electronic transport in terms of phonon-assisted hopping between Wannier-Stark states. The resulting high-field drift velocity falls with increasing field strength in a series of steps. Thus, we find a structured negative differential mobility at large electric fields
Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K
2010-10-15
Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.
Electron-phonon heat exchange in quasi-two-dimensional nanolayers
Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Cojocaru, Sergiu
2017-12-01
We study the heat power P transferred between electrons and phonons in thin metallic films deposited on free-standing dielectric membranes. The temperature range is typically below 1 K, such that the wavelengths of the excited phonon modes in the system is large enough so that the picture of a quasi-two-dimensional phonon gas is applicable. Moreover, due to the quantization of the components of the electron wavevectors perpendicular to the metal film's surface, the electrons spectrum forms also quasi two-dimensional sub-bands, as in a quantum well (QW). We describe in detail the contribution to the electron-phonon energy exchange of different electron scattering channels, as well as of different types of phonon modes. We find that heat flux oscillates strongly with thickness of the film d while having a much smoother variation with temperature (Te for the electrons temperature and Tph for the phonons temperature), so that one obtains a ridge-like landscape in the two coordinates, (d, Te) or (d, Tph), with crests and valleys aligned roughly parallel to the temperature axis. For the valley regions we find P ∝ Te3.5 - Tph3.5. From valley to crest, P increases by more than one order of magnitude and on the crests P cannot be represented by a simple power law. The strong dependence of P on d is indicative of the formation of the QW state and can be useful in controlling the heat transfer between electrons and crystal lattice in nano-electronic devices. Nevertheless, due to the small value of the Fermi wavelength in metals, the surface imperfections of the metallic films can reduce the magnitude of the oscillations of P vs. d, so this effect might be easier to observe experimentally in doped semiconductors.
Magnon Broadening Effect by Magnon-Phonon Interaction in Colossal Magnetoresistance Manganites
Furukawa, Nobuo
1999-01-01
In order to study the magnetic excitation behaviors in colossal magnetoresistance manganites, a magnon-phonon interacting system is investigated. Sudden broadening of magnon linewidth is obtained when a magnon branch crosses over an optical phonon branch. Onset of the broadening is approximately determined by the magnon density of states. Anomalous magnon damping at the brillouine zone boundary observed in low Curie temperature manganites is explained.
Comparison of electron and phonon transport in disordered semiconductor carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sevincli, Haldun; Lehmann, T.; Ryndyk, D. A.
2013-01-01
as a function of length of the disordered device shows that both electrons and phonons with different energies display different transport regimes, i.e. quasi-ballistic, diffusive and localization regimes coexist. In the light of the results we discuss heating of the semiconductor device in electronic...
Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calero, C.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Garanin, D.A.
2007-01-01
We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid
Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calero, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)]. E-mail: carlos.calero-borrallo@lehman.cuny.edu; Chudnovsky, E.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States); Garanin, D.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)
2007-09-15
We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid.
Non-adiabatic effects in the electron and phonon spectra of a Peierls insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzyub, I.P.; Zerov, Yu.E.
1989-08-01
The phonon and electron spectra of the discrete version of the Su, Schrieffer and Heeger model are calculated taking into account the polarization effects. It is shown that there exists a finite probability of electron states relaxation even at zero temperature. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig
Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, C.L.; Yu, P.Y.
1982-01-01
Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midday, S; Bhattacharya, D P
2011-01-01
The energy loss rate of an electron in a degenerate semiconductor because of inelastic interaction with deformation potential and piezoelectric acoustic phonons is calculated in the case when the lattice temperature is low, so that the approximations of the well-known traditional theory are not valid. Compared to the traditional results and those for non-degenerate semiconductors, the theory here reveals a more complex and altogether different dependence of the loss rate on the carrier energy and the lattice temperature. The numerical results obtained here for Si and GaAs show how significantly the degeneracy level, the true phonon distribution or the inelasticity of the interaction affects the loss characteristics at low temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorov, A.O.
1993-08-01
Interband optical absorption in the Wannier-Stark ladder in the presence of the electron-LO-phonon resonance is investigated theoretically. The electron-LO-phonon resonance occurs when the energy spacing between adjacent Stark-ladder levels coincides with the LO-phonon energy. We propose a model describing the polaron effect in a superlattice. Calculations show that the absorption line shape is strongly modified due to the polaron effect under the electron-LO-phonon resonance condition. We consider optical phenomena in a normal magnetic field that leads to enhancement of polaron effects. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs
Ultrafast electron diffraction from non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser heated Au films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chase, T. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Trigo, M.; Reid, A. H.; Dürr, H. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Li, R.; Vecchione, T.; Shen, X.; Weathersby, S.; Coffee, R.; Hartmann, N.; Wang, X. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Reis, D. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2016-01-25
We use ultrafast electron diffraction to detect the temporal evolution of non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser-excited ultrathin single-crystalline gold films. From the time-dependence of the Debye-Waller factor, we extract a 4.7 ps time-constant for the increase in mean-square atomic displacements. The observed increase in the diffuse scattering intensity demonstrates that the energy transfer from laser-heated electrons to phonon modes near the X and K points in the Au fcc Brillouin zone proceeds with timescales of 2.3 and 2.9 ps, respectively, faster than the Debye-Waller average mean-square displacement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takada, Y.; Higuchi, T.
1995-01-01
The Green's-function techniques, especially the one developed in the preceding paper [Takada, Phys. Rev. B 52, 12 708 (1995)], are employed to calculate the electron-phonon vertex part as well as the electronic self-energy exactly on both real- and imaginary-frequency axes in the electron-phonon Holstein model with the on-site Coulomb repulsion in the limit in which the intramolecular phonon energy ω 0 is much larger than the electronic bandwidth. The rigorous vertex part is found to diverge at the frequencies at which an electron is locked by such local phonons with an infinitely strong effective coupling. Characteristic frequencies of this divergence, which are not equal to multiples of ω 0 , are calculated as a function of the electron-phonon bare coupling constant. Our results for the self-energy are checked successfully with the exact ones obtained by the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation
Phonon transport in a one-dimensional harmonic chain with long-range interaction and mass disorder
Zhou, Hangbo; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Wei
2016-11-01
Atomic mass and interatomic interaction are the two key quantities that significantly affect the heat conduction carried by phonons. Here, we study the effects of long-range (LR) interatomic interaction and mass disorder on the phonon transport in a one-dimensional harmonic chain with up to 105 atoms. We find that while LR interaction reduces the transmission of low-frequency phonons, it enhances the transmission of high-frequency phonons by suppressing the localization effects caused by mass disorder. Therefore, LR interaction is able to boost heat conductance in the high-temperature regime or in the large size regime, where the high-frequency modes are important.
Wang, Wei; Sun, Jiafa; Li, Bin; He, Junqi
2017-09-01
First-principles pseudopotential calculations on phonon and electronic properties of β -pyrochlore superconductor KOs2O6 are performed. The imaginary soft-phonon modes with a special double-well potential for the lowest Eu(1) mode and the second lowest T1u(1) mode are reported, which indicates the dynamical instability in KOs2O6. However, the double wells are too small to induce a structural phase transformation in KOs2O6. The strong anharmonicity especially for K T2g(1) phonon mode is got, which is approved to be from the strong electron-phonon coupling that supports the superconductivity in KOs2O6.
Ansari, Meenhaz; Ashraf, S. S. Z.
2017-10-01
We investigate the energy dependent electron-phonon relaxation rate, energy loss rate, and phonon drag thermopower in single layer graphene (SLG) and bilayer graphene (BLG) under the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime through coupling to acoustic phonons interacting via the Deformation potential in the Boltzmann transport equation approach. We find that the consideration of the chiral nature of electrons alters the temperature dependencies in two-dimensional structures of SLG and BLG from that shown by other conventional 2DEG system. Our investigations indicate that the BG analytical results are valid for temperatures far below the BG limit (˜TBG/4) which is in conformity with a recent experimental investigation for SLG [C. B. McKitterick et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 075410 (2016)]. For temperatures above this renewed limit (˜TBG/4), there is observed a suppression in energy loss rate and thermo power in SLG, but enhancement is observed in relaxation rate and thermopower in BLG, while a suppression in the energy loss rate is observed in BLG. This strong nonmonotonic temperature dependence in SLG has also been experimentally observed within the BG limit [Q. Ma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247401 (2014)].
Electrical resistivity due to electron-phonon scattering in thin gadolinium films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbaniak-Kucharczyk, A.
1988-01-01
The contribution to the electrical resistivity due to the electron-phonon scattering for the special case of h.c.p. structure is derived. The numerical results obtained for the case of polycrystalline gadolinum films show the resistivity dependence on the film thickness and the surface properties. (author)
Phonon assisted electronic transition in telluric acid ammonium phosphate single crystals
El-Muraikhi, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Al-Houty, L.
The effect of gamma-irradiation on the absorption optical spectra of telluric acid ammonium phosphate single crystals (TAAP) has been studied, in the wave length of 200-600 nm, for samples irradiated by various doses up to 10 Mrad. The results show that the electron phonon coupling constant increases with the irradiation dose.
Ab initio determination of effective electron-phonon coupling factor in copper
Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen
2016-04-01
The electron temperature Te dependent electron density of states g (ε), Fermi-Dirac distribution f (ε), and electron-phonon spectral function α2 F (Ω) are computed as prerequisites before achieving effective electron-phonon coupling factor Ge-ph. The obtained Ge-ph is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature model (TTM) coupled simulation of femtosecond laser heating. By monitoring temperature evolutions of electron and lattice subsystems, the result utilizing Ge-ph from ab initio calculation shows a faster decrease of Te and increase of Tl than those using Ge-ph from phenomenological treatment. The approach of calculating Ge-ph and its implementation into MD-TTM simulation is applicable to other metals.
One- and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, H.; Botha, N.T.; Burda, O.; Carter, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fransen, C.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Scholten, O.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.; Wambach, J.
2007-01-01
High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states of the nucleus 94 Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2 + states is extracted
Pair correlations in near-magic nuclei and the nucleon--phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadmenskii, S.G.; Luk'yanovich, P.A.; Remesov, Y.I.; Furman, V.I.
1987-01-01
It is demonstrated that the nucleon-pairing phenomenon is entirely due to the finiteness of nuclei. A technique for taking account of the phonon-exchange-related retarded interaction in the particle--particle channel is developed for nuclei of the ''mag +- 2'' and ''mag +- 3'' types. It is shown that the nucleon--phonon interaction strength computed with allowance for the most collectivized surface oscillation branches makes it possible to ensure the correct attraction scale necessary for the description of the pairing phenomenon. The existence of a more profound similarity between the phenomena of superconductivity of metals and Cooper pairing of nucleons in nuclei is thus demonstrated
Effect of magnon-phonon interactions on magnon squeezed states in ferromagnets
Mikhail, I. F. I.; Ismail, I. M. M.; Ameen, M.
2018-02-01
The squeezed states of dressed magnons in ferromagnets have been investigated. No effective Debye cutoff frequency has been assumed unlike what has been done hitherto. Instead, the results have been expressed throughout in terms of the reduced temperature. The effect of dressed magnon-phonon interactions on the formulation of these states has been studied. It has been shown that the magnon-phonon interactions play a significant role in determining the squeeze factor and the variation of the dressed magnon effective mass with temperature.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rameš, Michal; Železný, Vladimír; Gregora, Ivan; Wolf, T.; Jirsa, Miloš
2015-01-01
Roč. 197, Jul (2015), 10-17 ISSN 0921-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cuprate superconductors * phonons * crystal field * vortex pinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.331, year: 2015
Effective electron mass and phonon modes in n-type hexagonal InN
Kasic, A.; Schubert, M.; Saito, Y.; Nanishi, Y.; Wagner, G.
2002-03-01
Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and micro-Raman scattering are used to study vibrational and electronic properties of high-quality hexagonal InN. The 0.22-μm-thick highly n-conductive InN film was grown on c-plane sapphire by radio-frequency molecular-beam epitaxy. Combining our results from the ellipsometry data analysis with Hall-effect measurements, the isotropically averaged effective electron mass in InN is determined as 0.14m0. The resonantly excited zone center E1 (TO) phonon mode is observed at 477 cm-1 in the ellipsometry spectra. Despite the high electron concentration in the film, a strong Raman mode occurs in the spectral range of the unscreened A1(LO) phonon. Because an extended carrier-depleted region at the sample surface can be excluded from the ellipsometry-model analysis, we assign this mode to the lower branch of the large-wave-vector LO-phonon-plasmon coupled modes arising from nonconserving wave-vector scattering processes. The spectral position of this mode at 590 cm-1 constitutes a lower limit for the unscreened A1(LO) phonon frequency.
Ultra-fast pump-probe determination of electron-phonon coupling in cuprate superconductors
Mihailovic, Dragan
2010-03-01
Fresh femtosecond spectroscopy experiments show the electron-phonon interaction strength λ to be 0.7 and 1.4 for YBCO and LSCO respectively and not around 0.2 as previously reported [1]. The revised estimates arise primarily from improved time-resolution, and also partly from improved modeling. Comparison with classical superconductors and pnictides shows non-monotonic correlation of λ with Tc. Systematic new measurements of the condensate vaporization energy (Uv) in cuprates [2] and pnictides reveals a power-law dependence on Tc with exponent 2. However, Uc is 16-18 times greater than the BCS condensation energy Uc, implying that a significant heat capacity of the ``bosonic glue.'' In contrast, charge-density wave systems with electronically driven ordering transitions have Uv˜Uc. The data suggest BCS and Eliashberg-based models to be inappropriate for describing the physics of high-temperature superconductors, and point towards polaron models which consider strong or intermediate λ.[4pt] [1] C.Gadermeier et al., arXiv:0902.1636[0pt] [2] P.Kusar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227001 (2008)
Tretiak, Sergei
2014-03-01
The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, the electronic excitations in the molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph. The exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas the exciton scattering on the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized ``particle in a box'' problems on the graph that represents the molecule. All parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations of small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. The exciton scattering properties of molecular vertices can be further described by tight-binding or equivalently lattice models. The on-site energies and hopping constants are obtained from the exciton dispersion and scattering matrices. Such tight-binding model approach is particularly useful to describe the exciton-phonon coupling, energetic disorder and incoherent energy transfer in large branched conjugated molecules. Overall the ES applications accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.
Cavity-polariton interaction mediated by coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor microcavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lima, Mauricio; Hey, Rudolf; Santos, Paul
The strong coupling between excitons in a quantum well (QW) and photons in a semiconductor microcavity leads to the formation of quasi-particles known as cavity-polaritons. In this contribution, we investigate their interaction with coherent acoustic phonons in the form of surface acoustic waves...
The interacting quasiparticle–phonon picture and odd–even nuclei. Overview and perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishev, S., E-mail: mishev@theor.jinr.ru; Voronov, V. V., E-mail: voronov@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
The role of the nucleon correlations in the ground states of even–even nuclei on the properties of low-lying states in odd–even spherical and transitional nuclei is studied. We reason about this subject using the language of the quasiparticle–phonon model which we extend to take account of the existence of quasiparticle⊗phonon configurations in the wave functions of the ground states of the even–even cores. Of paramount importance to the structure of the low-lying states happens to be the quasiparticle–phonon interaction in the ground states which we evaluated using both the standard and the extended random phase approximations. Numerical calculations for nuclei in the barium and cadmium regions are performed using pairing and quadrupole–quadrupole interaction modes which have the dominant impact on the lowest-lying states’ structure. It is found that states with same angular momentum and parity become closer in energy as compared to the predictions of models disregarding the backward amplitudes, which turns out to be in accord with the experimental data. In addition we found that the interaction between the last quasiparticle and the ground-state phonon admixtures produces configurations which contribute significantly to the magnetic dipolemoment of odd-A nuclei. It also reveals a potential for reproducing their experimental values which proves impossible if this interaction is neglected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, V.V.; Dang, N.D.
1984-01-01
the system of equations, enabling to calculate the energy and the structure of excited states, described by the wave function, containing one- and two-phon components was obtained in the framework of quasiparticlephonon model. The requirements of Pauli principle for two-phonon components and phonon correlation in the ground nucleus state are taken into account
Hot LO-phonon limited electron transport in ZnO/MgZnO channels
Šermukšnis, E.; Liberis, J.; Matulionis, A.; Avrutin, V.; Toporkov, M.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.
2018-05-01
High-field electron transport in two-dimensional channels at ZnO/MgZnO heterointerfaces has been investigated experimentally. Pulsed current-voltage (I-V) and microwave noise measurements used voltage pulse widths down to 30 ns and electric fields up to 100 kV/cm. The samples investigated featured electron densities in the range of 4.2-6.5 × 1012 cm-2, and room temperature mobilities of 142-185 cm2/V s. The pulsed nature of the applied field ensured negligible, if any, change in the electron density, thereby allowing velocity extraction from current with confidence. The highest extracted electron drift velocity of ˜0.5 × 107 cm/s is somewhat smaller than that estimated for bulk ZnO; this difference is explained in the framework of longitudinal optical phonon accumulation (hot-phonon effect). The microwave noise data allowed us to rule out the effect of excess acoustic phonon temperature caused by Joule heating. Real-space transfer of hot electrons into the wider bandgap MgZnO layer was observed to be a limiting factor in samples with a high Mg content (48%), due to phase segregation and the associated local lowering of the potential barrier.
Electron-phonon thermalization in a scalable method for real-time quantum dynamics
Rizzi, Valerio; Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Kohanoff, Jorge J.; Correa, Alfredo A.
2016-01-01
We present a quantum simulation method that follows the dynamics of out-of-equilibrium many-body systems of electrons and oscillators in real time. Its cost is linear in the number of oscillators and it can probe time scales from attoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. Contrary to Ehrenfest dynamics, it can thermalize starting from a variety of initial conditions, including electronic population inversion. While an electronic temperature can be defined in terms of a nonequilibrium entropy, a Fermi-Dirac distribution in general emerges only after thermalization. These results can be used to construct a kinetic model of electron-phonon equilibration based on the explicit quantum dynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mironov, B. N.; Kompanets, V. O.; Aseev, S. A., E-mail: isanfemto@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Ischenko, A. A. [Moscow Technological University, Institute of High Chemical Technologies (Russian Federation); Kochikov, I. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Misochko, O. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Chekalin, S. V.; Ryabov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
The generation of coherent optical phonons in a polycrystalline antimony film sample has been investigated using femtosecond electron diffraction method. Phonon vibrations have been induced in the Sb sample by the main harmonic of a femtosecond Ti:Sa laser (λ = 800 nm) and probed by a pulsed ultrashort photoelectron beam synchronized with the pump laser. The diffraction patterns recorded at different times relative to the pump laser pulse display oscillations of electron diffraction intensity corresponding to the frequencies of vibrations of optical phonons: totally symmetric (A{sub 1g}) and twofold degenerate (E{sub g}) phonon modes. The frequencies that correspond to combinations of these phonon modes in the Sb sample have also been experimentally observed.
Phonon emission in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midday, S.; Nag, S.; Bhattacharya, D.P.
2015-01-01
The characteristics of phonon growth in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures have been studied for inelastic interaction of non-equilibrium electrons with the intravalley acoustic phonons. The energy of the phonon and the full form of the phonon distribution are taken into account. The results reveal significant changes in the growth characteristics compared to the same for a non-degenerate material
Dynamical Cooper pairing in non-equilibrium electron-phonon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knap, Michael [Technical University of Munich (Germany); Harvard University (United States); Babadi, Mehrtash; Refael, Gil [Caltech (United States); Martin, Ivar [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Demler, Eugene [Harvard University (United States)
2016-07-01
Ultrafast laser pulses have been used to manipulate complex quantum materials and to induce dynamical phase transitions. One of the most striking examples is the transient enhancement of superconductivity in several classes of materials upon irradiating them with high intensity pulses of terahertz light. Motivated by these experiments we analyze the Cooper pairing instabilities in non-equilibrium electron-phonon systems. We demonstrate that the light induced non-equilibrium state of phonons results in a simultaneous increase of the superconducting coupling constant and the electron scattering. We analyze the competition between these effects and show that in a broad range of parameters the dynamic enhancement of Cooper pair formation dominates over the increase in the scattering rate. This opens the possibility of transient light induced superconductivity at temperatures that are considerably higher than the equilibrium transition temperatures. Our results pave new pathways for engineering high-temperature light-induced superconducting states.
The structural, electronic and phonon behavior of CsPbI_3: A first principles study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bano, Amreen; Khare, Preeti; Parey, Vanshree; Shukla, Aarti; Gaur, N. K.
2016-01-01
Metal halide perovskites are optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. The benefit of using hybrid compounds resides in their ability to combine the advantage of these two classes of compounds: the high mobility of inorganic materials and the ease of processing of organic materials. In spite of the growing attention of this new material, very little is known about the electronic and phonon properties of the inorganic part of this compounds. A theoretical study of structural, electronic and phonon properties of metal-halide cubic perovskite, CsPbI_3 is presented, using first-principles calculations with planewave pseudopotential method as personified in PWSCF code. In this approach local density approximation (LDA) is used for exchange-correlation potential.
Phonon and electron temperature and non-Fourier heat transport in thin layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlomagno, I.; Cimmelli, V.A. [Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Economics, University of Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Sellitto, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2017-04-15
We present a thermodynamic model of heat conductor which allows for different temperatures of phonons and electrons. This model is applied to calculate the steady-state radial temperature profile in a circular thin layer. The compatibility of the obtained temperature profiles with the second law of thermodynamics is investigated in view of the requirement of positive entropy production and of a nonlocal constitutive equation for the entropy flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkach, M.V.
2002-01-01
The integral-functional representation of mass operator of spinless quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K is obtained for the first time. This representation is equivalent to the infinite branched integral fraction. It does not depend on the binding force and effectively takes into account the many phonon processes
Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems
Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric
We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.
Saniz, R.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-02-01
The Green function approach to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity is used to study nanofilms. We go beyond previous models and include effects of confinement on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling as well as on the electronic spectrum and on the phonon modes. Within our approach, we find that in ultrathin films, confinement effects on the electronic screening become very important. Indeed, contrary to what has been advanced in recent years, the sudden increases of the density of states when new bands start to be occupied as the film thickness increases, tend to suppress the critical temperature rather than to enhance it. On the other hand, the increase of the number of phonon modes with increasing number of monolayers in the film leads to an increase in the critical temperature. As a consequence, the superconducting critical parameters in such nanofilms are determined by these two competing effects. Furthermore, in sufficiently thin films, the condensate consists of well-defined subcondensates associated with the occupied bands, each with a distinct coherence length. The subcondensates can interfere constructively or destructively giving rise to an interference pattern in the Cooper pair probability density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1989-01-01
Basic equations are derived for the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model for the finite-rank separable isoscalar and isovector multipole and spin-multipole and isovector tensor particle-hole and particle-particle interactions between quasiparticles. For even-even spherical nuclei it is shown that in the calculation of single-phonon states in the random phase approximation a significant complication arises due to the finite rank n max >1 of separable interactions. Taking into account separable interactions with n max >1 does not lead to significant difficulties in the calculation of fragmentation of quasiparticle and collective states. It is asserted that the model can be used as a basis for calculations of many characteristics of complex nuclei
Electron-phonon coupling effect on wakefields in piezoelectric semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M; Shukla, P K; Ghosh, S K; Nitta, H; Hayashi, Y
2003-01-01
Using an appropriate dielectric constant for an n-type piezoelectric semiconductor plasma and a moving test particle approach, it is shown that, besides the usual screened potential, there exists a non-Coulombian oscillatory potential or a wakefield behind a moving charged particle due to a strong resonant interaction between the charged particle and the electro-acoustic mode of the host semiconductor. With the concept of the wakefield, a possible lattice formation of colloids resulting from ion implantation in a current-carrying piezoelectric semiconductor has been examined
Electron–electron interactions and the electrical resistivity of lithium ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is governed mainly by electron–electron and electron–phonon interactions. ... This phase change is the root cause of lithium for its abnormal behavior as .... rule. The range of g has been taken from 0 to 2 in the units of kF, the Fermi wave vector. By varying g we are varying the angle between the incident and the scat-.
Electron phonon couplings in 2D perovskite probed by ultrafast photoinduced absorption spectroscopy
Huynh, Uyen; Ni, Limeng; Rao, Akshay
We use the time-resolved photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy with 20fs time resolution to investigate the electron phonon coupling in the self-assembled hybrid organic layered perovskite, the hexyl ammonium lead iodide compound (C6H13NH3)2 (PbI4) . The coupling results in the broadening and asymmetry of its temperature-dependence photoluminescence spectra. The exact time scale of this coupling, however, wasn't reported experimentally. Here we show that using an ultrashort excitation pulse allows us to resolve from PIA kinetics the oscillation of coherent longitudinal optical phonons that relaxes and self-traps electrons to lower energy states within 200 fs. The 200fs relaxation time is equivalent to a coupling strength of 40meV. Two coupled phonon modes are also identified as about 100 cm-1 and 300 cm-1 from the FFT spectrum of the PIA kinetics. The lower energy mode is consistent with previous reports and Raman spectrum but the higher energy one hasn't been observed before.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kresin, V.Z.; Wolf, S.A.
1989-01-01
In this paper the authors report on several important properties of the high t c cuprates. Firstly, the authors have developed a method for evaluating the electron-phonon coupling strength λ using an analysis of the heat capacity data. The authors estimate λ to be about 2.0 for La-Sr-Cu-O, which indicates that phonons are important but are not sufficient to explain the measured T c . Secondly, the authors have demonstrated that these materials exhibit gap anisotropy and multigap structure (the latter in the Re-Ba-Cu-O materials) which is responsible for the experimental difficulties in analyzing tunnelling and infrared data. Finally the authors have explained the anomalous results on the Pr substituted Y-Ba-Cu-O by its effects on the two dimensional Cu-O band in the framework of a two band multigap structure
Electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Peiji; Woolard, Dwight L.
2008-01-01
We propose a nanostructure design which can significantly suppress longitudinal-acoustic-phonon-electron scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates for quantum computing. The calculated relaxation rates vs. bias voltage exhibit a double-peak feature with a minimum approaching 10 5 s -1 . In this matter, the energy conservation law prohibits scattering contributions from phonons with large momenta; furthermore, increasing the barrier height between the double quantum dots reduces coupling strength between the dots. Hence, the joint action of the energy conservation law and the decoupling greatly reduces the scattering rates. The degrading effects of temperatures can be reduced simply by increasing the height of the barrier between the dots
2012-02-01
phonon interactions with electrons , electron -hole pairs, defects, super- lattices, and interfaces [1-4]. As pointed out by Hauser et. al. [3], and...phonon-phonon and electron - phonon scattering processes placed limits on the methods applicability. More recently, the advantages of using lower...texture effects. In particular, the elongated grains result in colonies that are largely cigar -shaped or cylindrical in their form, where elastic
Effects of electron–phonon interaction and impurity on optical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-10
Feb 10, 2017 ... struct a grid in real space using a discrete number of points. The eigenenergies and ... In order to perform simulation numerically, one needs to discretize ... without the electro- magnetic field E(t), and q is the electronic charge.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, B.
2000-01-01
This thesis has two topics: One is the investigation of an adsorbate induced phonon anomaly on W(110) and Mo{sub 1-x}Re{sub x}(110) (x = 5, 15, 25%) with inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The other one is the study of the growth, morphology and dynamics of ultra-thin lithium films deposited on W(110). In 1992 a giant phonon anomaly was found by J. Luedecke on the hydrogen saturated W(110) and Mo(110) surfaces. The anomaly consists of a deep and sharp indentation in the phonon dispersion curves in which the phonon energy nearly drops to zero ({omega}{sub 1}). In addition, a small and broad dip in the surface Rayleigh mode is observed ({omega}{sub 2}). The anomaly appears in the anti {gamma}-H- as well as in the anti {gamma}-S-direction of the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ). Since its first discovery, numerous other experimental and theoretical studies have followed. In the present work the effects is reinvestigated and experimental parameters, such as the crystal temperature and the incident energy, were changed in order to study their influence on the anomalous phonon behavior. In the case of H/Mo(110) the substrate was changed as well by alloying with small amounts of rhenium. In the present experiments a strong crystal temperature dependence of the {omega}{sub 2}-branch was found which leads to lower energies at the 'dip' for smaller temperatures, while the {omega}{sub 1}-anomaly remains unchanged. Such behavior agrees well with the picture that the {omega}{sub 2}-branch is due to a Kohn anomaly. (orig.)
Capone, Massimo; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Arita, Ryotaro
The phase diagram of doped fullerides like Cs3C60 as a function of the spacing between fullerene molecules is characterized by a first-order transition between a Mott insulator and an s-wave superconductor with a dome-shaped behavior of the critical temperature. By means of an ab-initio modeling of the bandstructure, the electron-phonon interaction and the interaction parameter and a Dynamical Mean-Field Theory solution, we reproduce the phase diagram and demonstrate that phonon superconductivity benefits from strong correlations confirming earlier model predictions. The role of correlations is manifest also in infrared measurements carried out by L. Baldassarre. The superconducting phase shares many similarities with ''exotic'' superconductors with electronic pairing, suggesting that the anomalies in the ''normal'' state, rather than the pairing glue, can be the real common element unifying a wide family of strongly correlated superconductors including cuprates and iron superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yang; Sui Yu; Wang Xianjie; Su Wenhui; Liu Xiaoyang; Fan, Hong Jin
2010-01-01
The thermal transport properties of a series of electron-doped CaMnO 3 perovskites have been investigated. Throughout the temperature range 5-300 K, phonon thermal conductivity is dominant, and both electron and spin wave contributions are negligible. The short phonon mean free paths in this system result in the relatively low thermal conductivities. The strong phonon scatterings stem from the A-site mismatch and bond-length fluctuations induced by local distortions of MnO 6 octahedra. The thermal conductivity in the magnetically ordered state is enhanced as a result of the decrease in spin-phonon scattering. The results also indicate that above the magnetic ordering temperature, observable thermal excitation of optical phonons occurs. The contribution of optical phonons to thermal conductivity becomes non-negligible and is proposed to play an important role in the glass-like thermal transport behavior (i.e. positive temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity) in the paramagnetic state. These features can be understood in terms of an expression of thermal conductivity that includes both acoustic and optical phonon terms.
Electron: Cluster interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.
1994-02-01
Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voitovich, A.P.; Kalinov, V.S.; Mudryi, A.V.; Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E.
2016-01-01
Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voitovich, A.P., E-mail: voitovich@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.S. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Mudryi, A.V. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 19 Brovka Street, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Pavlovskii, V.N.; Runets, L.P.; Svitsiankou, I.E. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220072 Minsk (Belarus)
2016-04-15
Zero-phonon lines have been registered in photoluminescence spectra of near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals. They have been assigned to transitions of the definite types centers. The frequencies of phonons participating in the transitions of the different type centers located both in the near-surface layer and in the crystal bulk have been measured and compared. The Huang-Rhys parameters for the transitions of these centers have been determined. It has been found that the Huang-Rhys parameters for the studied transitions in the near-surface layer centers of the certain composition are less than for those in the crystal bulk centers of the same composition. This feature is connected with the difference of the electron density distribution in defects. Temperature dependences of the zero-phonon lines widths and shifts have been measured. It has been determined that both widths and shifts grow faster with the increase of a temperature for the defects transitions with the lesser Huang-Rhys parameters. Phonons lifetimes are estimated from the experimental data.
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction and phonon-mediated spin dynamics in quantum dots
Vaughan, M. P.; Rorison, J. M.
2018-01-01
Model expressions for the spin-orbit interaction in a quantum dot are obtained. The resulting form does not neglect cubic terms and allows for a generalized structural inversion asymmetry. We also obtain analytical expressions for the coupling between states for the electron-phonon interaction and use these to derive spin-relaxation rates, which are found to be qualitatively similar to those derived elsewhere in the literature. We find that, due to the inclusion of cubic terms, the Dresselhaus contribution to the ground state spin relaxation disappears for spherical dots. A comparison with previous theory and existing experimental results shows good agreement thereby presenting a clear analytical formalism for future developments. Comparative calculations for potential materials are presented.
Electron and phonon spectra in La2-xSrxCuI4+δ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomerovannaya, L.V.; Makhnev, A.A.; Malyuk, A.N.; Bolotin, G.A.; Shtrapenin, G.L.; Ignatenkov, A.N.
1995-01-01
Ellipsometric measurements of optical constants and measurements of reflection spectra of La 2-x Sr x CuI 4+δ monocrystals were carried out. Variation of peculiarities of electron and phonon spectra at strontium doping was followed. Formulae to calculate ε dielectric permittivity tensor component on the ground of ellipsometric measurements for tetragonal and orthorhombic crystals are given. Effect of superstoichiometric oxygen content on anisotropy of La 2 CuO 4+δ optical properties was studied. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabhi, Shweta, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Mankad, Venu, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumasinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)
2014-04-24
A detailed theoretical study of structural, electronic and Vibrational properties of BeX compound is presented by performing ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory using the Espresso package. The calculated value of lattice constant and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and agree reasonably well. BeX (X = S,Se,Te) compounds in the ZB phase are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with an ionic contribution. The phonon dispersion curves are represented which shows that these compounds are dynamically stable in ZB phase.
Zhou, Yecheng; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zhang, Hao-Li
2016-09-01
Cn-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]-benzothiophene (BTBT) crystals show very high hole mobilities in experiments. These high mobilities are beyond existing theory prediction. Here, we employed different quantum chemistry methods to investigate charge transfer in Cn-BTBT crystals and tried to find out the reasons for the underestimation in the theory. It was found that the hopping rate estimated by the Fermi Golden Rule is higher than that of the Marcus theory due to the high temperature approximation and failure at the classic limit. More importantly, molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the phonon induced fluctuation of electronic transfer integral is much larger than the average of the electronic transfer integral itself. Mobilities become higher if simulations implement the phonon-electron coupling. This conclusion indicates that the phonon-electron coupling promotes charge transfer in organic semi-conductors at room temperature.
Scaling theory of tunneling diffusion of a heavy particle interacting with phonons
Itai, K.
1988-05-01
The author discusses motion of a heavy particle in a d-dimensional lattice interacting with phonons by different couplings. The models discussed are characterized by the dimension (d) and the set of two indices (λ,ν) which specify the momentum dependence of the dispersion of phonon energy (ω~kν) and of the particle-phonon coupling (~kλ). Scaling equations are derived by eliminating the short-time behavior in a renormalization-group scheme using Feynman's path-integral method, and the technique developed by Anderson, Yuval, and Hamann for the Kondo problem. The scaling equations show that the particle is localized in the strict sense when (2λ+d+2)/ν2. In the marginal case, i.e., (2λ+d+2)/ν=2, localization occurs for couplings larger than a critical value. This marginal case shows Ohmic dissipation and is a close analogy to the Caldeira-Leggett model for macroscopic quantum tunneling and the hopping models of Schmid's type. For large-enough (2λ+d+2)/ν, the particle is considered practically localized, but the origin of the localization is quite different from that for (2λ+d+2)/ν<=2. .AE
SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.
2016-08-01
SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, J.; Shadangi, N.; Nayak, P.
2015-01-01
Here an attempt is made to explore the variation of magnetic susceptibility with temperature for different values of the position of f-level (d) and electron–phonon interaction (EPI) strength (r) in some U and Ce based heavy Fermion (HF) systems within Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of a static magnetic field B and interaction of phonons with electrons of hybridization band. Since magnetic susceptibility χ is related to the f-electron occupation n ±σ f , the expression for the latter is analytically derived through f–f correlation function following the Green function technique of Zubarev. The numerical analysis of χ as a function of temperature ‘T’ is done for different values of d and r. The results show a good agreement with the experiments for some U and Ce based HFs. An explanation for the existence of a critical value of d w.r.t. E F for switching of nature of χ∼T from U to Ce based HF systems is provided. Our calculated value of the temperature T χmax corresponding to the peak position of χ for small values of hybridization constant γ=0.002 and 0.0036 coincides with the experimental value of 19 K for UPt 3 and 35 K for UPd 2 Al 3 reported by Frings et al. and Geibel et al. respectively. - Highlights: • Variation of magnetic susceptibility χ with temperature T is studied for some HF systems. • Periodic Anderson Model in presence of magnetic field and electron–phonon interaction is used for numerical evaluation. • The existence of a critical value of the position of f-level(d) is proposed for distinction between χ∼T behavior of U and Ce based HF systems. • Results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental observations for some Ce and U based HF systems. • Theoretically evaluated temperature corresponding to the peak value of χ matches with the experimental results of UPt 3 and UPd 2 Al 3
Electron-positron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiik, B.; Wolf, G.
1979-01-01
This book is an introduction into the physics of electron-positron interactions. After a description of electron-positron storage rings pure electromagnetic e + e - interactions, and the total cross section are considered. Then low energy processes, the production of the J/psi and psi' particles including their radiative decay as well as the search for other narrow vector states are described. Then after the quark model interpretation of J/psi and psi' charmed mesons, the heavy lepton t, and the upsilon resonances are described. Thereafter inclusive hadron production and jet formation is discussed. Finally the next generation of e + e - colliding rings is described, and the first results from PETRA are presented. This book is suited for all physicists, who want to get a general review about e + e - physics. (HSI) 891 HSI/HSI 892 RKD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubry, S.
1993-01-01
Principles and notations of the Holstein-Hubbard model in a magnetic field are first reviewed. Effects of the dimensionality, the lattice discreteness and the magnetic field on single polarons, are examined and the existence of many polarons and bipolarons structures at large electron-phonon coupling is discussed. Properties of bipolaronic and polaronic structures are examined together with the magnetic field effects on these structures. High Tc superconductivity resulting from the competition between the electron-phonon and Hubbard couplings is discussed. 7 figs., 18 refs
Isoscalar spin-spin interaction within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao Tien Khoa; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Vdovin, A.I.
1986-01-01
The isoscalar spin-spin interaction constant in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model (QPM) has been determined from the available experimental data on the isoscalar 1 + state (E x =5.846 MeV) in 208 Pb. The isoscalar spin-spin interaction turns out to be weaker than the isovector one by an order of magnitude. The cross sections of (e, e') and (p, p') reactions with the excitation of this 1 + -state have been calculated. The QPM gives a good description of the behaviour of (e, e')-cross section at q eff -1 and reproduces absolute value of this cross section with the effective g s -factors weaker than the g s -factors for free nucleon by 20%. The description of the (p, p')-angular distribution of 201 MeV photon inelastic scattering is poorer. The absolute value of the calculated (p, p') cross section overestimates the experimental data by a factor of about 1.4. This is consistent with the quenching factor for (e, e') cross section. The interaction with two-phonon configurations influences very weakly the isoscalar 1 + -level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banacky, P.
2010-01-01
Complex electronic ground state of molecular and solid state system is analyzed on the ab initio level beyond the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA). The attention is focused on the band structure fluctuation (BSF) at Fermi level, which is induced by electron-phonon coupling in superconductors, and which is absent in the non-superconducting analogues. The BSF in superconductors results in breakdown of the adiabatic BOA. At these circumstances, chemical potential is substantially reduced and system is stabilized (effect of nuclear dynamics) in the anti adiabatic state at broken symmetry with a gap(s) in one-particle spectrum. Distorted nuclear structure has fluxional character and geometric degeneracy of the anti adiabatic ground state enables formation of mobile bipolarons in real space. It has been shown that an effective attractive e-e interaction (Cooper-pair formation) is in fact correction to electron correlation energy at transition from adiabatic into anti adiabatic ground electronic state. In this respect, Cooper-pair formation is not the primary reason for transition into superconducting state, but it is a consequence of anti adiabatic state formation. It has been shown that thermodynamic properties of system in anti adiabatic state correspond to thermodynamics of superconducting state. Illustrative application of the theory for different types of superconductors is presented.
Optical phonon scattering on electronic mobility in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures
Zhou, X. J.; Qu, Y.; Ban, S. L.; Wang, Z. P.
2017-12-01
Considering the built-in electric fields and the two-mode property of transverse optical phonons in AlGaN material, the electronic eigen-energies and wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation with the finite difference method. The dispersion relations and potentials of the optical phonons are given by the transfer matrix method. The mobility of the two dimensional electron gas influenced by the optical phonons in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is investigated based on the theory of Lei-Ting force balance equation. It is found that the scattering from the half-space phonons is the main factor affecting the electronic mobility, and the influence of the other phonons can be ignored. The results show that the mobility decreases with increasing the thicknesses of Al2O3 and AlN layers, but there is no definite relationship between the mobility and the thickness of AlGaN barrier. The mobility is obviously reduced by increasing Al component in AlGaN crystal to show that the effect of ternary mixed crystals is important. It is also found that the mobility increases first and then decreases as the increment of the fixed charges, but decreases always with increasing temperature. The heterostructures constructed here can be good candidates as metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility-transistors since they have higher electronic mobility due to the influence from interface phonons weakened by the AlN interlayer.
Pozela, K
2001-01-01
The calculations of electron scattering rates by polar optical (PO) phonons in an AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) with a different width and doping level are performed. The electron-PO-phonon scattering mechanisms which are responsible for the alternate dependence of electron mobility on a QW width, as well as for the decrease of conductivity in the QW with increasing electron concentration are determined. It is shown that the degeneration of electron gas decreases the electron scattering rate by PO-phonon emission and increases the scattering rate by phonon absorption. The competition between the decrease of the intrasubband scattering and the increase of the intersubband scattering by PO-phonon absorption is responsible for the alternate changes of the mobility with a QW width
Study of electron vibrational interaction parameters in chlorophosphate activated with Eu2+ ion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Dhoble, S.J.
2014-01-01
We present the results of theoretical study of photoluminescence of Eu 2+ ions activated chlorophosphate M 5.17 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl 5 :Eu 2+ with M = Ca, Sr and Ba estimating electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) parameters such as Huang–Rhys factor, effective phonon energy, Stokes shift and zero phonon line position. Validity of the calculated result was established by modeling the emission line which was found to be in good agreement with the measured photoluminescence spectrum of Eu 2+ doped chorophosphates. - Highlights: • The EVI parameters such as Huang–Rhys factor, effective phonon energy and zero phonon line position were estimated. • Eu 2+ ion emission observed in chlorophosphate. • Material analyzed in this work have intermediate Huang–Rhys factor, high Stokes shift and low effective phonon energy
Anomalous dispersion of optical phonons in La2-xSrxCuO4 at low temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.
2001-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements of cuprate system show that a discontinuity in dispersion develops in the middle of the highest energy of optical phonon at low temperatures. We present here a microscopic theory to explain the phonon anomaly in doped cuprate system in normal state. Anti-ferromagnetism due to copper moments is introduced in the electronic Hamiltonian. Phonon coupling to the hybridisation between conduction electrons of the system and the doped f-electrons is incorporated. The phonon self energy due to electron-phonon interaction, which involves the electronic density response function, is evaluated explicitly by Zubarev's Green's function technique in finite temperature and small wave vector limit. The temperature dependence of phonon frequency and the anomalous phonon dispersion are calculated numerically and studied by varying the position of the f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), staggered field (h), and the hybridisation parameter (V). (author)
Phonon response of some heavy Fermion systems in dynamic limit
Sahoo, Jitendra; Shadangi, Namita; Nayak, Pratibindhya
2017-05-01
The phonon excitation spectrum of some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems in the presence of electron-phonon interaction is studied in the dynamic limit (ω≠0). The renormalized excitation phonon frequencies (ω˜ = ω/ω0) are evaluated through Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction using Zubarev-type double time temperature-dependent Green function. The calculated renormalized phonon energy is analyzed through the plots of (ω˜ = ω/ω0) against temperature for different system parameters like effective coupling strength ‘g’ and the position of f-level ‘d’. The observed behavior is analyzed and found to agree with the general features of HF systems found in experiments. Further, it is observed that in finite but small q-values the propagating phonons harden and change to localized peaks.
Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin
2016-02-01
The standard two-temperature equations for electron-phonon coupled thermal transport across metal/nonmetal interfaces are modified to include the possible coupling between metal electrons with substrate phonons. The previous two-temperature molecular dynamics (TT-MD) approach is then extended to solve these equations numerically at the atomic scale, and the method is demonstrated using Cu/Si interface as an example. A key parameter in TT-MD is the nonlocal coupling distance of metal electrons and nonmetal phonons, and here we use two different approximations. The first is based on Overhauser's "joint-modes" concept, while we use an interfacial reconstruction region as the length scale of joint region rather than the phonon mean-free path as in Overhauser's original model. In this region, the metal electrons can couple to the joint phonon modes. The second approximation is the "phonon wavelength" concept where electrons couple to phonons nonlocally within the range of one phonon wavelength. Compared with the original TT-MD, including the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling can slightly reduce the total thermal boundary resistance. Whether the electron-phonon coupling within the metal block is nonlocal or not does not make an obvious difference in the heat transfer process. Based on the temperature profiles from TT-MD, we construct a new mixed series-parallel thermal circuit. We show that such a thermal circuit is essential for understanding metal/nonmetal interfacial transport, while calculating a single resistance without solving temperature profiles as done in most previous studies is generally incomplete. As a comparison, the simple series circuit that neglects the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling could overestimate the interfacial resistance, while the simple parallel circuit in the original Overhauser's model underestimates the total interfacial resistance.
Strong-coupling electron-phonon superconductivity in H{sub 3}S
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pickett, Warren E. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Quan, Yundi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China)
2016-07-01
The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at T{sub c} = 200 K observed by Eremets' group at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc Im-3m H{sub 3}S. Remarkably, this record high temperature superconductor was predicted beforehand by Duan et al., so the theory would seem to be in place. Here we will discuss why this is not true. Several extremes are involved: extreme pressure, meaning reduction of volume;extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400 K; unusually narrow peak in the density of states at the Fermi level; extremely high temperature for a superconductor. Analysis of the H3S electronic structure and two important van Hove singularities (vHs) reveal the effect of sulfur. The implications for the strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory will be discussed. Followed by comments on ways of increasing T{sub c} in H{sub 3}S-like materials.
LA phonons scattering of surface electrons in Bi2Se3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Lang-Tao; Zhu, Bang-Fen
2013-01-01
Within the Boltzmann equation formalism we evaluate the transport relaxation time of Dirac surface states (SSs) in the typical topological insulator(TI) Bi 2 Se 3 due to the phonon scattering. We find that although the back-scattering of the SSs in TIs is strictly forbidden, the in-plane scattering between SSs in 3-dimensional TIs is allowed, maximum around the right-angle scattering. Thus the topological property of the SSs only reduces the scattering rate to its one half approximately. Besides, the larger LA deformation potential and lower sound velocity of Bi 2 Se 3 enhance the scattering rate significantly. Compared with the Dirac electrons in graphene, we find the scattering rate of SSs in Bi 2 Se 3 are two orders of magnitudes larger, which agree with the recent transport experiments
LA phonons scattering of surface electrons in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Lang-Tao [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, Bang-Fen [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and Institute of Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2013-12-04
Within the Boltzmann equation formalism we evaluate the transport relaxation time of Dirac surface states (SSs) in the typical topological insulator(TI) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} due to the phonon scattering. We find that although the back-scattering of the SSs in TIs is strictly forbidden, the in-plane scattering between SSs in 3-dimensional TIs is allowed, maximum around the right-angle scattering. Thus the topological property of the SSs only reduces the scattering rate to its one half approximately. Besides, the larger LA deformation potential and lower sound velocity of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} enhance the scattering rate significantly. Compared with the Dirac electrons in graphene, we find the scattering rate of SSs in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are two orders of magnitudes larger, which agree with the recent transport experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L.
1981-08-01
A method based on the tight-binding approximation is developed to calculate the electron-phonon matrix element for the disordered transition metals. With the method as a basis the experimental Tsub(c) data of the amorphous transition metal superconductors are re-analysed. Some comments on the superconductivity of the disordered materials are given
Tallman, Robert E.
Raman scattering is utilized to explore the effects of applied pressure and strain on anharmonic phonon interactions and nucleation of structural transitions in several bulk and nanoparticle semiconductor systems. The systems investigated are bulk ZnS and ZnSe in several isotopic compositions, InP/CdS core/shell nanoparticles exhibiting confined and surface optical Raman modes, and amorphous selenium films undergoing photo-induced crystallization. The anharmonic decay of long-wavelength optical modes into two-phonon acoustic combinations modes is studied in 64Zn32S, 64Zn34S, natZnatS bulk crystals by measuring the TO(Gamma) Raman line-shape as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure. The experiments are carried out at room temperature and 16K for pressures up to 150 kbars using diamond-anvil cells. The most striking effects occur in 68Zn32S where the TO(Gamma) peak narrows by a factor of 10 and increases in intensity at pressures for which the TO(Gamma) frequency has been tuned into a gap in the two-phonon density of states (DOS). In all the isotopic compositions, the observed phonon decay processes can be adequately explained by a second order perturbation treatment of the anharmonic coupling between TO(Gamma) and TA + LA combinations at various critical points, combined with an adiabatic bond-charge model for the phonon DOS and the known mode Gruneisen parameters. Bulk ZnSe crystals exhibit very different behavior. Here we find that anharmonic decay alone can not explain the excessive (˜ 60 cm-1 ) broadening in the TO(Gamma) Raman peak observed as the pressure approaches to within 50kbar of the ZB -> B1 phase transition (at P ˜ 137 kbar). Rather the broadening appears to arise from antecedent nucleation of structural changes within nanoscopic domains, with the mechanism for line-shape changes being mode mixing via localization and disorder instead of anharmonicity. To sort out these contributions, pressure experiments on natural ZnSe and on isotopically pure
Langevin Dynamics with Spatial Correlations as a Model for Electron-Phonon Coupling
Tamm, A.; Caro, M.; Caro, A.; Samolyuk, G.; Klintenberg, M.; Correa, A. A.
2018-05-01
Stochastic Langevin dynamics has been traditionally used as a tool to describe nonequilibrium processes. When utilized in systems with collective modes, traditional Langevin dynamics relaxes all modes indiscriminately, regardless of their wavelength. We propose a generalization of Langevin dynamics that can capture a differential coupling between collective modes and the bath, by introducing spatial correlations in the random forces. This allows modeling the electronic subsystem in a metal as a generalized Langevin bath endowed with a concept of locality, greatly improving the capabilities of the two-temperature model. The specific form proposed here for the spatial correlations produces a physical wave-vector and polarization dependency of the relaxation produced by the electron-phonon coupling in a solid. We show that the resulting model can be used for describing the path to equilibration of ions and electrons and also as a thermostat to sample the equilibrium canonical ensemble. By extension, the family of models presented here can be applied in general to any dense system, solids, alloys, and dense plasmas. As an example, we apply the model to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of an electron-ion two-temperature Ni crystal.
Zakeri, Khalil; Engelhardt, Tobias; Le Tacon, Matthieu; Wolf, Thomas
2018-06-01
Utilizing high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) we measure the phonon frequencies of β-FeSe(001), cleaved under ultra-high vacuum conditions. At the zone center (Γ bar-point) three prominent loss features are observed at loss energies of about ≃ 20.5 and 25.6 and 40 meV. Based on the scattering selection rules we assign the observed loss features to the A1g, B1g, and A2u phonon modes of β-FeSe(001). The experimentally measured phonon frequencies do not agree with the results of density functional based calculations in which a nonmagnetic, a checkerboard or a strip antiferromagnetic order is assumed for β-FeSe(001). Our measurements suggest that, similar to the other Fe-based materials, magnetism has a profound impact on the lattice dynamics of β-FeSe(001).
Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems
Efros, AL
1985-01-01
``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.
Vibrational Surface Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy Probes Confined Surface-Phonon Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Lourenço-Martins
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recently, two reports [Krivanek et al. Nature (London 514, 209 (2014NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature13870, Lagos et al. Nature (London 543, 529 (2017NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature21699] have demonstrated the amazing possibility to probe vibrational excitations from nanoparticles with a spatial resolution much smaller than the corresponding free-space phonon wavelength using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS. While Lagos et al. evidenced a strong spatial and spectral modulation of the EELS signal over a nanoparticle, Krivanek et al. did not. Here, we show that discrepancies among different EELS experiments as well as their relation to optical near- and far-field optical experiments [Dai et al. Science 343, 1125 (2014SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1246833] can be understood by introducing the concept of confined bright and dark surface phonon modes, whose density of states is probed by EELS. Such a concise formalism is the vibrational counterpart of the broadly used formalism for localized surface plasmons [Ouyang and Isaacson Philos. Mag. B 60, 481 (1989PMABDJ1364-281210.1080/13642818908205921, García de Abajo and Aizpurua Phys. Rev. B 56, 15873 (1997PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.56.15873, García de Abajo and Kociak Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 106804 (2008PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.106804, Boudarham and Kociak Phys. Rev. B 85, 245447 (2012PRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.245447]; it makes it straightforward to predict or interpret phenomena already known for localized surface plasmons such as environment-related energy shifts or the possibility of 3D mapping of the related surface charge densities [Collins et al. ACS Photonics 2, 1628 (2015APCHD52330-402210.1021/acsphotonics.5b00421].
Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leseman, Zayd Chad [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-07-09
There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.
Levin, A D; Momtaz, Z S; Gusev, G M; Raichev, O E; Bakarov, A K
2015-11-13
We observe the phonon-drag voltage oscillations correlating with the resistance oscillations under microwave irradiation in a two-dimensional electron gas in perpendicular magnetic field. This phenomenon is explained by the influence of dissipative resistivity modified by microwaves on the phonon-drag voltage perpendicular to the phonon flux. When the lowest-order resistance minima evolve into zero-resistance states, the phonon-drag voltage demonstrates sharp features suggesting that current domains associated with these states can exist in the absence of external dc driving.
Thermal conductivity and magnon-phonon resonant interaction in antiferromagnetic ferrous chloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, Guy
1973-01-01
An apparatus has been studied and built to measure thermal conductivity between 0,3 K and 80 K. The thermal conductivity in the c plane and along the c axis have been measured in FeCl 2 . These results show an anomalous behaviour of the thermal conductivity below the Neel temperature. A calculation of the thermal conductivity of magneto-elastic modes arising from a magnon-phonon resonant interaction renders an account of this behaviour. From the present results, the magneto-elastic coupling constant G 44 is found to be 3,5 meV. Finally, an experimental study of the thermal conductivity magnetic field dependence of FeCl 2 was performed.(author) [fr
Effect of interaction range on phonon relaxation in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta chain.
Santhosh, G; Kumar, Deepak
2007-08-01
We study the effect of increasing the range of interactions on phonon relaxation in a chain of atoms with quartic anharmonicity. The study is motivated by recent numerical studies, showing that the value of the exponent alpha characterizing the divergence of conductivity with system size apparently depends on the presence of second neighbor couplings. We perform a quantum calculation of the wave-vector (q) dependent relaxation rate gamma(q) in the second order perturbation theory. The nonanalytic dependence of gamma(q) arises due to small-q singularity of the collision integral. We find that gamma(q) proportional to Aq(5/3) + Bq2. This gives rise to an asymptotic value alpha = 0.4, but the q2 terms lead to a higher apparent value of alpha at small sizes of the chain.
On the equivalence of quadrupole phonon model and interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyrchev, G.
1980-01-01
A rigorous proof of the quadrupole phonon model (QPM) and the interacting boson model (IBM) equivalence (the Hamiltonians and the relevant operators of both models are identical) is presented. Within the theory of classical Lie algebras the Schwinger representation (SR) construction of SU(6)-algebra, generated by QPM collective coordinates, conjugated momenta and their commutators, is given. Having the explicit form of SU(6) generators in SR, we get the QPM collective Hamiltonian in SR (previously Holstein-Primakoff infinite Boson expansion has been applied for this Hamiltonian). The Hamiltonian of QPM thus obtained contains all Boson structures, which are present in the Hamiltonian of IBM and under definite relations between their parameters, both Hamiltonians coincide identically. The relevant operators are identical too. Thus, though QPM and IBM, being advanced independently, have been developed in a different fashion, they are essentially equivalent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmine Antonio Perroni
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Spectral and transport properties of small molecule single-crystal organic semiconductors have been theoretically analyzed focusing on oligoacenes, in particular on the series from naphthalene to rubrene and pentacene, aiming to show that the inclusion of different electron-phonon couplings is of paramount importance to interpret accurately the properties of prototype organic semiconductors. While in the case of rubrene, the coupling between charge carriers and low frequency inter-molecular modes is sufficient for a satisfactory description of spectral and transport properties, the inclusion of electron coupling to both low-frequency inter-molecular and high-frequency intra-molecular vibrational modes is needed to account for the temperature dependence of transport properties in smaller oligoacenes. For rubrene, a very accurate analysis in the relevant experimental configuration has allowed for the clarification of the origin of the temperature-dependent mobility observed in these organic semiconductors. With increasing temperature, the chemical potential moves into the tail of the density of states corresponding to localized states, but this is not enough to drive the system into an insulating state. The mobility along different crystallographic directions has been calculated, including vertex corrections that give rise to a transport lifetime one order of magnitude smaller than the spectral lifetime of the states involved in the transport mechanism. The mobility always exhibits a power-law behavior as a function of temperature, in agreement with experiments in rubrene. In systems gated with polarizable dielectrics, the electron coupling to interface vibrational modes of the gate has to be included in addition to the intrinsic electron-phonon interaction. While the intrinsic bulk electron-phonon interaction affects the behavior of mobility in the coherent regime below room temperature, the coupling with interface modes is dominant for the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.
2007-11-02
The present thesis concentrates on the signatures of strong electron-phonon coupling in phonon properties measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on the triple-axis spectrometers 1T and DAS PUMA at the research reactors in Saclay (France) and Munich (Germany), respectively. The work is subdivided into two separate chapters: In the first part, we report measurements of the lattice dynamical properties, i.e. phonon frequency, linewidth and intensity, of the conventional, i.e. phonon-mediated, superconductor YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C of the rare-earth-borocarbide family. The detailed check of theoretical predictions for these properties, which were calculated in the theory group of our institute, was one major goal of this work. We measured phonons in the normal state, i.e. T>T{sub c}, for several high symmetry directions up to 70 meV. We were able to extract the full temperature dependence of the superconducting energy gap 2{delta}(T) from our phonon scans with such accuracy that even deviations from the weak coupling BCS behaviour could be clearly observed. By measuring phonons at different wave vectors we demonstrated that phonons are sensitive to the gap anisotropy under the precondition, that different phonons get their coupling strength from different parts of the Fermi surface. In the second part, we investigated the properties of Mn-O bond-stretching phonons in the bilayer manganite La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}. At the doping level x=0.38 this compound has an ferromagnetic groundstate and exhibits the so-called colossal magnetoresistance effect in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T{sub C}. The atomic displacement patterns of the investigated phonons closely resemble possible Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO{sub 6} octahedra, which are introduced in this compound by the Jahn-Teller active Mn{sup 3+} ions. We observed strong renormalizations of the phonon frequencies and clear peaks of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, F.
2007-01-01
The present thesis concentrates on the signatures of strong electron-phonon coupling in phonon properties measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on the triple-axis spectrometers 1T and DAS PUMA at the research reactors in Saclay (France) and Munich (Germany), respectively. The work is subdivided into two separate chapters: In the first part, we report measurements of the lattice dynamical properties, i.e. phonon frequency, linewidth and intensity, of the conventional, i.e. phonon-mediated, superconductor YNi 2 B 2 C of the rare-earth-borocarbide family. The detailed check of theoretical predictions for these properties, which were calculated in the theory group of our institute, was one major goal of this work. We measured phonons in the normal state, i.e. T>T c , for several high symmetry directions up to 70 meV. We were able to extract the full temperature dependence of the superconducting energy gap 2Δ(T) from our phonon scans with such accuracy that even deviations from the weak coupling BCS behaviour could be clearly observed. By measuring phonons at different wave vectors we demonstrated that phonons are sensitive to the gap anisotropy under the precondition, that different phonons get their coupling strength from different parts of the Fermi surface. In the second part, we investigated the properties of Mn-O bond-stretching phonons in the bilayer manganite La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 . At the doping level x=0.38 this compound has an ferromagnetic groundstate and exhibits the so-called colossal magnetoresistance effect in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T C . The atomic displacement patterns of the investigated phonons closely resemble possible Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO 6 octahedra, which are introduced in this compound by the Jahn-Teller active Mn 3+ ions. We observed strong renormalizations of the phonon frequencies and clear peaks of the intrinsic phonon linewidth near the order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Hong Quang
1987-06-01
Decay probabilities of light and heavy excitons interacting with acoustic phonons in cubic semiconductors with a degenerate valence band are calculated. The numerical results for GaAs showed that the decay probability of the light exciton is much greater than that of the heavy one. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aperis, Alexandros; Oppeneer, Peter M. [Uppsala University (Sweden)
2016-07-01
A monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} becomes superconducting at temperatures that exceed T{sub c}=100 K, as compared to a bulk T{sub c} of 8 K. Recent ARPES measurements have provided strong evidence that an interfaced-induced electron-phonon interaction between FeSe electrons and SrTiO{sub 3} phonons plays a decisive role in this phenomenon. However, the mechanism that drives this tantalizing high-T{sub c} boost is still unclear. Here, we examine the recent experimental findings using fully anisotropic, full bandwidth multiband Eliashberg calculations focusing on the superconducting state of FeSe/STO. We use a realistic ten band tight-binding band structure for the electrons of monolayer FeSe and study how the suggested interface-induced small-q electron-phonon interaction mediates superconductivity. Our calculations produce a high-T{sub c} s-wave superconducting state with the experimentally resolved momentum dependence. Further, we calculate the normal metal/insulator/superconductor tunneling spectrum and identify fingerprints of the interface-induced phonon mechanism.
Itai, K.
1987-02-01
Two models which describe one-dimensional hopping motion of a heavy particle interacting with phonons are discussed. Model A corresponds to hopping in 1D metals or to the polaron problem. In model B the momentum dependence of the particle-phonon coupling is proportional to k-1/2. The scaling equations show that only in model B does localization occur for a coupling larger than a critical value. In the localization region this model shows close analogy to the Caldeira-Leggett model for macroscopic quantum tunneling.
Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.
2017-01-01
We describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We then observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.
Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy
Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.
2017-12-01
Here, we describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Takashi
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: The electron-phonon interactions destroy the electron pairs formed by Coulomb interactions, and at the same time, form the energy gap by which the electron pairs become stable. - Abstract: In order to discuss how the nondissipative delocalized diamagnetic currents in the microscopic sized materials are closely related to the conventional superconductivity in the macroscopic sized materials, the unified theory, by which various sized superconductivity can be explained, is suggested. It has been believed for a long time that the electron-phonon interactions play an essential role in the attractive electron-electron interactions, as described in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory in the conventional superconductivity. However, it is suggested in this paper that the electron-phonon interactions do not play an essential role in the attractive electron-electron interactions but play an essential role in the forming of energy gap by which the electron pairs formed by the attractive Coulomb interactions in the conventional superconducting states become more stable than those in the normal metallic states at low temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuleev, I.G.; Arapova, I.Yu.
2000-01-01
Different approaches to solving the set of transport equations for a nonequilibrium electron-phonon system in the magnetic field are considered. The effect of mutual drag of electron and phonon on the magnetic field dependence of the Nernst-Ettingshausen coefficients is analyzed. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the iron content in HgSe:Fe crystals with regard to the mutual electron and phonon drag is carried out. Kinetic coefficients corresponding to these approaches to the solutions are calculated for conductors with the degenerate statistics of the current carriers [ru
Rosandi, Yudi; Grossi, Joás; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Urbassek, Herbert M.
2018-01-01
The incidence of energetic laser pulses on a metal foam may lead to foam ablation. The processes occurring in the foam may differ strongly from those in a bulk metal: The absorption of laser light, energy transfer to the atomic system, heat conduction, and finally, the atomistic processes—such as melting or evaporation—may be different. In addition, novel phenomena take place, such as a reorganization of the ligament network in the foam. We study all these processes in an Au foam of average porosity 79% and an average ligament diameter of 2.5 nm, using molecular dynamics simulation. The coupling of the electronic system to the atomic system is modeled by using the electron-phonon coupling, g, and the electronic heat diffusivity, κe, as model parameters, since their actual values for foams are unknown. We show that the foam coarsens under laser irradiation. While κe governs the homogeneity of the processes, g mainly determines their time scale. The final porosity reached is independent of the value of g.
Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS_{2}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin
2017-01-01
The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kemper, A.F. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sentef, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Moritz, B. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Freericks, J.K. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)
2017-09-15
We review recent work on the theory for pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of electron-phonon mediated superconductors in both the normal and the superconducting states. We describe the formal developments that allow one to solve the Migdal-Eliashberg theory in nonequilibrium for an ultrashort laser pumping field, and explore the solutions which illustrate the relaxation as energy is transferred from electrons to phonons. We focus on exact results emanating from sum rules and approximate numerical results which describe rules of thumb for relaxation processes. In addition, in the superconducting state, we describe how Anderson-Higgs oscillations can be excited due to the nonlinear coupling with the electric field and describe mechanisms where pumping the system enhances superconductivity. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vito Antonio Cimmelli
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A nonlocal model for heat transfer with phonons and electrons is applied to infer the steady-state radial temperature profile in a circular layer surrounding an inner hot component. Such a profile, following by the numerical solution of the heat equation, predicts that the temperature behaves in an anomalous way, since for radial distances from the heat source smaller than the mean-free path of phonons and electrons, it increases for increasing distances. The compatibility of this temperature behavior with the second law of thermodynamics is investigated by calculating numerically the local entropy production as a function of the radial distance. It turns out that such a production is positive and strictly decreasing with the radial distance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, P.; Chatterjee, S.
1978-01-01
The theoretical formula of McMillan has been very successful in explaining the superconducting transition temperature. In this theory the electron-phonon coupling constant was very difficult to calculate from a purely theoretical stand point until Gyorffy and Gaspari gave a theoretical formulation from the multiple scattering point of view. This theory has been very successful in explaining Tsub(c) of many superconducting elements and compounds. For the disordered solid, such as substitution alloys, this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple scattering theory of Gyorffy and Gaspari. This problem can however be solved if we average the Green's function in random phase approximation (ATA). In this work we have reformulated Gyorffy and Gaspari's expression of the electron phonon coupling constant in the random phase approximation. This theory has been utilised to alloys of Nb and Mo with different concentrations. The agreement between theory and experiment appears to be very good. (author)
Electron-electron interactions in artificial graphene
Rasanen, Esa
2013-03-01
Recent advances in the creation and modulation of graphenelike systems are introducing a science of ``designer Dirac materials.'' In its original definition, artificial graphene is a man-made nanostructure that consists of identical potential wells (quantum dots) arranged in an adjustable honeycomb lattice in the two-dimensional electron gas. As our ability to control the quality of artificial graphene samples improves, so grows the need for an accurate theory of its electronic properties, including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Here we determine those effects on the band structure and on the emergence of Dirac points, and discuss future investigations and challenges in this field.
Total-dielectric-function approach to electron and phonon response in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penn, D.R.; Lewis, S.P.; Cohen, M.L.
1995-01-01
The interaction between two test charges, the response of a solid to an external field, and the normal modes of the solid can be determined from a total dielectric function that includes both electronic and lattice polarizabilities as well as local-field effects. In this paper we examine the relationship between superconductivity and the stability of a solid and derive sum rules for the electronic part of the dielectric function. It is also shown that there are negative eigenvalues of the total static dielectric function, implying the possibility of an attractive interaction between test charges. An attractive interaction is required for superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin, J L; Bergues, J M; Campoy, G
2003-01-01
A theory describing multiphonon resonant Raman scattering (MPRRS) processes in wide-gap diluted magnetic semiconductors is presented, with Cd 1-x Mn x Te as an example. The incident radiation frequency ω l is taken above the fundamental absorption region. The photoexcited electron and hole make real transitions through the LO phonon, when one considers Froehlich (F) and deformation potential (DP) interactions. The strong exchange interaction, typical of these materials, leads to a large spin splitting of the exciton states in the magnetic field. Neglecting Landau quantization, this Zeeman splitting gives rise to the formation of eight bands (two conduction and six valence ones) and ten different exciton states according to the polarization of the incident light. Explicit expressions for the MPRRS intensity of second and third order, the indirect creation and annihilation probabilities, the exciton lifetime, and the probabilities of transition between different exciton states and different types of exciton as a function of ω l and the external magnetic field are presented. The selection rules for all hot exciton transitions via exciton-photon interaction and F and DP exciton-phonon interactions are investigated. The exciton energies, as a function of B, the Mn concentration x, and the temperature T, are compared to a theoretical expression. Graphics for creation and annihilation probabilities, lifetime, and Raman intensity of second and third order are discussed
Electron-phonon scattering in indium from r.f. size effect measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoff, A.B.M.
1977-01-01
The anisotropy of the electron-phonon collison frequency on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces of indium has been determined from the temperature dependence of radiofrequency size effect (R.F.S.E.) line amplitudes. The orbitally-averaged scattering rates turn out to vary with temperature T according to a T 3 -dependence over the entire Fermi surface, except for orbits on the hole surface close to the (100) and (001) symmetry planes. The anomalous temperatue dependences found in the experiments could be attributed to the special circumstances under which the R.F.S.E. was observed. The influences of both the scattering effectiveness and the multiple turns of the electrons on the observed temperature dependence are discussed extensively. For a large number of extreme orbits on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces, the average scattering rates were measured. In order to obtain a functional expression for the local collision frequency over the entire Fermi surface, an inversion technique was used. As a result, it was found that the anisotropy of the collision frequency over the second zone surface is quite high (1:20) whereas the anisotropy over the third zone surface is rather small (<20%). Further, the variation of the scattering rate round the [111]-point on the hole surface could be confirmed by the results of limiting point measurements. The experimental scattering rates at several points on the Fermi surface were compared with theoretical values obtained from a simple two-OPW model calculation. The calculated anisotropy agrees roughly with the experimental one, although locally the actual values can differ by a factor of 2 or more
Electronic and optical properties of ZrB12 and YB6. Discussion on electron-phonon coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teyssier, J.; Kuzmenko, A.; Marel, D. van der; Lortz, R.; Junod, A.; Filippov, V.; Shitsevalova, N.
2006-01-01
We report the optical properties of high-quality single crystals of low temperature superconductors zirconiumdodecaboride ZrB 12 (T c =5.95 K) and yttrium hexaboride YB 6 (T c =7.15 K) in the range 6 meV-4.6 eV at room temperature. The experimental optical conductivity was extracted from the analysis of the reflectivity in the infrared range and ellipsometry measurement of the dielectric function in the visible range. The electronic band structure of these compounds was calculated by the self-consistent full-potential LMTO method and used to compute the interband part of the optical conductivity and the plasma frequency Ω p . A good agreement was observed between the interband part of the experimental optical conductivities and the band structure calculations. Different methods combining optical spectroscopy, resistivity, specific heat measurements and results of band structure calculations are used to determine the electron-phonon coupling constant. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherman, A.; Schreiber, M.
1995-01-01
We use the Eliashberg formalism for calculating T c in a model of cuprate perovskites with pairing mediated by both magnons and apex-oxygen vibrations. The influence of strong correlations on the energy spectrum is taken into account in the spin-wave approximation. It is shown that the hole-magnon interaction alone cannot yield high T c . But together with a moderate hole-phonon interaction it does lead to d-wave superconductivity at temperatures and hole concentrations observed in cuprates. High T c are connected with a large density of states due to extended Van Hove singularities, a conformity of the two interactions for the d symmetry, and high phonon frequencies
Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2012-01-01
factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.
Decoupled electron and phonon transports in hexagonal boron nitride-silicene bilayer heterostructure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cai, Yongqing; Pei, Qing-Xiang, E-mail: peiqx@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Gang, E-mail: peiqx@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg, E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)
2016-02-14
Calculations based on the density functional theory and empirical molecular dynamics are performed to investigate interlayer interaction, electronic structure and thermal transport of a bilayer heterostructure consisting of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In this heterostructure, the two layers are found to interact weakly via a non-covalent binding. As a result, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved with the Dirac cone point being located exactly at the Fermi level, and only a small amount of electrons are transferred from h-BN to silicene, suggesting that silicene dominates the electronic transport. Molecular dynamics calculation results demonstrate that the heat current along h-BN is six times of that along silicene, suggesting that h-BN dominates the thermal transport. This decoupled role of h-BN and silicene in thermal and electronic transport suggests that the BN-silicene bilayer heterostructure is promising for thermoelectric applications.
Out-of-plane heat transfer in van der Waals stacks through electron-hyperbolic phonon coupling
Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Hesp, Niels C. H.; Principi, Alessandro; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Pogna, Eva A. A.; Banszerus, Luca; Mics, Zoltán; Massicotte, Mathieu; Schmidt, Peter; Davydovskaya, Diana; Purdie, David G.; Goykhman, Ilya; Soavi, Giancarlo; Lombardo, Antonio; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Bonn, Mischa; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Stampfer, Christoph; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Cerullo, Giulio; Polini, Marco; Koppens, Frank H. L.
2018-01-01
Van der Waals heterostructures have emerged as promising building blocks that offer access to new physics, novel device functionalities and superior electrical and optoelectronic properties1-7. Applications such as thermal management, photodetection, light emission, data communication, high-speed electronics and light harvesting8-16 require a thorough understanding of (nanoscale) heat flow. Here, using time-resolved photocurrent measurements, we identify an efficient out-of-plane energy transfer channel, where charge carriers in graphene couple to hyperbolic phonon polaritons17-19 in the encapsulating layered material. This hyperbolic cooling is particularly efficient, giving picosecond cooling times for hexagonal BN, where the high-momentum hyperbolic phonon polaritons enable efficient near-field energy transfer. We study this heat transfer mechanism using distinct control knobs to vary carrier density and lattice temperature, and find excellent agreement with theory without any adjustable parameters. These insights may lead to the ability to control heat flow in van der Waals heterostructures.
Electron-excited molecule interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christophorou, L.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN
1991-01-01
In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10 6 to 10 7 times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs
Magnetic ground state and magnon-phonon interaction in multiferroic h-YMnO3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, S. L.; Kreisel, A.; Schaeffer, T. K.
2018-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetoelastic excitations in the multiferroic manganite hexagonal YMnO3. An avoided crossing is found between magnon and phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone boundary in the (a,b) plane. Neutron polarization analysis reveals that this m......Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetoelastic excitations in the multiferroic manganite hexagonal YMnO3. An avoided crossing is found between magnon and phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone boundary in the (a,b) plane. Neutron polarization analysis reveals...... that this mode has mixed magnon-phonon character. An external magnetic field along the c axis is observed to cause a linear field-induced splitting of one of the spin-wave branches. A theoretical description is performed, using a Heisenberg model of localized spins, acoustic phonon modes, and a magnetoelastic...... coupling via the single-ion magnetostriction. The model quantitatively reproduces the dispersion and intensities of all modes in the full Brillouin zone, describes the observed magnon-phonon hybridized modes, and quantifies the magnetoelastic coupling. The combined information, including the field...
Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene
Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ
2018-05-01
We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.
One-phonon states in deformed nuclei for isoscalar and isovector interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Solov'ev, V.G.
1977-01-01
Extension of the formulas describing the one-phonon states of compound even-even deformed nuclei to the case when the isoscalar and isovector multipole-multipole forces are taken into account, is given. The formalism presented makes it possible to obtain an unified description of the low-lying states and gigantic multipole resonances. Procedure is developed which makes it possible to write down the reduced probability and energetically weighted sum rule in the form of force functions averaged over certain interval of energies. The procedure simplifies the calculations significantly and makes it possible to avoid solving the secular equation for energies of one-phonon states
Phonon affected transport through molecular quantum
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Loos, Jan; Koch, T.; Alvermann, A.; Bishop, A. R.; Fehske, H.
2009-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 39 (2009), 395601/1-395601/18 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * electron - phonon interaction * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009
Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krull, Holger
2015-01-29
The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to
Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krull, Holger
2015-01-01
The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, J.M.; Kim, D.S.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, J.J.
1992-01-01
The initial generation of hot LO phonons by the relaxation of hot carriers in GaAs and Al x Ga 1-x As alloy semiconductors is studied. Within the initial 2ps of photoexcitation, only those electrons originating from the split-off hole bands are found to generate a significant number of I-valley hot phonons when photon energies of 2.33eV are used. A picosecond Raman scattering technique is used to determine the hot phonon occupation number in a series of MBE grown Al x Ga 1-x As samples with 0≤x≤0.39. The Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were measured for both GaAs-like and AlAs-like LO phonon modes to determine their occupation numbers. The authors observe a rapid decrease in the phonon occupation numbers as the aluminum concentration increases beyond x = 0.2. This rapid decrease is explained by considering only those electrons photoexcited from the split-off hole band. Almost all of the electrons originating from the heavy and light-hole bands are shown to quickly transfer and remain in the X and L valleys without generating significant numbers of hot LO phonons during the initial 2ps and at a carrier density of 10 17 cm -3 . A model based upon the instantaneous thermalization of hot electrons photoexcited from the split-off hole bands is used to fit the data. They have obtained very good agreement between experiment and theory. This work provides a clear understanding to the relaxation of Γ valley hot electrons by the generation of hot phonons on subpicosecond and picosecond time scales, which has long standing implications to previous time resolved Raman experiments
Magnetic ground state and magnon-phonon interaction in multiferroic h -YMnO3
Holm, S. L.; Kreisel, A.; Schäffer, T. K.; Bakke, A.; Bertelsen, M.; Hansen, U. B.; Retuerto, M.; Larsen, J.; Prabhakaran, D.; Deen, P. P.; Yamani, Z.; Birk, J. O.; Stuhr, U.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Fennell, A. L.; Andersen, B. M.; Lefmann, K.
2018-04-01
Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetoelastic excitations in the multiferroic manganite hexagonal YMnO3. An avoided crossing is found between magnon and phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone boundary in the (a ,b ) plane. Neutron polarization analysis reveals that this mode has mixed magnon-phonon character. An external magnetic field along the c axis is observed to cause a linear field-induced splitting of one of the spin-wave branches. A theoretical description is performed, using a Heisenberg model of localized spins, acoustic phonon modes, and a magnetoelastic coupling via the single-ion magnetostriction. The model quantitatively reproduces the dispersion and intensities of all modes in the full Brillouin zone, describes the observed magnon-phonon hybridized modes, and quantifies the magnetoelastic coupling. The combined information, including the field-induced magnon splitting, allows us to exclude several of the earlier proposed models and point to the correct magnetic ground state symmetry, and provides an effective dynamic model relevant for the multiferroic hexagonal manganites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tralshawala, N.; Zasadzinski, J.F.; Coffey, L.; Huang, Q.
1991-01-01
Tunneling measurements of α 2 F(ω) of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4-y are shown to be in good agreement with recent published results of the phonon density of states F(ω) from neutron scattering. The locations of peaks and valleys in both functions are similar, but the spectral weights differ, suggesting that α 2 has a strong energy dependence. We have used α 2 F(ω) to estimate the phonon contribution, ρ phonon (T), to published data of the temperature-dependent resistivity, ρ(T), for thin films and single crystals of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4-y . When the phonon contribution is subtracted from the experimental data, a clear T 2 contribution remains over most of the temperature range. The T 2 contribution is interpreted to be due to three-dimensional electron-electron scattering, ρ e-e . There is also a correlation between the magnitude of ρ e-e , and the value of the plasma frequency, ω p [obtained from the determination of ρ phonon (T)], with a scaling which approximates ω p -10/3 . Such a scaling is expected from the carrier-concentration dependence of electron-electron scattering
Electronic states and phonon properties of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1−x} nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, P.Q. [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, L.Z. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Y.M. [Department of Physics, Southern University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wu, X.L., E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, NingBo University, NingBo 3153001 (China)
2015-07-15
Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1−x} nanostructures that can be manipulated through size reduction, geometry variation, and alloying, are considered as one of the key developments for next generation technologies, due to their easy processing, unique properties, and compatibility with the existent silicon-based microelectronic industry. In this review, we have thoroughly discussed the major advances in electronic structures and phonon properties of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1−x} nanocrystals (NCs). Experimental and theoretical characterization related to several main factors, for example, size, composition, strain, temperature, and interface and surface were presented with special emphasis in low-frequency Raman scattering. Current difficulties in explaining the Raman spectra are the assignment of the low-frequency modes because of the complexity of the environment around the NCs, thus different theoretical models are introduced in detail to deal with different properties of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1−x} alloy NCs including Lamb’s theory, complex-frequency (CF) model, core–shell matrix (CMS) model and spatial coherence effect model. - Highlights: • Major advances in electronic structures and phonon properties of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1−x} nanocrystals are discussed thoroughly. • Experimental and theoretical characterization related to size, composition, strain, temperature, and interface/surface are elucidated. • Low-frequency Raman spectra are specially described based on spatial coherence effect model.
Zhou, Yanguang; Gong, Xiaojing; Xu, Ben; Hu, Ming
2017-07-20
Thermoelectric (TE) materials manifest themselves to enable direct conversion of temperature differences to electric power and vice versa. Though remarkable advances have been achieved in the past decades for various TE systems, the energy conversion efficiency of TE devices, which is characterized by a dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT = S 2 σT/(κ el + κ ph )), generally remains a poor factor that severely limits TE devices' competitiveness and range of employment. The bottleneck for substantially boosting the ZT coefficient lies in the strong interdependence of the physical parameters involved in electronic (S and σ, and κ el ) and phononic (κ ph ) transport. Herein, we propose a new strategy of incorporating nanotwinned structures to decouple electronic and phononic transport. Combining the new concept of nanotwinned structures with the previously widely used nanocrystalline approach, the power factor of the nanotwin-nanocrystalline Si heterostructures is enhanced by 120% compared to that of bulk crystalline Si, while the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced to a level well below the amorphous limit, yielding a theoretical limit of 0.52 and 0.9 for ZT coefficient at room temperature and 1100 K, respectively. This value is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that for bulk Si and twice that for polycrystalline Si. Even for the experimentally obtained nanotwin-nanocrystalline heterostructures (e.g. grain size of 5 nm), the ZT coefficient can be as high as 0.26 at room temperature and 0.7 at 1100 K, which is the highest ZT value among all Si-based bulk nanostructures found thus far. Such substantial improvement stems from two aspects: (1) the improvement in the power factor is caused due to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient (degeneracy of the band valley) and the enhancement of electrical conductivity (the reduction of the effective band mass) and (2) the significant reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity is mainly caused due to the
Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek
2017-07-01
Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
Tang, Jau
2008-04-28
In this study, we examine the ultrafast structural dynamics of metals induced by a femtosecond laser-heating pulse as probed by time-resolved electron diffraction. Using the two-temperature model and the Grüneisen relationship we calculate the electron temperature, phonon temperature, and impulsive force at each atomic site in the slab. Together with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam anharmonic chain model we calculate changes of bond distance and the peak shift of Bragg spots or Laue rings. A laser-heated thin slab is shown to exhibit "breathing" standing-wave behavior, with a period equal to the round-trip time for sound wave and a wavelength twice the slab thickness. The peak delay time first increases linearly with the thickness (linear thermal expansion due to lattice temperature jump are shown to contribute to the overall structural changes. Differences between these two mechanisms and their dependence on film thickness and other factors are discussed.
Neutron-Phonon Interaction Studies in Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Single Crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maliszewski, E.; Sosnowski, J.; Blinowski, K.; Kozubowski, J.; Padlo, L.; Sledziewska, D.
1963-01-01
The phonon dispersion relations in copper single crystals has been studied by means of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer. In the [100] direction the transversal branch, not reported in the papers of Cabie and Jacrot, has been found. This branch fits well to the recent data of sound velocity; however, it differs partly from the X-ray results of Jacobsen. For the longitudinal branch in the [100] direction the dispersion curve obtained by Cribier and Jacrot is lying well above the Jacobsen's curve, and the experimental points reported in the present paper support the results of Cribier and Jacrot. The phonon dispersion relations in zinc and magnesium single crystals has been studied using the cold neutron method and by means of a triple-axis crystal neutron spectrometer as well. The scattering surfaces in the [1010] plane were traced, the AT and AL branches found and the phonon dispersion relations in the [001] and [010] directions obtained. The results have been compared with those obtained by Johnson with X-rays. In the [001] direction the present results fit well lo Johnson's foe the AL branch. In the [010] direction for the AT branch a large discrepancy has been found between Johnson's and the present results. Some explanation of this discrepancy is given. Similar measurements in the same directions in magnesium single crystals are under way and will be reported. (author) [fr
Electron and phonon properties of 25 A-15 superconductors obtained from heat capacity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junod, A.
1982-01-01
We review 25 specific heat measurements performed in Geneva on binary and pseudo-binary A-15 compounds. The rather extended temperature range allows us to make reliable estimates of several moments of the phonon spectrum which are required in the theory of superconductivity. The Tsub(c) expression of Allen and Dynes can then be used consistently to estimate the microscopic parameters lambda, eta, Nsub(bs) (Esub(F)), etc. The broad range of values reviewed permits to establish significant correlations between the parameters in stoichiometric and ordered compounds. (orig.)
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-01-01
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons
Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.
1985-01-01
We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures
Electron spin from self interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spavieri, G.
1992-01-01
The author explores the possibility that the electron self-interaction is the origin of the spin and of the radiative effects of QED. The electron is conceived as a charged, massless, point particle with a quantum or stochastic, internal motion about its center of mass and bound by a self-interaction potential. The hydrodynamic equations of motion describing the electron in its center of mass frame are related to non-Markovian stochastic equations recently used to derive the Schroedinger equation. By averaging over this stochastic internal motion and identifying the energy with the rest mass energy, the angular momentum exhibits properties characteristic of spin. The electromagnetic self-interactions added to the Hamiltonian of the particle correct the g factor to yield the anomalous value (g-2)/2 ∼ 1159.7(2.3) X 10 -6 in agreement with experiment. Calculations of other open-quotes radiativeclose quotes effects including the Lamb shift are presented. The results obtained are finite and suggest that the QED corrections attributed to radiative effects could be obtained classically, i.e., without second quantization and renormalization, by complementing the Dirac theory with this self-interaction mechanism. The g factor dependence on the external magnetic field of this and other spin models is compared with that of QED, showing that these theories can be tested by the present precision measurements of the g factor. 33 refs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betancourt-Riera, Ri.; Nieto Jalil, J.M.; Betancourt-Riera, Re.; Riera, R.
2009-01-01
The differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor quantum wire in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of confinement regarding phonon-assisted transitions, is calculated. We assume single parabolic conduction band and present a description of the phonon modes of cylindrical structures embedded in another material using the Froehlich phonon interaction. To illustrate the theory we use a GaAs/Al 0.35 Ga 0.75 As system. The emission spectra are discussed for different scattering configurations and the selection rules for the processes are also studied. The magnetic field distribution is considered constant with value B 0 inside of the wire, and zero outside.
Chang, I-Ya; Kim, DaeGwi; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim
2017-09-20
The possibility of precisely manipulating interior nanospace, which can be adjusted by ligand-attaching down to the subnanometer regime, in a hyperstructured quantum dot (QD) superlattice (QDSL) induces a new kind of collective resonant coupling among QDs and opens up new opportunities for developing advanced optoelectric and photovoltaic devices. Here, we report the first real-time dynamics simulations of the multiple exciton generation (MEG) in one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1D, 2D, and 3D) hyperstructured H-passivated Si QDSLs, accounting for thermally fluctuating band energies and phonon dynamics obtained by finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We computationally demonstrated that the MEG was significantly accelerated, especially in the 3D QDSL compared to the 1D and 2D QDSLs. The MEG acceleration in the 3D QDSL was almost 1.9 times the isolated QD case. The dimension-dependent MEG acceleration was attributed not only to the static density of states but also to the dynamical electron-phonon couplings depending on the dimensionality of the hyperstructured QDSL, which is effectively controlled by the interior nanospace. Such dimension-dependent modifications originated from the short-range quantum resonance among component QDs and were intrinsic to the hyperstructured QDSL. We propose that photoexcited dynamics including the MEG process can be effectively controlled by only manipulating the interior nanospace of the hyperstructured QDSL without changing component QD size, shape, compositions, ligand, etc.
Bhattacharya, D. P.; Das, J.; Basu, A.; Das, B.
2017-09-01
In compound semiconductors which lack inversion symmetry, the combined interaction of the electrons with both acoustic and piezoelectric phonons is dominant at low lattice temperatures ( 20 K). The field dependence of the effective electron temperature under these conditions, has been calculated by solving the modified energy balance equation that takes due account of the degeneracy. The traditionally used heated Fermi-Dirac (F.D.) function for the non-equilibrium distribution function is approximated by some well tested model distribution. This makes it possible to carry out the integrations quite easily and, thus to obtain some more realistic results in a closed form, without taking recourse to any oversimplified approximations. The numerical results that follow for InSb, InAs and GaN, from the present analysis, are then compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The degeneracy and the piezoelectric interaction, both are seen to bring about significant changes in the electron temperature characteristics. The scope for further refinement is discussed.
Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-03-01
In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.
Electron interactions with polar molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrett, W.R.
1981-01-01
A description is given of a number of the features of discrete and continuous spectra of electrons interacting with polar molecules. Attention is focused on the extent to which theoretical predictions concerning cross sections, resonances, and bound states are strongly influenced by the various approximations that are so ubiquitous in the treatment of such problems. Similarly, threshold scattering and photodetachment processes are examined for the case of weakly bound dipole states whose higher members overlap the continuum
Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.
Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar
Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.
Phonon properties and slow organic-to-inorganic sub-lattice thermalization in hybrid perovskites
Chan, Maria; Chang, Angela; Xia, Yi; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Guo, Peijun; Kinaci, Alper; Lin, Hao-Wu; Darancet, Pierre; Schaller, Richard
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite halide compounds have been investigated extensively for photovoltaics (PVs) and related applications. The thermal transport properties of hybrid perovskites, including phonon-carrier and phonon-phonon interactions, are of significance for their PV and solar thermoelectric applications. The interlocking organic and inorganic sublattices can be thought of as an extreme form of nanostructuring. A result of this nanostructuring is the large gap in phonon frequencies between the organic and inorganic sublattices, which is expected to create bottlenecks in phonon equilibration. In this work, we use a combination of ultrafast spectroscopy including photoluminescence and transient absorption, as well as first principles density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics calculations, phonon lifetimes derived from DFT force constants, and non-equilibrium phonon dynamics accounting for phonon lifetimes, to determine the phonon and charge interaction processes. We find evidence that thermalization of carriers occur at an atypically slow 50-100 ps time scale owing to the complex interplay between electronic and phonon excitations.
Resonant exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO nanorods at room temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soumee Chakraborty
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Vibronic and optoelectronic properties, along with detailed studies of exciton-phonon coupling at room temperature (RT for random and aligned ZnO nanorods are reported. Excitation energy dependent Raman studies are performed for detailed analysis of multi-phonon processes in the nanorods. We report here the origin of coupling between free exciton and its associated phonon replicas, including its higher order modes, in the photoluminescence spectra at RT. Resonance of excitonic electron and resonating first order zone center LO phonon, invoked strongly by Frolich interaction, are made responsible for the observed phenomenon.
Effect of the Substrate on Phonon Properties of Graphene Estimated by Raman Spectroscopy
Tivanov, M. S.; Kolesov, E. A.; Korolik, O. V.; Saad, A. M.; Komissarov, I. V.
2018-01-01
Low-temperature Raman studies of supported graphene are presented. A linear temperature dependence of 2D peak linewidths was observed with the coefficients of 0.036 and 0.033 cm^{-1}/K for graphene on copper and glass substrates, respectively, while G peak linewidths remained unchanged throughout the whole temperature range. The different values observed for graphene on glass and copper substrates were explained in terms of the substrate effect on phonon-phonon and electron-phonon interaction properties of the material. The results of the present study can be used to consider substrate effects on phonon transport in graphene for nanoelectronic device engineering.
Ding, Chenliang; Wei, Jingsong; Xiao, Mufei
2018-05-01
We herein propose a far-field super-resolution imaging with metal thin films based on the temperature-dependent electron-phonon collision frequency effect. In the proposed method, neither fluorescence labeling nor any special properties are required for the samples. The 100 nm lands and 200 nm grooves on the Blu-ray disk substrates were clearly resolved and imaged through a laser scanning microscope of wavelength 405 nm. The spot size was approximately 0.80 μm , and the imaging resolution of 1/8 of the laser spot size was experimentally obtained. This work can be applied to the far-field super-resolution imaging of samples with neither fluorescence labeling nor any special properties.
Hurtado Parra, Sebastian; Straus, Daniel; Iotov, Natasha; Fichera, Bryan; Gebhardt, Julian; Rappe, Andrew; Subotnik, Joseph; Kikkawa, James; Kagan, Cherie
Quantum and dielectric confinement effects in Ruddlesden-Popper 2D hybrid perovskites create excitons with a binding energy exceeding 150 meV. We exploit the large exciton binding energy to study exciton and carrier dynamics as well as electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in hybrid perovskites using absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. At temperatures 75 K, excitonic absorption and PL exhibit homogeneous broadening. While absorption remains homogeneous, PL becomes inhomogeneous at temperatures <75K, which we speculate is caused by the formation and subsequent dynamics of a polaronic exciton. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-SC0002158 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Grant DGE-1321851.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monahan, Daniele M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Guo, Liang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Jia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dou, Letian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Peidong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-06-29
A hot phonon bottleneck may be responsible for slow hot carrier cooling in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite, creating the potential for more efficient hot carrier photovoltaics. In room-temperature 2D electronic spectra near the band edge, we observe in this paper amplitude oscillations due to a remarkably long lived 0.9 THz coherent phonon population at room temperature. This phonon (or set of phonons) is assigned to angular distortions of the Pb–I lattice, not coupled to cation rotations. The strong coupling between the electronic transition and the 0.9 THz mode(s), together with relative isolation from other phonon modes, makes it likely to cause a phonon bottleneck. Finally, the pump frequency resolution of the 2D spectra also enables independent observation of photoinduced absorptions and bleaches independently and confirms that features due to band gap renormalization are longer-lived than in transient absorption spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qin; Chen Hong; Zheng Hang
2007-01-01
The effects of DM interaction on the density-of-states, the dimerization and the phase diagram in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled with quantum phonons have been studied by a nonadiabatic analytical approach. The results show that the effect of the DM interaction is to increase the staggered antisymmetric spin exchange interaction order but to decrease the spin dimerization and their competitions result in the lattice dimerization ordering parameter to increase for large staggered DM interaction parameter β and decrease for small β. A crossover of β exists in which the dimerization ordering parameter changes non-monotonously. As the DM interaction parameter D increases, depending on the appropriate values of spin-phonon coupling, phonon frequency and β, the system undergoes phase transition from spin gapless state to gapped state or reversely and can even reenter between the two states. The relation between the phonon-staggered ordering parameter, the spin-dimer order parameter and the staggered DM interaction order parameter gives clearly their contributing weights to the lattice dimerization
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Electron-molecule interactions and their applications
Christophorou, L G
1984-01-01
Electron-Molecule Interactions and Their Applications, Volume 2 provides a balanced and comprehensive account of electron-molecule interactions in dilute and dense gases and liquid media. This book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 deals with electron transfer reactions, while Chapter 2 discusses electron-molecular positive-ion recombination. The electron motion in high-pressure gases and electron-molecule interactions from single- to multiple-collision conditions is deliberated in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, knowledge on electron-molecule interactions in gases is linked to that on similar proc
Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties
Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo
2004-01-01
By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.
MORGENSTERN, [No Value; FRICK, M; VONDERLINDEN, W
We present quantum simulation studies for a system of strongly correlated fermions coupled to local anharmonic phonons. The Monte Carlo calculations are based on a generalized version of the Projector Quantum Monte Carlo Method allowing a simultaneous treatment of fermions and dynamical phonons. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, Luomeng; Bao, Lihong; Wei, Wei; O, Tegus; Zhang, Zhidong
2016-01-01
The electronic structure, phonons and optical properties of LaB_6 compound under different pressure have been studied by first-principles calculation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the d band along the M-Γ direction of the Brillouin zone moves up with increasing pressure and the band minimum is above the Fermi level at 45 GPa. The pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms is reflected in the upshift of d band along the M-Γ direction with pressure. The calculated phonon dispersion curve at zero pressure is in good agreement with the experimental results. However, the phonon dispersion under high pressure does not show any information about the phase transition at 10 GPa, which was reported previously. The acoustic and optical phonon modes harden all the way with increasing pressure. In addition, the dielectric function is in accordance with the Drude model in the pressure range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and follows the Lorentz model at 45 GPa. The LaB_6 compound exhibits better visible light transmittance performance with the increasing pressure in the range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and visible light transmittance peak would be shifted towards ultraviolet region. - Highlights: • Physical properties of LaB_6 under high pressure have been theoretically studied. • Predict an electronic topological transition occurs at 45 GPa for LaB_6. • Predict a pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms. • The phonon modes at Γ point show an increasing trend with increasing pressure. • The LaB_6 exhibits better heat-shielding performance with the increasing pressure.
Froehlih coupling with LO-phonons in quantum dots. Huang-Rhys phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banyai, L.
1991-01-01
The quantum coupling between photoexcited carriers and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in zero-dimensional structures (quantum dots) is considered. A classical model of the electron-phonon interaction is presented. The polarization field is then quantized and the Huang-Rhys phenomenon is observed. Effects induced by the quantization of the electron system are also considered. Finally, the modifications of the theory due to specific aspects of quantum dots are discussed. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Feng-Qi; Guo, Zi-Zheng; Zhu, Jun
2014-01-01
An improved Lee-Low-Pines intermediate coupling method is used to study the energies and binding energies of bound polarons in a wurtzite ZnO/Mg x Zn 1−x O quantum well. The contributions from different branches of long-wave optical phonons, i.e., confined optical phonons, interface optical phonons, and half-space optical phonons are considered. In addition to electron-phonon interaction, the impurity-phonon interaction, and the anisotropy of material parameters, such as phonon frequency, electron effective mass, and dielectric constant, are also included in our computation. Ground-state energies, binding energies and detailed phonon contributions from various phonons as functions of well width, impurity position and composition are presented. Our result suggests that total phonon contribution to ground state and binding energies in the studied wurtzite ZnO/Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O quantum wells varies between 28–23 meV and 62–45 meV, respectively, which are much larger than the corresponding values (about 3.2–1.8 meV and 1.6–0.3 meV) in GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum wells. For a narrower quantum well, the phonon contribution mainly comes from interface and half-space phonons, for a wider quantum well, most of phonon contribution originates from confined phonons. The contribution from all the phonon modes to binding energies increases slowly either when impurity moves far away from the well center in the z direction or with the increase in magnesium composition (x). It is found that different phonons have different influences on the binding energies of bound polarons. Furthermore, the phonon contributions to binding energies as functions of well width, impurity position, and composition are very different from one another. In general, the electron-optical phonon interaction and the impurity center-optical phonon interaction play an important role in electronic states of ZnO-based quantum wells and cannot be neglected.
Pressure induced increase of the exciton phonon interaction in ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarosz, D.; Suchocki, A.; Kozanecki, A.; Teisseyre, H.; Kamińska, A.
2016-01-01
It is a well-established experimental fact that exciton-phonon coupling is very efficient in ZnO. The intensities of the phonon-replicas in ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum structures strongly depend on the internal electric field. We performed high-pressure measurements on the single ZnO/(ZnMg)O quantum well. We observed a strong increase of the intensity of the phonon-replicas relative to the zero phonon line. In our opinion this effect is related to pressure induced increase of the strain in quantum structure. As a consequence, an increase of the piezoelectric component of the electric field is observed which leads to an increase of the intensity of the phonon-replicas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam
2015-01-01
N-polar GaN channel mobility is important for high frequency device applications. Here, we report theoretical calculations on the surface optical (SO) phonon scattering rate of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in N-polar GaN quantum well channels with high-k dielectrics. Rode's iterative calculation is used to predict the scattering rate and mobility. Coupling of the GaN plasmon modes with the SO modes is taken into account and dynamic screening is employed under linear polarization response. The effect of SO phonons on 2DEG mobility was found to be small at >5 nm channel thickness. However, the SO mobility in 3 nm N-polar GaN channels with HfO 2 and ZrO 2 high-k dielectrics is low and limits the total mobility. The SO scattering for SiN dielectric on GaN was found to be negligible due to its high SO phonon energy. Using Al 2 O 3 , the SO phonon scattering does not affect mobility significantly only except the case when the channel is too thin with a low 2DEG density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shneyder, E.I., E-mail: shneyder@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation); Spitaler, J. [Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Rosegger-Straße 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Kokorina, E.E.; Nekrasov, I.A. [Institute of Electrophysics UB RAS, Amundsena Str. 106, 620016 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrichkov, V.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Draxl, C. [Physics Department and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)
2015-11-05
We present results for the electron-phonon interaction of the Γ-point phonons in the tetragonal high-temperature phase of La{sub 2} CuO{sub 4} obtained from a hybrid scheme, combining density-functional theory (DFT) with the generalized tight-binding approach. As a starting point, eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for the Γ-point phonons are determined from DFT within the frozen phonon approach utilizing the augmented plane wave + local orbitals method. The so obtained characteristics of electron-phonon coupling are converted into parameters of the generalized tight-binding method. This approach is a version of cluster perturbation theory and takes the strong on-site electron correlations into account. The obtained parameters describe the interaction of phonons with Hubbard fermions which form quasiparticle bands in strongly correlated electron systems. As a result, it is found that the Γ-point phonons with the strongest electron-phonon interaction are the A{sub 2u} modes (236 cm{sup −1}, 131 cm{sup −1} and 476 cm{sup −1}). Finally it is shown, that the single-electron spectral-weight redistribution between different Hubbard fermion quasiparticles results in a suppression of electron-phonon interaction which is strongest for the triplet Hubbard band with z oriented copper and oxygen electrons. - Highlights: • Electron-phonon interaction in strongly correlated electron systems is analyzed. • Interaction parameters between strongly correlated electrons and phonons are obtained. • The suppression of these parameters by strong electron correlations is demonstrated.
Effect of Interband Interaction on Isotope Effect Coefficient of Mg B2 Superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udomsamuthirun, P.; Kumvongsa, C.; Burakorn, A.; Changkanarth, P.; Maneeratanakul, S.
2005-10-01
In this research, the exact formula of Tc s equation and the isotope effect coefficient of two-band s-wave superconductors in weak-coupling limit are derived by considering the influence of interband interaction .In each band ,our model consist of two paring interactions : the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction . According to the numerical calculation, we find that the isotope effect coefficient of MgB 2 , α=3 . 0 with T c 40 K can be found in the weak coupling regime and interband interaction of electron-phonon show more effect on isotope effect coefficient than interband interaction of non-phonon-electron
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads
2015-01-01
Inspired by recent experiments where electron transport was measured across graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) suspended between a metal surface and the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope [Koch, Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 713 (2012)], we present detailed first-principles simulations of inelastic electron...... tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of long pristine and defective armchair and zigzag nanoribbons under a range of charge carrier conditions. For the armchair ribbons we find two robust IETS signals around 169 and 196 mV corresponding to the D and G modes of Raman spectroscopy as well as additional fingerprints...
Yan, YiJing
2014-02-07
This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.
Detecting the phonon spin in magnon-phonon conversion experiments
Holanda, J.; Maior, D. S.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.
2018-05-01
Recent advances in the emerging field of magnon spintronics have stimulated renewed interest in phenomena involving the interaction between spin waves, the collective excitations of spins in magnetic materials that quantize as magnons, and the elastic waves that arise from excitations in the crystal lattice, which quantize as phonons. In magnetic insulators, owing to the magnetostrictive properties of materials, spin waves can become strongly coupled to elastic waves, forming magnetoelastic waves—a hybridized magnon-phonon excitation. While several aspects of this interaction have been subject to recent scrutiny, it remains unclear whether or not phonons can carry spin. Here we report experiments on a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet under a non-uniform magnetic field demonstrating the conversion of coherent magnons generated by a microwave field into phonons that have spin. While it is well established that photons in circularly polarized light carry a spin, the spin of phonons has had little attention in the literature. By means of wavevector-resolved Brillouin light-scattering measurements, we show that the magnon-phonon conversion occurs with constant energy and varying linear momentum, and that the light scattered by the phonons is circularly polarized, thus demonstrating that the phonons have spin.
One phonon resonant Raman scattering in semiconductor quantum wires: Magnetic field effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betancourt-Riera, Re., E-mail: rbriera@posgrado.cifus.uson.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Hermosillo, Avenida Tecnologico S/N, Colonia Sahuaro, C.P. 83170, Hermosillo, Sonor, (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, C.P. 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Betancourt-Riera, Ri. [Instituto Tecnologico de Hermosillo, Avenida Tecnologico S/N, Colonia Sahuaro, C.P. 83170, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Nieto Jalil, J.M. [Tecnologico de Monterrey-Campus Sonora Norte, Bulevar Enrique Mazon Lopez No. 965, C.P. 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Riera, R. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, C.P. 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)
2013-02-01
We have developed a theory of one phonon resonant Raman scattering in a semiconductor quantum wire of cylindrical geometry in the presence of an external magnetic field distribution, parallel to the cylinder axis. The effect of the magnetic field in the electron and hole states, and in the Raman scattering efficiency, is determinate. We consider the electron-phonon interaction using a Froehlich-type Hamiltonian, deduced for the case of complete confinement phonon modes by Comas and his collaborators. We also assume T=0 K, a single parabolic conduction and valence bands. The spectra are discussed for different magnetic field values and the selection rules for the processes are also studied.
Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattarelli, M., E-mail: maurizio.mattarelli@fisica.unipg.it [NiPS Laboratory, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Secchi, M. [CMM - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Montagna, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)
2013-11-07
The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek
2017-01-01
Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron–electron (e–e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e–e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e–e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borowik, Piotr, E-mail: pborow@poczta.onet.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Thobel, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.thobel@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies, UMR CNRS 8520, Université Lille 1, Avenue Poincaré, CS 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Adamowicz, Leszek, E-mail: adamo@if.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)
2017-07-15
Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron–electron (e–e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e–e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e–e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.
Kumar, Manoranjan; Soos, Zoltán G.
2010-10-01
The bond-order wave (BOW) phase of the extended Hubbard model (EHM) in one dimension (1D) is characterized at intermediate correlation U=4t by exact treatment of N -site systems. Linear coupling to lattice (Peierls) phonons and molecular (Holstein) vibrations are treated in the adiabatic approximation. The molar magnetic susceptibility χM(T) is obtained directly up to N=10 . The goal is to find the consequences of a doubly degenerate ground state (gs) and finite magnetic gap Em in a regular array. Degenerate gs with broken inversion symmetry are constructed for finite N for a range of V near the charge-density-wave boundary at V≈2.18t where Em≈0.5t is large. The electronic amplitude B(V) of the BOW in the regular array is shown to mimic a tight-binding band with small effective dimerization δeff . Electronic spin and charge solitons are elementary excitations of the BOW phase and also resemble topological solitons with small δeff . Strong infrared intensity of coupled molecular vibrations in dimerized 1D systems is shown to extend to the regular BOW phase while its temperature dependence is related to spin solitons. The Peierls instability to dimerization has novel aspects for degenerate gs and substantial Em that suppresses thermal excitations. Finite Em implies exponentially small χM(T) at low temperature followed by an almost linear increase with T . The EHM with U=4t is representative of intermediate correlations in quasi-1D systems such as conjugated polymers or organic ion-radical and charge-transfer salts. The vibronic and thermal properties of correlated models with BOW phases are needed to identify possible physical realizations.
Wang, Zi-Wu; Li, Shu-Shen
2012-07-01
We investigate the spin-flip relaxation in quantum dots using a non-radiation transition approach based on the descriptions for the electron-phonon deformation potential and Fröhlich interaction in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We give the comparisons of the electron relaxations with and without spin-flip assisted by one and two-phonon processes. Calculations are performed for the dependence of the relaxation time on the external magnetic field, the temperature and the energy separation between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground and first-excited state. We find that the electron relaxation time of the spin-flip process is more longer by three orders of magnitudes than that of no spin-flip process.
Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...
Oki, Kensuke; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro
2017-11-01
Population distributions and transition fluxes of the A exciton in bulk GaN are theoretically analyzed using rate equations of states of the principal quantum number n up to 5 and the continuum. These rate equations consist of the terms of radiative, electron-collisional, and phononic processes. The dependence of the rate coefficients on temperature is revealed on the basis of the collisional-radiative model of hydrogen plasma for the electron-collisional processes and theoretical formulation using Fermi's "golden rule" for the phononic processes. The respective effects of the variations in electron, exciton, and lattice temperatures are exhibited. This analysis is a base of the discussion on nonthermal equilibrium states of carrier-exciton-phonon dynamics. It is found that the exciton dissociation is enhanced even below 150 K mainly by the increase in the lattice temperature. When the thermal-equilibrium temperature increases, the population fluxes between the states of n >1 and the continuum become more dominant. Below 20 K, the severe deviation from the Saha-Boltzmann distribution occurs owing to the interband excitation flux being higher than the excitation flux from the 1 S state. The population decay time of the 1 S state at 300 K is more than ten times longer than the recombination lifetime of excitons with kinetic energy but without the upper levels (n >1 and the continuum). This phenomenon is caused by a shift of population distribution to the upper levels. This phonon-exciton-radiation model gives insights into the limitations of conventional analyses such as the ABC model, the Arrhenius plot, the two-level model (n =1 and the continuum), and the neglect of the upper levels.
Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2015-11-20
We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.
Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1977-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strenght functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval
Li, Guanpeng; Yao, Kailun; Gao, Guoying
2018-01-01
Using first-principle calculations combined with Boltzmann transport theory, we investigate the biaxial strain effect on the electronic and phonon thermal transport properties of a 1 T (CdI2-type) structural TiS2 monolayer, a recent experimental two-dimensional (2D) material. It is found that the electronic band structure can be effectively modulated and that the band gap experiences an indirect-direct-indirect transition with increasing tensile strain. The band convergence induced by the tensile strain increases the Seebeck coefficient and the power factor, while the lattice thermal conductivity is decreased under the tensile strain due to the decreasing group velocity and the increasing scattering chances between the acoustic phonon modes and the optical phonon modes, which together greatly increase the thermoelectric performance. The figure of merit can reach 0.95 (0.82) at an 8 percent tensile strain for the p-type (n-type) doping, which is much larger than that without strain. The present work suggests that the TiS2 monolayer is a good candidate for 2D thermoelectric materials, and that biaxial strain is a powerful tool with which to enhance thermoelectric performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, A.F.; Struzhkin, V.V.
2003-01-01
We overview recent high-pressure studies of high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 by Raman scattering technique combined with measurements of superconducting critical temperature T c and lattice parameters up to 57 GPa. An anomalously broadened Raman band at 620 cm -1 is observed and assigned to the in-plane boron stretching E 2g mode. It exhibits a large Grueneisen parameter indicating that the vibration is highly anharmonic. The pressure dependencies of the E 2g mode and T c reveal anomalies at 15-22 GPa (isotope dependent). The anharmonic character of the E 2g phonon mode, its anomalous pressure dependence, and also that for T c are interpreted as a result of a phonon-assisted Lifshitz electronic topological transition
Peculiarities of electronic, phonon and magnon subsystems of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikov, V.V., E-mail: vvnovikov@mail.ru; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.
2015-10-15
Experimental research was carried out to study the temperature dependences of heat capacity C{sub p}(T = 2–300 K), lattice parameters a(T), and ≿(T), (5–300 K) of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides. A comparison with data obtained previously for LuB{sub 4} reveals the peculiar influence of lanthanide contraction and the rare-earths mass on the thermodynamic properties of rare earth tetraborides at low and high temperatures. Sharp anomalies were found in the heat capacity and thermal expansion for SmB{sub 4} at T{sub N} = 25.1 K, conditioned by the phase transition into antiferromagnetic state. The more poorly defined heat capacity anomaly around 7 K is referred to the quadrupole orbital fluctuation of the atomic magnetic moments for Sm{sup 3+} ions. The electronic, lattice, and magnetic contributions to the heat capacity and thermal expansion of samarium tetraboride were defined. Our approach makes it possible to adequately approximate the lattice components of heat capacity and thermal expansion by combining the Debye and Einstein contributions, which are based on the joint analysis of calorimetric and X-ray data. The influence of the frustration of the atomic magnetic moment system for Sm{sup 3+} ions on the thermodynamic characteristics of the samarium tetraboride magnetic phase transition was revealed. - Highlights: • The heat capacity and lattice parameters for LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} were determined at 2–300 K. • The anomalies of C{sub p}(T), a(T), c(T) for SmB{sub 4} due to the phase transition are revealed. • The lattice contributions to the thermal properties of LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} are analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teyssier, J.; Kuzmenko, A.; Marel, D. van der; Lortz, R.; Junod, A. [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Filippov, V.; Shitsevalova, N. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science NANU, Kiev (Ukraine)
2006-09-15
We report the optical properties of high-quality single crystals of low temperature superconductors zirconiumdodecaboride ZrB{sub 12} (T{sub c}=5.95 K) and yttrium hexaboride YB{sub 6} (T{sub c}=7.15 K) in the range 6 meV-4.6 eV at room temperature. The experimental optical conductivity was extracted from the analysis of the reflectivity in the infrared range and ellipsometry measurement of the dielectric function in the visible range. The electronic band structure of these compounds was calculated by the self-consistent full-potential LMTO method and used to compute the interband part of the optical conductivity and the plasma frequency {omega}{sub p}. A good agreement was observed between the interband part of the experimental optical conductivities and the band structure calculations. Different methods combining optical spectroscopy, resistivity, specific heat measurements and results of band structure calculations are used to determine the electron-phonon coupling constant. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Electron interactions with nuclei: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-08-01
This paper contains information on the following topics: inclusive electron scattering; electroexcitation of Δ in nuclei; longitudinal and transverse response in the quasi-elastic region; electron scattering at MIT-Bates; detector development at LEGS; electron scattering at Saclay; intermediate energy nuclear interactions; research and development at CEBAF; and computing facilities
Quantum theory for magnons and phonons interactions under time-varying magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerreiro, S.C.
1971-01-01
The magnon-fonon interaction in a ferromagnetic material submited to a time-varying magnetic field is studied by quantum methods. This problem has already been solved by semi-classical methods, and one of its results is that under certain conditions a state of lattice vibrations may be completely converted into spin oscillations. The main proporties of magnetoelastic waves in static magnetic fields and extend the quantum treatment for the time varying magnetic field case is revised. Field operators whose equations of motion are analogous to the classical ones are introduced. Their equations, which appear as a linear system of first order coupled equations, are converted into equations for complex functions by an expansion of the field operators in a time t as linear combinations of the same operators in a time t 0 prior to the variation of the magnetic field. The quantity g vector obtained from the classical solution is quantized and shown to be the linear momentum density of the magnetoelastic system, the quantum field spin density operator is deduced for the two interacting fields, and finally the results are used to study the magnetization and lattice displacement vector fields in the case of a system described by a coherent state of one of its normal modes
Perrin, Bernard
2007-06-01
logo.jpg" ALT="Conference logo"/> The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how phonons can help tracking dark matter. These 328
Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas
2017-06-01
We study the impact of dynamical electron-phonon (el-ph) effects on the electronic band gap of ice and liquid water by accounting for frequency-dependent Fan contributions in the el-ph mediated self-energy within the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). We find that the dynamical el-ph coupling effects greatly reduce the static el-ph band-gap correction of the hydrogen-rich molecular ice crystal from-2.46 to -0.23 eV in great contrast to the result of Monserrat et al. [Phys. Rev. B 92, 140302 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140302]. This is of particular importance as otherwise the static el-ph gap correction would considerably reduce the electronic band gap, leading to considerable underestimation of the intense peaks of optical absorption spectra of ice which would be in great disagreement to experimental references. By contrast, the static el-ph gap correction of liquid water is very moderate (-0.32 eV), and inclusion of dynamical effects slightly reduces the gap correction to -0.19 eV. Further, we determine the diverse sensitivity of ice and liquid water to the G W self-consistency and show that the energy-only self-consistent approach (GnWn ) exhibits large implicit vertex character in comparison to the quasiparticle self-consistent approach, for which an explicit calculation of vertex corrections is necessary for good agreement with experiment.
Electron-confined LO-phonon scattering in GaAs-Al0.45Ga0.55As ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
resonance [17] – at high field where a longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon mediates a transition ..... This competition is controlled through the factor. Γ = γLLw ... [3] L Eaves, F W Sheard and G A T Toombs, Band structure engineering in semicon-.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a single quantum dot. We also investigate the implications for cavity QED, i.e., a coupled quantum dot-cavity system, and demonstrate that the phonon scattering may be strongly quenched. The quenching is explained by a balancing between the deformation potential...
RAMAN LIGHT SCATTERING IN PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON MODEL AT STRONG PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON INTERACTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.S.Mysakovych
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.
From Planck's quanta to phonon in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez- Duart, J. M; Melo, O. de
2008-01-01
Planck's 1900 published results on the black body radiation had the first application in the quantification of radiation. This quantum hypothesis explained several noteworthy light- matter interaction effects in 1905. These were the electron emission, Stokes law and gas ionization. As soon as two years later, A. Einstein derived an expression for the specific heat of solids, applying the quantum hypothesis to the mechanical oscillation of the atoms. In the present work, the main ideas which led to the concept of phonon are discussed. From an historical point of view, the developments due to Einstein, Born, Debye, among others are analyzed and most important properties of the phonons are presented. Finally, the importance of this entity in the theory of solids is explained, in particular regarding the thermal and optical properties as well as the electrical conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing
2010-01-01
) capability on ID28. The complete PDCs for an fcc Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy are plotted in Figure 2, and represent the first full set of phonon dispersions ever determined for any Pu-bearing materials. The solid curves (red) are calculated using a standard Born-von Karman (B-vK) force constant model. An adequate fit to the experimental data is obtained if interactions up to the fourth-nearest neighbours are included. The dashed curves (blue) are recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) results by Dai et al. The elastic moduli calculated from the slopes of the experimental phonon dispersion curves near the Λ point are: C 11 = 35.3 ± 1.4 GPa, C 12 = 25.5 ± 1.5 GPa and C 44 = 30.53 ± 1.1 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with those of the only other measurement on a similar alloy (1 wt % Ga) using ultrasonic techniques as well as with those recently calculated from a combined DMFT and linear response theory for pure (delta)-Pu. Several unusual features, including a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C(prime), a Kohn-like anomaly in the T 1 [011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. The HRIXS results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for (delta)-plutonium. The experimental-theoretical agreements shown in Figure 2 in terms of a low shear elastic modulus C(prime), a Kohn-like anomaly in the T 1 [011] branch, and a large softening of the T[111] modes give credence to the DMFT approach for the theoretical treatment of 5f electron systems of which (delta)-Pu is a classic example. However, quantitative differences remain. These are the position of the Kohn anomaly along the T 1 [011] branch, the energy maximum of the T[111] mode s
Electron scattering in the interacting boson model
Dieperink, AEL; Iachello, F; Rinat, A; Creswell, C
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 ÷ states inthe transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed
Noncovalent Interactions in Organic Electronic Materials
Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc
2017-01-01
In this chapter, we provide an overview of how noncovalent interactions, determined by the chemical structure of π-conjugated molecules and polymers, govern essential aspects of the electronic, optical, and mechanical characteristics of organic
Photon-Electron Interaction and Condense Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, S.
1998-01-01
We discuss beams of charged particles and radiation from multiple perspectives. These include fundamental acceleration and radiation mechanisms, underlying electron-photon interaction, various classical and quantum phase-space concepts and fluctuational interpretations
Baier, J; Gabrielsen, M; Oellerich, S; Michel, H; van Heel, M; Cogdell, R J; Köhler, J
2009-11-04
We have investigated the spectral diffusion and the electron-phonon coupling of B800 bacteriochlorophyll a molecules in the peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 for three different species of purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. We come to the conclusion that B800 binding pockets for Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are rather similar with respect to the polarity of the protein environment but that the packaging of the alphabeta-polypeptides seems to be less tight in Rb. sphaeroides with respect to the other two species.
The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation
Romero, Chris; Choun, James
2014-01-01
This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…
Alberte, Lasma; Ammon, Martin; Jiménez-Alba, Amadeo; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol
2018-04-01
We present a class of holographic massive gravity models that realize a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry—they exhibit transverse phonon modes whose speed relates to the elastic shear modulus according to elasticity theory. Massive gravity theories thus emerge as versatile and convenient theories to model generic types of translational symmetry breaking: explicit, spontaneous, and a mixture of both. The nature of the breaking is encoded in the radial dependence of the graviton mass. As an application of the model, we compute the temperature dependence of the shear modulus and find that it features a glasslike melting transition.
Hertzberg, Jared B; Aksit, Mahmut; Otelaja, Obafemi O; Stewart, Derek A; Robinson, Richard D
2014-02-12
Thermal transport in nanostructures is strongly affected by phonon-surface interactions, which are expected to depend on the phonon's wavelength and the surface roughness. Here we fabricate silicon nanosheets, measure their surface roughness (∼ 1 nm) using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and assess the phonon scattering rate in the sheets with a novel technique: a microscale phonon spectrometer. The spectrometer employs superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) to produce and detect controllable nonthermal distributions of phonons from ∼ 90 to ∼ 870 GHz. This technique offers spectral resolution nearly 10 times better than a thermal conductance measurement. We compare measured phonon transmission rates to rates predicted by a Monte Carlo model of phonon trajectories, assuming that these trajectories are dominated by phonon-surface interactions and using the Ziman theory to predict phonon-surface scattering rates based on surface topology. Whereas theory predicts a diffuse surface scattering probability of less than 40%, our measurements are consistent with a 100% probability. Our nanosheets therefore exhibit the so-called "Casimir limit" at a much lower frequency than expected if the phonon scattering rates follow the Ziman theory for a 1 nm surface roughness. Such a result holds implications for thermal management in nanoscale electronics and the design of nanostructured thermoelectrics.
Kinetics of two-dimensional electron plasma, interacting with fluctuating potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiko, I.I.; Sirenko, Y.M.
1990-01-01
In this paper, from the first principles, after the fashion of Klimontovich, the authors derive quantum kinetic equation for electron gas, inhomogeneous in z-direction and homogeneous in XY-plane. Special attention is given to the systems with quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2 DEG), which are widely explored now. Both interaction between the particles of 2 DEG (in general, of several sorts), and interaction with an external system (phonons, impurities, after change carries etc.) are considered. General theory is used to obtain energy and momentum balance equations and relaxation frequencies for 2 DEG in the basis of plane waves. The case of crossed electric and magnetic fields is also treated. As an illustration the problems of 2 DEG scattering on semibounded three-dimensional electron gas and on two-dimensional hole gas are considered; transverse conductivity of nondegenerate 2 DEG, scattered by impurities in ultraquantum magnetic field, is calculated
Noncovalent Interactions in Organic Electronic Materials
Ravva, Mahesh Kumar
2017-06-29
In this chapter, we provide an overview of how noncovalent interactions, determined by the chemical structure of π-conjugated molecules and polymers, govern essential aspects of the electronic, optical, and mechanical characteristics of organic semiconductors. We begin by describing general aspects of materials design, including the wide variety of chemistries exploited to control the electronic and optical properties of these materials. We then discuss explicit examples of how the study of noncovalent interactions can provide deeper chemical insights that can improve the design of new generations of organic electronic materials.
Phonon-limited mobility in n-type single-layer MoS2 from first principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.
2012-01-01
We study the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type single-layer MoS2 for temperatures T > 100 K. The materials properties including the electron-phonon interaction are calculated from first principles and the deformation potentials and Frohlich interaction in single-layer MoS2 are established...... to recent experimental findings for the mobility in single-layer MoS2 (similar to 200 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), our results indicate that mobilities close to the intrinsic phonon-limited mobility can be achieved in two-dimensional materials via dielectric engineering that effectively screens static Coulomb...
Effect of Phonon Drag on the Thermopower in a Parabolic Quantum Well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasanov, Kh. A., E-mail: xanlarhasanli@rambler.ru; Huseynov, J. I. [Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University (Azerbaijan); Dadashova, V. V. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Aliyev, F. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)
2016-03-15
The theory of phonon-drag thermopower resulting from a temperature gradient in the plane of a two-dimensional electron gas layer in a parabolic quantum well is developed. The interaction mechanisms between electrons and acoustic phonons are considered, taking into account potential screening of the interaction. It is found that the effect of electron drag by phonons makes a significant contribution to the thermopower of the two-dimensional electron gas. It is shown that the consideration of screening has a significant effect on the drag thermopower. For the temperature dependence of the thermopower in a parabolic GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well in the temperature range of 1–10 K, good agreement between the obtained theoretical results and experiments is shown.
Phonon Drag in Thin Films, Cases of Bi2Te3 and ZnTe
Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad
2014-03-01
At low temperatures, in (semi-)conductors subjected to a thermal gradient, charge carriers (electrons and holes) are swept (dragged) by out-of-equilibrium phonons due to strong electron-phonon interaction, giving rise to a large contribution to the Seebeck coefficient called the phonon-drag effect. Such phenomenon was surprisingly observed in our recent transport study of highly mismatched alloys as potential thermoelectric materials: a significant phonon-drag thermopower reaching 1.5-2.5 mV/K was recorded for the first time in nitrogen-doped ZnTe epitaxial layers on GaAs (100). In thin films of Bi2Te3, we demonstrate a spectacular influence of substrate phonons on charge carriers. We show that one can control and tune the position and magnitude of the phonon-drag peak over a wide range of temperatures by depositing thin films on substrates with vastly different Debye temperatures. Our experiments also provide a way to study the nature of the phonon spectrum in thin films, which is rarely probed but clearly important for a complete understanding of thin film properties and the interplay of the substrate and films. This work is supported by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0000957.
Localization of electrons by electron-electron interaction in an Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritala, R.K.; Kurkijaervi, J.
1981-01-01
We study the effect of attractive Hubbard interaction on disordered electron system. We map the interacting system back to noninteracting one and determine self-consistently the disorder change due to interaction in the system. (author)
Phonon-affected steady-state transport through molecular quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koch, T.; Fehske, H.; Loos, Jan
T151, č. 1 (2012), 1-10 ISSN 0031-8949 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : the ory of electron ic transport * scattering mechanisms * polarons and electron -phonon interactions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2012
Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam
2017-11-01
This work reports an investigation of electron transport in monoclinic \\beta-Ga2O3 based on a combination of density functional perturbation theory based lattice dynamical computations, coupling calculation of lattice modes with collective plasmon oscillations and Boltzmann theory based transport calculations. The strong entanglement of the plasmon with the different longitudinal optical (LO) modes make the role LO-plasmon coupling crucial for transport. The electron density dependence of the electron mobility in \\beta-Ga2O3 is studied in bulk material form and also in the form of two-dimensional electron gas. Under high electron density a bulk mobility of 182 cm2/ V.s is predicted while in 2DEG form the corresponding mobility is about 418 cm2/V.s when remote impurities are present at the interface and improves further as the remote impurity center moves away from the interface. The trend of the electron mobility shows promise for realizing high electron mobility in dopant isolated electron channels. The experimentally observed small anisotropy in mobility is traced through a transient Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the anisotropy of the IR active phonon modes is responsible for giving rise to the anisotropy in low-field electron mobility.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27–29/E360, 1040 Vienna (Austria)
2014-09-08
The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.
Analytical local electron-electron interaction model potentials for atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neugebauer, Johannes; Reiher, Markus; Hinze, Juergen
2002-01-01
Analytical local potentials for modeling the electron-electron interaction in an atom reduce significantly the computational effort in electronic structure calculations. The development of such potentials has a long history, but some promising ideas have not yet been taken into account for further improvements. We determine a local electron-electron interaction potential akin to those suggested by Green et al. [Phys. Rev. 184, 1 (1969)], which are widely used in atom-ion scattering calculations, electron-capture processes, and electronic structure calculations. Generalized Yukawa-type model potentials are introduced. This leads, however, to shell-dependent local potentials, because the origin behavior of such potentials is different for different shells as has been explicated analytically [J. Neugebauer, M. Reiher, and J. Hinze, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032518 (2002)]. It is found that the parameters that characterize these local potentials can be interpolated and extrapolated reliably for different nuclear charges and different numbers of electrons. The analytical behavior of the corresponding localized Hartree-Fock potentials at the origin and at long distances is utilized in order to reduce the number of fit parameters. It turns out that the shell-dependent form of Green's potential, which we also derive, yields results of comparable accuracy using only one shell-dependent parameter
Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation
Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.
2018-03-06
The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.
Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.
2018-03-06
The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dib, E., E-mail: elias.dib@for.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Pisa, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Carrillo-Nuñez, H. [Integrated Systems Laboratory ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Bât. IRPHE, Technopôle de Château-Gombert, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2016-01-28
Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dib, E.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.
2016-01-01
Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikh Obeid, Abdulrahman
2014-11-01
In the framework of this thesis electron scattering experiments on low-energy excitations of {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr were performed at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q=0.3-0.6 fm{sup -1}. The nature of one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states of {sup 92}Zr was investigated by comparison with predictions of the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). Theoretical (e,e') cross sections have been calculated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to account for Coulomb distortion effects. The reduced strengths of the one-quadrupole phonon states and the one-octupole phonon state have been extracted. The similarity of the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factors between the 2{sup +} states supports the one-phonon nature of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 92}Zr. A new method based on the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) for a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E2 transition strengths of fully symmetric (FSS) and mixed-symmetry (MSS) one-phonon excitations of heavy vibrational nuclei is introduced. Due to the sensitivity of electron scattering to charge distributions, the charge transition-radii difference can be determined. The basic assumptions (independence from the ratio of Coulomb corrections and from absolute values of transition radii) are tested within the Tassie model, which makes no specific assumptions about the structure of the states other than collectivity. It is shown that a PWBA analysis of the form factors, which usually fails for heavy nuclei, can nevertheless be applied in a relative analysis. This is a new promising approach to determine the ground state transition strength of the 2{sup +} MSS of vibrational nuclei with a precision limited only by the experimental information about the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) strength. The PWBA approach furthermore provides information about differences of the proton transition radii of the respective states
Interactions of electrons with biologically important molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisklova, K.; Papp, P.; Stano, M.
2012-01-01
For the study of interactions of low-energy electrons with the molecules in the gas phase, the authors used electron-molecule cross-beam apparatus. The experiment is carried out in high vacuum, where molecules of the tested compound are inducted through a capillary. For purposes of this experiment the sample was electrically heated to 180 Deg C., giving a bundle of GlyGly molecules into the gas phase. The resulting signals can be evaluated in two different modes: mass spectrum - at continuous electron energy (e.g. 100 eV) they obtained the signal of intensity of the ions according to their mass to charge ratio; ionization and resonance spectra - for selected ion mass when the authors received the signal of intensity of the ions, depending on the energy of interacting electron.
Electron-electron interaction in Multiple Quantum Wells
Zybert, M.; Marchewka, M.; Tomaka, G.; Sheregii, E. M.
2012-07-01
The complex investigation of the magneto-transport effects in structures containing multiple quantum well (MQWs) based on the GaAs/AlGaAs-heterostructures has been performed. The MQWs investigated have different electron densities in QWs. The parameters of 2DEG in MQWs were determined from the data of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdH) observed at low temperatures (0.6-4.2 K). The method of calculation of the electron states energies in MQWs has been developed which is based on the splitting of these states due to the exchange interaction (SAS-splitting, see D. Płoch et al., Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 195434) including the screening of this interaction. The IQHE and SdH observed in these multilayer structures with the third degree of freedom for electrons are interpreted from this.
Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence
Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Ostrander, Jonathan; Schad, Jonathon; Rebeyev, Eliran; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Gregory; Brainard, Robert L.
2016-03-01
In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism - internal excitation - in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.
Phonons: Theory and experiments II. Volume 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruesch, P.
1986-01-01
The present second volume titled as ''Phonons: Theory and Experiments II'', contains, a thorough study of experimental techniques and the interpretation of experimental results. This three-volume set tries to bridge the gap between theory and experiment, and is addressed to those working in both camps in the vast field of dynamical properties of solids. Topics presented in the second volume include; infrared-, Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy, interaction of X-rays with phonons, and inelastic neutron scattering. In addition an account is given of some other techniques, including ultrasonic methods, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, point contact spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of surface phonons, thin films and adsorbates. Both experimental aspects and theoretical concepts necessary for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed. An attempt is made to present the descriptive as well as the analytical aspects of the topics. Simple models are often used to illustrate the basic concepts and more than 100 figures are included to illustrate both theoretical and experimental results. Many chapters contain a number of problems with hints and results giving additional information
Theoretical description of electron–phonon Fock space for gapless and gapped nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shariati, Ashrafalsadat; Rabani, Hassan; Mardaani, Mohammad
2017-01-01
We study the effect of electron–phonon (e–ph) interaction on the elastic and inelastic electronic transport of a nanowire connected to two simple rigid leads within the tight-binding and harmonic approximations. The model is constructed using Green’s function and multi-channel techniques, taking into account the local and nonlocal e–ph interactions. Then, we examine the model for the gapless (simple chain) and gapped (PA-like nanowire) systems. The results show that the tunneling conductance is improved by the e–ph interaction in both local and nonlocal regimes, while for the resonance conductance, the coherent part mainly decreases and the incoherent part increases. At the corresponding energies which depend on the phonon frequency, two dips in the elastic and two peaks in the inelastic conductance spectra appear. The reason is the absorption of the phonon by the electron in transition into inelastic channels. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nasu, K.
1987-01-01
The phase diagram of a two-dimensional N-site N-electron system (N>>1) with site-diagonal electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling is studied in the context of polaron theory, so as to clarify the competition between the superconducting (SC) state and the charge-density wave (CDW) state. The Fermi surface of noninteracting electrons is assumed to be a complete circle with no nesting-type instability in the case of weak e-ph coupling, so as to focus on such a strong coupling that even the standard ''strong-coupling theory'' for superconductivity breaks down. Phonon clouds moving with electrons as well as a frozen phonon are taken into account by a variational method, combined with a mean-field theory. It covers the whole region of three basic parameters characterizing the system: the intersite transfer energy of electron T, the e-ph coupling energy S, and the phonon energy ω. The resultant phase diagram is given in a triangular coordinate space spanned by T, S, and ω. In the adiabatic region ω >(T,S) near the ω vertex of the triangle, on the other hand, each electron becomes a small polaron, and the SC state is always more stable than the CDW state, because the retardation effect is absent
Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Schödel, R; Voigt, J
2001-01-01
Line-narrowed and temperature-dependent fluorescence spectra are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHC II). Special attention has been paid to eliminate effects owing to reabsorption and to ensure that the line-narrowed fluorescence spectra are virtually unaffected by hole burning or scattering artifacts. Analysis of line-narrowed fluorescence spectra at 4.2 K indicates that the lowest Q//y-state of LHC II is characterized by weak electron-phonon coupling with a Huang-Rhys factor of similar to 0.9 and a broad and strongly asymmetric one- phonon profile with a peak frequency omega//m of 15 cm**-**1 and a width of Gamma = 105 cm**-**1. The 4.2 K fluorescence data are further consistent with the assignment of the lowest Q//y-state at similar to 680.0 nm and an inhomogeneous width of similar to 80 cm**- **1 gathered from a recent hole-burning study (Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 1999, 103, 2412). The temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectra of LHC II is s...
Scattering of phonons by dislocations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.C.
1979-01-01
By 1950, an explicit effort had been launched to use lattice thermal conductivity measurements in the investigation of defect structures in solids. This technique has been highly successful, especially when combined with the measurements of other properties such as optical absorption. One exception has been the study of dislocations. Although dislocations have a profound effect on the phonon thermal conductivity, the mechanisms of the phonon-dislocation interaction are poorly understood. The most basic questions are still debated in the literature. It therefore is pointless to attempt a quantitative comparison between an extensive accumulation of experimental data on the one hand, and the numerous theoretical models on the other. Instead, this chapter will attempt to glean a few qualitative conclusions from the existing experimental data. These results will then be compared with two general models which incorporate, in a qualitative manner, most of the proposed theories of the phonon-dislocation interaction. Until very recently, measurement of thermal conductivity was the only means available to probe the interaction between phonons and defects at phonon frequencies above the standard ultrasonic range of approx. = 10 9 Hz. The introductory paragraphs provide a brief review of the thermal-conductivity technique and the problems which are encountered in practice. There is also a brief presentation of the theoretical models and the complications that may occur in more realistic situations
Electron scattering in the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieperink, A.E.L.; Iachello, F.; Creswell, C.
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 + states in the transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed. (Auth.)
Electron Beam interaction with an inhomogeneous
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaki, N G; El-Shorbagy, Kh H [Plasma physics and Nuclear Fusion Dept. Nuclear Research Centre Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)
1997-12-31
The linear and nonlinear interaction of an electron beam with an inhomogeneous semi bounded warm plasma is investigated. The amount of energy absorbed by the plasma is obtained. The formation of waves at double frequency at the inlet of the beam into the plasma is also considered.
Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
2002-08-16
The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.
Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.
2007-01-01
We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed
Magnetic impurity coupled to interacting conduction electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schork, T.
1996-01-01
We consider a magnetic impurity which interacts by hybridization with a system of weakly correlated electrons and determine the energy of the ground state by means of a 1/N f expansion. The correlations among the conduction electrons are described by a Hubbard Hamiltonian and are treated to the lowest order in the interaction strength. We find that their effect on the Kondo temperature, T K , in the Kondo limit is twofold: first, the position of the impurity level is shifted due to the reduction of charge fluctuations, which reduces T K . Secondly, the bare Kondo exchange coupling is enhanced as spin fluctuations are enlarged. In total, T K increases. Both corrections require intermediate states beyond the standard Varma-Yafet ansatz. This shows that the Hubbard interaction does not just provide quasiparticles, which hybridize with the impurity, but also renormalizes the Kondo coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Frictional drag between quantum wells mediated by phonon exchange
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, M.C.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
We use the Kubo formalism to evaluate the contribution of acoustic-phonon exchange to the frictional drag between nearby two-dimensional electron systems. In the case of free phonons, we find a divergent drag rate (tau(D)(-l)). However, tau(D)(-l) becomes finite when phonon scattering from either...
Phonon dispersion and Kohn anomalies in the alloy Cu8.84Al0.16
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, H.; Shapiro, S.M.; Moss, S.C.; Mostoller, M.
1990-01-01
The authors have made detailed measurements of phonon frequencies along all high-symmetry directions on a large single crystal of Cu 0.84 Al 0.16 at room temperature. Phonon frequencies were ascertained to better than ±0.03 meV. Inter-atomic force constants and vibrational density of states were calculated by performing a Born-von Karman analysis on the complete set of phonon dispersion curves. In contrast to the case of pure Cu, no evident Kohn anomaly (neither in the phonon dispersion itself nor in the derivatives) was observed near the expected wave vector q = 2k F . The absence of Kohn anomalies in the present system could be due either to a smeared out Fermi surface or to the possibility that the electron-electron interaction which screens the inter-ionic potential is not the dominant interaction in the system: i.e., the existence of Kohn anomalies in these alloys may depend mainly on the details of the electron-phonon interaction
Investigation of the phonon-spin interaction in systems: 3d1 ions in Al2O3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devismes, Nicole.
1975-01-01
The respective evolution of V 2+ , V 3+ and V 4+ ion concentrations in Al doped V monocrystals during a γ irradiation at 300K has been quantitatively studied from optical absorption, low temperature thermal conductivity, and ESR measurements. A wide range of the total concentration in V was investigated (from 60 to 1360ppm) and two domains can be distinguished ( approximately 250ppm) in which the evolutions of the ion concentrations are quite different. This indicates that several charge transfer mechanisms are involved. An estimate of the absolute concentrations of various ions before and after γ irradiation is given and some spin-phonon coupling constants derived [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braithwaite, G.
1999-06-01
The work presented in this Thesis describes the author's experimental investigation of the two dimensional hole gas - acoustic phonon interaction in non-inverted modulation doped strained Si 1-x Ge x heterostructures. This covers a range of Ge content (0.085≤x≤0.28) and carrier temperature range 0.35K ≤ T C ≤ 4.2K. Using the technique of carrier temperature mapping, the present author has measured the energy loss rate characteristics of the two dimensional hole gas as a function of carrier temperature. The carrier temperature thermometers used are, the zero magnetic field resistivity, the low magnetic field magnetoresistance, and, the thermal damping of the amplitude of the Shubnikov - de Haas oscillations. The present author has also used an exact numerical calculation to determine the theoretical energy loss rates over the range of Ge contents and found consistently that the deformation potential interaction is best described as being weakly screened. Also, it is found, that by including an additional piezoelectric-like acoustic phonon coupled interaction, it is possible to achieve improved agreement between the theoretical energy loss rates and the experimental data over the range of carrier temperatures 0.35K≤T C ≤4.2K. The present author suggests that a possible source of this interaction is linked to the correlated interface roughness that may be expected at the upper Si/Si 1-x Ge x heterointerface. From analysis of the low magnetic field magnetoresistance measurements, the author has determined the carrier temperature dependence of the hole-hole scattering rate. It will be shown that by considering the fully self consistent nature of carrier-carrier scattering in the weak localisation regime ('dirty limit'), and by including the effect of carrier-carrier scattering in the 'clean limit', it is possible to calculate the dephasing rates for this system and obtain agreement with the measured experimental data to within an accuracy of ±10%. This is a
Electron beam interaction with space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.S.
1999-01-01
Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification. Recently, theoretical studies of the nonlinear evolution of a thin monoenergetic electron beam injected in a magnetized plasma and interacting with a whistler wave packet have led to new results. The influence of an effective dissipation process connected with whistler wave field leakage out of the beam volume to infinity (that is, effective radiation outside the beam) on the nonlinear evolution of beam electrons distribution in phase space has been studied under conditions relevant to active space experiments and related laboratory modelling. The beam-waves system's evolution reveals the formation of stable nonlinear structures continuously decelerated due to the effective friction imposed by the strongly dissipated waves. The nonlinear interaction between the electron bunches and the wave packet are discussed in terms of dynamic energy exchange, particle trapping, slowing down of the beam, wave dissipation and quasi-linear diffusion. (author)
Electron-phonon interaction in quantum transport through quantum dots and molecular systems
Ojeda, J. H.; Duque, C. A.; Laroze, D.
2016-12-01
The quantum transport and effects of decoherence properties are studied in quantum dots systems and finite homogeneous chains of aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. We study these systems based on the tight-binding approach through Green's function technique within a real space renormalization and polaron transformation schemes. In particular, we calculate the transmission probability following the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the I - V characteristics and the noise power of current fluctuations taken into account the decoherence. Our results may explain the inelastic effects through nanoscopic systems.
Peculiarities electron-phonon interaction in DyBa2Cu3O7-δ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazej, Z.A.; Kolmakova, N.P.; Ivanenko, O.M.; Mitsen, K.V.
1991-01-01
Young modulus and sound absorption by DyBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (δ=0.7-0.1) tetragonal and rhombic ceramics within temperature range from 1.8 K up to 100 K and within magnetic fields up to 4T are measured. Softening of ∼(1-2)x10 -2 Young modules at temperature decrease lower than 70 K is detected for both investigated ceramics. Different symmetry deformation susceptibilities calculated for a certain crystalline field explain the observed anomalies of Young modulus in the assumption of essential young-teller correlations. The conducted studies allow to consider DyBa 2 u 3 O 7-δ compound belonging to young-teller elastics type
Electron beam interaction with space plasmas.
Krafft, C.; Bolokitin, A. S.
1999-12-01
Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification.
Phonon impact on optical control schemes of quantum dots: Role of quantum dot geometry and symmetry
Lüker, S.; Kuhn, T.; Reiter, D. E.
2017-12-01
Phonons strongly influence the optical control of semiconductor quantum dots. When modeling the electron-phonon interaction in several theoretical approaches, the quantum dot geometry is approximated by a spherical structure, though typical self-assembled quantum dots are strongly lens-shaped. By explicitly comparing simulations of a spherical and a lens-shaped dot using a well-established correlation expansion approach, we show that, indeed, lens-shaped dots can be exactly mapped to a spherical geometry when studying the phonon influence on the electronic system. We also give a recipe to reproduce spectral densities from more involved dots by rather simple spherical models. On the other hand, breaking the spherical symmetry has a pronounced impact on the spatiotemporal properties of the phonon dynamics. As an example we show that for a lens-shaped quantum dot, the phonon emission is strongly concentrated along the direction of the smallest axis of the dot, which is important for the use of phonons for the communication between different dots.
One phonon resonant Raman scattering in free-standing quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Xiang-Fu; Liu, Cui-Hong
2007-01-01
The scattering intensity (SI) of a free-standing cylindrical semiconductor quantum wire for an electron resonant Raman scattering (ERRS) process associated with bulk longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes and surface optical (SO) phonon modes is calculated separately for T=0 K. The Frohlich interaction is considered to illustrate the theory for GaAs and CdS systems. Electron states are confined within a free-standing quantum wire (FSW). Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules are studied. Numerical results and a discussion are also presented for various radii of the cylindrical
High-field electron-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartemann, F V.
1999-01-01
Recent advances in novel technologies (including chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser systems operating in the TW-PW range, high-gradient rf photoinjectors, and synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and THz bandwidths) allow experimentalists to study the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultrahigh-intensity photon fields. Ponderomotive scattering can accelerate these electrons with extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional vacuum laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by relativistic radiation pressure in Compton backscattering is shown to yield complex nonlinear spectra which can be modified by using temporal laser pulse shaping techniques. Colliding laser pulses, where ponderomotive acceleration and Compton backscattering are combined, could also yield extremely short wavelength photons. Finally, one expects strong radiative corrections when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations
Detecting phonon blockade with photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didier, Nicolas; Pugnetti, Stefano; Fazio, Rosario; Blanter, Yaroslav M.
2011-01-01
Measuring the quantum dynamics of a mechanical system, when few phonons are involved, remains a challenge. We show that a superconducting microwave resonator linearly coupled to the mechanical mode constitutes a very powerful probe for this scope. This new coupling can be much stronger than the usual radiation pressure interaction by adjusting a gate voltage. We focus on the detection of phonon blockade, showing that it can be observed by measuring the statistics of the light in the cavity. The underlying reason is the formation of an entangled state between the two resonators. Our scheme realizes a phonotonic Josephson junction, giving rise to coherent oscillations between phonons and photons as well as a self-trapping regime for a coupling smaller than a critical value. The transition from the self-trapping to the oscillating regime is also induced dynamically by dissipation.
Runaway-electron-materials interaction studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolt, H.; Miyahara, A.
1990-03-01
During the operation of magnetic fusion devices it has been frequently observed that runaway electrons can cause severe damage to plasma facing components. The energy of the runaway electrons could possibly reach several 100 MeV in a next generation device with an energy content in the plasma in the order of 100 MJ. In this study effects of high energy electron - materials interaction were determined by laboratory experiments using particle beam facilities, i.e. the Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University and the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the National Institute for Fusion Science. The experiments and further analyses lead to a first assessment of the damage thresholds of plasma facing materials and components under runaway electron impact. It was found that metals (stainless steel, molybdenum, tungsten) showed grain growth, crack formation and/or melting already below the threshold for crack initiation on graphite (14-33 MJ/m 2 ). Strong erosion of carbon materials would occur above 100 MJ/m 2 . Damage to metal coolant channels can occur already below an energy deposition of 100 MJ/m 2 . The energy deposited in the metal coolant channels depends on the thickness of the plasma facing carbon material D, with the shielding efficiency S of carbon approximately as S∼D 1.15 . (author) 304 refs. 12 tabs. 59 figs
Peierls transition with acoustic phonons and twist deformation in carbon nanotubes
Figge, M. T.; Mostovoy, M. V.; Knöster, J.
1999-01-01
Submitted to: Phys. Rev. Lett. Abstract: We consider the Peierls instability due to the interaction of electrons with both acoustic and optical phonons. We suggest that such a transition takes place in carbon nanotubes with small radius. The topological excitations and the temperature dependence of
Phonon-assisted damping of plasmons in three- and two-dimensional metals
Caruso, Fabio; Novko, Dino; Draxl, Claudia
2018-05-01
We investigate the effects of crystal lattice vibrations on the dispersion of plasmons. The loss function of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) in two and three dimensions is evaluated numerically in the presence of electronic coupling to an optical phonon mode. Our calculations are based on many-body perturbation theory for the dielectric function as formulated by the Hedin-Baym equations in the Fan-Migdal approximation. The coupling to phonons broadens the spectral signatures of plasmons in the electron-energy loss spectrum (EELS) and it induces the decay of plasmons on timescales shorter than 1 ps. Our results further reveal the formation of a kink in the plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional HEG, which marks the onset of plasmon-phonon scattering. Overall, these features constitute a fingerprint of plasmon-phonon coupling in EELS of simple metals. It is shown that these effects may be accounted for by resorting to a simplified treatment of the electron-phonon interaction which is amenable to first-principles calculations.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Aravantinos-Zafiris
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Topics in electron-positron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeding, P.
1983-01-01
This chapter investigates the collision of an electron and a positron in a high energy storage ring in which a large energy Q=W=√s=2 E /SUB beam/ is dumped into a tiny region of space-time. If the electron and positron annihilate each other almost all of this energy becomes concentrated in a single field quantum. Points out 3 consequences: 1) all flavored particles existing in nature are expected to be pair-produced provided their mass is not larger than W/2; 2) the pair production process acts as an effective ''filter'' for fundamental (i.e. pointlike) particles; and 3) particles without flavor (i.e. the gluons) are not directly pair-produced in e - e + interactions. Discusses basic processes; probing QED and lepton structure; hadron production at high energies; resonances; e - e + storage rings; detectors; electroweak interaction and new particles (leptons, quarks); restrictions on a more general weak interaction scenario; limits on pair production of scalar particles; and jets and QCD tests
Influence of phonons on semiconductor quantum emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feldtmann, Thomas
2009-07-06
A microscopic theory of interacting charge carriers, lattice vibrations, and light modes in semiconductor systems is presented. The theory is applied to study quantum dots and phonon-assisted luminescence in bulk semiconductors and heterostructures. (orig.)
Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals
Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying
2016-01-01
Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2016-05-27
Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Gas–Electron Interaction in the ETEM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Beleggia, Marco
2016-01-01
Imaging in a differential pumped environmental TEM (ETEM) results in general in a degradation of the image quality. Scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the pressurized volume between the pole pieces blurs the image and decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images. The somewhat...... simple picture of a plane wave interacting with the sample of interest is no longer valid. Furthermore, the exit wave from the sample is altered by scattering events taking place after the sample in the direction of propagation. In this chapter, the effect of the increased gas pressure between the pole...... pieces in an aberration-corrected highresolution transmission electron microscope is discussed in order to shine some light on the additional phenomena occurring in ETEM compared to conventional HRTEM. Both direct effects on the image quality and more indirect effects rising from gas ionization...
Trigonal warping and photo-induced effects on zone boundary phonon in monolayer graphene
Akay, D.
2018-05-01
We have reported the electronic band structure of monolayer graphene when the combined effects arising from the trigonal warp and highest zone-boundary phonons having A1 g symmetry with Haldane interaction which induced photo-irradiation effect. On the basis of our model, we have introduced a diagonalization to solve the associated Fröhlich Hamiltonian. We have examined that, a trigonal warping effect is introduced on the K and K ' points, leading to a dynamical band gap in the graphene electronic band spectrum due to the electron-A1 g phonon interaction and Haldane mass interaction. Additionally, the bands exhibited an anisotropy at this point. It is also found that, photo-irradiation effect is quite smaller than the trigonal warp effects in the graphene electronic band spectrum. In spite of this, controllability of the photo induced effects by the Haldane mass will have extensive implications in the graphene.
Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector
Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.
2016-06-01
The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Attractive electron-electron interactions within robust local fitting approximations.
Merlot, Patrick; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Lindh, Roland; Aquilante, Francesco; Reine, Simen; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
2013-06-30
An analysis of Dunlap's robust fitting approach reveals that the resulting two-electron integral matrix is not manifestly positive semidefinite when local fitting domains or non-Coulomb fitting metrics are used. We present a highly local approximate method for evaluating four-center two-electron integrals based on the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation and apply it to the construction of the Coulomb and exchange contributions to the Fock matrix. In this pair-atomic resolution-of-the-identity (PARI) approach, atomic-orbital (AO) products are expanded in auxiliary functions centered on the two atoms associated with each product. Numerical tests indicate that in 1% or less of all Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham calculations, the indefinite integral matrix causes nonconvergence in the self-consistent-field iterations. In these cases, the two-electron contribution to the total energy becomes negative, meaning that the electronic interaction is effectively attractive, and the total energy is dramatically lower than that obtained with exact integrals. In the vast majority of our test cases, however, the indefiniteness does not interfere with convergence. The total energy accuracy is comparable to that of the standard Coulomb-metric RI method. The speed-up compared with conventional algorithms is similar to the RI method for Coulomb contributions; exchange contributions are accelerated by a factor of up to eight with a triple-zeta quality basis set. A positive semidefinite integral matrix is recovered within PARI by introducing local auxiliary basis functions spanning the full AO product space, as may be achieved by using Cholesky-decomposition techniques. Local completion, however, slows down the algorithm to a level comparable with or below conventional calculations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udomsamuthirun, P.; Dokkaemklang, S.; Kumvongsa, C.; Maneeratanakul, S.
2005-10-01
In this research, the exact formula of the isotope effect coefficient of s wave and d-wave superconductor in weak-coupling limit are derived by using a three square- well interaction potential that pairing interaction consists of 3 parts : an attractive electron-phonon interaction, an attractive non-electron-phonon interaction , and a repulsive Coulomb interaction . op ac , w w and c w is the characteristic energy cutoff of the Debye phonon , non-phonon ,and Coulomb respectively and 2 / 1 ac M- a w , and c op , w w do not depend on isotope mass(M). We find that, in all case of consideration, the isotope coefficient converges to 0.5 at lower value of Coulomb coupling constant and larger values of phonon and non-phonon coupling constant
Raman analysis of phonon modes in a short period AlN/GaN superlattice
Sarkar, Ketaki; Datta, Debopam; Gosztola, David J.; Shi, Fengyuan; Nicholls, Alan; Stroscio, Michael A.; Dutta, Mitra
2018-03-01
AlN/GaN-based optoelectronic devices have been the subject of intense research underlying the commercialization of efficient devices. Areas of considerable interest are the study of their lattice dynamics, phonon transport, and electron-phonon interactions specific to the interface of these heterostructures which results in additional optical phonon modes known as interface phonon modes. In this study, the framework of the dielectric continuum model (DCM) has been used to compare and analyze the optical phonon modes obtained from experimental Raman scattering measurements on AlN/GaN short-period superlattices. We have observed the localized E2(high), A1(LO) and the E1(TO) modes in superlattice measurements at frequencies shifted from their bulk values. To the best of our knowledge, the nanostructures used in these studies are among the smallest yielding useful Raman signatures for the interface modes. In addition, we have also identified an additional spread of interface phonon modes in the TO range resulting from the superlattice periodicity. The Raman signature contribution from the underlying AlxGa1-xN ternary has also been observed and analyzed. A temperature calibration was done based on Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio of A1(LO) using Raman spectroscopy in a broad operating temperature range. Good agreement between the experimental results and theoretically calculated calibration plot predicted using Bose-Einstein statistics was obtained.
One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.
Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G
2010-03-10
We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabiri, Zohreh, E-mail: z.dabiri@stu.yazd.ac.ir [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazempour, Ali [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. BOX 119395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Structured Coatings Institute of Yazd Payame Noor University, P.O. Code 89431-74559, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad Ali [Physics Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-11-15
The strength of phonon anharmonicity is investigated in the framework of the Density Functional Perturbation Theory via an applied constant electric field. In contrast to routine approaches, we have employed the electric field as an effective probe to quest after the quasi-harmonic and anharmonic effects. Two typical tetrahedral semiconductors (diamond and silicon) have been selected to test the efficiency of this approach. In this scheme the applied field is responsible for establishing the perturbation and also inducing the anharmonicity in systems. The induced polarization is a result of changing the electronic density while ions are located at their ground state coordinates or at a specified strain. Employing this method, physical quantities of the semiconductors are calculated in presence of the electron–phonon interaction directly and, phonon–phonon interaction, indirectly. The present approach, which is in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental studies, can be introduced as a benchmark to simply investigate the anharmonicity and pertinent consequences in materials.
Born-Oppenheimer Dynamics, Electronic Friction, and the Inclusion of Electron-Electron Interactions
Dou, Wenjie; Miao, Gaohan; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2017-07-01
We present a universal expression for the electronic friction as felt by a set of classical nuclear degrees of freedom (DOFs) coupled to a manifold of quantum electronic DOFs; no assumptions are made regarding the nature of the electronic Hamiltonian and electron-electron repulsions are allowed. Our derivation is based on a quantum-classical Liouville equation for the coupled electronic-nuclear motion, followed by an adiabatic approximation whereby electronic transitions are assumed to equilibrate faster than nuclear movement. The resulting form of friction is completely general, but does reduce to previously published expressions for the quadratic Hamiltonian (i.e., Hamiltonians without electronic correlation). At equilibrium, the second fluctuation-dissipation theorem is satisfied and the frictional matrix is symmetric. To demonstrate the importance of electron-electron correlation, we study electronic friction within the Anderson-Holstein model, where a proper treatment of electron-electron interactions shows signatures of a Kondo resonance and a mean-field treatment is completely inadequate.
Cryogenic phonon-mediated particle detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, A.T.J.
1993-01-01
This work describes the development of cryogenic phonon-mediated particle detectors for dark matter searches and neutrino detection. The detectors described in this work employ transition-edge sensors, which consist of a meander pattern of thin-film superconductor on a silicon substrate. When phonons from a particle interaction in the crystal impinge on the sensor in sufficient density, sections of the line are driven normal and provide a measurable resistance. A large fraction of the thesis describes work to fully characterize the phonon flux from particle interactions. In one set of experiments, ∼25% of the phonon energy from 59.54 keV gamma-ray events was found to propagate open-quotes ballisticallyclose quotes (i.e., with little or no scattering) across a 300 μm thick crystal of silicon. Gamma-rays produce electron recoils in silicon whereas with dark matter and neutrino experiments nuclear recoils are also of interest. Two experiments were done to measure the ballistic component that arises from neutron events, which interact via nuclear recoil. Measurements indicate that the fraction of energy that is ballistic is ∼50% greater for nuclear recoils than for electron recoils. Two novel detectors were fabricated and tested in an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the detectors. In the first detector, relatively large Al pads were linked by 2 μm wide Ti lines in a meander pattern. Phonons impinging on the Al pads create quasiparticles which diffuse in the Al pad until they are trapped in the lower gap Tl links. The sensitivity of the detector was found to be increased by this open-quotes funnelingclose quotes action. A second detector was built that incorporates 0.25 μm wide lines defined by direct electron-beam exposure of the photoresist. If the superconducting line is sufficiently narrow, single phonons are capable of driving sections normal which should improve the sensitivity and linearity of the detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicault, R.; Joly, Y.
1990-01-01
Transport properties of phonons in granular NbN thin film with left-angle 111 right-angle texture are discussed. We propose a model in which each grain has an acoustic resonance when phonons propagate parallel to the film and where a coupling through the amorphous boundaries exists. A statistical study shows that the most homogeneous chains in the grain stack are selected because of the strong efficiency of their transport properties and that they give a fine structure of phonon modes even if the grain-size distribution is quite large. A reasonable agreement is obtained between our tunneling-spectroscopy experiments and the model. A typical experimental result has been fitted using an inelastic phonon-electron-interaction mean free path Λ ph ∼215 nm and a mean grain size d M ∼25.7 nm, the full width at half maximum of the grain distribution being 14 nm
Pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in a ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum well
Guo, Z. Z.; Liang, X. X.; Ban, S. L.
2003-07-01
The possibility of pressure-induced increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling in ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells is studied. The ground state binding energies of the heavy hole excitons are calculated using a variational method with consideration of the electron-phonon interaction and the pressure dependence of the parameters. The results show that for quantum wells with intermediate well width, the exciton binding energy and the LO-phonon energy may coincide in the course of pressure increasing, resulting in the increase of exciton-LO-phonon coupling. It is also found that among the pressure-dependent parameters, the influence of the lattice constant is the most important one. The changes of both the effective masses and the dielectric constants have obvious effects on the exciton binding energy, but their influences are counterbalanced.
Interaction of Schroedinger electrons and photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haller, K.; Sohn, R.B.
1979-01-01
The effect of transformations carried out on the Hamiltonian for the Schroedinger electron-photon system is studied. These transformations include gauge transformations and certain similarity and ''hybrid'' transformations. The last named involve unitary transformations of either operators or states, but not both. Unitary and hybrid transformation are discussed, which affect the transverse components of the electromagnetic vector potentials and therefore are distinct from gauge transformations. A hybrid transformation is identified which leads to a form of the Hamiltonian that contains no reference to the transverse vector potential and includes electric and magnetic fields as well as nonlocal interactions of charges and currents. The behavior of the scattering matrix under the influence of these hybrid transformations is discussed. Comments are made on two-photon absorption calculations
Attractive electron correlation in wide band gap semiconductors by electron-photon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Katsumi
2004-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate attractive electron correlation in wide band gap semiconductors by electron-photon interaction. At low temperature, wavevectors of electromagnetic waves absorbed in wide band gap semiconductors cannot be neglected for wavevectors of electron waves; that is, electromagnetic waves affect the movements of electrons. In particular, attractive interaction occurs between two electrons when one electron changes from a valence band to a conduction band and the other electron changes from a conduction band to a valence band
Study of electron-positron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.
1990-01-01
For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model
Refinement of Monte Carlo simulations of electron-specimen interaction in low-voltage SEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieft, Erik; Bosch, Eric
2008-01-01
A Monte Carlo tool is presented for the simulation of secondary electron (SE) emission in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool is based on the Geant4 platform of CERN. The modularity of this platform makes it comparatively easy to add and test individual physical models. Our aim has been to develop a flexible and generally applicable tool, while at the same time including a good description of low-energy (<50 eV) interactions of electrons with matter. To this end we have combined Mott cross-sections with phonon-scattering based cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons, and we have adopted a dielectric function theory approach for inelastic scattering and generation of SEs. A detailed model of the electromagnetic fields from an actual SEM column has been included in the tool for ray tracing of secondary and backscattered electrons. Our models have been validated against experimental results through comparison of the simulation results with experimental yields, SE spectra and SEM images. It is demonstrated that the resulting simulation package is capable of quantitatively predicting experimental SEM images and is an important tool in building a deeper understanding of SEM imaging.
Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L
2005-03-25
In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.
Electron confinement in thin metal films. Structure, morphology and interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dil, J.H.
2006-05-15
This thesis investigates the interplay between reduced dimensionality, electronic structure, and interface effects in ultrathin metal layers (Pb, In, Al) on a variety of substrates (Si, Cu, graphite). These layers can be grown with such a perfection that electron confinement in the direction normal to the film leads to the occurrence of quantum well states in their valence bands. These quantum well states are studied in detail, and their behaviour with film thickness, on different substrates, and other parameters of growth are used here to characterise a variety of physical properties of such nanoscale systems. The sections of the thesis deal with a determination of quantum well state energies for a large data set on different systems, the interplay between film morphology and electronic structure, and the influence of substrate electronic structure on their band shape; finally, new ground is broken by demonstrating electron localization and correlation effects, and the possibility to measure the influence of electron-phonon coupling in bulk bands. (orig.)
The electrical conductivity of an interacting electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojima, D.Y.
1977-01-01
A manybody theory by the propagator method developed by Montroll and Ward for the equilibrium statistical mechanics, is reformulated to describe the electrical conductivity for an electron gas system containing impurity. The theory includes electron-impurity interaction to the infinite order and electron-electron interaction to the first order exchange effect. The propagator used by Montroll and Ward is separated into two propagators, each of which satisfies either Bloch or Schroedinger equation, to utilize the perturbation method. Correct counting of graphs are presented. Change in the relaxation time due to the electron-electron interaction is explicity shown and compared with recent works [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Shuo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zhanlong; Wang, Shenghan; Gao, Shuqin [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Chenglin, E-mail: chenglin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Zuowei [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • The Huang–Rhys factors and electron–phonon coupling constants are calculated. • The changes of overtone mode are larger than those of fundamental mode. • The variation pattern of electron–phonon coupling well interprets the changes of spectra. - Abstract: External field plays a very important role in the interaction between the π-electron transition and atomic vibration of polyenes. It has significant effects on both the Huang–Rhys factor and the electron–phonon coupling. In this paper, the visible absorption and resonance Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene are measured in the 345–295 K temperature range and it is found that the changes of the 0–1 and 0–2 vibration bands of the absorption spectra with the temperature lead to the different electron–phonon coupling of fundamental, overtone, and combination modes. The electron-phonon coupling constants of all the modes are calculated and analyzed under different temperatures. The variation law of the electron–phonon coupling with the temperature well interprets the changes of the resonance Raman spectra, such as the shift, intensity and line width of the overtone and combination modes, which are all greater than those of the fundamental modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jing
1998-01-01
Collision between μ + and the μ - beams in the crystal are forbidden due to the two beams having different ''lanes'' in a channel. A laser pulse of ps-fs shocks lattice kernel vibration and dilates lattice electron distribution. It deforms the Lindhard's potential which is then expressed in a quantized form as the Huang-Zhu's potential[1]. The dynamic lanes can be made to overlap in a channel to allow collision without ductile fracture. This raises a new technology of sub-atomic information and control, which has been raised by T. D. Lee
Strong Carrier–Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
2017-01-01
We highlight the importance of carrier–phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL band have been identified as due to the Fröhlich interaction. The energy of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons has been determined from the separation of the zero phonon band and phonon replicas. We reason that the observed LO phonon coupling can only be related to an orthorhombically distorted crystal structure of the perovskite nanocrystals. Additionally, the strength of carrier–phonon coupling has been characterized using the ratio between the intensities of the first phonon replica and the zero-phonon band. PL emission from localized versus delocalized carriers has been identified as the source of the observed discrepancies between the LO phonon energy and phonon coupling strength under quasi-resonant and nonresonant excitation conditions, respectively. PMID:29019652
Interaction effects in liquids with low electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, W.W. Jr.
1987-01-01
The author discusses two complementary classes of systems in which strong electron-electron or electron-ion interactions appear at low electron densities. The first are the expanded liquid alkali metals (cesium) in which electron correlation effects have a profound effect on the magnetic properties on the metallic side of the metal-nonmetal transition. The second group are molten alkali halides containing low densities of localized electrons introduced, say, by dissolution of small amounts of excess metal. (Auth.)
Phonon engineering for nanostructures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen
2010-01-01
Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.
Study of electron and neutrino interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abashian, A.
1997-01-01
This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers-in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Inelastic interactions of swift electrons in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tung, C.J.; Ritchie, R.H.; Ashley, J.C.; Anderson, V.E.
1976-01-01
Theoretical calculations of electron mean free paths and electron slowing-down spectra in solids are described. These calculations involve (a) the use of an electron gas model to approximate the response of conduction band electrons in metals, (b) the application of a statistical model for the calculation of electron mean free paths in metals, (c) the development of an insulator model to describe valence band electrons in insulators and semiconductors, and (d) the use of data on atomic generalized oscillator strengths to describe the excitation of the ion cores. Exchange effects are included in the calculations through a semi-empirical procedure. Detailed results are presented for electron mean free paths in Ag, Au, Al, and Al 2 O 3 , and on the stopping power of Al and Al 2 O 3 , for electrons with energies at a few eV to 10 keV. The agreement of these calculations with experimental measurements is quite reasonable over a wide range of electron energies. A detailed description of the calculation of electron slowing-down spectra in solids is presented. Low energy electron slowing-down spectra of monoenergetic electron sources in Al and Al 2 O 3 are calculated. Calculations of electron slowing-down spectra in Al 2 O 3 are made using differential cross sections obtained employing an insulator model and from GOS functions for ion core electrons. Auger electron contributions to the slowing-down spectrum are discussed. Results for the slowing-down spectrum are compared with the experimental data measured by Birkhoff and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found over a wide range of electron energies
Temperature dependent magnon-phonon coupling in bcc Fe from theory and experiment.
Körmann, F; Grabowski, B; Dutta, B; Hickel, T; Mauger, L; Fultz, B; Neugebauer, J
2014-10-17
An ab initio based framework for quantitatively assessing the phonon contribution due to magnon-phonon interactions and lattice expansion is developed. The theoretical results for bcc Fe are in very good agreement with high-quality phonon frequency measurements. For some phonon branches, the magnon-phonon interaction is an order of magnitude larger than the phonon shift due to lattice expansion, demonstrating the strong impact of magnetic short-range order even significantly above the Curie temperature. The framework closes the previous simulation gap between the ferro- and paramagnetic limits.
Strong-coupling interaction in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, D.K.
1991-01-01
Extensive experimental and theoretical work have been done to understand the mechanisms of superconductivity. Until 1986 when Bednorz and Muller discovered superconductivity in the copper oxide perovskite, the principal mechanism was found to be electron-phonon interaction and the characteristics of superconductivity vary depending on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction and the electronic structure. The essential characteristic of these conventional superconductors could be divided into two groups: wide band metals with low density of states N(E F ) at the Fermi energy E F and a rather weak electron-phonon coupling V obeying the universal characteristics of the BCS theory and narrow d band metals, compounds, and alloys with high values of N(E F ), electron-phonon coupling V and non negligible Coulomb interaction between the electrons. In this paper a short summary and the important results of these theories are discussed. The inherent limitations of these theories based on electron-phonon interaction will be discussed. The authors indicate the major characteristics of the new superconductors. These characteristics are difficult to explain on the basis of either the conventional electron-phonon theory or theories based on magnetic interactions alone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.
1992-01-01
Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nam Lyong Kang
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.
Electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Hughes, I.G.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.
1992-01-01
The electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions will be discussed. The interactions lead to the emission of a significant number of electrons. Most of these electrons have energies below 30 eV. For incident ions with innershell vacancies the emission of Auger electrons that fill these vacancies has been found to occur mainly below the surface. We will present recently measured electron energy distributions which will be used to discuss the mechanisms that lead to the emission of Auger and of low-energy electrons
Interface phonon effect on optical spectra of quantum nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, Alexander Yu.; Proshina, Olga V.; Rusina, Anastasia N.
2009-01-01
This paper deals with theory of large radius polaron effect in quantum wells, wires and dots. The interaction of charge particles and excitons with both bulk and interface optical phonons is taken into consideration. The analytical expression for polaron binding energy is obtained for different types of nanostructures. It is shown that the contribution of interface phonons to the polaron binding energy may exceed the bulk phonon part. The manifestation of polaron effects in optical spectra of quantum nanostructures is discussed.
Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.
2015-01-01
We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...
Theoretical study of the interplay of electron-electron interaction and disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brezini, A.; Behilil, S.
1988-10-01
A disordered Hubbard model with diagonal disorder is used to investigate the electron localization effects associated with both disorder and electron-electron interaction. Extensive results are reported on the ground state properties and compared to other theories. Two regimes have been found: when the electron-electron interaction u is greater than the disorder parameter w and when u < w. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elesin, V.F.; Kashurnikov, V.A.; Kondrashov, V.E.; Shamraev, B.N.
1983-01-01
An explicit expression is obtained for the distribution function of excess quasiparticles, taking into account electron-electron collisions in nonequilibrium superconductors. It is shown that the character of the phase transition may change at a definite ratio of the electron-electron and electron-phonon interaction constants: the dependence of the order parameter on the power of the source becomes single-valued. In addition, diffusion instability and paramagnetism of the superconductors arise. The multiplication factor of the excess quasiparticles due to electron-electron collisions and to reabsorption of phonons is calculated
Effects of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foley, Simon Timothy
2002-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the role of electron-electron interactions on electronic transport in disordered systems. We first consider a novel non-linear sigma model in order to microscopically treat the effects of disorder and electronic interaction. We successfully reproduce the perturbative results for the zero-bias anomaly and the interaction correction to the conductivity in a weakly disordered system, and discuss possible directions for future work. Secondly we consider the fluctuations of the dephasing rate for a closed diffusive and quantum dot system. Using the Keldysh technique we derive an expression for the inelastic scattering rate with which we self-consistently obtain the fluctuations in the dephasing rate. For the diffusive regime we find the relative fluctuations is given by F ∼ (L φ /L) 2 /g 2 , where g is the dimensionless conductance, L φ is the dephasing length and L is the sample size. For the quantum dot regime we find a perturbative divergence due to the presence of the zero mode. By mapping divergent diagrams to those for the two-level correlation function, we conjecture the existence of an exact relation between the two. Finally we discuss the consequences of this relation. (author)
Effect of electron-vibration interactions on the thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.
Hsu, Bailey C; Chiang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chang
2012-07-11
From first-principles approaches, we investigate the thermoelectric efficiency of a molecular junction where a benzene molecule is connected directly to the platinum electrodes. We calculate the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT in the presence of electron-vibration interactions with and without local heating under two scenarios: linear response and finite bias regimes. In the linear response regime, ZT saturates around the electrode temperature T(e) = 25 K in the elastic case, while in the inelastic case we observe a non-saturated and a much larger ZT beyond T(e) = 25 K attributed to the tail of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In the finite bias regime, the inelastic effects reveal the signatures of the molecular vibrations in the low-temperature regime. The normal modes exhibiting structures in the inelastic profile are characterized by large components of atomic vibrations along the current density direction on top of each individual atom. In all cases, the inclusion of local heating leads to a higher wire temperature T(w) and thus magnifies further the influence of the electron-vibration interactions due to the increased number of local phonons.
Electron interactions with nuclei. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-07-01
Research includes work at SLAC, Bates, and Saclay research facilities. The high energy program at SLAC concerns inclusive electron scattering from nuclei, electroexcitation of the delta in nuclei, and the design of an electron detection system for the SLAC 1.6 GeV/c magnetic spectrometer. The high energy program at Bates includes quasielastic electron scattering from 1 H, 2 H, 3 He, and 4 He, and electron scattering from 3 H and 3 He. Nuclear structure studies are based on high resolution inelastic electron scattering and include electron scattering from 208 Pb and mercury isotopes, charge densities from low lying states in 86 Sr, and magnetization densities of 205 Tl and 207 Pb. (DWL) 72 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab
Phonon-Assisted Modulation of the Electron Collection Efficiency into InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Gurioli, M.; Colocci, M.
1997-01-01
The energy relaxation and the capture of free carriers in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells have been investigated by means of continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence for excitation energies tuned over a wide interval above the GaAs band-gap. The strong interaction between free electrons...
Modeling microwave/electron-cloud interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattes, M; Sorolla, E; Zimmermann, F
2013-01-01
Starting from the separate codes BI-RME and ECLOUD or PyECLOUD, we are developing a novel joint simulation tool, which models the combined effect of a charged particle beam and of microwaves on an electron cloud. Possible applications include the degradation of microwave transmission in telecommunication satellites by electron clouds; the microwave-transmission techniques being used in particle accelerators for the purpose of electroncloud diagnostics; the microwave emission by the electron cloud itself in the presence of a magnetic field; and the possible suppression of electron-cloud formation in an accelerator by injecting microwaves of suitable amplitude and frequency. A few early simulation results are presented. (author)
Hot-phonon generation in THz quantum cascade lasers
Spagnolo, V.; Vitiello, M. S.; Scamarcio, G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.
2007-12-01
Observation of non-equilibrium optical phonons population associated with electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers is reported. The phonon occupation number was measured by using a combination of micro-probe photoluminescence and Stokes/Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Energy balance analysis allows us to estimate the phonon relaxation rate, that superlinearly increases with the electrical power in the range 1.5 W - 1.95 W, above laser threshold. This observation suggests the occurrence of stimulated emission of optical phonons.
Electron-electron interaction in p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roessner, Benjamin; Kaenel, Hans von; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Batlogg, Bertram
2005-01-01
The temperature dependent magnetoresistance of high mobility p-SiGe/Ge quantum wells is studied with hole densities ranging from 1.7 to 5.9 x 10 11 cm -2 . At magnetic fields below the onset of quantum oscillations that reflect the high mobility values (up to 75000 cm 2 /Vs), we observe the clear signatures of electron-electron interaction. We compare our experiment with the theory of electron-electron interaction including the Zeeman band splitting. The observed magnetoresistance is well explained as a superposition of band structure induced positive magnetoresistance and the negative magntoresistance due to the electron-electron interaction effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasanirokh, K.; Phirouznia, A.
2013-01-01
Influence of electrons interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons on magnetoelectric and spin-related transport effects are investigated. The considered system is a two-dimensional electron gas system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit couplings. The works which have previously been performed in this field, have revealed that the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings cannot be responsible for spin current in the non-equilibrium regime. In the current Letter, a semiclassical method was employed using the Boltzmann approach and it was shown that the spin current of the system, in general, does not go all the way to zero when the electron–phonon coupling is taken into account. It was also shown that spin accumulation of the system could be influenced by electron–phonon coupling.
Tanigaki, Katsumi; Wu, Jiazhen; Tanabe, Yoichi; Heguri, Satoshi; Shiimotani, Hidekazu; Tohoku University Collaboration
2014-03-01
Clathrates are featured by cage-like polyhedral hosts mainly composed of the IVth group elements of Si, Ge, or Sn and alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal elements can be accommodated inside as a guest atom. One of the most intriguing issues in clathrates is their outstanding high thermoelectric performances thanks to the low thermal conductivity. Being irrespective of good electric conductivity σ, the guest atom motions provide a low-energy lying less-dispersive phonons and can greatly suppress thermal conductivity κ. This makes clathrates close to the concept of ``phonon glass electron crystal: PGEC'' and useful in thermoelectric materials from the viewpoint of the figure of merit. In the present study, we show that the local phonon anharmonicity indicated by the tunneling-term of the endohedral atoms (αT) and the itinerant-electron term (γeT), both of which show T-linear dependences in specific heat Cp, can successfully be separated by employing single crystals with various carrier concentrations in a wide range of temperture experimennts. The factors affecting on the phonon anharmonicity as well as the strength of electron-phonon interactions will be discussed based on our recent experiments. The research was financially supported by Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant in Aid for Science, and Technology of Japan.
Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.
1989-01-01
Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs
Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens
2011-01-01
processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...
2017-10-16
ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of Colorado 1111 Engineering Drive, Mechanical Engineering , 427 UCB Boulder, CO 80309 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY... nanotechnology 2015, 10, 701-6. 4. Regner, K. T.; Sellan, D. P.; Su, Z.; Amon, C. H.; McGaughey, A. J.; Malen, J. A., Broadband Phonon Mean Free
Lifetime of the phonons in the PLT ceramic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barba-Ortega, J., E-mail: jjbarba@unal.edu.co; Joya, M. R., E-mail: mrinconj@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, carrera 30 # 45-03, Bogotá 1149 (Colombia); Londoño, F. A., E-mail: flondono@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 #53-108 Of.6-105, Medellin (Colombia)
2014-11-05
The lifetimes at higher temperatures on lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) are mainly due to the anharmonic decay of optical phonons into low-energy phonons. The temperature-independent contributions from inherent crystal defects and from boundary scattering become comparable to the phonon scattering contribution at lower temperatures. The thermal interaction is large at higher temperatures which decreases the phonon mean free path, and so the decay lifetime decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. This leads to the increased line width at higher temperatures. We made an estimate of the lifetimes for different concentrations and temperatures in PLT.
Basu, A.; Das, B.; Middya, T. R.; Bhattacharya, D. P.
2017-01-01
The phonon growth characteristic in a degenerate semiconductor has been calculated under the condition of low temperature. If the lattice temperature is high, the energy of the intravalley acoustic phonon is negligibly small compared to the average thermal energy of the electrons. Hence one can traditionally assume the electron-phonon collisions to be elastic and approximate the Bose-Einstein (B.E.) distribution for the phonons by the simple equipartition law. However, in the present analysis at the low lattice temperatures, the interaction of the non equilibrium electrons with the acoustic phonons becomes inelastic and the simple equipartition law for the phonon distribution is not valid. Hence the analysis is made taking into account the inelastic collisions and the complete form of the B.E. distribution. The high-field distribution function of the carriers given by Fermi-Dirac (F.D.) function at the field dependent carrier temperature, has been approximated by a well tested model that apparently overcomes the intrinsic problem of correct evaluation of the integrals involving the product and powers of the Fermi function. Hence the results thus obtained are more reliable compared to the rough estimation that one may obtain from using the exact F.D. function, but taking recourse to some over simplified approximations.
Birefringent phononic structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. E. Psarobas
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Li; Liao Jianshang
2010-01-01
The interface-optical-propagating (IO-PR) mixing phonon modes of a quasi-zero-dimensional (QoD) wurtzite cylindrical quantum dot (QD) structure are derived and studied by employing the macroscopic dielectric continuum model. The analytical phonon states of IO-PR mixing modes are given. It is found that there are two types of IO-PR mixing phonon modes, i.e. ρ-IO/z-PR mixing modes and the z-IO/ρ-PR mixing modes existing in QoD wurtzite QDs. And each IO-PR mixing modes also have symmetrical and antisymmetrical forms. Via a standard procedure of field quantization, the Froehlich Hamiltonians of electron-(IO-PR) mixing phonons interaction are obtained. Numerical calculations on a wurtzite GaN cylindrical QD are performed. The results reveal that both the radial-direction size and the axial-direction size as well as the dielectric matrix have great influence on the dispersive frequencies of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes. The limiting features of dispersive curves of these phonon modes are discussed in depth. The phonon modes 'reducing' behavior of wurtzite quantum confined systems has been observed obviously in the structures. Moreover, the degenerating behaviors of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes in wurtzite QoD QDs to the IO modes and PR modes in wurtzite Q2D QW and Q1D QWR systems are analyzed deeply from both of the viewpoints of physics and mathematics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, F.M.
1989-05-01
Energetic particles moving with a solid, either from nuclear reactions or externally injected, deposit energy by inelastic scattering processes which eventually appears as thermal energy. If the transfer of energy occurs in a crystalline solid then it is possible to couple some of the energy directly to the nuclei forming the lattice by generating phonons. In this paper the transfer of energy from a compound excited nucleus to the lattice is examined by introducing a virtual particle Π. It is shown that by including a Π in the nuclear reaction a substantial amount of energy can be coupled directly to the lattice. In the lattice this particle behaves as a spatially localized phonon of high energy, the so-called supra-ballistic phonon. By multiple inelastic scattering the supra-ballistic phonon eventually thermalizes. Because both the virtual particle Π and the equivalent supra-ballistic phonon have no charge or spin and can only exist within a lattice it is difficult to detect other than by its decay into thermal phonons. The possibility of a Π removing excess energy from a compound nucleus formed by the cold fusion of deuterium is examined. (Author)
Electron-photon and electron-electron interactions in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, Th.
2010-01-01
During the last decade, photon emission from highly-charged, heavy ions has been in the focus of intense studies at the GSI accelerator and storage ring facility in Darmstadt. These studies have revealed unique information about the electron-electron and electron-photon interactions in the presence of extremely strong nuclear fields. Apart from the radiative electron capture processes, characteristic photon emission following collisional excitation of projectile ions has also attracted much interest. In this contribution, we summarize the recent theoretical studies on the production of excited ionic states and their subsequent radiative decay. We will pay special attention to the angular and polarization properties of Kα emission from helium-like ions produced by means of dielectronic recombination. The results obtained for this (resonant) capture process will be compared with the theoretical predictions for the characteristic X-rays following Coulomb excitation and radiative recombination of few-electron, heavy ions. Work is supported by Helmholtz Association and GSl under the project VH-NG--421. (author)
Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murali Gopal Muraleedharan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP. For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3 potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE, employing Fermi’s Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.
Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum
Muraleedharan, Murali Gopal; Rohskopf, Andrew; Yang, Vigor; Henry, Asegun
2017-12-01
We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP) for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP). For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM) and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3) potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), employing Fermi's Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.
Phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A detailed theoretical study of the phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes has been carried out using force constant model considering up to third nearest-neighbor interactions. We have calculated the phonon dispersions, density of states, radial breathing modes (RBM) and the specific heats ...
One dimensional polaron effects and current inhomogeneities in sequential phonon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hellman, E.S.; Harris, J.S.; Hanna, C.; Laughlin, R.B.
1985-07-01
We have constructed a physical model to explain the tunneling current oscillations reported by Hickmott et al., for GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures in high magnetic fields. We propose that the periodic structure observed is due to space charge which builds up in the undepleted layer when electrons enter it with energy just below the phonon emission threshold. Such electrons interact with the lattice to form polarons whose energy is pinned to the phonon energy, and thus has a very small group velocity. The polaron effect is strongly enhanced by the confinement of the electrons by the strong magnetic field. We infer from the current-voltage data that most of the tunneling current flows through a small area of the sample. The combined model gives reasonable quantitative agreement with experiment. 6 refs., 6 figs.
One dimensional polaron effects and current inhomogeneities in sequential phonon emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellman, E.S.; Harris, J.S.; Hanna, C.; Laughlin, R.B.
1985-07-01
We have constructed a physical model to explain the tunneling current oscillations reported by Hickmott et al., for GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures in high magnetic fields. We propose that the periodic structure observed is due to space charge which builds up in the undepleted layer when electrons enter it with energy just below the phonon emission threshold. Such electrons interact with the lattice to form polarons whose energy is pinned to the phonon energy, and thus has a very small group velocity. The polaron effect is strongly enhanced by the confinement of the electrons by the strong magnetic field. We infer from the current-voltage data that most of the tunneling current flows through a small area of the sample. The combined model gives reasonable quantitative agreement with experiment. 6 refs., 6 figs
The interaction of low-energy electrons with fructose molecules
Chernyshova, I. V.; Kontrosh, E. E.; Markush, P. P.; Shpenik, O. B.
2017-11-01
Using a hypocycloidal electronic spectrometer, the interactions of low energy electrons (0-8.50 eV) with fructose molecules, namely, electron scattering and dissociative attachment, are studied. The results of these studies showed that the fragmentation of fructose molecules occurs effectively even at an electron energy close to zero. In the total electron-scattering cross section by molecules, resonance features (at energies 3.10 and 5.00 eV) were first observed near the formation thresholds of light ion fragments OH- and H-. The correlation of the features observed in the cross sections of electron scattering and dissociative attachment is analyzed.
Single-photon indistinguishability: influence of phonons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2012-01-01
of indistinguishability, absent in the approximate theories. The maximum arises due to virtual processes in the highly non-Markovian short-time regime, which dominate the decoherence for small QD-cavity coupling, and phonon-mediated real transitions between the upper and lower polariton branches in the long-time regime......Recent years have demonstrated that the interaction with phonons plays an important role in semiconductor based cavity QED systems [2], consisting of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a single cavity mode [Fig. 1(a)], where the phonon interaction is the main decoherence mechanism. Avoiding decoherence...... as a function of the QD-cavity coupling strength for light emitted from the QD and the cavity, respectively, for all the employed methods. Both the Lindblad and TCL theories deviate significantly from our exact results, where, importantly, the exact results predict a pronounced maximum in the degree...
Light propagation and interaction observed with electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Word, Robert C.; Fitzgerald, J.P.S.; Könenkamp, R., E-mail: rkoe@pdx.edu
2016-01-15
We discuss possibilities for a microscopic optical characterization of thin films and surfaces based on photoemission electron microscopy. We show that propagating light with wavelengths across the visible range can readily be visualized, and linear and non-linear materials properties can be evaluated non-invasively with nanometer spatial resolution. While femtosecond temporal resolution can be achieved in pump-probe-type experiments, the interferometric approach presented here has typical image frame times of ~200 fs. - Highlights: • Non-linear photoemission electron micrographs are analyzed. • Optical properties of transparent and metallic thin films are determined. • Light propagation, surface plasmon resonances and energy transfer are discussed.
Non-markovian effects in semiconductor cavity QED: Role of phonon-mediated processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter
We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from the pola......We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from...... the polaritonic quasi-particle nature of the carrier-photon system interacting with the phonon reservoir....
Writing an Electronic Astronomy Book with Interactive Curricular Material
Thompson, Kristen L.; Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
With the rise of tablets, the past few years have seen an increase in the demand for quality electronic textbooks. Unfortunately, most of the current offerings do not exploit the accessibility and interactivity that electronic books can deliver. In this poster, we discuss how we are merging our curriculum development projects (Physlets, Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations, and Open Source Physics) with the EPUB electronic book format to develop an interactive textbook for use in a one-semester introductory astronomy course. The book, Astronomy: An Interactive Introduction, combines the narrative, equations, and images of a traditional astronomy text with new JavaScript simulations.
Inter-atomic interaction between electrons, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haga, Eijiro; Kato, Tomohiko; Aisaka, Tsuyoshi.
1978-01-01
Intra- and inter-atomic interactions in the exchange process are defined with respect to the Wannier function rather than the atomic function. In relation to the neutron scattering data for nickel, the behavior for the effective exchange parameter I(q) in the q-dependent susceptibility is, in RPA, investigated by taking into account the main types of the nearest neighbor interactions and by extending our previous treatment. The different types of interactions lead to different behavior for the q-dependence of I(q). The contribution to I(q) from inter-atomic interactions other than the exchange type decreases as the surface area of the Fermi surface becomes large. For the exchange type, the l-th neighbor interaction with l<=4 is taken into account, and, from the comparison with the empirical result for I(q), it is found that the inter-atomic contribution to I(0) is about thirty percent with a reasonable decrease against l. (author)
Electronic structures in ion-surface interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiuchi, Masato; Takeuchi, Takae; Yamamoto, Masao.
1997-01-01
A chemical bond generated by the interaction between low energy ion and base was investigated by ab initio molecular orbital method. The effects of ion charge were studied by calculation of this method. When carbon ion approached to graphite base (C 24 H 12 ), the positive ion and the neutral atom covalently bonded, but the negative ion did not combine with it. When carbon ion was injected into h-BN base (B 12 N 12 H 12 , hexagonal system boron nitride), the positive ion and the neutron atom formed covalent bond and the van der Waals binding, and the negative ion interacted statically with it. (S.Y.)
Resonant intersubband polariton-LO phonon scattering in an optically pumped polaritonic device
Manceau, J.-M.; Tran, N.-L.; Biasiol, G.; Laurent, T.; Sagnes, I.; Beaudoin, G.; De Liberato, S.; Carusotto, I.; Colombelli, R.
2018-05-01
We report experimental evidence of longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-intersubband polariton scattering processes under resonant injection of light. The scattering process is resonant with both the initial (upper polariton) and final (lower polariton) states and is induced by the interaction of confined electrons with longitudinal optical phonons. The system is optically pumped with a mid-IR laser tuned between 1094 cm-1 and 1134 cm-1 (λ = 9.14 μm and λ = 8.82 μm). The demonstration is provided for both GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/AlInAs doped quantum well systems whose intersubband plasmon lies at a wavelength of ≈10 μm. In addition to elucidating the microscopic mechanism of the polariton-phonon scattering, it is found to differ substantially from the standard single particle electron-LO phonon scattering mechanism, and this work constitutes an important step towards the hopefully forthcoming demonstration of an intersubband polariton laser.
Electron interactions with nuclei: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, J.S.
1987-08-01
High energy is being conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This includes inclusive electron scattering, electroexcitation of the delta in nuclei, longitudinal and transverse response in the quasi-elastic region, the q 2 dependence of 4 He(e,e'p), deep inelastic scattering from nuclei, transverse and longitudinal response in the resonance region, nuclear physics at PEP and 1.6 GeV spectrometer properties. Additional high energy research on electron scattering on 3 H and 3 He and the nuclear structure of 205 Tl and 206 Pb are being conducted at MIT-Bates. Other activities are being carried out at Saclay and research and development for Monte Carlo studies of Hall A spectrometers for CEBAF is being conducted
Computational modeling of geometry dependent phonon transport in silicon nanostructures
Cheney, Drew A.
Recent experiments have demonstrated that thermal properties of semiconductor nanostructures depend on nanostructure boundary geometry. Phonons are quantized mechanical vibrations that are the dominant carrier of heat in semiconductor materials and their aggregate behavior determine a nanostructure's thermal performance. Phonon-geometry scattering processes as well as waveguiding effects which result from coherent phonon interference are responsible for the shape dependence of thermal transport in these systems. Nanoscale phonon-geometry interactions provide a mechanism by which nanostructure geometry may be used to create materials with targeted thermal properties. However, the ability to manipulate material thermal properties via controlling nanostructure geometry is contingent upon first obtaining increased theoretical understanding of fundamental geometry induced phonon scattering processes and having robust analytical and computational models capable of exploring the nanostructure design space, simulating the phonon scattering events, and linking the behavior of individual phonon modes to overall thermal behavior. The overall goal of this research is to predict and analyze the effect of nanostructure geometry on thermal transport. To this end, a harmonic lattice-dynamics based atomistic computational modeling tool was created to calculate phonon spectra and modal phonon transmission coefficients in geometrically irregular nanostructures. The computational tool is used to evaluate the accuracy and regimes of applicability of alternative computational techniques based upon continuum elastic wave theory. The model is also used to investigate phonon transmission and thermal conductance in diameter modulated silicon nanowires. Motivated by the complexity of the transmission results, a simplified model based upon long wavelength beam theory was derived and helps explain geometry induced phonon scattering of low frequency nanowire phonon modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A.S.; Rumiantsev, A.Yu.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)
Research and Development Issues for Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ricci, Katrina
2002-01-01
... technologies to support Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs). A workshop was conducted at the NAVAIR Orlando, Training Systems Division to discuss the domain and to present current research in this area...
Electron acceleration via high contrast laser interacting with submicron clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Lu; Chen Liming; Wang Weiming; Yan Wenchao; Yuan Dawei; Mao Jingyi; Wang Zhaohua; Liu Cheng; Shen Zhongwei; Li Yutong; Dong Quanli; Lu Xin; Ma Jinglong; Wei Zhiyi; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Li Dazhang; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie
2012-01-01
We experimentally investigated electron acceleration from submicron size argon clusters-gas target irradiated by a 100 fs, 10 TW laser pulses having a high-contrast. Electron beams are observed in the longitudinal and transverse directions to the laser propagation. The measured energy of the longitudinal electron reaches 600 MeV and the charge of the electron beam in the transverse direction is more than 3 nC. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of the interaction has been performed and it shows an enhancement of electron charge by using the cluster-gas target.
Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com, E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)
2015-08-14
Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.
Huang, T.; Zhang, P.; Xu, L. P.; Chen, C.; Zhang, J. Z.; Hu, Z. G.; Luo, H. S.; Chu, J. H.
2016-10-01
Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co) doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8%) single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2) and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Huang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Optical properties, electronic structures, and structural variations of x wt% cobalt (Co doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (x=0%, 0.5%, 0.8% single crystals have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectra from 250 to 650 K. Based on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions (Ecp1 and Ecp2 and the phonon modes involving Ti-O vibrations, two critical temperature points exhibit an increasing trend with Co dopants, which are related to structural variations for ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric, and anti-ferroelectric to paraelectric transition, respectively. Additionally, distinguishing abnormal phonon behaviors can be observed from Raman spectra for the crystal of x=0.5% and 0.8%, which show reverse frequency shift of the modes involving Ti-O vibration. It can be ascribed to different relative concentration of Co2+ and Co3+ in the crystals, which has been confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy data.
Electron–electron interactions and the electrical resistivity of lithium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The electron–electron interactions in lithium metal have been examined keeping in view the recent developments. The contribution of the electron–electron Umklapp scattering processes in the electrical resistivity of lithium at low temperatures has been evaluated using a simplified spherical Fermi surface model with ...
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads
2014-01-01
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhoyar, Priyanka D. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, 440033 (India); Brik, M.G., E-mail: brik@ut.ee [College of Sciences, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu, 50411 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200, Czestochowa (Poland); Dhoble, S.J., E-mail: sjdhoble@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, 440033 (India)
2016-08-15
Electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) in interconfigurational 5d-4f transition of Ce{sup 3+}-doped alkaline-earth chlorophosphates, also known as apatites, is studied for the first time in this work. Using the configurational coordinate model, the main EVI parameters such as Huang-Rhys factor, effective phonon energy and the zero-phonon line (ZPL) position are determined for all samples studied. Photoluminescence characteristics of these compounds are utilized to estimate EVI parameters. As a reliable test validating the obtained results, the emission band shape of was modeled to yield good agreement with experimental emission spectra. The values of EVI parameters were systematically compared for all studied materials as well as with similar systems with halide ions. - Highlights: • EVI in Ce{sup 3+}-doped alkaline-earth halochlorophosphates is studied for the first time in this work. • The EVI parameters are estimated using the configurational coordinate model. • Estimated EVI parameters are validated by modeling emission spectra. • Parameters are systematically compared.
Phonon superradiance and phonon laser effect in nanomagnets.
Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A
2004-12-17
We show that the theory of spin-phonon processes in paramagnetic solids must take into account the coherent generation of phonons by the magnetic centers. This effect should drastically enhance spin-phonon rates in nanoscale paramagnets and in crystals of molecular nanomagnets.
Role of electron-electron interactions in the RKKY theory of magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, J.F.
1978-10-01
The theory of magnetism in heavy rare earth metals is based on the RKKY theory. In this formalism the indirect exchange interaction between the local 4f spins is mediated by the conduction electrons. When carried to second order in the 4f-conduction electron interaction, traditional perturbation theory leads to a Heisenberg-like interaction between the local spins which depends on the electronic energy bands and 4f-conduction electron exchange matrix elements. This derivation neglects the detailed behavior of electron-electron interaction within the conduction band, which is known to be important in metallic systems. By using an equation of motion method, an expression for the inelastic neutron scattering cross-section has been derived which includes, in an approximate way, this electron-electron interaction. The results of this calculation indicate that spin-wave peaks can be broadened and shifted if the spin-wave band lies near the conduction electron Stoner continuum. The origin of this effect is similar to that found in itinerant electron systems where the spin-wave band actually intersects the Stoner continuum, resulting in the disappearance of the spin-wave mode
Role of electron-electron interactions in the RKKY theory of magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooke, J.F.
1979-01-01
The theory of magnetism in heavy rare earth metals is based on the RKKY theory. In this formalism the indirect exchange interaction between the local 4f spins is mediated by the conduction electrons. When carried to second order in the 4f-conduction electron interaction, traditional pertubation theory leads to a Heisenberg-like interaction between the local spins which depends on the electronic energy bands and 4f-conduction electron exchange matrix elements. This derivation neglects the detailed behavior of electron-electron interaction within the conduction band, which is known to be important in metallic systems. By using an equation of motion method, an expression for the inelastic neutron scattering cross-section has been derived which includes, in an approximate way, this electron-electron interaction. The results of this calculation indicate that spin-wave peaks can be broadened and shifted if the spin-wave band lies near the conduction electron Stoner continuum. The origin of this effect is similar to that found in itinerant electron systems where the spin-wave band actually intersects the Stoner continuum, resulting in the disappearance of the spin-wave mode
Interacting electrons theory and computational approaches
Martin, Richard M; Ceperley, David M
2016-01-01
Recent progress in the theory and computation of electronic structure is bringing an unprecedented level of capability for research. Many-body methods are becoming essential tools vital for quantitative calculations and understanding materials phenomena in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the most-used tools: many-body perturbation theory, dynamical mean field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Each topic is introduced with a less technical overview for a broad readership, followed by in-depth descriptions and mathematical formulation. Practical guidelines, illustrations and exercises are chosen to enable readers to appreciate the complementary approaches, their relationships, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. This book is designed for graduate students and researchers who want to use and understand these advanced computational tools, get a broad overview, and acquire a basis for participating in new developments.
Interaction of slow electrons with surfaces. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komolov, S.A.; Chadderton, L.T.
1976-01-01
Total current spectroscopy (TCS) has been used to study the growth of films of gold and silver on (100) vanadium surfaces. A slow transition from TCS curves characteristic of vanadium to curves characteristic of the noble metals is observed, accompanied by an increase in the net work function - more rapid for silver than for gold. Vanadium characteristics are lost from the TCS curves for mean overlayer thicknesses > approximately 15A, and a simple analysis shows that the thickness of the surface zone from which TCS signals originate is approximately given by the electron mean free path. Observations of progressive attenuation of a characteristic vanadium feature with increasing mean thickness of overlayer permits separation into stages of nucleation and growth. There is a critical nucleus size of approximately 2A for silver and approximately 4A for gold. (Auth.)
Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans
1980-01-01
The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...
Electron-dislocation interaction at low temperatures. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Studies of the interaction of mobile dislocations with electrons have shown that dislocation motion can be, in part, described by treating the dislocation as an underdamped oscillator. In particular, studies in lead alloys have shown tht dislocation motion can be considered as the motion of string, slightly damped by electrons, without regard for any other lattice friction. In addition we have shown that silver solutes, in lead crystals, occupy, partially, interstitial sites. Finally, we have shown that dislocations in copper interact, unexpectedly, with electrons. This is shown by measuring the influence of a magnetic field on the flow stress of copper crystals at 4.2 0 K
On Phonons in Simple Metals II. Calculated Dispersion Curves In Aluminium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, R [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Westin, A [Dept. of Theore tical Physics, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)
1969-07-15
The real part of the dynamical matrix, derived earlier in a weak local potential ion-electron interaction model of the metal, is investigated in the case of aluminium. It is shown that the free electron, or Lindhard, dielectric function leads to a picture of the metal which is inconsistent with the dHvA observations of the Fermi surface. By adjusting one parameter, however, the experimental phonon frequencies are reproduced satisfactorily. Even some simple structure in the derivative d{omega}/dq can be reproduced in this way. Although corrections to the Lindhard dielectric matrix give no essential contributions to the dynamical matrix, the first order corrections, which are the most important, can explain the observed Fermi surface. Much of the observed structure in the phonon dispersion curves seems also to be due to these non-diagonal terms in the dielectric matrix.
Designing Interactive Electronic Module in Chemistry Lessons
Irwansyah, F. S.; Lubab, I.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.
2017-09-01
This research aims to design electronic module (e-module) oriented to the development of students’ chemical literacy on the solution colligative properties material. This research undergoes some stages including concept analysis, discourse analysis, storyboard design, design development, product packaging, validation, and feasibility test. Overall, this research undertakes three main stages, namely, Define (in the form of preliminary studies); Design (designing e-module); Develop (including validation and model trial). The concept presentation and visualization used in this e-module is oriented to chemical literacy skills. The presentation order carries aspects of scientific context, process, content, and attitude. Chemists and multi media experts have done the validation to test the initial quality of the products and give a feedback for the product improvement. The feasibility test results stated that the content presentation and display are valid and feasible to be used with the value of 85.77% and 87.94%. These values indicate that this e-module oriented to students’ chemical literacy skills for the solution colligative properties material is feasible to be used.
Microwave interaction with hot electron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Ikegami, H.
1980-01-01
A numerical calculation is presented of ray trajectories and cyclotron damping for toroidal plasmas using geometrical optics. In the absorption region, group velocity does not always coincide with the velocity of energy flow, therefore it should be careful to apply the geometrical optics to finite temperature plasmas. In these calculations, attention is paid mainly to the finite temperature effect on ray tracing. Some numerical results for ordinary waves are presented. Second, new cutoff and resonance appear in the plasmas with anisotropic electron temperature. This resonance frequency is shifted from the usual cyclotron resonance by an amount proportional to T 11 /mc 2 , so that one can determine T 11 when this resonance frequency is measured. A simple discussion is given. The results are presented of recent density measurement on Nagoya Bumpy Torus obtained by interferometer system with different frequencies, 35 GHz and 55 GHz. The results are different than each other in T-mode. The possible reasons for these differences are enumerated in this section
Multiply excited molecules produced by photon and electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odagiri, T.; Kouchi, N.
2006-01-01
The photon and electron interactions with molecules resulting in the formation of multiply excited molecules and the subsequent decay are subjects of great interest because the independent electron model and Born-Oppenheimer approximation are much less reliable for the multiply excited states of molecules than for the ground and lower excited electronic states. We have three methods to observe and investigate multiply excited molecules: 1) Measurements of the cross sections for the emission of fluorescence emitted by neutral fragments in the photoexcitation of molecules as a function of incident photon energy [1-3], 2) Measurements of the electron energy-loss spectra tagged with the fluorescence photons emitted by neutral fragments [4], 3) Measurements of the cross sections for generating a pair of photons in absorption of a single photon by a molecule as a function of incident photon energy [5-7]. Multiply excited states degenerate with ionization continua, which make a large contribution in the cross section curve involving ionization processes. The key point of our methods is hence that we measure cross sections free from ionization. The feature of multiply excited states is noticeable in such a cross section curve. Recently we have measured: i) the cross sections for the emission of the Lyman- fluorescence in the photoexcitation of CH 4 as a function of incident photon energy in the range 18-51 eV, ii) the electron energy-loss spectrum of CH 4 tagged with the Lyman-photons at 80 eV incident electron energy and 10 electron scattering angle in the range of the energy loss 20-45 eV, in order to understand the formation and decay of the doubly excited methane in photon and electron interactions. [8] The results are summarized in this paper and the simultaneous excitation of two electrons by electron interaction is compared with that by photon interaction in terms of the oscillator strength. (authors)
Impact of electron-electron Coulomb interaction on the high harmonic generation process in graphene
Avetissian, H. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2018-03-01
Generation of high harmonics in a monolayer graphene initiated by a strong coherent radiation field, taking into account electron-electron Coulomb interaction, is investigated. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear optical response of graphene is developed. The Coulomb interaction of electrons is treated in the scope of dynamic Hartree-Fock approximation. The closed set of integrodifferential equations for the single-particle density matrix of a graphene quantum structure is solved numerically. The obtained solutions show the significance of many-body Coulomb interaction on the high harmonic generation process in graphene.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, P.
1976-04-01
Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Gkantzounis
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.
Spin Relaxation in GaAs: Importance of Electron-Electron Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gionni Marchetti
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We study spin relaxation in n-type bulk GaAs, due to the Dyakonov–Perel mechanism, using ensemble Monte Carlo methods. Our results confirm that spin relaxation time increases with the electronic density in the regime of moderate electronic concentrations and high temperature. We show that the electron-electron scattering in the non-degenerate regime significantly slows down spin relaxation. This result supports predictions by Glazov and Ivchenko. Most importantly, our findings highlight the importance of many-body interactions for spin dynamics: we show that only by properly taking into account electron-electron interactions within the simulations, results for the spin relaxation time—with respect to both electron density and temperature—will reach good quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data. Our calculations contain no fitting parameters.
Interaction of electrons with light metal hydrides in the transmission electron microscope.
Wang, Yongming; Wakasugi, Takenobu; Isobe, Shigehito; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei
2014-12-01
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of light metal hydrides is complicated by the instability of these materials under electron irradiation. In this study, the electron kinetic energy dependences of the interactions of incident electrons with lithium, sodium and magnesium hydrides, as well as the constituting element effect on the interactions, were theoretically discussed, and electron irradiation damage to these hydrides was examined using in situ TEM. The results indicate that high incident electron kinetic energy helps alleviate the irradiation damage resulting from inelastic or elastic scattering of the incident electrons in the TEM. Therefore, observations and characterizations of these materials would benefit from increased, instead decreased, TEM operating voltage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Effect of thermal phonons on the superconducting transition temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leavens, C.R.; Talbot, E.
1983-01-01
There is no consensus in the literature on whether or not thermal phonons depress the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/. In this paper it is shown by accurate numerical solution of the real-frequency Eliashberg equations for the pairing self-energy phi and renormalization function Z that thermal phonons in the kernel for phi raise T/sub c/ but those in Z lower it by a larger amount so that the net effect is to depress T/sub c/. (A previous calculation which ignored the effect of thermal phonons in phi overestimated the suppression of T/sub c/ by at least a factor of 3.) It is shown how to switch off the thermal phonons in the imaginary-frequency Eliashberg equations, exactly for Z and approximately for phi. The real-frequency and approximate imaginary-frequency results for the depression of T/sub c/ by thermal phonons are in very satisfactory agreement. Thermal phonons are found to depress the transition temperature of Nb 3 Sn by only 2%. It is estimated that the suppression of T/sub c/ by thermal phonons saturates at about 50% in the limit of very strong electron-phonon coupling
Trapped electron losses by interactions with coherent VLF waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walt, M.; Inan, U.S.; Voss, H.D.
1996-01-01
VLF whistler waves from lightning enter the magnetosphere and cause the precipitation of energetic trapped electrons by pitch angle scattering. These events, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) have been detected by satellite and rocket instruments and by perturbations of VLF waves traveling in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Detailed comparison of precipitating electron energy spectra and time dependence are in general agreement with calculations of trapped electron interactions with ducted whistler waves. In particular the temporal structure of the precipitation and the dynamic energy spectra of the electrons confirm this interpretation of the phenomena. There are discrepancies between observed and measured electron flux intensities and pitch angle distributions, but these quantities are sensitive to unknown wave intensities and trapped particle fluxes near the loss cone angle. The overall effect of lightning generated VLF waves on the lifetime of trapped electrons is still uncertain. The flux of electrons deflected into the bounce loss cone by a discrete whistler wave has been measured in a few cases. However, the area of the precipitation region is not known, and thus the total number of electrons lost in an LEP event can only be estimated. While the LEP events are dramatic, more important effects on trapped electrons may arise from the small but numerous deflections which increase the pitch angle diffusion rate of the electron population. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Trapped electron losses by interactions with coherent VLF waves
Walt, M.; Inan, U. S.; Voss, H. D.
1996-07-01
VLF whistler waves from lightning enter the magnetosphere and cause the precipitation of energetic trapped electrons by pitch angle scattering. These events, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) have been detected by satellite and rocket instruments and by perturbations of VLF waves traveling in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Detailed comparison of precipitating electron energy spectra and time dependence are in general agreement with calculations of trapped electron interactions with ducted whistler waves. In particular the temporal structure of the precipitation and the dynamic energy spectra of the electrons confirm this interpretation of the phenomena. There are discrepancies between observed and measured electron flux intensities and pitch angle distributions, but these quantities are sensitive to unknown wave intensities and trapped particle fluxes near the loss cone angle. The overall effect of lightning generated VLF waves on the lifetime of trapped electrons is still uncertain. The flux of electrons deflected into the bounce loss cone by a discrete whistler wave has been measured in a few cases. However, the area of the precipitation region is not known, and thus the total number of electrons lost in an LEP event can only be estimated. While the LEP events are dramatic, more important effects on trapped electrons may arise from the small but numerous deflections which increase the pitch angle diffusion rate of the electron population.
Pseudospins and Topological Effects of Phonons in a Kekulé Lattice
Liu, Yizhou; Lian, Chao-Sheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Yong; Duan, Wenhui
2017-12-01
The search for exotic topological effects of phonons has attracted enormous interest for both fundamental science and practical applications. By studying phonons in a Kekulé lattice, we find a new type of pseudospin characterized by quantized Berry phases and pseudoangular momenta, which introduces various novel topological effects, including topologically protected pseudospin-polarized interface states and a phonon pseudospin Hall effect. We further demonstrate a pseudospin-contrasting optical selection rule and a pseudospin Zeeman effect, giving a complete generation-manipulation-detection paradigm of the phonon pseudospin. The pseudospin and topology-related physics revealed for phonons is general and applicable for electrons, photons, and other particles.
Phonon operators for deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1982-01-01
The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator