WorldWideScience

Sample records for electron impact 3d

  1. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  2. Fast-electron-impact study on excitations of 4p, 4s, and 3d electrons of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhensheng; Zhu Linfan; Liu Xiaojing; Li Wenbin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun; Zhong Zhiping

    2002-01-01

    Absolute optical oscillator strength densities for the excitations of the electrons 4p, 4s, and 3d have been measured. Their absolute optical oscillator strengths have also been obtained. An enhancement above the 4p ionization threshold in the photoabsorption spectrum was assigned as a delayed maximum which arises from the photoionization process of 4p→εd according to present Dirac-Slater calculation. In the energy region of 4s autoionization, we have observed several features that are absent in previous fast-electron-impact work, but exist in optical measurements. We clarify this discrepancy here. Two Rydberg series of optically forbidden transitions, i.e., 4s -1 ns( 1 S) (n=5,6,7) and 4s -1 nd( 1 D) (n=4,5,6,7) have been observed when the spectrometer worked at conditions with larger momentum transfers, namely, K 2 =0.23 a.u. and 0.67 a.u. Furthermore, the absolute optical oscillator strengths for the 3d excitation have been obtained

  3. Electron impact excitation of Fe-peak elements: forbidden transitions in the 3d5 manifold of Fe IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, B M; Hibbert, A; Scott, M P; Noble, C J; Burke, V M; Burke, P G

    2005-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation collision strengths of the Fe-peak element Fe IV are calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix suite of codes PRMAT designed for parallel processors. One hundred and eight LS-coupled states arising from the 3d 5 , 3d 4 4s and 3d 4 4p configurations of Fe IV, are retained in the present calculations. Detailed multi-configuration interaction target wavefunctions are used with the aid of 3p 2 → 3d 2 electron promotions and a 4dbar correlation orbital in the present calculations. Effective collision strengths for optically forbidden transitions, which are extremely important in the analysis of lines in the Fe IV spectra, are obtained by averaging the electron collision strengths for a wide range of incident electron energies, over a Maxwellian distribution of velocities. Results are presented for electron temperatures (T e in Kelvin) in the range 3.3 ≤ Log T e ≤ 6.0 applicable to many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas for transitions within the 3d 5 manifold. The present results compared to previous investigations provide improved results for important lines in the Fe IV spectrum

  4. Hybrid 3D Printing of Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Alexander D; Busbee, Travis A; Boley, John William; Raney, Jordan R; Chortos, Alex; Kotikian, Arda; Berrigan, John Daniel; Durstock, Michael F; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid 3D printing is a new method for producing soft electronics that combines direct ink writing of conductive and dielectric elastomeric materials with automated pick-and-place of surface mount electronic components within an integrated additive manufacturing platform. Using this approach, insulating matrix and conductive electrode inks are directly printed in specific layouts. Passive and active electrical components are then integrated to produce the desired electronic circuitry by using an empty nozzle (in vacuum-on mode) to pick up individual components, place them onto the substrate, and then deposit them (in vacuum-off mode) in the desired location. The components are then interconnected via printed conductive traces to yield soft electronic devices that may find potential application in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 3D shaping of electron beams using amplitude masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Arie, Ady

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electron beams are shaped in 3D with examples of curves and lattices. • Computer generated holograms are manifested as binary amplitude masks. • Applications in electron-optical particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. • Electron beam lithography fabrication scheme explained in detail. • Measurement paradigms of 3D shaped beams are discussed. - Abstract: Shaping the electron wavefunction in three dimensions may prove to be an indispensable tool for research involving atomic-sized particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. We utilize computer-generated holograms to sculpt electron wavefunctions in a standard transmission electron microscope in 3D, and demonstrate the formation of electron beams exhibiting high intensity along specific trajectories as well as shaping the beam into a 3D lattice of hot-spots. The concepts presented here are similar to those used in light optics for trapping and tweezing of particles, but at atomic scale resolutions.

  6. 3D-vertical integration of sensors and electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Technologies are being developed which enable the vertical integration of sensors and electronics as well as multilayer electronic circuits. New thinning and wafer bonding techniques and the formation of small vias between resulting thin layers of electronics enable the design of dense integrated sensor/readout structures. We discuss candidate technologies based on SOI and bulk CMOS. A prototype 3D chip developed at Fermilab that incorporates three tiers of 0.18μm CMOS is described

  7. Correlated electron pseudopotentials for 3d-transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trail, J. R.; Needs, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A recently published correlated electron pseudopotentials (CEPPs) method has been adapted for application to the 3d-transition metals, and to include relativistic effects. New CEPPs are reported for the atoms Sc − Fe, constructed from atomic quantum chemical calculations that include an accurate description of correlated electrons. Dissociation energies, molecular geometries, and zero-point vibrational energies of small molecules are compared with all electron results, with all quantities evaluated using coupled cluster singles doubles and triples calculations. The CEPPs give better results in the correlated-electron calculations than Hartree-Fock-based pseudopotentials available in the literature

  8. Navigating 3D electron microscopy maps with EM-SURFER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Xiong, Yi; Han, Xusi; Guang, Shuomeng; Christoffer, Charles; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-05-30

    The Electron Microscopy DataBank (EMDB) is growing rapidly, accumulating biological structural data obtained mainly by electron microscopy and tomography, which are emerging techniques for determining large biomolecular complex and subcellular structures. Together with the Protein Data Bank (PDB), EMDB is becoming a fundamental resource of the tertiary structures of biological macromolecules. To take full advantage of this indispensable resource, the ability to search the database by structural similarity is essential. However, unlike high-resolution structures stored in PDB, methods for comparing low-resolution electron microscopy (EM) density maps in EMDB are not well established. We developed a computational method for efficiently searching low-resolution EM maps. The method uses a compact fingerprint representation of EM maps based on the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is derived from a mathematical series expansion for EM maps that are considered as 3D functions. The method is implemented in a web server named EM-SURFER, which allows users to search against the entire EMDB in real-time. EM-SURFER compares the global shapes of EM maps. Examples of search results from different types of query structures are discussed. We developed EM-SURFER, which retrieves structurally relevant matches for query EM maps from EMDB within seconds. The unique capability of EM-SURFER to detect 3D shape similarity of low-resolution EM maps should prove invaluable in structural biology.

  9. FDM 3D printed coffee glove embedded with flexible electronic

    KAUST Repository

    Bahri, Meznan

    2017-10-31

    With the advances in 3D printing technology, Flexible Electronics can now be exploited to form the so-called “Embedded Electronics”. This paper describes experiences learned from a research project which ran during summer 2016 at KAUST, in collaboration with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Effat University, and aimed at creating a heating coffee glove product operating on double alkaline batteries using Kapton© as a flexible substrate for the circuit. The circuit and its batteries are encapsulated in a 3D printed glove, designed using SolidWorks©. The proposed methodology and techniques applied during this work could be further used in implementing other technologies, such as thermoelectric coolers head patches, smart garments, and flexible smartphones. Limitation and recommendation of the present methodology are also discussed.

  10. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  11. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  12. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  13. Ligand Electron Density Shape Recognition Using 3D Zernike Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Prasad; Grandison, Scott; Cowtan, Kevin; Mak, Lora; Lawson, David M.; Morris, Richard J.

    We present a novel approach to crystallographic ligand density interpretation based on Zernike shape descriptors. Electron density for a bound ligand is expanded in an orthogonal polynomial series (3D Zernike polynomials) and the coefficients from this expansion are employed to construct rotation-invariant descriptors. These descriptors can be compared highly efficiently against large databases of descriptors computed from other molecules. In this manuscript we describe this process and show initial results from an electron density interpretation study on a dataset containing over a hundred OMIT maps. We could identify the correct ligand as the first hit in about 30 % of the cases, within the top five in a further 30 % of the cases, and giving rise to an 80 % probability of getting the correct ligand within the top ten matches. In all but a few examples, the top hit was highly similar to the correct ligand in both shape and chemistry. Further extensions and intrinsic limitations of the method are discussed.

  14. FIJI Macro 3D ART VeSElecT: 3D Automated Reconstruction Tool for Vesicle Structures of Electron Tomograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Verena Kaltdorf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic image reconstruction is critical to cope with steadily increasing data from advanced microscopy. We describe here the Fiji macro 3D ART VeSElecT which we developed to study synaptic vesicles in electron tomograms. We apply this tool to quantify vesicle properties (i in embryonic Danio rerio 4 and 8 days past fertilization (dpf and (ii to compare Caenorhabditis elegans N2 neuromuscular junctions (NMJ wild-type and its septin mutant (unc-59(e261. We demonstrate development-specific and mutant-specific changes in synaptic vesicle pools in both models. We confirm the functionality of our macro by applying our 3D ART VeSElecT on zebrafish NMJ showing smaller vesicles in 8 dpf embryos then 4 dpf, which was validated by manual reconstruction of the vesicle pool. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of C. elegans septin mutant unc-59(e261 on vesicle pool formation and vesicle size. Automated vesicle registration and characterization was implemented in Fiji as two macros (registration and measurement. This flexible arrangement allows in particular reducing false positives by an optional manual revision step. Preprocessing and contrast enhancement work on image-stacks of 1nm/pixel in x and y direction. Semi-automated cell selection was integrated. 3D ART VeSElecT removes interfering components, detects vesicles by 3D segmentation and calculates vesicle volume and diameter (spherical approximation, inner/outer diameter. Results are collected in color using the RoiManager plugin including the possibility of manual removal of non-matching confounder vesicles. Detailed evaluation considered performance (detected vesicles and specificity (true vesicles as well as precision and recall. We furthermore show gain in segmentation and morphological filtering compared to learning based methods and a large time gain compared to manual segmentation. 3D ART VeSElecT shows small error rates and its speed gain can be up to 68 times faster in comparison to manual

  15. The business impact and value of 3-D seismic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylor, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    3-D Seismic has had a profound and lasting impact on the hydrocarbon exploration and production industry. It is a technology which is often excellent at assessing the risk associated with trap definition, seal and reservoir distribution, the very parameters which are the most critical to optimizing the economics associated with E and P projects. This paper discusses Amoco Corporation's experience with 3-D Seismic when used for new field rate acceleration, older field extension, and wildcat exploration. Its emphasis is on assessing the value added by 3-D by reviewing recent E and P experiences in a post-appraisal mode and then in applying the lessons learned from these analyses and case histories to potential new projects. This work is significant because it first assesses the impact 3-D has had on a large number of business situations at Amoco; that is, it is based on data collected on159 3-D surveys acquired at Amoco between 1991--1994. Second, it uses the data collected from these surveys and applies the business improvements observed in the data to typical international business opportunities to quantify, in expected value $ terms, the value that the technology brings to an average project. Finally, it looks at project economics not only from an oil company perspective, but from the standpoint of a host government, with a discussion of insights and implications of the data, economics and techniques utilized

  16. 3D Printing Technologies for Flexible Tactile Sensors toward Wearable Electronics and Electronic Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Over the past three decades, various 3D printing technologies have been developed including photopolymerization-based, materials extrusion-based, sheet lamination-based, binder jetting-based, power bed fusion-based and direct energy deposition-based processes. 3D printing offers unparalleled flexibility and simplicity in the fabrication of highly complex 3D objects. Tactile sensors that emulate human tactile perceptions are used to translate mechanical signals such as force, pressure, strain, shear, torsion, bend, vibration, etc. into electrical signals and play a crucial role toward the realization of wearable electronics and electronic skin. To date, many types of 3D printing technologies have been applied in the manufacturing of various types of tactile sensors including piezoresistive, capacitive and piezoelectric sensors. This review attempts to summarize the current state-of-the-art 3D printing technologies and their applications in tactile sensors for wearable electronics and electronic skin. The applications are categorized into five aspects: 3D-printed molds for microstructuring substrate, electrodes and sensing element; 3D-printed flexible sensor substrate and sensor body for tactile sensors; 3D-printed sensing element; 3D-printed flexible and stretchable electrodes for tactile sensors; and fully 3D-printed tactile sensors. Latest advances in the fabrication of tactile sensors by 3D printing are reviewed and the advantages and limitations of various 3D printing technologies and printable materials are discussed. Finally, future development of 3D-printed tactile sensors is discussed.

  17. Hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Wasley, T; Nguyen, T T; Kay, R; Ta, V D; Shephard, J D; Stringer, J; Smith, P; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C

    2016-01-01

    A novel hybrid additive manufacturing (AM) technology combining digital light projection (DLP) stereolithography (SL) with 3D micro-dispensing alongside conventional surface mount packaging is presented in this work. This technology overcomes the inherent limitations of individual AM processes and integrates seamlessly with conventional packaging processes to enable the deposition of multiple materials. This facilitates the creation of bespoke end-use products with complex 3D geometry and multi-layer embedded electronic systems. Through a combination of four-point probe measurement and non-contact focus variation microscopy, it was identified that there was no obvious adverse effect of DLP SL embedding process on the electrical conductivity of printed conductors. The resistivity maintained to be less than 4  ×  10 −4 Ω · cm before and after DLP SL embedding when cured at 100 °C for 1 h. The mechanical strength of SL specimens with thick polymerized layers was also identified through tensile testing. It was found that the polymerization thickness should be minimised (less than 2 mm) to maximise the bonding strength. As a demonstrator a polymer pyramid with embedded triple-layer 555 LED blinking circuitry was successfully fabricated to prove the technical viability. (paper)

  18. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  19. Electron capture into the 3s, 3p, 3d states and the 3, 4, 5, 6 levels of H by proton impact on gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenormand, J.

    1976-01-01

    The excitation of the Hsub(α), Hsub(β), Hsub(γ), Hsub(delta) Balmer lines by means of 15-85keV protons incident on noble-gas and molecular targets have been observed. Absolute cross-sections for electron capture by the 3l (l=s, p, d) states and the 3, 4, 5, 6 levels of hydrogen atom have been determined with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 and O 2 . Polarizations of the Hsub(α) and Hsub(β) lines have been measured for 10-70keV protons on Ar, Kr, and Xe. Absolute cross-sections for the emission of the 3914A band of N 2 + have been obtained for 10-100keV protons on the gaseous nitrogen target [fr

  20. 3D Observation of GEMS by Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Junya; Miyake, Akira; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous silicates in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) coming from comets are dominated by glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS). GEMS grains are submicron-sized rounded objects (typically 100-500) nm in diameter) with anaometer-sized (10-50 nm) Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains embedded in an amorphous silicate matrix. Several formation processes for GEMS grains have been proposed so far, but these models are still being debated [2-5]. Bradley et al. proposed that GEMS grains are interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk and that they are amorphiation products of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium by sputter-deposition of cosmic ray irradiation, similar to space weathering [2,4]. This consideration is based on the observation of nano-sized crystals (approximately 10 nm) called relict grains in GEMS grains and their shapes are pseudomorphs to the host GEMS grains. On the other hand, Keller and Messenger proposed that most GEMS formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas [3,5]. This model is based on the fact that most GEMS grains have solar isotopic compositions and have extremely heterogeneous and non-solar elemental compositions. Keller and Messenger (2011) also reported that amorphous silicates in GEMS grains are surrounded by sulfide grains, which formed as sulfidization of metallic iron grains located on the GEMS surface. The previous studies were performed with 2D observation by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). In order to understand the structure of GEMS grains described above more clearly, we observed 3D structure of GEMS grains by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL) at Kyoto University. Electron tomography gives not only 3D structures but also gives higher spatial resolution (approximately a few nm) than that in conventional 2D image, which is restricted by

  1. 3D-finite element impact simulation on concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heider, N.

    1989-12-15

    The analysis of impact processes is an interesting application of full 3D Finite Element calculations. This work presents a simulation of the penetration process of a Kinetic Energy projectile into a concrete target. Such a calculation requires an adequate FE model, especially a proper description of the crack opening process in front of the projectile. The aim is the prediction of the structural survival of the penetrator case with the help of an appropriate failure criterion. Also, the computer simulation allows a detailed analysis of the physical phenomena during impact. (orig.) With 4 refs., 14 figs.

  2. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 22/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    On page 4449, D. Cohn, S. Magdassi, and co-workers describe a general and facile method based on 3D printing of methacrylated macromonomers to fabricate shape-memory objects that can be used in flexible and responsive electrical circuits. Such responsive objects can be used in the fabrication of soft robotics, minimal invasive medical devices, sensors, and wearable electronics. The use of 3D printing overcomes the poor processing characteristics of thermosets and enables complex geometries that are not easily accessible by other techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 3D magnetic nanostructures grown by focused electron and ion beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Amalio

    Three-dimensional nanomagnetism is an emerging research area, where magnetic nanostructures extend along the whole space, presenting novel functionalities not limited to the substrate plane. The development of this field could have a revolutionary impact in fields such as electronics, the Internet of Things or bio-applications. In this contribution, I will show our recent work on 3D magnetic nanostructures grown by focused electron and ion beam induced deposition. This 3D nano-printing techniques, based on the local chemical vapor deposition of a gas via the interaction with electrons and ions, makes the fabrication of complex 3D magnetic nanostructures possible. First, I will show how by exploiting different growth regimes, suspended Cobalt nanowires with modulated diameter can be patterned, with potential as domain wall devices. Afterwards, I will show recent results where the synthesis of Iron-Gallium alloys can be exploited in the field of artificial multiferroics. Moreover, we are developing novel methodologies combining physical vapor deposition and 3D nano-printing, creating Permalloy 3D nanostrips with controllable widths and lengths up to a few microns. This approach has been extended to more complex geometries by exploiting advanced simulation growth techniques combining Monte Carlo and continuum model methods. Throughout the talk, I will show the methodology we are following to characterize 3D magnetic nanostructures, by combining magneto-optical Kerr effect, scanning probe microscopy and electron and X-R magnetic imaging, and I will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities when studying these structures. I acknowledge funding from EPSRC and the Winton Foundation.

  4. 3D Design Tools for Vacuum Electron Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levush, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    A reduction of development costs will have a significant impact on the total cost of the vacuum electron devices. Experimental testing cycles can be reduced or eliminated through the use of simulation-based design methodology, thereby reducing the time and cost of development. Moreover, by use of modern optimization tools for automating the process of seeking specific solution parameters and for studying dependencies of performance on parameters, new performance capabilities can be achieved, without resorting to expensive cycles of hardware fabrication and testing. Simulation-based-design will also provide the basis for sensitivity studies for determining the manufacturing tolerances associated with a particular design. Since material properties can have a critical effect on the performance of the vacuum electron devices, the design tools require precise knowledge of material characteristics, such as dielectric properties of the support rods, loss profile etc. Sensitivity studies must therefore include the effects of materials properties variation on device performance. This will provide insight for choosing the proper technological processes in order to achieve these tolerances, which is of great importance for achieving cost reduction. A successful design methodology depends on the development of accurate and efficient design tools with predictive capabilities. These design tools must be based on realistic models capable of high fidelity representation of geometry and materials, they must have optimization capabilities, and they must be easy to use

  5. 3D electron tomography of biological photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, Benjamin; Winter, Benjamin; Vieweg, Benito; Knoke, Isabel; Spallek, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann [CENEM, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Schroeder-Turk, Gerd; Mecke, Klaus [Theoretische Physik I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Photonic crystals, i.e. periodical nanostructures of materials with different dielectric constants, are highly interesting for applications in optics, optoelectronics, and sensing. By tailoring the geometrical parameters radically different and improved optical properties (e.g., optical band-gap structure, extreme refractive indices, or high anisotropy) can be achieved. Naturally occurring photonic crystals, like butterfly scales, exoskeletons of insects (chitin), or seashells (nacre), can serve as model systems for understanding the relationship between structure and optical properties. Butterfly scales are studied by TEM using a FEI Titan{sup 3} 80-300 instrument. An optimized FIB technique or ultramicrotome sectioning were used to prepare the sensitive specimens with desired thickness. Since the periodical structures have dimensions on the sub-{mu}m scale, HAADF-STEM tomography was employed for obtaining extended tilt series under conditions of atomic-number sensitive imaging. Since the solid crystal consists of chemically homogeneous chitin while the pores are unfilled, the distinct contrast in the images can easily be interpreted in terms of the local projected mass density allowing to reconstruct the chitin distribution within the optical unit cell of the scales with high 3D resolution.

  6. The 3d International Workshop on Computational Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnick, Stephen M.

    1994-09-01

    The Third International Workshop on Computational Electronics (IWCE) was held at the Benson Hotel in downtown Portland, Oregon, on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994. The workshop was devoted to a broad range of topics in computational electronics related to the simulation of electronic transport in semiconductors and semiconductor devices, particularly those which use large computational resources. The workshop was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Naval Research and the Army Research Office, as well as local support from the Oregon Joint Graduate Schools of Engineering and the Oregon Center for Advanced Technology Education. There were over 100 participants in the Portland workshop, of which more than one quarter represented research groups outside of the United States from Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. There were a total 81 papers presented at the workshop, 9 invited talks, 26 oral presentations and 46 poster presentations. The emphasis of the contributions reflected the interdisciplinary nature of computational electronics with researchers from the Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Physics communities participating in the workshop.

  7. 2D Dirac electrons in 3D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramankutty, S.V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum materials pack the spooky properties of quantum mechanics into real-life materials you can make, pick up with tweezers and study in the lab. Those of interest to us show special electronic properties of great fundamental interest and have applications potential for future computer and

  8. 3D Printing of Plant Golgi Stacks from Their Electron Tomographic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Keith Ka Ki; Kang, Madison J; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an effective tool for preparing tangible 3D models from computer visualizations to assist in scientific research and education. With the recent popularization of 3D printing processes, it is now possible for individual laboratories to convert their scientific data into a physical form suitable for presentation or teaching purposes. Electron tomography is an electron microscopy method by which 3D structures of subcellular organelles or macromolecular complexes are determined at nanometer-level resolutions. Electron tomography analyses have revealed the convoluted membrane architectures of Golgi stacks, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. But the intricacy of their 3D organizations is difficult to grasp from tomographic models illustrated on computer screens. Despite the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, production of organelle models based on experimental data with 3D printing has rarely been documented. In this chapter, we present a simple guide to creating 3D prints of electron tomographic models of plant Golgi stacks using the two most accessible 3D printing technologies.

  9. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. 3D Printing of Shape Memory Polymers for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Matt; Layani, Michael; Cooperstein, Ido; Sachyani, Ela; Cohn, Daniel; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The formation of 3D objects composed of shape memory polymers for flexible electronics is described. Layer-by-layer photopolymerization of methacrylated semicrystalline molten macromonomers by a 3D digital light processing printer enables rapid fabrication of complex objects and imparts shape memory functionality for electrical circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 3D invariant embedding model for backscattering electrons applied to materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, C.; Nieva, N.; Heluani, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the results of a 3D model used to describe the fraction of backscattered electrons, together with its energy and angular distributions, are reported. This 3D model is the result of improvements in the Invariant Embedding Approach to Microanalysis (IEAM). Comparisons with experiment show that the theoretical results follow the general trend of experimental data, when parameters (such as atomic number, energy of the impinging electrons and tilted angle) are changed

  12. Simulation of diode electron source of PSTA latex EBM using OPERA-3D software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufik; Darsono

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam transport from E-gun to the atmospheres in EBM is determined by main parameters of beam transports such as E-gun, accelerator tube, beam optics (focusing and scanning magnets). In principle the beam transport will optimum if the electron beam travels in axial axes of accelerator tubes, and the beam optics works properly. The EBM E-gun structure of PSTA uses diode type with Pierce cathode where beam transport yield will be affected by electrode voltage of the accelerator tube. To answer above hypothesis the E-gun and accelerator tube will be simulated by making a model used accelerator software programme which is called OPERA-3D. Beam transport parameters, such as distance between cathode and anode of E-gun, accelerator electrode HV, and the symmetry of cathode Pierce E-gun with anode electrode of accelerator tube, will be investigated their impacts to direction and shape of beam transports. The simulation results shows that the three parameters affects to the direction and shape of the beam transport. Diode type of electron gun cannot result parallel electron beam, but the best beam transport of this type electron gun are obtained at the accelerator voltage 300 kV, and the distance between cathode and anode of E-gun 6.1 mm where they are in the symmetry condition. (author)

  13. Electronic structure of the 3d metals. An investigation by L-shell-photoionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, T.S.

    2007-12-03

    The 3d transition metal elements from Sc to Cu have been investigated by both photo electron emission and photo absorption. Experimental spectra in the 2p energy range are discussed based on atomic multiplet models and Hartree- Fock calculations. The samples have been evaporated from an electron bombardment crucible and excited/ionized by monochromatized synchrotron radiation. Fundamental effects and the main interactions which govern the electronic structure of the 3d metal atoms are covered. Common spectral features and trends in the series are discussed as well as the importance of many body electron correlation effects. (orig.)

  14. Electron collisions with Fe-peak elements: Forbidden transitions between the low lying valence states 3d6, 3d54s, and 3d54p of Fe III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, B.M.; Scott, M.P.; Sunderland, A.G.; Noble, C.J.; Burke, V.M.; Ramsbottom, C.A.; Reid, R.H.G.; Hibbert, A.; Bell, K.L.; Burke, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Effective collision strengths are presented for the Fe-peak element Fe III at electron temperatures (T e in degrees Kelvin) in the range 2 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 6 . Forbidden transitions results are given between the 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, and the 3d 5 4p manifolds applicable to the modeling of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

  15. A nonlinear 3D containment analysis for airplane impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.; Magiera, G.; Matthees, W.; Weber, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, it is pertinent safety philosophy to design nuclear facilities against airplane impact, despite its very unlikely probability of occurrence. For safety reasons, the following conditions have to be met: 1) In the close impact area of the projectile, the structure can be stressed up to its ultimate load capacity, so that impact energy is dissipated partly. Hereby, it must be strictly clarified that local structural failure within the impact zone is avoided. 2) Residual impact energy is transferred to the 'non-disturbed' containment structure and to the interior structure. The subject of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads shows still clear gaps between the findings of experimental and analytical analyses. To clarify this highly nonlinear phenomena comprehensive tests have recently been performed in Germany. It is the aim of this paper to carry out a three-dimensional analysis of a nuclear facility. To perform the calculations, the finite element ADINA code is applied. In order to obtain optimum results, a very fine mesh leading to several thousand DOF is used. To model the impact area of the concrete structure realistically, its linear and mostly nonlinear material behaviour as well as its failure criteria must be taken into account. Herewith the structural response is reduced due to increased energy dissipation. This reduction rate is valued by variation of the assumed size of impact zone, the load impact location and the assumed load-time function. (orig./RW)

  16. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed

  17. 3D Modeling Activity for Novel High Power Electron Guns at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of powerful electronic devices requires new approaches to overcome the known limitations of existing tube technology. Multi-beam and sheet beam approaches are novel concepts for the high power microwave devices. Direct and indirect modeling methods are being developed at SLAC to meet the new requirements in the 3D modeling. The direct method of solving of Poisson's equations for the multi-beam and sheet beam guns is employed in the TOPAZ 3D tool. The combination of TOPAZ 2D and EGUN (in the beginning) with MAFIA 3D and MAGIC 3D (at the end) is used in an indirect method to model the high power electron guns. Both methods complement each other to get reliable representation of the beam trajectories. Several gun ideas are under consideration at the present time. The collected results of these simulations are discussed.

  18. 3D structure of individual nanocrystals in solution by electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwon; Elmlund, Hans; Ercius, Peter; Yuk, Jong Min; Limmer, David T.; Chen, Qian; Kim, Kwanpyo; Han, Sang Hoon; Weitz, David A.; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge about the synthesis, growth mechanisms, and physical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has been limited by technical impediments. We introduce a method for determining three-dimensional (3D) structures of individual nanoparticles in solution. We combine a graphene liquid cell, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, a direct electron detector, and an algorithm for single-particle 3D reconstruction originally developed for analysis of biological molecules. This method yielded two 3D structures of individual platinum nanocrystals at near-atomic resolution. Because our method derives the 3D structure from images of individual nanoparticles rotating freely in solution, it enables the analysis of heterogeneous populations of potentially unordered nanoparticles that are synthesized in solution, thereby providing a means to understand the structure and stability of defects at the nanoscale.

  19. Nanoparticle imaging. 3D structure of individual nanocrystals in solution by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwon; Elmlund, Hans; Ercius, Peter; Yuk, Jong Min; Limmer, David T; Chen, Qian; Kim, Kwanpyo; Han, Sang Hoon; Weitz, David A; Zettl, A; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2015-07-17

    Knowledge about the synthesis, growth mechanisms, and physical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has been limited by technical impediments. We introduce a method for determining three-dimensional (3D) structures of individual nanoparticles in solution. We combine a graphene liquid cell, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, a direct electron detector, and an algorithm for single-particle 3D reconstruction originally developed for analysis of biological molecules. This method yielded two 3D structures of individual platinum nanocrystals at near-atomic resolution. Because our method derives the 3D structure from images of individual nanoparticles rotating freely in solution, it enables the analysis of heterogeneous populations of potentially unordered nanoparticles that are synthesized in solution, thereby providing a means to understand the structure and stability of defects at the nanoscale. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. CT of calcaneal fractures: 3-D-reformations with electronic disarticulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Hohendorff, B.; Zenker, W.; Hutzelmann, A.; Heller, M.

    1996-01-01

    25 patients with intra-articular calcaneal fractures underwent diagnostic CT-examinations. Axial slices, sagittal and 3-D-reformations with and without electronic disarticulation were performed. The sagittal and both types of 3-D-reformations were compared to the axial slices with regard to the diagnostic criteria: Involvement of articular facets, number of fragments, and traumatic changes of the hindfoot. The best proof of involvement of articular facets is found in axial slices and 3-D-reconstructions after disarticulation followed by sagittal reconstructions. Usually on 3-D-reconstructions without disarticulation articular facets cannot be identified because of overlapping bones. The number of fragments is clearly demonstrated by axial slices and sagittal reconstructions followed by 3-D-reconstructions after disarticulation. Traumatic changes of the hindfoot can be diagnosed in all four forms of visualisation. The decisive diagnosis for treatment planning is made based on the axial slices supported by sagittal reformations. In unclarified cases 3-D-reformations after electronic disarticulation may provide further information. 3-D-reformations without disarticulation are useless. (orig./MG) [de

  1. The optical design of 3D ICs for smartphone and optro-electronics sensing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Smartphone require limit space for image system, current lens, used in smartphones are refractive type, the effective focal length is limited the thickness of phone physical size. Other, such as optro-electronics sensing chips, proximity optical sensors, and UV indexer chips are integrated into smart phone with limit space. Due to the requirement of multiple lens in smartphone, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips in a limited space of CPU board in future smart phone, optro-electronics 3D IC's integrated with optical lens or components may be a key technology for 3 C products. A design for reflective lens is fitted to CMOS, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips based on 3-D IC. The reflective lens can be threes times of effective focal lens, and be able to resolve small object. The system will be assembled and integrated in one 3-D IC more easily.

  2. Resonant structure of the 3d electron's angular distribution in a free Mn+Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Dolmatov, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn + ion is calculated using the open-quotes spin-polarizedclose quotes random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p → 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p → 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published

  3. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  4. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. A self-healing 3D woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nji, Jones; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) woven fabric reinforced shape memory polymer composite for impact mitigation was proposed, fabricated, programmed using a three-step strain-controlled thermomechanical cycle at a pre-strain level of 5% and machined to two groups of specimens (G1 and G2) with dimensions 152.4 mm × 101.6 mm × 12.7 mm. The specimens were impact tested, transversely, centrally and repeatedly with 32 and 42 J of energy. G1 specimens were healed after each impact until perforation occurred. G2 specimens were not healed after each impact and served as controls. At 32 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 9th impact while G1 specimens lasted until the 15th impact; at 42 J impact energy, G2 specimens were perforated at the 5th impact while G1 specimens were perforated at the 7th impact. Visual inspection, C-scan, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to evaluate damage, failure modes, and healing efficiency

  6. 3D Printed structural electronics: embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; Schipper, M.M.R. de; Werff, J.J.J. van der; Germs, W.W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  7. 3D Printed structural electronics : embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; de Schipper, M.R.; van der Werff, J.J.; Germs, W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  8. Transfer function restoration in 3D electron microscopy via iterative data refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorzano, C O S; Marabini, R; Herman, G T; Censor, Y; Carazo, J M

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) is a powerful tool for visualizing complex biological systems. As with any other imaging device, the electron microscope introduces a transfer function (called in this field the contrast transfer function, CTF) into the image acquisition process that modulates the various frequencies of the signal. Thus, the 3D reconstructions performed with these CTF-affected projections are also affected by an implicit 3D transfer function. For high-resolution electron microscopy, the effect of the CTF is quite dramatic and limits severely the achievable resolution. In this work we make use of the iterative data refinement (IDR) technique to ameliorate the effect of the CTF. It is demonstrated that the approach can be successfully applied to noisy data

  9. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms −2 ) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. 

  10. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms{sup −2}) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. .

  11. A 3D Image Filter for Parameter-Free Segmentation of Macromolecular Structures from Electron Tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rubbiya A.; Landsberg, Michael J.; Knauth, Emily; Morgan, Garry P.; Marsh, Brad J.; Hankamer, Ben

    2012-01-01

    3D image reconstruction of large cellular volumes by electron tomography (ET) at high (≤5 nm) resolution can now routinely resolve organellar and compartmental membrane structures, protein coats, cytoskeletal filaments, and macromolecules. However, current image analysis methods for identifying in situ macromolecular structures within the crowded 3D ultrastructural landscape of a cell remain labor-intensive, time-consuming, and prone to user-bias and/or error. This paper demonstrates the development and application of a parameter-free, 3D implementation of the bilateral edge-detection (BLE) algorithm for the rapid and accurate segmentation of cellular tomograms. The performance of the 3D BLE filter has been tested on a range of synthetic and real biological data sets and validated against current leading filters—the pseudo 3D recursive and Canny filters. The performance of the 3D BLE filter was found to be comparable to or better than that of both the 3D recursive and Canny filters while offering the significant advantage that it requires no parameter input or optimisation. Edge widths as little as 2 pixels are reproducibly detected with signal intensity and grey scale values as low as 0.72% above the mean of the background noise. The 3D BLE thus provides an efficient method for the automated segmentation of complex cellular structures across multiple scales for further downstream processing, such as cellular annotation and sub-tomogram averaging, and provides a valuable tool for the accurate and high-throughput identification and annotation of 3D structural complexity at the subcellular level, as well as for mapping the spatial and temporal rearrangement of macromolecular assemblies in situ within cellular tomograms. PMID:22479430

  12. The degree of π electron delocalization and the formation of 3D-extensible sandwich structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Caixia; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Jia-Jia; Li, Debao; Wu, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiaotai

    2016-04-28

    DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations were performed to examine the feasibility of graphene-like C42H18 and starbenzene C6(BeH)6 (SBz) polymers as ligands of 3D-extensible sandwich compounds (3D-ESCs) with uninterrupted sandwich arrays. The results revealed that sandwich compounds with three or more C42H18 ligands were not feasible. The possible reason may be the localization of π electrons on certain C6 hexagons due to π-metal interactions, which makes the whole ligand lose its electronic structure basis (higher degree of π electron delocalization) to maintain the planar structure. For comparison, with the aid of benzene (Bz) molecules, the SBz polymers can be feasible ligands for designing 3D-ESCs because the C-Be interactions in individual SBz are largely ionic, which will deter the π electrons on one C6 ring from connecting to those on neighbouring C6 rings. This means that high degree of π electron delocalization is not necessary for maintaining the planarity of SBz polymers. Such a locally delocalized π electron structure is desirable for the ligands of 3D-ESCs. Remarkably, the formation of a sandwich compound with SBz is thermodynamically more favourable than that found for bis(Bz)chromium. The assembly of 3D-ESCs is largely exothermic, which will facilitate future experimental synthesis. The different variation trends on the HOMO-LUMO gaps in different directions (relative to the sandwich axes) suggest that they can be developed to form directional conductors or semiconductors, which may be useful in the production of electronic devices.

  13. Influence of Fibre Architecture on Impact Damage Tolerance in 3D Woven Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, P.; Hogg, P.; Arshad, M.; Jetavat, D.; Jamshidi, P.

    2012-10-01

    3D woven composites, due to the presence of through-thickness fibre-bridging, have the potential to improve damage tolerance and at the same time to reduce the manufacturing costs. However, ability to withstand damage depends on weave topology as well as geometry of individual tows. There is an extensive literature on damage tolerance of 2D prepreg laminates but limited work is reported on the damage tolerance of 3D weaves. In view of the recent interest in 3D woven composites from aerospace as well as non-aerospace sectors, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the impact damage resistance as well as damage tolerance of 3D woven composites. Four different 3D woven architectures, orthogonal, angle interlocked, layer-to-layer and modified layer-to-layer structures, have been produced under identical weaving conditions. Two additional structures, Unidirectional (UD) cross-ply and 2D plain weave, have been developed for comparison with 3D weaves. All the four 3D woven laminates have similar order of magnitude of damage area and damage width, but significantly lower than UD and 2D woven laminates. Damage Resistance, calculated as impact energy per unit damage area, has been shown to be significantly higher for 3D woven laminates. Rate of change of CAI strength with impact energy appears to be similar for all four 3D woven laminates as well as UD laminate; 2D woven laminate has higher rate of degradation with respect to impact energy. Undamaged compression strength has been shown to be a function of average tow waviness angle. Additionally, 3D weaves exhibit a critical damage size; below this size there is no appreciable reduction in compression strength. 3D woven laminates have also exhibited a degree of plasticity during compression whereas UD laminates fail instantly. The experimental work reported in this paper forms a foundation for systematic development of computational models for 3D woven architectures for damage tolerance.

  14. 3D structure of eukaryotic flagella/cilia by cryo-electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Flagella/cilia are motile organelles with more than 400 proteins. To understand the mechanism of such complex systems, we need methods to describe molecular arrange-ments and conformations three-dimensionally in vivo. Cryo-electron tomography enabled us such a 3D structural analysis. Our group has been working on 3D structure of flagella/cilia using this method and revealed highly ordered and beautifully organized molecular arrangement. 3D structure gave us insights into the mechanism to gener-ate bending motion with well defined waveforms. In this review, I summarize our recent structural studies on fla-gella/cilia by cryo-electron tomography, mainly focusing on dynein microtubule-based ATPase motor proteins and the radial spoke, a regulatory protein complex.

  15. Toward 3D structural information from quantitative electron exit wave analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Moldovan, Grigore; Kirkland, Angus I; Wang, Amy; Van Dyck, Dirk; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Simulations show that using a new direct imaging detector and accurate exit wave restoration algorithms allows nearly quantitative restoration of electron exit wave phase, which can be regarded as only qualitative for conventional indirect imaging cameras. This opens up a possibility of extracting accurate information on 3D atomic structure of the sample even from a single projection.

  16. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D Anatomy Models and Impact on Learning: A Review of the Quality of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy A. Azer

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: There was no solid evidence that the use of 3D models is superior to traditional teaching. However, the studies varied in research quality. More studies are needed to examine the short- and long-term impacts of 3D models on learning using valid and appropriate tools.

  18. TNO : The impact of 3-D printing on supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.; Blankers, I.J.; Moolenburgh, E.A.; Posthumus, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is said that 3-D printing, officially known as additive manufacturing, has the potential to become the biggest single disruptive phenomenon to impact global industry since mass production lines were introduced early in the twentieth century. McKinsey Global Institute named 3-D printing as one of

  19. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  20. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Ronald, E-mail: lipton@fnal.gov [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  1. Effective sensitivity in 3D PET: The impact of detector dead time on 3D system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.L.; Jones, T.; Meikle, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    3D PET has higher sensitivity than 2D PET. Sensitivity is determined by two components: the geometric solid angle for detection, and the fractional dead time, i.e., the time for which the detector is unavailable for accepting events. The loss in overall sensitivity as a function of radioactivity concentration due to these factors for 3D PET has been characterized by a parameter, the effective sensitivity, which combines absolute sensitivity and noise equivalent count rates. This parameter includes scatter, system sensitivity, dead time, and random coincidence rates, and permits comparisons between different tomographs as well as the same tomograph under different conditions. Effective sensitivity decreases most rapidly for larger, open 3D tomographs. The loss in effective sensitivity with increasing count rate suggests that new faster scintillation detectors will be needed to realize the sensitivity gain of 3D PET over a wide dynamic range of radioactivity concentrations

  2. A desktop 3D printer with dual extruders to produce customised electronic circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Javaid; Onimowo, Dominic Adaoiza; Gohrabian, Mohammed; Sharma, Tinku; Shirvani, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    3D printing has opened new horizons for the manufacturing industry in general, and 3D printers have become the tools for technological advancements. There is a huge divide between the pricing of industrial and desktop 3D printers with the former being on the expensive side capable of producing excellent quality products and latter being on the low-cost side with moderate quality results. However, there is a larger room for improvements and enhancements for the desktop systems as compared to the industrial ones. In this paper, a desktop 3D printer called Prusa Mendel i2 has been modified and integrated with an additional extruder so that the system can work with dual extruders and produce bespoke electronic circuits. The communication between the two extruders has been established by making use of the In-Chip Serial Programming port on the Arduino Uno controlling the printer. The biggest challenge is to control the flow of electric paint (to be dispensed by the new extruder) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis has been carried out to ascertain the optimal conditions for proper dispensing. The final product is a customised electronic circuit with the base of plastic (from the 3D printer's extruder) and electronic paint (from the additional extruder) properly dispensed to create a live circuit on a plastic platform. This low-cost enhancement to a desktop 3D printer can provide a new prospect to produce multiple material parts where the additional extruder can be filled with any material that can be properly dispensed from its nozzle.

  3. Carbon nanotube based 3-D matrix for enabling three-dimensional nano-magneto-electronics [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Hong

    Full Text Available This letter describes the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT-based arrays with estimated 2-nm thick cobalt (Co nanoparticles deposited inside individual tubes to unravel the possibility of using the unique templates for ultra-high-density low-energy 3-D nano-magneto-electronic devices. The presence of oriented 2-nm thick Co layers within individual nanotubes in the CNT-based 3-D matrix is confirmed through VSM measurements as well as an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS.

  4. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of electron emission in double photoionization processes near the krypton 3d threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F; Sheinerman, S; Andric, L; Lablanquie, P; Palaudoux, J; Becker, U; Braune, M; Viefhaus, J; Eland, J H D

    2008-01-01

    Two-electron emission following photoabsorption near the Kr 3d threshold is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. On the experimental side, electron/electron coincidences using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer allow us to observe the complete double photo ionization (DPI) continua of selected Kr 2+ final states, and to see how these continua are affected by resonant processes in the vicinity of the Kr 3d threshold. The analysis is based on a quantum mechanical approach that takes into account the contribution of three different processes: (A) Auger decay of the inner 3d vacancy with the associated post-collision interaction (PCI) effects, (B) capture of slow photoelectrons into discrete states followed by valence multiplet decay (VMD) of the excited ionic states and (C) valence shell DPI. The dominant process for each Kr 2+ (4p -2 ) final state is the photoionization of the inner shell followed by Auger decay of the 3d vacancies. Moreover, for the 4p -2 ( 3 P) and 4p -2 ( 1 D) final ionic states an important contribution comes from the processes of slow photoelectron capture followed by VMD as well as from double ionization of the outer shell involving also VMD

  6. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  7. Empty-electronic-state evolution for Sc and electron dynamics at the 3p-3d giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.; Wagener, T.J.; Gao, Y.; Weaver, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Inverse photoemission has been used to study the developing electronic states of an early transition metal, Sc, during thin-film growth and to investigate the effects of these states on the 3p-3d giant dipole resonance. Energy- and coverage-dependent intensity variations of the empty Sc states show that the 3d maximum moves 1.1 eV toward the Fermi level as the thickness of the Sc film increases from 1 to 300 A as measured with an incident electron energy of 41.25 eV, an effect attributed to metallic band formation via hybridization of atomic 4s and 3d states. Incident-energy-dependent intensity variations for these empty Sc features show resonant photon emission for incident electron energies above the 3p threshold, with maxima at 43 and 44 eV for 300- and 5-A-thick films, respectively. Considerations of hybridization-induced energy shifts of the empty Sc 3d states demonstrate that the radiative energy changes very little with Sc coverages. These studies indicate coupling of decay channels involving the inverse photoemission continuum and the recombination of the atomic 3p-3d giant dipole transition, the energy of the latter being determined by atomic 3p-3d excitation processes

  8. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  9. Towards automated electron holographic tomography for 3D mapping of electrostatic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Wolf@Triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lubk, Axel; Lichte, Hannes [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Friedrich, Heiner [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Electron-holographic tomography (EHT), that is, the combination of off-axis electron holography with electron tomography, was successfully applied for the quantitative 3D mapping of electrostatic potentials at the nanoscale. Here we present the first software package (THOMAS) for semi-automated acquisition of holographic tilt series, a prerequisite for efficient data collection. Using THOMAS, the acquisition time for a holographic tilt series, consisting of object and reference holograms, is reduced by a factor of five on average, compared to the previous, completely manual approaches. Moreover, the existing software packages for retrieving amplitude and phase information from electron holograms have been extended, now including a one-step procedure for holographic tilt series reconstruction. Furthermore, a modified SIRT algorithm (WSIRT) was implemented for the quantitative 3D reconstruction of the electrostatic potential from the aligned phase tilt series. Finally, the application of EHT to a polystyrene latex sphere test-specimen and a pn-doped Ge 'needle'-shaped specimen are presented, illustrating the quantitative character of EHT. For both specimens the mean inner potential (MIP) values were accurately determined from the reconstructed 3D potential. For the Ge specimen, additionally the 'built-in' voltage across the pn junction of 0.5 V was obtained.

  10. 3D imaging by serial block face scanning electron microscopy for materials science using ultramicrotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Teruo, E-mail: t.hashimoto@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, George E.; Zhou, Xiaorong; Withers, Philip J.

    2016-04-15

    Mechanical serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) has emerged as a means of obtaining three dimensional (3D) electron images over volumes much larger than possible by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning and at higher spatial resolution than achievable with conventional X-ray computed tomography (CT). Such high resolution 3D electron images can be employed for precisely determining the shape, volume fraction, distribution and connectivity of important microstructural features. While soft (fixed or frozen) biological samples are particularly well suited for nanoscale sectioning using an ultramicrotome, the technique can also produce excellent 3D images at electron microscope resolution in a time and resource-efficient manner for engineering materials. Currently, a lack of appreciation of the capabilities of ultramicrotomy and the operational challenges associated with minimising artefacts for different materials is limiting its wider application to engineering materials. Consequently, this paper outlines the current state of the art for SBFSEM examining in detail how damage is introduced during slicing and highlighting strategies for minimising such damage. A particular focus of the study is the acquisition of 3D images for a variety of metallic and coated systems. - Highlights: • The roughness of the ultramicrotomed block face of AA2024 in Al area was 1.2 nm. • Surface texture associated with chattering was evident in grains with 45° diamond knife. • A 76° rake angle minimises the stress on the block face. • Using the oscillating knife with a cutting speed of 0.04 mms{sup −1} minimised the surface texture. • A variety of material applications were presented.

  11. Model-based Adjustment of Droplet Characteristic for 3D Electronic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge in 3D electronic printing is the print resolution and accuracy. In this paper, a typical mode - lumped element modeling method (LEM - is adopted to simulate the droplet jetting characteristic. This modeling method can quickly get the droplet velocity and volume with a high accuracy. Experimental results show that LEM has a simpler structure with the sufficient simulation and prediction accuracy.

  12. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry

  13. SU-C-213-06: Dosimetric Verification of 3D Printed Electron Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, K; Corbett, M; Pelletier, C; Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Jung, J [East Carolina Univ, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effect of 3D printed bolus in an anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: Conformable bolus material was generated for an anthropomorphic phantom from a DICOM volume. The bolus generated was a uniform expansion of 5mm applied to the nose region of the phantom, as this is a difficult area to uniformly apply bolus clinically. A Printrbot metal 3D Printer using PLA plastic generated the bolus. A 9MeV anterior beam with a 5cm cone was used to deliver dose to the nose of the phantom. TLD measurements were compared to predicted values at the phantom surface. Film planes were analyzed for the printed bolus, a standard 5mm bolus sheet placed on the phantom, and the phantom with no bolus applied to determine depth and dose distributions. Results: TLDs measured within 2.5% of predicted value for the 3D bolus. Film demonstrated a more uniform dose distribution in the nostril region for the 3d printed bolus than the standard bolus. This difference is caused by the air gap created around the nostrils by the standard bolus, creating a secondary build-up region. Both demonstrated a 50% central axis dose shift of 5mm relative to the no bolus film. HU for the bolus calculated the PLA electron density to be ∼1.1g/cc. Physical density was measured to be 1.3g/cc overall. Conclusion: 3D printed PLA bolus demonstrates improved dosimetric performance to standard bolus for electron beams with complex phantom geometry.

  14. Tensor decomposition in electronic structure calculations on 3D Cartesian grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Khoromskaia, V.; Chinnamsetty, S.R.; Flad, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a novel approach based on the combination of Tucker-type and canonical tensor decomposition techniques for the efficient numerical approximation of functions and operators in electronic structure calculations. In particular, we study applicability of tensor approximations for the numerical solution of Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham equations on 3D Cartesian grids. We show that the orthogonal Tucker-type tensor approximation of electron density and Hartree potential of simple molecules leads to low tensor rank representations. This enables an efficient tensor-product convolution scheme for the computation of the Hartree potential using a collocation-type approximation via piecewise constant basis functions on a uniform nxnxn grid. Combined with the Richardson extrapolation, our approach exhibits O(h 3 ) convergence in the grid-size h=O(n -1 ). Moreover, this requires O(3rn+r 3 ) storage, where r denotes the Tucker rank of the electron density with r=O(logn), almost uniformly in n. For example, calculations of the Coulomb matrix and the Hartree-Fock energy for the CH 4 molecule, with a pseudopotential on the C atom, achieved accuracies of the order of 10 -6 hartree with a grid-size n of several hundreds. Since the tensor-product convolution in 3D is performed via 1D convolution transforms, our scheme markedly outperforms the 3D-FFT in both the computing time and storage requirements.

  15. Impact of packet losses in scalable 3D holoscopic video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Caroline; Nunes, Paulo; Ducla Soares, Luís.

    2014-05-01

    Holoscopic imaging became a prospective glassless 3D technology to provide more natural 3D viewing experiences to the end user. Additionally, holoscopic systems also allow new post-production degrees of freedom, such as controlling the plane of focus or the viewing angle presented to the user. However, to successfully introduce this technology into the consumer market, a display scalable coding approach is essential to achieve backward compatibility with legacy 2D and 3D displays. Moreover, to effectively transmit 3D holoscopic content over error-prone networks, e.g., wireless networks or the Internet, error resilience techniques are required to mitigate the impact of data impairments in the user quality perception. Therefore, it is essential to deeply understand the impact of packet losses in terms of decoding video quality for the specific case of 3D holoscopic content, notably when a scalable approach is used. In this context, this paper studies the impact of packet losses when using a three-layer display scalable 3D holoscopic video coding architecture previously proposed, where each layer represents a different level of display scalability (i.e., L0 - 2D, L1 - stereo or multiview, and L2 - full 3D holoscopic). For this, a simple error concealment algorithm is used, which makes use of inter-layer redundancy between multiview and 3D holoscopic content and the inherent correlation of the 3D holoscopic content to estimate lost data. Furthermore, a study of the influence of 2D views generation parameters used in lower layers on the performance of the used error concealment algorithm is also presented.

  16. Finite-element 3D simulation tools for high-current relativistic electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Stanley; Ekdahl, Carl

    2002-08-01

    The DARHT second-axis injector is a challenge for computer simulations. Electrons are subject to strong beam-generated forces. The fields are fully three-dimensional and accurate calculations at surfaces are critical. We describe methods applied in OmniTrak, a 3D finite-element code suite that can address DARHT and the full range of charged-particle devices. The system handles mesh generation, electrostatics, magnetostatics and self-consistent particle orbits. The MetaMesh program generates meshes of conformal hexahedrons to fit any user geometry. The code has the unique ability to create structured conformal meshes with cubic logic. Organized meshes offer advantages in speed and memory utilization in the orbit and field solutions. OmniTrak is a versatile charged-particle code that handles 3D electric and magnetic field solutions on independent meshes. The program can update both 3D field solutions from the calculated beam space-charge and current-density. We shall describe numerical methods for orbit tracking on a hexahedron mesh. Topics include: 1) identification of elements along the particle trajectory, 2) fast searches and adaptive field calculations, 3) interpolation methods to terminate orbits on material surfaces, 4) automatic particle generation on multiple emission surfaces to model space-charge-limited emission and field emission, 5) flexible Child law algorithms, 6) implementation of the dual potential model for 3D magnetostatics, and 7) assignment of charge and current from model particle orbits for self-consistent fields.

  17. Protein 3D Structure and Electron Microscopy Map Retrieval Using 3D-SURFER2.0 and EM-SURFER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xusi; Wei, Qing; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-12-08

    With the rapid growth in the number of solved protein structures stored in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB), it is essential to develop tools to perform real-time structure similarity searches against the entire structure database. Since conventional structure alignment methods need to sample different orientations of proteins in the three-dimensional space, they are time consuming and unsuitable for rapid, real-time database searches. To this end, we have developed 3D-SURFER and EM-SURFER, which utilize 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZD) to conduct high-throughput protein structure comparison, visualization, and analysis. Taking an atomic structure or an electron microscopy map of a protein or a protein complex as input, the 3DZD of a query protein is computed and compared with the 3DZD of all other proteins in PDB or EMDB. In addition, local geometrical characteristics of a query protein can be analyzed using VisGrid and LIGSITE CSC in 3D-SURFER. This article describes how to use 3D-SURFER and EM-SURFER to carry out protein surface shape similarity searches, local geometric feature analysis, and interpretation of the search results. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. 3D Printing and Its Disruptive Impacts on Supply Chains of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Mohr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has emerged as one of the most disruptive innovations to impact the global supply chain and logistics industry. The technology is impacting our personal and professional lives, with some claiming that the technology will revolutionize and replace existing manufacturing technologies, while others argue that the technology merely enhances some aspects of the production process. Whether evolutionary or revolutionary, 3D printing technology is recognized as a striking trend that will significantly impact supply chains. Although the expansion of 3D printing in the private consumer market is an interesting development in its own right, the biggest potential for disruption lies in industrial applications and how 3D printing will influence supply chains of the future. In this article, we examine the areas of the supply chain most likely to be disrupted by 3D printing technology and we identify the key questions that must be answered in a roadmap for future research and practice. While we seek answers to these questions, we suggest that managers should develop a flexible change management strategy to mitigate the effects of disruption to their future supply chains and take advantage of the resulting opportunities. Those that do nothing will be left wanting, because the influence of 3D printing technology on supply chains is expected to grow.

  19. Front-end receiver electronics for a matrix transducer for 3-D transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zili; Blaak, Sandra; Chang, Zu-yao; Yao, Jiajian; Bosch, Johan G; Prins, Christian; Lancée, Charles T; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P; Meijer, Gerard C M

    2012-07-01

    There is a clear clinical need for creating 3-D images of the heart. One promising technique is the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3-D TEE, we are developing a miniature ultrasound probe containing a matrix piezoelectric transducer with more than 2000 elements. Because a gastroscopic tube cannot accommodate the cables needed to connect all transducer elements directly to an imaging system, a major challenge is to locally reduce the number of channels, while maintaining a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. This can be achieved by using front-end receiver electronics bonded to the transducers to provide appropriate signal conditioning in the tip of the probe. This paper presents the design of such electronics, realizing time-gain compensation (TGC) and micro-beamforming using simple, low-power circuits. Prototypes of TGC amplifiers and micro-beamforming cells have been fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. These prototype chips have been combined on a printed circuit board (PCB) to form an ultrasound-receiver system capable of reading and combining the signals of three transducer elements. Experimental results show that this design is a suitable candidate for 3-D TEE.

  20. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain–reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. - Author-Highlights: • We derive a simple dynamic scattering formalism for dark field electron holography based on a perturbative two-beam theory. • The formalism facilitates the projection of 3D strain fields by a simple weighting integral. • The weighted projection depends analytically on the diffraction order, the excitation error and the specimen thickness. • The weighting integral formalism represents an important prerequisite towards the development of tomographic strain reconstruction techniques

  1. Effect of Single-Electron Interface Trapping in Decanano MOSFETs: A 3D Atomistic Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    We study the effect of trapping/detrapping of a single-electron in interface states in the channel of n-type MOSFETs with decanano dimensions using 3D atomistic simulation techniques. In order to highlight the basic dependencies, the simulations are carried out initially assuming continuous doping charge, and discrete localized charge only for the trapped electron. The dependence of the random telegraph signal (RTS) amplitudes on the device dimensions and on the position of the trapped charge in the channel are studied in detail. Later, in full-scale, atomistic simulations assuming discrete charge for both randomly placed dopants and the trapped electron, we highlight the importance of current percolation and of traps with strategic position where the trapped electron blocks a dominant current path.

  2. A 3D technique for simulation of irregular electron treatment fields using a digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalow, Roustem; Sidhu, Narinder P.

    2003-01-01

    Cerrobend inserts, which define electron field apertures, are manufactured at our institution using perspex templates. Contours are reproduced manually on these templates at the simulator from the field outlines drawn on the skin or mask of a patient. A previously reported technique for simulation of electron treatment fields uses a digital camera to eliminate the need for such templates. However, avoidance of the image distortions introduced by non-flat surfaces on which the electron field outlines were drawn could only be achieved by limiting the application of this technique to surfaces which were flat or near flat. We present a technique that employs a digital camera and allows simulation of electron treatment fields contoured on an anatomical surface of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) shape, such as that of the neck, extremities, face, or breast. The procedure is fast, accurate, and easy to perform

  3. Computational methods for constructing protein structure models from 3D electron microscopy maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2013-10-01

    Protein structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy (EM) has made significant progress in the past decades. Resolutions of EM maps have been improving as evidenced by recently reported structures that are solved at high resolutions close to 3Å. Computational methods play a key role in interpreting EM data. Among many computational procedures applied to an EM map to obtain protein structure information, in this article we focus on reviewing computational methods that model protein three-dimensional (3D) structures from a 3D EM density map that is constructed from two-dimensional (2D) maps. The computational methods we discuss range from de novo methods, which identify structural elements in an EM map, to structure fitting methods, where known high resolution structures are fit into a low-resolution EM map. A list of available computational tools is also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation

  5. Direct-write/cure conductive polymer nanocomposites for 3D structural electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yanfeng; Vatani, Morteza; Choi, Jae Won

    2013-01-01

    The use of direct-write (DW) in the fabrication of conductive structures offers dramatic benefits over traditional technologies in terms of low-cost, print-on-demand conformal manufacturing. This DW process can be combined with direct-cure (DC) process as one-step manufacturing of conducting elements, whereas conventional methods need a manufacturing process of conducting elements followed by a relatively long time post-curing/baking process. A hybrid technology combined with direct-write/cure (DWC) and projection microstereolithography (PμSL) is presented in this work. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were dispersed in a photopolymer solution to introduce conductivity. The developed PμSL was used to create 3D structures, and DWC of conductive photopolymers with CNTs was utilized to produce conductive paths. To show the capabilities of the developed system and materials, a 3D structure with embedded conductive paths was designed and fabricated. Based on the experiments, it is thought that the suggested manufacturing process and materials are promising to produce 3D structural electronics.

  6. Direct-write/cure conductive polymer nanocomposites for 3D structural electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanfeng; Vatani, Morteza; Choi, Jae Won [The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The use of direct-write (DW) in the fabrication of conductive structures offers dramatic benefits over traditional technologies in terms of low-cost, print-on-demand conformal manufacturing. This DW process can be combined with direct-cure (DC) process as one-step manufacturing of conducting elements, whereas conventional methods need a manufacturing process of conducting elements followed by a relatively long time post-curing/baking process. A hybrid technology combined with direct-write/cure (DWC) and projection microstereolithography (PμSL) is presented in this work. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were dispersed in a photopolymer solution to introduce conductivity. The developed PμSL was used to create 3D structures, and DWC of conductive photopolymers with CNTs was utilized to produce conductive paths. To show the capabilities of the developed system and materials, a 3D structure with embedded conductive paths was designed and fabricated. Based on the experiments, it is thought that the suggested manufacturing process and materials are promising to produce 3D structural electronics.

  7. Intelligent Adjustment of Printhead Driving Waveform Parameters for 3D Electronic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Na

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical applications of 3D electronic printing, a major challenge is to adjust the printhead for a high print resolution and accuracy. However, an exhausting manual selective process inevitably wastes a lot of time. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a new intelligent adjustment method, which adopts artificial bee colony algorithm to optimize the printhead driving waveform parameters for getting the desired printhead state. Experimental results show that this method can quickly and accuracy find out the suitable combination of driving waveform parameters to meet the needs of applications.

  8. 3D scanning electron microscopy applied to surface characterization of fluorosed dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, Silvina; Galván Josa, Víctor; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Chena, María Emilia; Castellano, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    The enamel surfaces of fluorotic teeth were studied by scanning electron stereomicroscopy. Different whitening treatments were applied to 25 pieces to remove stains caused by fluorosis and their surfaces were characterized by stereomicroscopy in order to obtain functional and amplitude parameters. The topographic features resulting for each treatment were determined through these parameters. The results obtained show that the 3D reconstruction achieved from the SEM stereo pairs is a valuable potential alternative for the surface characterization of this kind of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role and impact of 3D printing technologies in casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-wu Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is such a magical technology that it extends into almost every sector relating to manufacturing, not to mention casting production. In this paper, the past, present and future of 3D printing in the foundry sector are profoundly reviewed. 3D printing has the potential to supplement or partially replace the casting method. Today, some castings can be directly printed by metal powders, for example, titanium alloys, nickel alloys and steel parts. Meanwhile, 3D printing has found an unique position in other casting aspects as well, such as printing the wax pattern, ceramic shell, sand core, sand mould, etc. Most importantly, 3D printing is not just a manufacturing method, it will also revolutionize the design of products, assemblies and parts, such as castings, patterns, cores, moulds and shells in casting production. The solid structure of castings and moulds will be redesigned in future into truss or spatially open and skeleton structures. This kind of revolution is just sprouting, but it will bring unimaginable impact on manufacturing including casting production. Nobody doubts the potential of 3D printing technologies in manufacturing, but they do have limitations and drawbacks.

  10. Optimizing the 3D-reconstruction technique for serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernitznig, Stefan; Sele, Mariella; Urschler, Martin; Zankel, Armin; Pölt, Peter; Rind, F Claire; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the anatomy of neuronal circuits and localizing the synaptic connections between neurons, can give us important insights in how the neuronal circuits work. We are using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) to investigate the anatomy of a collision detection circuit including the Lobula Giant Movement Detector (LGMD) neuron in the locust, Locusta migratoria. For this, thousands of serial electron micrographs are produced that allow us to trace the neuronal branching pattern. The reconstruction of neurons was previously done manually by drawing cell outlines of each cell in each image separately. This approach was very time consuming and troublesome. To make the process more efficient a new interactive software was developed. It uses the contrast between the neuron under investigation and its surrounding for semi-automatic segmentation. For segmentation the user sets starting regions manually and the algorithm automatically selects a volume within the neuron until the edges corresponding to the neuronal outline are reached. Internally the algorithm optimizes a 3D active contour segmentation model formulated as a cost function taking the SEM image edges into account. This reduced the reconstruction time, while staying close to the manual reference segmentation result. Our algorithm is easy to use for a fast segmentation process, unlike previous methods it does not require image training nor an extended computing capacity. Our semi-automatic segmentation algorithm led to a dramatic reduction in processing time for the 3D-reconstruction of identified neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D Reconstruction of the Glycocalyx Structure in Mammalian Capillaries using Electron Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkill, Kp; Neal, Cr; Mantell, Jm

    2012-01-01

    of the proteoglycan components of the glycocalyx layer (fundamental spacing about 20 nm), but require a large sample number. Attempts to visualise the glycocalyx face-on (i.e. in a direction perpendicular to the endothelial cell layer in the lumen and directly applicable for permeability modelling) has had limited...... success (e.g. freeze fracture). A new approach is therefore needed. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of using the relatively novel electron microscopy technique of 3D electron tomography ontwo differently stained preparations to reveal details of the architecture of the glycocalyx just above...... the endothelial cell layer. One preparation uses the novel staining technique using Lanthanum Dysprosium Glycosamino Glycan adhesion (the LaDy GAGa method). © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd....

  12. 3D structure of eukaryotic flagella in a quiescent state revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Daniela; McIntosh, J. Richard; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We have used cryo-electron tomography to investigate the 3D structure and macromolecular organization of intact, frozen-hydrated sea urchin sperm flagella in a quiescent state. The tomographic reconstructions provide information at a resolution better than 6 nm about the in situ arrangements of macromolecules that are key for flagellar motility. We have visualized the heptameric rings of the motor domains in the outer dynein arm complex and determined that they lie parallel to the plane that contains the axes of neighboring flagellar microtubules. Both the material associated with the central pair of microtubules and the radial spokes display a plane of symmetry that helps to explain the planar beat pattern of these flagella. Cryo-electron tomography has proven to be a powerful technique for helping us understand the relationships between flagellar structure and function and the design of macromolecular machines in situ. PMID:16246999

  13. An inkjet printed near isotropic 3-D antenna with embedded electronics for wireless sensor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    A 3-D (cube-shaped) antenna, which has been inkjet printed on a paper substrate and integrated with embedded electronics, is presented for the first time. A 1.5λ0 dipole is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern. The antenna measures 13mm × 13mm × 13mm, where each side of the cube corresponds to only 0.1λ0 (at 2.4 GHz). Measurements with driving electronics placed inside the cube have shown that the antenna performance is not affected by the presence of embedded circuits. The cube antenna design is highly suitable for mobile sensing applications.

  14. Calculation of the electronic and magnetic structures of 3d impurities in the Hcp Fe matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    In this work we investigate the local magnetic properties and the electronic structure of HCP Fe, as well introducing transition metals atoms 3d (Cs, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in HCP iron matrix. We employed the discrete variational method (DVM), which is an orbital molecular method which incorporate the Hartree-Fock-Slater theory and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), in the self-consistent charge approximation and the local density approximation of Von Barth and Hedin to the exchange-correlation potential. We used the embedded cluster model to investigate the electronic structure and the local magnetic properties for the central atom of a cluster of 27 atoms immersed in the microcrystal representing the HCP Fe. (author)

  15. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  16. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  17. 3D electromagnetic simulation of spatial autoresonance acceleration of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugar-Zhabon, V D; Orozco, E A; González, J D

    2016-01-01

    The results of full electromagnetic simulations of the electron beam acceleration by a TE 112 linear polarized electromagnetic field through Space Autoresonance Acceleration mechanism are presented. In the simulations, both the self-sustaned electric field and selfsustained magnetic field produced by the beam electrons are included into the elaborated 3D Particle in Cell code. In this system, the space profile of the magnetostatic field maintains the electron beams in the acceleration regime along their trajectories. The beam current density evolution is calculated applying the charge conservation method. The full magnetic field in the superparticle positions is found by employing the trilinear interpolation of the mesh node data. The relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation presented in the centered finite difference form is solved using the Boris algorithm that provides visualization of the beam electrons pathway and energy evolution. A comparison between the data obtained from the full electromagnetic simulations and the results derived from the motion equation depicted in an electrostatic approximation is carried out. It is found that the self-sustained magnetic field is a factor which improves the resonance phase conditions and reduces the beam energy spread. (paper)

  18. Electron-beam-induced welding of 3D nano-objects from beneath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalenko, A V; Burbridge, D J; Viau, G; Gordeev, S N

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of a sample to the electron beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) results in the growth of a film of amorphous carbon due to decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules, which are always present in small quantities in the SEM chamber. This growth is induced mainly by secondary electrons backscattered by atoms of both the sample and substrate. We show that, because the secondary electrons are spread beyond the exposed area, this deposit can be grown in areas of geometric shadow and therefore can be used for bonding of different complex 3D nano-objects to a substrate. This is demonstrated by welding 100 nm Fe-Co-Ni nanoparticles to the surface of 2D graphite. The tip of an atomic force microscope was used to probe the mechanical properties of the formed nanostructures. We observed that, for layers thicker than 25 nm, the nanoparticle is bonded so strongly that it is easier to break the particle than to separate it from the substrate

  19. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  20. Three-Dimensional (3D) Nanometrology Based on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Stereophotogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondare, Vipin N; Villarrubia, John S; Vlada R, András E

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a sample surface from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images taken at two perspectives has been known for decades. Nowadays, there exist several commercially available stereophotogrammetry software packages. For testing these software packages, in this study we used Monte Carlo simulated SEM images of virtual samples. A virtual sample is a model in a computer, and its true dimensions are known exactly, which is impossible for real SEM samples due to measurement uncertainty. The simulated SEM images can be used for algorithm testing, development, and validation. We tested two stereophotogrammetry software packages and compared their reconstructed 3D models with the known geometry of the virtual samples used to create the simulated SEM images. Both packages performed relatively well with simulated SEM images of a sample with a rough surface. However, in a sample containing nearly uniform and therefore low-contrast zones, the height reconstruction error was ≈46%. The present stereophotogrammetry software packages need further improvement before they can be used reliably with SEM images with uniform zones.

  1. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Policy - 37 - Naval Postgraduate School the number of brazes and welds from 25 to just five. There are currently more than 300 3D printing ...NPS-LM-15-002 ACQUISITION RESEARCH PROGRAM SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D ...Program Sponsored Report Series Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative

  2. A detailed study of FDIRC prototype with waveform digitizing electronics in cosmic ray telescope using 3D tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G. S.; Va'vra, J.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from 384 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ∼2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ∼1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon> 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of reconstruction ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  3. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G.S.; Va'vra, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ∼450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ∼2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ∼1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E muon > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  4. Optical transceiver ICs based on 3D die-stacking of opto-electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B.E.; Plassche, van de K.L.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wafer scale fabrication of the 3D stacked transceivers is discussed. Uniform open eye patterns at 10 Gb/s/channel of both 3D stacked transmitter and receiver ICs indicates that the interconnection technology is robust.

  5. Non-dipole effects in spin polarization of photoelectrons from 3d electrons of Xe, Cs and Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cherepkov, N A [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, St. Petersburg 190000 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314 (United States)

    2005-04-28

    The non-dipole contribution to spin polarization of photoelectrons from Xe, Cs and Ba 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} levels is calculated. The calculation is carried out within the framework of a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange. The effects of relaxation of excited electrons due to the 3d-vacancy creation are also accounted for. It is demonstrated that the parameters that characterize the photoelectron angular distribution as functions of the incoming photon energy, although being predictably small, acquire additional peculiarities when the interaction between electrons that belong to the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} components of the spin-orbit doublet is taken into account.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal-doped strontium clusters: Prospective magnetic superatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Sen, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of TM-Sr clusters are studied using DFT methods. • CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 have enhanced stability in the CrSr n and MnSrn series. • These two clusters behave as magnetic superatoms. • A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two superatom units is offered. • Reactivity of these superatoms to molecular oxygen also studied. - Abstract: Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal doped strontium clusters are studied using first-principles electronic structure methods based on density functional theory. Clusters with enhanced kinetic and thermodynamic stability are identified by studying their hardness, second order energy difference and adiabatic spin excitation energy. CrSr 9 and MnSr 10 are found to have enhanced stability. They retain their structural identities in assemblies, and are classified as magnetic superatoms. A qualitative understanding of the magnetic coupling between two cluster units is arrived at. Reactivity of these superatoms with O 2 molecule is also studied. Prospects for using these magnetic superatoms in applications are discussed

  7. Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Petersen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1 six common complex toys; (2 Lego blocks; and (3 the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the user over 75% of the cost of commercially available true alternative toys and over 90% for recyclebot filament. Overall, these results indicate a single 3D printing repository among dozens is saving consumers well over $60 million/year in offset purchases. The most common savings fell by 40%–90% in total savings, which came with the ability to make novel toys and games. The results of this study show consumers can generate higher value items for less money using the open source distributed manufacturing paradigm. It appears clear that consumer do-it-yourself (DIY manufacturing is set to have a significant impact on the toy and game markets in the future.

  8. High-Energy Impact Behaviors of Hybrid Composite Plates Strengthened with 3D-UHMWPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Youl Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with drop-impact effects of new hybrid concrete plates strengthened with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE. The proposed 3D-UHMWPE results in excellent mechanical properties such as high abrasion resistance, impact strength, and low coefficient of friction. These special properties allow the product to be used in several high-performance applications. In this study, we used two kinds of high-performance materials for the impact reinforcement of a structure made of conventional materials such as a concrete. In particular, the impact mechanism of a fiber-concrete hybrid structure was studied using various parameters. The parametric studies are focused on the various effects of drop-impact on the structural performance. The combined effects of using different fiber-reinforced materials on the impact behavers are also investigated.

  9. Runaway electron mitigation by 3D fields in the ASDEX-Upgrade experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbin, M.; Li, L.; Liu, Y. Q.; Marrelli, L.; Nocente, M.; Papp, G.; Pautasso, G.; Piovesan, P.; Valisa, M.; Carnevale, D.; Esposito, B.; Giacomelli, L.; Gospodarczyk, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Martin, P.; Suttrop, W.; Tardocchi, M.; Teschke, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-01-01

    Disruption-generated runaway electron (RE) beams represent a severe threat for tokamak plasma-facing components in high current devices like ITER, thus motivating the search of mitigation techniques. The application of 3D fields might aid this purpose and recently was investigated also in the ASDEX Upgrade experiment by using the internal active saddle coils (termed B-coils). Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with dominant toroidal mode number n = 1 have been applied by the B-coils, in a RE specific scenario, before and during disruptions, which are deliberately created via massive gas injection. The application of RMPs affects the electron temperature profile and seemingly changes the dynamics of the disruption; this results in a significantly reduced current and lifetime of the generated RE beam. A similar effect is observed also in the hard-x-ray (HXR) spectrum, associated to RE emission, characterized by a partial decrease of the energy content below 1 MeV when RMPs are applied. The strength of the observed effects strongly depends on the upper-to-lower B-coil phasing, i.e. on the poloidal spectrum of the applied RMPs, which has been reconstructed including the plasma response by the code MARS-F. A crude vacuum approximation fails in the interpretation of the experimental findings: despite the relatively low β (< 0.5 % ) of these discharges, a modest amplification (factor of 2) of the edge kink response occurs, which has to be considered to explain the observed suppression effects.

  10. Nonlinear 3D calculations of turbine blade impact on turbine cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, B.; Adamik, V.; Buchar, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper present the approach used at the VUJE institute for the evaluation of a ruptured blade impact on the current protection cover of a SKODA 220 MW turbine. Firstly, it briefly describes experiments (Hopkinson-Davies split bar facility, Taylor tests) and numerical simulations used to obtain realistic material parameters needed for the Cowper- Symonds material model that is implemented in the code LS-DYNA3D. Then, numerical simulations, by using the code, of the ruptured blade impact on various protection barriers are presented. These simulations make it possible to find an optimal solution for a new turbine protection cover. (author)

  11. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M; Fisher, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice

  12. MO-H-19A-03: Patient Specific Bolus with 3D Printing Technology for Electron Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, W; Swann, B; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Fisher, T [Memorial Medical Center, Modesto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Bolus is widely used in electron radiotherapy to achieve desired dose distribution. 3D printing technologies provide clinicians with easy access to fabricate patient specific bolus accommodating patient body surface irregularities and tissue inhomogeneity. This study presents the design and the clinical workflow of 3D printed bolus for patient electron therapy in our clinic. Methods: Patient simulation CT images free of bolus were exported from treatment planning system (TPS) to an in-house developed software package. Bolus with known material properties was designed in the software package and then exported back to the TPS as a structure. Dose calculation was carried out to examine the coverage of the target. After satisfying dose distribution was achieved, the bolus structure was transferred in Standard Tessellation Language (STL) file format for the 3D printer to generate the machine codes for printing. Upon receiving printed bolus, a quick quality assurance was performed with patient resimulated with bolus in place to verify the bolus dosimetric property before treatment started. Results: A patient specific bolus for electron radiotherapy was designed and fabricated in Form 1 3D printer with methacrylate photopolymer resin. Satisfying dose distribution was achieved in patient with bolus setup. Treatment was successfully finished for one patient with the 3D printed bolus. Conclusion: The electron bolus fabrication with 3D printing technology was successfully implemented in clinic practice.

  13. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1 How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2 What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3 How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]. The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals, while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9΀ (angle and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth. Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and

  14. Towards 3D crystal orientation reconstruction using automated crystal orientation mapping transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Aaron; Kübel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    To relate the internal structure of a volume (crystallite and phase boundaries) to properties (electrical, magnetic, mechanical, thermal), a full 3D reconstruction in combination with in situ testing is desirable. In situ testing allows the crystallographic changes in a material to be followed by tracking and comparing the individual crystals and phases. Standard transmission electron microscopy (TEM) delivers a projection image through the 3D volume of an electron-transparent TEM sample lamella. Only with the help of a dedicated TEM tomography sample holder is an accurate 3D reconstruction of the TEM lamella currently possible. 2D crystal orientation mapping has become a standard method for crystal orientation and phase determination while 3D crystal orientation mapping have been reported only a few times. The combination of in situ testing with 3D crystal orientation mapping remains a challenge in terms of stability and accuracy. Here, we outline a method to 3D reconstruct the crystal orientation from a superimposed diffraction pattern of overlapping crystals without sample tilt. Avoiding the typically required tilt series for 3D reconstruction enables not only faster in situ tests but also opens the possibility for more stable and more accurate in situ mechanical testing. The approach laid out here should serve as an inspiration for further research and does not make a claim to be complete.

  15. Dynamic analysis and electronic circuit implementation of a novel 3D autonomous system without linear terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, J.; Jafari, S.; Njitacke, Z. T.; Yousefi Azar Khanian, M.; Cheukem, A.

    2017-11-01

    Mathematical models (ODEs) describing the dynamics of almost all continuous time chaotic nonlinear systems (e.g. Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, or Chen system) involve at least a nonlinear term in addition to linear terms. In this contribution, a novel (and singular) 3D autonomous chaotic system without linear terms is introduced. This system has an especial feature of having two twin strange attractors: one ordinary and one symmetric strange attractor when the time is reversed. The complex behavior of the model is investigated in terms of equilibria and stability, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent plots, time series and Poincaré sections. Some interesting phenomena are found including for instance, period-doubling bifurcation, antimonotonicity (i.e. the concurrent creation and annihilation of periodic orbits) and chaos while monitoring the system parameters. Compared to the (unique) case previously reported by Xu and Wang (2014) [31], the system considered in this work displays a more 'elegant' mathematical expression and experiences richer dynamical behaviors. A suitable electronic circuit (i.e. the analog simulator) is designed and used for the investigations. Pspice based simulation results show a very good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  16. Microstructural characterization of the cycling behavior of electrodeposited manganese oxide supercapacitors using 3D electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, N.; Clark, M. P.; Davari, E.; Ivey, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    Manganese oxide has been investigated extensively as an electrochemical capacitor or supercapacitor electrode material. Manganese oxide is inexpensive to fabricate and exhibits relatively high capacitance values, i.e., in excess of 200 F g-1 in many cases; the actual value depends very much on the fabrication method and test conditions. The cycling behavior of Mn oxide, fabricated using anodic electrodeposition, is investigated using slice and view techniques, via a dual scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to generate three-dimensional (3D) images, coupled with electrochemical characterization. The initial as-fabricated electrode has a rod-like appearance, with a fine-scale, sheet-like morphology within the rods. The rod-like structure remains after cycling, but there are significant morphological changes. These include partial dissolution of Mn oxide followed by redeposition of Mn oxide in regions close to the substrate. The redeposited material has a finer morphology than the original as-fabricated Mn oxide. The Mn oxide coverage is also better near the substrate. These effects result in an increase in the specific capacitance.

  17. Electronic and spectroscopic properties of early 3d metal atoms on a graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotomahevitra, A.; Garreau, G.; Demangeat, C.; Parlebas, J. C.

    1995-07-01

    High-sensitivity magneto-optic Kerr effect experiments failed to detect manifestations of magnetism in epitaxial films of V on Ag(100) substrates. More recently V 3s XPS of freshly evaporated V clusters on graphite exhibited the appearance of a satellite structure which has then been interpreted by the effect of surface magnetic moments on V. It is the absence of unambiguous results on the electronic properties of early 3d supported metals that prompts us to examine the problem. Our purpose is twofold. In a first part, after a total energy calculation within a tight-binding method which yields the equilibrium position of a given adatom, we use the Hartree-Fock approximation to find out a possible magnetic solution of V (or Cr) upon graphite for a reasonable value of the exchange integral Jdd. In a second part the informations given by the density of states of the graphite surface as well as the additional states of the adsorbed atom are taken into account through a generalised impurity Anderson Hamiltonian which incorporates the various Coulomb and exchange interactions necessary to analyse the 3s XPS results.

  18. Fluoropolymer based composite with Ag particles as 3D printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; La, Thanh Giang; Li, Xinda; Chung, Hyun Joong

    The recent development of stretchable electronics expands the scope of wearable and healthcare applications. This creates a high demand in stretchy conductor that can maintain conductivity at high strain conditions. Here, we describe a simple fabrication pathway to achieve stretchable, 3D-printable and low-cost conductive composite ink. The ink is used to print complex stretchable patterns with high conductivity. The elastic ink is composed of silver(Ag) flakes, fluorine rubber, an organic solvent and surfactant. The surfactant plays multiple roles in in the composite. The surfactant promotes compatibility between silver flakes and fluorine rubber; at the same time, it affects the mechanical properties of the hosting fluoropolymers and adhesion properties of the composite. Based on experimental observations, we discuss the exact role of the surfactant in the composite. The resulting composite exhibits high conductivity value of 8.49 *10 4 S/m along with high reliability against repeated stretching/releasing cycles. Interesting examples of transfer printing of the printed ink and its applications in working devices, such as RFID tag and antennas, are also showcased.

  19. Fitting multimeric protein complexes into electron microscopy maps using 3D Zernike descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-06-14

    A novel computational method for fitting high-resolution structures of multiple proteins into a cryoelectron microscopy map is presented. The method named EMLZerD generates a pool of candidate multiple protein docking conformations of component proteins, which are later compared with a provided electron microscopy (EM) density map to select the ones that fit well into the EM map. The comparison of docking conformations and the EM map is performed using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD), a mathematical series expansion of three-dimensional functions. The 3DZD provides a unified representation of the surface shape of multimeric protein complex models and EM maps, which allows a convenient, fast quantitative comparison of the three-dimensional structural data. Out of 19 multimeric complexes tested, near native complex structures with a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.5 Å were obtained for 14 cases while medium range resolution structures with correct topology were computed for the additional 5 cases.

  20. Low-Power Receive-Electronics for a Miniature 3D Ultrasound Probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which will be put into the tip of a miniature ultrasound probe for 3D Trans-Esophageal Echocardiography (TEE). To enable 3D TEE, a matrix piezoelectric ultrasound transducer with more than 2000 elements

  1. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  2. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  3. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  4. An electron tomography algorithm for reconstructing 3D morphology using surface tangents of projected scattering interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, T. C.; Ringer, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    range. The algorithm does not solve the tomographic back-projection problem but rather reconstructs the local 3D morphology of surfaces defined by varied scattering densities. Solution method: Reconstruction using differential geometry applied to image analysis computations. Restrictions: The code has only been tested with square images and has been developed for only single-axis tilting. Running time: For high quality reconstruction, 5-15 min

  5. A DYNA3D calculation for impact on a pipe target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, A.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes experimental studies to examine the response of pipework, typical of that used in nuclear power plants, to the impact of missiles representing fragments of disintegrating machinery. The finite element code DYNA3D has been used to make a calculation for one experiment in which an instrumented target pipe was impacted by a cylindrical steel billet. Transient displacement of the missile and target as well as permanent deformations of the target pipe were well-predicted by the code. The code reproduced the main features of the experimental transient strain measurements with the timings of the various straining phases being calculated very closely. Detailed quantitative comparisons cannot be made because of the lack of appropriate facilities in the GRAPE post-processing code. (U.K.)

  6. Modelling and observation of heat losses from buildings : The impact of geometric detail on 3D heat flux modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, D.; Pietrzyk, P.; Donkers, S.; Liem, V.; van Oostveen, J.; Montazeri, S.; Boeters, R.; Colin, J.; Kastendeuch, P.; Nerry, F.; Menenti, M.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Verbree, E.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of 3D geometry complexity on the accuracy of simulating radiative, convective and conductive fluxes in an urban canyon was explored. The research involved the collection of meteorological data in an urban canyon in the city of Strasbourg, France, for input into a 3D model called LASER/F,

  7. Local 3d Electronic Structures of Co-Based Complexes with Medicinal Molecules Probed by Soft X-ray Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Kohei; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Imada, Shin; Kadono, Toshiharu; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Muro, Takayuki; Tanaka, Arata; Itai, Takuma; Yoshinari, Nobuto; Konno, Takumi; Sekiyama, Akira

    2017-07-01

    We have examined the local 3d electronic structures of Co-Au multinuclear complexes with the medicinal molecules d-penicillaminate (d-pen) [Co{Au(PPh3)(d-pen)}2]ClO4 and [Co3{Au3(tdme)(d-pen)3}2] by Co L2,3-edge soft X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy, where PPh3 denotes triphenylphosphine and tdme stands for 1,1,1-tris[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]ethane. The Co L2,3-edge XAS spectra indicate the localized ionic 3d electronic states in both materials. The experimental spectra are well explained by spectral simulation for a localized Co ion under ligand fields with the full multiplet theory, which verifies that the ions are in the low-spin Co3+ state in the former compound and in the high-spin Co2+ state in the latter.

  8. Impact of Particle Size of Ceramic Granule Blends on Mechanical Strength and Porosity of 3D Printed Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Spath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a promising method for the fabrication of scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. To date, the mechanical strength of 3D printed ceramic scaffolds is not sufficient for a variety of applications in the reconstructive surgery. Mechanical strength is directly in relation with the porosity of the 3D printed scaffolds. The porosity is directly influenced by particle size and particle-size distribution of the raw material. To investigate this impact, a hydroxyapatite granule blend with a wide particle size distribution was fractioned by sieving. The specific fractions and bimodal mixtures of the sieved granule blend were used to 3D print specimens. It has been shown that an optimized arrangement of fractions with large and small particles can provide 3D printed specimens with good mechanical strength due to a higher packing density. An increase of mechanical strength can possibly expand the application area of 3D printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

  9. A new approach for 3D reconstruction from bright field TEM imaging: Beam precession assisted electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebled, J.M.; Yedra, Ll.; Estrade, S.; Portillo, J.; Peiro, F.

    2011-01-01

    The successful combination of electron beam precession and bright field electron tomography for 3D reconstruction is reported. Beam precession is demonstrated to be a powerful technique to reduce the contrast artifacts due to diffraction and curvature in thin foils. Taking advantage of these benefits, Precession assisted electron tomography has been applied to reconstruct the morphology of Sn precipitates embedded in an Al matrix, from a tilt series acquired in a range from +49 o to -61 o at intervals of 2 o and with a precession angle of 0.6 o in bright field mode. The combination of electron tomography and beam precession in conventional TEM mode is proposed as an alternative procedure to obtain 3D reconstructions of nano-objects without a scanning system or a high angle annular dark field detector. -- Highlights: → Electron beam precession reduces spurious diffraction contrast in bright field mode. → Bend contour related contrast depends on precession angle. → Electron beam precession is combined with bright field electron tomography. → Precession assisted BF tomography allowed 3D reconstruction of a Sn precipitate.

  10. A new approach for 3D reconstruction from bright field TEM imaging: Beam precession assisted electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebled, J.M. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Yedra, Ll. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Estrade, S.; Portillo, J. [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, CCiT-UB, Sole i Sabaris 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Peiro, F., E-mail: francesca.peiro@ub.edu [LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The successful combination of electron beam precession and bright field electron tomography for 3D reconstruction is reported. Beam precession is demonstrated to be a powerful technique to reduce the contrast artifacts due to diffraction and curvature in thin foils. Taking advantage of these benefits, Precession assisted electron tomography has been applied to reconstruct the morphology of Sn precipitates embedded in an Al matrix, from a tilt series acquired in a range from +49{sup o} to -61{sup o} at intervals of 2{sup o} and with a precession angle of 0.6{sup o} in bright field mode. The combination of electron tomography and beam precession in conventional TEM mode is proposed as an alternative procedure to obtain 3D reconstructions of nano-objects without a scanning system or a high angle annular dark field detector. -- Highlights: {yields} Electron beam precession reduces spurious diffraction contrast in bright field mode. {yields} Bend contour related contrast depends on precession angle. {yields} Electron beam precession is combined with bright field electron tomography. {yields} Precession assisted BF tomography allowed 3D reconstruction of a Sn precipitate.

  11. Impact of Different CT Slice Thickness on Clinical Target Volume for 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Ganesh, Tharmar; Rath, Goura K.; Julka, Pramod K.; Sridhar, Pappiah S.; Joshi, Rakesh C.; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the variation of clinical target volume (CTV) with different computed tomography (CT) slice thicknesses and the impact of CT slice thickness on 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. Fifty patients with brain tumors were selected and CT scans with 2.5-, 5-, and 10-mm slice thicknesses were performed with non-ionic contrast enhancement. The patients were selected with tumor volume ranging from 2.54 cc to 222 cc. Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed for all three CT datasets. The target coverage and the isocenter shift between the treatment plans for different slice thickness were correlated with the tumor volume. An important observation from our study revealed that for volume 25 cc, the target underdosage was less than 6.7% for 5-mm slice thickness and 8% for 10-mm slice thickness. For 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning (3DCRT), a CT slice thickness of 2.5 mm is optimum for tumor volume 25 cc

  12. Clinical application of 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree with electron beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenwei; Shen Tianzhen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical promise of CT 3D reconstruction of tracheobronchial tree (TBT) by analyzing 73 cases retrospectively. Methods: All the 73 cases were collected from October 1997 to February 2000, who were scanned by EBCT with 130 kV and 630 mA. The scanning method was continuous volume scan, the slice thickness were 3 mm or 1.5 mm. All cross-sectional images were transmitted to the INSIGHT workstation and reconstructed with SSD (shaded surface display), and the threshold setting were -500 to -300 HU. Results: 3D reconstruction of TBT with EBCT could reveal the abnormal changes of TBT by many kinds of diseases including central cancer, inflammation, bronchiectasis, saber-sheath trachea, trachea cancer, congenital disorders, post-surgical changes of lung cancer, and stenoses by adjacent benign or malignant diseases. It could be used to locate the stenoses and measure stenotic extent. Of the 35 central cancer cases with 3D reconstruction, 6 cases were pestle obstructed, 15 cases cone obstructed, 5 cases interrupted irregularly, 8 cases with eccentric stenoses, and 1 case with right stem destroyed and right upper lobe bronchus obstructed. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction of TBT has characteristic sign in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of central airway's benign or malignant stenoses, and it is of instructional value in clinical use

  13. 3D Neuro-electronic interface devices for neuromuscular control: Design studies and realisation steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Wim; Frieswijk, Theo A.; Frieswijk, T.A.; Smit, J.P.A.; Rozijn, T.H.; Rozijn, Tom H.; Meier, J.H.; Meier, Jan H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to design the shape and dimensions of new 3D multi-microelectrode information transducers properly, i. e. adapted to the scale of information delivery to and from peripheral nerve fibres, a number of studies were, and still are, being performed on modelling and simulation of electrical

  14. 3D immersive patient simulators and their impact on learning success: a thematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Robert; Wahba, Roger; Chang, De-Hua; Plum, Patrick; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Stippel, Dirk L

    2015-04-08

    Immersive patient simulators (IPSs) combine the simulation of virtual patients with a three-dimensional (3D) environment and, thus, allow an illusionary immersion into a synthetic world, similar to computer games. Playful learning in a 3D environment is motivating and allows repetitive training and internalization of medical workflows (ie, procedural knowledge) without compromising real patients. The impact of this innovative educational concept on learning success requires review of feasibility and validity. It was the aim of this paper to conduct a survey of all immersive patient simulators currently available. In addition, we address the question of whether the use of these simulators has an impact on knowledge gain by summarizing the existing validation studies. A systematic literature search via PubMed was performed using predefined inclusion criteria (ie, virtual worlds, focus on education of medical students, validation testing) to identify all available simulators. Validation testing was defined as the primary end point. There are currently 13 immersive patient simulators available. Of these, 9 are Web-based simulators and represent feasibility studies. None of these simulators are used routinely for student education. The workstation-based simulators are commercially driven and show a higher quality in terms of graphical quality and/or data content. Out of the studies, 1 showed a positive correlation between simulated content and real content (ie, content validity). There was a positive correlation between the outcome of simulator training and alternative training methods (ie, concordance validity), and a positive coherence between measured outcome and future professional attitude and performance (ie, predictive validity). IPSs can promote learning and consolidation of procedural knowledge. The use of immersive patient simulators is still marginal, and technical and educational approaches are heterogeneous. Academic-driven IPSs could possibly enhance the

  15. 3D printing scanning electron microscopy sample holders: A quick and cost effective alternative for custom holder fabrication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N Meloni

    Full Text Available A simple and cost effective alternative for fabricating custom Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM sample holders using 3D printers and conductive polylactic acid filament is presented. The flexibility of the 3D printing process allowed for the fabrication of sample holders with specific features that enable the high-resolution imaging of nanoelectrodes and nanopipettes. The precise value of the inner semi cone angle of the nanopipettes taper was extracted from the acquired images and used for calculating their radius using electrochemical methods. Because of the low electrical resistivity presented by the 3D printed holder, the imaging of non-conductive nanomaterials, such as alumina powder, was found to be possible. The fabrication time for each sample holder was under 30 minutes and the average cost was less than $0.50 per piece. Despite being quick and economical to fabricate, the sample holders were found to be sufficiently resistant, allowing for multiple uses of the same holder.

  16. Bulk crystal growth and electronic characterization of the 3D Dirac semimetal Na3Bi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya K. Kushwaha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High quality hexagon plate-like Na3Bi crystals with large (001 plane surfaces were grown from a molten Na flux. The freshly cleaved crystals were analyzed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, allowing for the characterization of the three-dimensional (3D Dirac semimetal (TDS behavior and the observation of the topological surface states. Landau levels were observed, and the energy-momentum relations exhibited a linear dispersion relationship, characteristic of the 3D TDS nature of Na3Bi. In transport measurements on Na3Bi crystals, the linear magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillations are observed for the first time.

  17. Computer system to manage information rigs by 3D electronic models; Sistema computacional para administrar la informacion de plataformas petroleras mediante modelos electronicos 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Bustos, Jesus; Segura Ozuna, Victor Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-06-22

    The evolution and incorporation of new hardware technologies, as well as recent advances in computer systems have enabled the development of applications of computer aided design of most complete scope, such as those used for the design of industrial process plants. This article describes a software system developed to complement the capabilities of one of these systems for the design of process plants. A 3D electronic model is generated through the user interface of the design system that at the same time gives the user the ability to generate, publish, review and control the engineering document that are generated during the entire life cycle of a marine oil platform, a very particular type of industrial process plant. This way, the user obtains not only a tool for the design of an industrial plant, but also a system for managing information and engineering documents that are developed. This allows the user to do a more efficient job by putting at his disposal and in the same system, all documents and information required to perform his duty. [Spanish] La evolucion e incorporacion de nuevas tecnologias de hardware, junto con los avances recientes en sistemas de computo ha permitido el desarrollo de aplicaciones de interesante diseno de computo de mayor alcance, tales como los que se emplean en las plantas de procesos industriales. Este articulo describe un sistema de software desarrollado para complementar las capacidades de uno de estos sistemas para el diseno de proceso. Un modelo electronico se genera por medio de la interfaz de usuario del sistema de diseno, que al mismo tiempo da al usuario la capacidad para crear, publicar, revisar y controlar los documentos de ingenieria que se producen durante el ciclo de vida completo de una plataforma marina petrolera, un tipo muy particular de planta de proceso industrial. De este modo, el usuario no solo obtiene una herramienta para el diseno de una planta industrial, sino tambien un sistema para manejar informacion y

  18. Impact of 3D Canopy Structure on Remote Sensing Vegetation Index and Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Berry, J. A.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem plays a critical role in removing CO2 from atmosphere by photosynthesis. Remote sensing provides a possible way to monitor the Gross Primary Production (GPP) at the global scale. Vegetation Indices (VI), e.g., NDVI and NIRv, and Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) have been widely used as a proxy for GPP, while the impact of 3D canopy structure on VI and SIF has not be comprehensively studied yet. In this research, firstly, a unified radiative transfer model for visible/near-infrared reflectance and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence has been developed based on recollision probability and directional escape probability. Then, the impact of view angles, solar angles, weather conditions, leaf area index, and multi-layer leaf angle distribution (LAD) on VI and SIF has been studied. Results suggest that canopy structure plays a critical role in distorting pixel-scale remote sensing signal from leaf-scale scattering. In thin canopy, LAD affects both of the remote sensing estimated GPP and real GPP, while in dense canopy, SIF variations are mainly due to canopy structure, instead of just due to physiology. At the microscale, leaf angle reflects the plant strategy to light on the photosynthesis efficiency, and at the macroscale, a priori knowledge of leaf angle distribution for specific species can improve the global GPP estimation by remote sensing.

  19. The potential impact of 3D telepresence technology on task performance in emergency trauma care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Cairns, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    a simulated emergency situation 60 paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim while working alone or in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy. Analysis of paramedics' task performance shows that the fewest harmful procedures occurred in the 3D proxy condition. Paramedics in the 3D...... proxy condition also reported higher levels of self-efficacy. These results indicate 3D telepresence technology has potential to improve paramedics' performance of complex emergency medical tasks and improve emergency trauma health care when designed appropriately....

  20. The impact of 3D and 2D TV watching on neurophysiological responses and cognitive functioning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Oh, So-Young; Park, Kun Woo; Kim, Taehee; Ko, Deokwon

    2015-12-01

    Watching three-dimensional television (3D TV) may strain the eyes. However, other potential harmful effects of 3D TV watching have been rarely investigated. The current study examined the impact of 3D TV watching on neurophysiological responses and cognitive functioning as compared with two-dimensional TV (2D TV) watching. A total of 72 individuals were randomly assigned to either a 3D TV watching group or a 2D TV watching group. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure neurophysiological responses, and computerized neurocognitive tests were conducted immediately before and after TV watching. The Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to assess visual discomfort. There was a significant change in visual discomfort between the two groups (SSQ score at baseline: 2.28 ± 3.05 for the 3D TV group and 3.69 ± 3.49 for the 2D TV group; SSQ score after watching TV: 4.6 ± 3.35 for the 3D TV group and 4.03 ± 3.47 for the 2D TV group), and this change was greater for the 3D TV watching group (P = 0.025). However, 3D TV watching did not have a differential impact on EEG responses. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of changes in cognitive performance, except for a subtle difference in backward digit span performance. Our findings suggest that 3D TV watching is as safe as 2D TV watching in terms of neurophysiological responses and cognitive functioning. Potential harmful effects of TV viewing might be similar regardless of whether 3D or 2D TV is viewed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstruction of 3D structures of MET antibodies from electron microscopy 2D class averages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chen

    Full Text Available Dynamics of three MET antibody constructs (IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 and the IgG4-MET antigen complex was investigated by creating their atomic models with an integrative experimental and computational approach. In particular, we used two-dimensional (2D Electron Microscopy (EM images, image class averaging, homology modeling, Rapidly exploring Random Tree (RRT structure sampling, and fitting of models to images, to find the relative orientations of antibody domains that are consistent with the EM images. We revealed that the conformational preferences of the constructs depend on the extent of the hinge flexibility. We also quantified how the MET antigen impacts on the conformational dynamics of IgG4. These observations allow to create testable hypothesis to investigate MET biology. Our protocol may also help describe structural diversity of other antigen systems at approximately 5 Å precision, as quantified by Root-Mean-Square Deviation (RMSD among good-scoring models.

  2. Role of 3d electrons in formation of ionic-covalent bonds in II-VI based ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Iwanowski, R.J.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    In the II-VI compounds doped with transition metals (diluted magnetic semiconductors) a substitution of cation by the introduced magnetic ion leads to hybridization of its 3d states with the sp states of the host semiconductor. The degree of hybridization of the 3d states and its interaction with the host material band states has been a subject of numerous discussions. Inner shell absorption spectroscopy provides very useful means of electronic structure analysis in a wide variety of systems. Due to its selectivity for atomic species and the selection rules for electron transitions, the soft X-ray absorption technique offers quite unique opportunity to measure directly the site-selective local density of the unoccupied d states in the compounds studied. Results are reported for ZnS compounds with Mn, Fe, Co or Ni substitutions for Zn

  3. PF2fit: Polar Fast Fourier Matched Alignment of Atomistic Structures with 3D Electron Microscopy Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna Bettadapura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There continue to be increasing occurrences of both atomistic structure models in the PDB (possibly reconstructed from X-ray diffraction or NMR data, and 3D reconstructed cryo-electron microscopy (3D EM maps (albeit at coarser resolution of the same or homologous molecule or molecular assembly, deposited in the EMDB. To obtain the best possible structural model of the molecule at the best achievable resolution, and without any missing gaps, one typically aligns (match and fits the atomistic structure model with the 3D EM map. We discuss a new algorithm and generalized framework, named PF(2 fit (Polar Fast Fourier Fitting for the best possible structural alignment of atomistic structures with 3D EM. While PF(2 fit enables only a rigid, six dimensional (6D alignment method, it augments prior work on 6D X-ray structure and 3D EM alignment in multiple ways: Scoring. PF(2 fit includes a new scoring scheme that, in addition to rewarding overlaps between the volumes occupied by the atomistic structure and 3D EM map, rewards overlaps between the volumes complementary to them. We quantitatively demonstrate how this new complementary scoring scheme improves upon existing approaches. PF(2 fit also includes two scoring functions, the non-uniform exterior penalty and the skeleton-secondary structure score, and implements the scattering potential score as an alternative to traditional Gaussian blurring. Search. PF(2 fit utilizes a fast polar Fourier search scheme, whose main advantage is the ability to search over uniformly and adaptively sampled subsets of the space of rigid-body motions. PF(2 fit also implements a new reranking search and scoring methodology that considerably improves alignment metrics in results obtained from the initial search.

  4. Association of intracellular and synaptic organization in cochlear inner hair cells revealed by 3D electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bullen, Anwen; West, Timothy; Moores, Carolyn; Ashmore, Jonathan; Fleck, Roland A.; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Forge, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ways in which cell architecture is modelled to meet cell function is a poorly understood facet of cell biology. To address this question, we have studied the cytoarchitecture of a cell with highly specialised organisation, the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC), using multiple hierarchies of three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy analyses. We show that synaptic terminal distribution on the IHC surface correlates with cell shape, and the distribution of a highly organised network ...

  5. Relativistic quantum Hall conductivity for 3D and 2D electron plasma in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Perez Martinez, A.; Perez-Rojas, H.

    1990-05-01

    The complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor in the static limit, as well as the expression for the Hall conductivity, is obtained for the relativistic 3D and 2D electron gas in a magnetic field. The non-relativistic 2D limit is also discussed. The typical step form of the 2D Hall conductivity at zero temperature is obtained under the simple hypothesis of constancy of the chemical potential. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  6. Color 3D electronic imaging of the surface of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marc

    1994-10-01

    The NRC laboratories have developed a laser scanning technique to digitize shapes and colors in registration. The technique, known as synchronized scanning, is capable of digitizing topography as small as the relief of a bare finger tip, showing a clear picture of the skin structure (essentially a clean fingerprint without distortion), as well as the shape and size of body components such as hands, face, and feet, and the full body of one or more subjects simultaneously. The laser scanner uses a RGB laser, coupled to an optical fiber, which is projected in the field of view. The 3D color measurements are made by optical triangulation to a resolution of 10 micrometers for finger tip scans and a resolution of 1 mm for whole body scans. Experimental results are presented and discussed. Potential applications of this technology in the field of identification and inspection of humans include face recognition, finger, foot and teeth print identification, and 3D mugshots that can be rapidly broadcast through satellite communication. One of the unique properties of this technology is that absolute measurements, not only appearance and relative position of features, can be used for identification purposes.

  7. Preservation of protein fluorescence in embedded human dendritic cells for targeted 3D light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, K; Fuchs, J; Fröber, A; Kirmse, R; Glass, B; Anders-Össwein, M; Walther, P; Kräusslich, H-G; Dietrich, C

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a correlative microscopy workflow to combine detailed 3D fluorescence light microscopy data with ultrastructural information gained by 3D focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy. The workflow is based on an optimized high pressure freezing/freeze substitution protocol that preserves good ultrastructural detail along with retaining the fluorescence signal in the resin embedded specimens. Consequently, cellular structures of interest can readily be identified and imaged by state of the art 3D confocal fluorescence microscopy and are precisely referenced with respect to an imprinted coordinate system on the surface of the resin block. This allows precise guidance of the focused ion beam assisted scanning electron microscopy and limits the volume to be imaged to the structure of interest. This, in turn, minimizes the total acquisition time necessary to conduct the time consuming ultrastructural scanning electron microscope imaging while eliminating the risk to miss parts of the target structure. We illustrate the value of this workflow for targeting virus compartments, which are formed in HIV-pulsed mature human dendritic cells. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Usage of 3D models of tetralogy of Fallot for medical education: impact on learning congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Yue-Hin; Harahsheh, Ashraf S; Krieger, Axel; Olivieri, Laura J

    2017-03-11

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common human birth defect, and clinicians need to understand the anatomy to effectively care for patients with CHD. However, standard two-dimensional (2D) display methods do not adequately carry the critical spatial information to reflect CHD anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) models may be useful in improving the understanding of CHD, without requiring a mastery of cardiac imaging. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of 3D models on how pediatric residents understand and learn about tetralogy of Fallot following a teaching session. Pediatric residents rotating through an inpatient Cardiology rotation were recruited. The sessions were randomized into using either conventional 2D drawings of tetralogy of Fallot or physical 3D models printed from 3D cardiac imaging data sets (cardiac MR, CT, and 3D echocardiogram). Knowledge acquisition was measured by comparing pre-session and post-session knowledge test scores. Learner satisfaction and self-efficacy ratings were measured with questionnaires filled out by the residents after the teaching sessions. Comparisons between the test scores, learner satisfaction and self-efficacy questionnaires for the two groups were assessed with paired t-test. Thirty-five pediatric residents enrolled into the study, with no significant differences in background characteristics, including previous clinical exposure to tetralogy of Fallot. The 2D image group (n = 17) and 3D model group (n = 18) demonstrated similar knowledge acquisition in post-test scores. Residents who were taught with 3D models gave a higher composite learner satisfaction scores (P = 0.03). The 3D model group also had higher self-efficacy aggregate scores, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.39). Physical 3D models enhance resident education around the topic of tetralogy of Fallot by improving learner satisfaction. Future studies should examine the impact of models on teaching CHD that

  9. EYE TRACKING TO EXPLORE THE IMPACTS OF PHOTOREALISTIC 3D REPRESENTATIONS IN PEDSTRIAN NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D maps, photorealistic three-dimensional (3D representations of cities (e.g., Google Earth have gained much attention by scientists and public users as another option. However, there is no consistent evidence on the influences of 3D photorealism on pedestrian navigation. Whether 3D photorealism can communicate cartographic information for navigation with higher effectiveness and efficiency and lower cognitive workload compared to the traditional symbolic 2D maps remains unknown. This study aims to explore whether the photorealistic 3D representation can facilitate processes of map reading and navigation in digital environments using a lab-based eye tracking approach. Here we show the differences of symbolic 2D maps versus photorealistic 3D representations depending on users’ eye-movement and navigation behaviour data. We found that the participants using the 3D representation were less effective, less efficient and were required higher cognitive workload than using the 2D map for map reading. However, participants using the 3D representation performed more efficiently in self-localization and orientation at the complex decision points. The empirical results can be helpful to improve the usability of pedestrian navigation maps in future designs.

  10. Impact of 3D vision on mental workload and laparoscopic performance in inexperienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, E; Carrasco-Valiente, J; Valero-Rosa, J; Campos-Hernández, J P; Anglada-Curado, F J; Carazo-Carazo, J L; Font-Ugalde, P; Requena-Tapia, M J

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of vision in three dimensions (3D) versus two dimensions (2D) on mental workload and laparoscopic performance during simulation-based training. A prospective, randomized crossover study on inexperienced students in operative laparoscopy was conducted. Forty-six candidates executed five standardized exercises on a pelvitrainer with both vision systems (3D and 2D). Laparoscopy performance was assessed using the total time (in seconds) and the number of failed attempts. For workload assessment, the validated NASA-TLX questionnaire was administered. 3D vision improves the performance reducing the time (3D = 1006.08 ± 315.94 vs. 2D = 1309.17 ± 300.28; P NASA-TLX results, less mental workload is experienced with the use of 3D (P < .001). However, 3D vision was associated with greater visual impairment (P < .01) and headaches (P < .05). The incorporation of 3D systems in laparoscopic training programs would facilitate the acquisition of laparoscopic skills, because they reduce mental workload and improve the performance on inexperienced surgeons. However, some undesirable effects such as visual discomfort or headache are identified initially. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced 2D and 3D Electron Microscopy Analysis of Clay/PP Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosca, Alessandra; Roberts, Ashley; Daviðsdóttir, Svava

    2011-01-01

    ) equipped with field emission gun (FEG) and through lens detector (TLD) was used for high resolution 3D imaging of the material via slice-and-view technique [2]. Image analysis was performed using Matlab. Results and Discussion Figure 1 (a) shows a TEM micrograph of a clay/PP nanocomposite, where the clay...... of nanometres and are rather uniformly oriented, distributed, and spaced from each other. Image analysis from these micrographs is very useful since a rather large field view is analysed as compared to TEM micrographs, which are traditionally used to study such properties. Figure 3 (a) shows a high resolution......Introduction Clay/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites with engineered properties are attractive in developing novel components of interest in a plurality of application fields [1]. An understanding of clay dispersion and intercalation in the polymeric matrix is of great importance to explain...

  12. Status report on the 'Merging' of the Electron-Cloud Code POSINST with the 3-D Accelerator PIC CODE WARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Azevedo, A.W.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Stoltz, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    We have integrated the electron-cloud code POSINST [1] with WARP [2]--a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell accelerator code developed for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion--so that the two can interoperate. Both codes are run in the same process, communicate through a Python interpreter (already used in WARP), and share certain key arrays (so far, particle positions and velocities). Currently, POSINST provides primary and secondary sources of electrons, beam bunch kicks, a particle mover, and diagnostics. WARP provides the field solvers and diagnostics. Secondary emission routines are provided by the Tech-X package CMEE

  13. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  14. Identities for the electron forms 2 and their 3D representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogin, Vladimir G.

    2012-01-01

    New type of identities for products of the electron forms 2 (Fs2) and the bilinear forms (BFs) are derived. The identities are found for both temporal Fs2 describing the electron energy and quasi energy densities and spatial Fs2 describing the linear momentum and quasi linear momentum densities. The identities allow one to transform the quasi energy densities into the energy densities as well as the quasi linear momentum densities into the linear momentum densities. It is shown that by choosing any one of the 16 electron temporal or spatial Fs2 one can represent the remaining 15 temporal or spatial Fs2 as combinations of a chosen form 2 (F2) and the derivatives of a number of BFs. Any one of such 16 sets of identities can be considered as a specific form of an irreducible representation for the temporal or spatial Fs2. Similar to the bilinear identities for BFs the derived identities can be used for reduction different physical quantities describing the electron to the forms defined by the basic physical observables. As an example we consider transformation of the electron energy density to a new fundamental form that presents the energy density through the linear momentum density. - Highlights: ► New type of identities connecting electron forms 2 and bilinear forms is derived.► Identities are found for temporal and spatial forms 2. ► Irreducible representation of the identities is derived. ► New forms of the electron energy density are presented.

  15. Organic ice resists for 3D electron-beam processing: Instrumentation and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Beleggia, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Organic vapors condensed into thin layers of ice on the surface of a cold substrate are exposed with an electron beam to create resist patterns for lithography applications. The entire spin- and development-free lithography process requires a single custom instrument. We report the design, material...... choice, implementation and operation of this apparatus. It is based on a scanning electron microscope fitted with an electron beam control system that is normally used for electron beam lithography in a multi-user open-access laboratory. The microscope was also equipped with a gas injection system......, a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostage, a temperature control system, and a load-lock. Three steps are required to initialize the apparatus for organic ice resist processing, and two steps are required to restore the apparatus for routine multi-user operations. Five steps are needed to create organic ice...

  16. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  17. 3-D numerical analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the 3-dimensional high-gain free- electron laser amplifier problem. The method allows us to write the laser field as an integral equation which can be efficiently and accurately evaluated on a small computer. The model is general enough to allow the inclusion of various initial electron beam distributions to study the gain reduction mechanism and its dependence on the physical parameters. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. New aspects of whistler waves driven by an electron beam studied by a 3-D electromagnetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Buneman, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    1994-01-01

    We have restudied electron beam driven whistler waves with a 3-D electromagnetic particle code. The simulation results show electromagnetic whistler wave emissions and electrostatic beam modes like those observed in the Spacelab 2 electron beam experiment. It has been suggested in the past that the spatial bunching of beam electrons associated with the beam mode may directly generate whistler waves. However, the simulation results indicate several inconsistencies with this picture: (1) whistler waves continue to be generated even after the beam mode space charge modulation looses its coherence, (2) the parallel (to the background magnetic field) wavelength of the whistler wave is longer than that of the beam instability, and (3) the parallel phase velocity of the whistler wave is smaller than that of the beam mode. The complex structure of the whistler waves in the vicinity of the beam suggest that the transverse motion (gyration) of the beam and background electrons is also involved in the generation of whistler waves.

  19. Fabrication of 3D Air-core MEMS Inductors for High Frequency Power Electronic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Mizushima, Io; Nour, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    footprints have an inductance from 34.2 to 44.6 nH and a quality factor from 10 to 13 at frequencies ranging from 30 to 72 MHz. The air-core inductors show threefold lower parasitic capacitance and up to a 140% higher-quality factor and a 230% higher-operation frequency than silicon-core inductors. A 33 MHz...... boost converter mounted with an air-core toroidal inductor achieves an efficiency of 68.2%, which is better than converters mounted with a Si-core inductor (64.1%). Our inductors show good thermal cycling stability, and they are mechanically stable after vibration and 2-m-drop tests.......We report a fabrication technology for 3D air-core inductors for small footprint and very-high-frequency power conversions. Our process is scalable and highly generic for fabricating inductors with a wide range of geometries and core shapes. We demonstrate spiral, solenoid, and toroidal inductors...

  20. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-05-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer - a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient Semi-Automatic 3D Segmentation for Neuron Tracing in Electron Microscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cory; Liu, Ting; Cohan, Nathaniel Wood; Ellisman, Mark; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2015-01-01

    0.1. Background In the area of connectomics, there is a significant gap between the time required for data acquisition and dense reconstruction of the neural processes contained in the same dataset. Automatic methods are able to eliminate this timing gap, but the state-of-the-art accuracy so far is insufficient for use without user corrections. If completed naively, this process of correction can be tedious and time consuming. 0.2. New Method We present a new semi-automatic method that can be used to perform 3D segmentation of neurites in EM image stacks. It utilizes an automatic method that creates a hierarchical structure for recommended merges of superpixels. The user is then guided through each predicted region to quickly identify errors and establish correct links. 0.3. Results We tested our method on three datasets with both novice and expert users. Accuracy and timing were compared with published automatic, semi-automatic, and manual results. 0.4. Comparison with Existing Methods Post-automatic correction methods have also been used in [1] and [2]. These methods do not provide navigation or suggestions in the manner we present. Other semi-automatic methods require user input prior to the automatic segmentation such as [3] and [4] and are inherently different than our method. 0.5. Conclusion Using this method on the three datasets, novice users achieved accuracy exceeding state-of-the-art automatic results, and expert users achieved accuracy on par with full manual labeling but with a 70% time improvement when compared with other examples in publication. PMID:25769273

  2. Ripple-modulated electronic structure of a 3D topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Zhou, Wenwen; Walkup, D; Dhital, Chetan; Wilson, Stephen D; Madhavan, V

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators host linearly dispersing states with unique properties and a strong potential for applications. An important ingredient in realizing some of the more exotic states in topological insulators is the ability to manipulate local electronic properties. Direct analogy to the Dirac material graphene suggests that a possible avenue for controlling local properties is via a controlled structural deformation such as the formation of ripples. However, the influence of such ripples on topological insulators is yet to be explored. Here we use scanning tunnelling microscopy to determine the effects of one-dimensional buckling on the electronic properties of Bi(2)Te(3.) By tracking spatial variations of the interference patterns generated by the Dirac electrons we show that buckling imposes a periodic potential, which locally modulates the surface-state dispersion. This suggests that forming one- and two-dimensional ripples is a viable method for creating nanoscale potential landscapes that can be used to control the properties of Dirac electrons in topological insulators.

  3. Direct observation of multistep energy transfer in LHCII with fifth-order 3D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Lambrev, Petar H; Wells, Kym L; Garab, Győző; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2015-07-31

    During photosynthesis, sunlight is efficiently captured by light-harvesting complexes, and the excitation energy is then funneled towards the reaction centre. These photosynthetic excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways are complex and proceed in a multistep fashion. Ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is an important tool to study EET processes in photosynthetic complexes. However, the multistep EET processes can only be indirectly inferred by correlating different cross peaks from a series of 2DES spectra. Here we directly observe multistep EET processes in LHCII using ultrafast fifth-order three-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (3DES). We measure cross peaks in 3DES spectra of LHCII that directly indicate energy transfer from excitons in the chlorophyll b (Chl b) manifold to the low-energy level chlorophyll a (Chl a) via mid-level Chl a energy states. This new spectroscopic technique allows scientists to move a step towards mapping the complete complex EET processes in photosynthetic systems.

  4. 3D simulation of electron and ion transmission of GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; da Luz, Hugo Natal

    2017-10-01

    Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been chosen as the main tracking system in several high-flux and high repetition rate experiments. These include on-going experiments such as ALICE and future experiments such as PANDA at FAIR and ILC. Different R&D activities were carried out on the adoption of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The requirement of low ion feedback has been established through these activities. Low ion feedback minimizes distortions due to space charge and maintains the necessary values of detector gain and energy resolution. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been used to study the related physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. Ion backflow and electron transmission of quadruple GEMs, made up of foils with different hole pitch under different electromagnetic field configurations (the projected solutions for the ALICE TPC) have been studied. Finally a new triple GEM detector configuration with low ion backflow fraction and good electron transmission properties has been proposed as a simpler GEM-based alternative suitable for TPCs for future collider experiments.

  5. Poster - 38: On the physical and dosimetric properties of 3D printed electron bolus fabricated using polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, David; Jensen, Martin; Rickey, Daniel W; Dubey, Arbind; Harris, Chad; McCurdy, Boyd [CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: 3D printing technology could simplify and improve electron bolus fabrication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the density, dimensional accuracy, uniformity, and attenuation of PLA boluses fabricated with a low-cost 3D printer. Methods: Several solid square slabs were printed with specific requested dimensions and 100% infill using different fill patterns. These pieces were imaged using an x-ray flat panel imager in order to check for uniformity of the prints. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured downstream of the slabs in solid water using a parallel plate chamber and compared to measurements in water in order to characterize attenuation. The dimensions of the PLA slabs were measured using digital calipers. The slabs were also weighed to find their density. Results: The fill pattern used to create boluses can affect the attenuation of the bolus. Fill patterns should be chosen carefully and quality assurance should be done for each printed piece. PLA causes the electron PDD to shift towards shallower depths, compared to water, by 1.7 mm for each centimeter of PLA. Agreement with design dimensions was within 1 mm in the plane of the printer bed, and within 1/3 of a millimeter (roughly the thickness of a single layer), perpendicular to the printer bed. Average density was in the range 1.20 – 1.22. Conclusions: 3D printing shows great promise for use in fabricating electron bolus. This work indicates that printed PLA can be a suitable material provided the increased attenuation is properly accounted for.

  6. Poster - 38: On the physical and dosimetric properties of 3D printed electron bolus fabricated using polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, David; Jensen, Martin; Rickey, Daniel W; Dubey, Arbind; Harris, Chad; McCurdy, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: 3D printing technology could simplify and improve electron bolus fabrication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the density, dimensional accuracy, uniformity, and attenuation of PLA boluses fabricated with a low-cost 3D printer. Methods: Several solid square slabs were printed with specific requested dimensions and 100% infill using different fill patterns. These pieces were imaged using an x-ray flat panel imager in order to check for uniformity of the prints. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured downstream of the slabs in solid water using a parallel plate chamber and compared to measurements in water in order to characterize attenuation. The dimensions of the PLA slabs were measured using digital calipers. The slabs were also weighed to find their density. Results: The fill pattern used to create boluses can affect the attenuation of the bolus. Fill patterns should be chosen carefully and quality assurance should be done for each printed piece. PLA causes the electron PDD to shift towards shallower depths, compared to water, by 1.7 mm for each centimeter of PLA. Agreement with design dimensions was within 1 mm in the plane of the printer bed, and within 1/3 of a millimeter (roughly the thickness of a single layer), perpendicular to the printer bed. Average density was in the range 1.20 – 1.22. Conclusions: 3D printing shows great promise for use in fabricating electron bolus. This work indicates that printed PLA can be a suitable material provided the increased attenuation is properly accounted for.

  7. Impact-parameter-averaged probability of 3dσ - Vacancy sharing in heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, D.K.; McDaniel, F.D.; Zoran, V.; Szilagyi, Z.; Piticu, I.; Fluerasu, D.; Enulescu, A.; Dumitriu, D.; Bucur, B.I.; Ciortea, C.

    1993-01-01

    The probabilities for the 3dσ molecular vacancy sharing in the 0.08 - 1.75 MeV/u F, Co, Ni, Cu + Bi collisions have been estimated by using integral X-ray spectrum measurement. The analytic two-state exponential model of Nikitin has been applied to 3dσ -2p 3/2 vacancy sharing in these collisions systems. This describes satisfactory the velocity dependence at low energies, < 0.5 MeV/u, but around 1 MeV/u the velocity dependence changes its character, indicating departure from the hypotheses of the model. (Author)

  8. DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3-D relativistic bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, J.; Peysson, Y

    2004-12-01

    A new original code for solving the 3-D relativistic and bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation is presented. It designed for the current drive problem in tokamak with an arbitrary magnetic equilibrium. This tool allows self-consistent calculations of the bootstrap current in presence of other external current sources. RF current drive for arbitrary type of waves may be used. Several moments of the electron distribution function are determined, like the exact and effective fractions of trapped electrons, the plasma current, absorbed RF power, runaway and magnetic ripple loss rates and non-thermal Bremsstrahlung. Advanced numerical techniques have been used to make it the first fully implicit (reverse time) 3-D solver, particularly well designed for implementation in a chain of code for realistic current drive calculations in high {beta}{sub p} plasmas. All the details of the physics background and the numerical scheme are presented, as well a some examples to illustrate main code capabilities. Several important numerical points are addressed concerning code stability and potential numerical and physical limitations. (authors)

  9. DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3-D relativistic bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.

    2004-12-01

    A new original code for solving the 3-D relativistic and bounce-averaged electron drift kinetic equation is presented. It designed for the current drive problem in tokamak with an arbitrary magnetic equilibrium. This tool allows self-consistent calculations of the bootstrap current in presence of other external current sources. RF current drive for arbitrary type of waves may be used. Several moments of the electron distribution function are determined, like the exact and effective fractions of trapped electrons, the plasma current, absorbed RF power, runaway and magnetic ripple loss rates and non-thermal Bremsstrahlung. Advanced numerical techniques have been used to make it the first fully implicit (reverse time) 3-D solver, particularly well designed for implementation in a chain of code for realistic current drive calculations in high β p plasmas. All the details of the physics background and the numerical scheme are presented, as well a some examples to illustrate main code capabilities. Several important numerical points are addressed concerning code stability and potential numerical and physical limitations. (authors)

  10. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of 3d and 4d transition-metal impurities in ferromagnetic Fe

    CERN Document Server

    Park, J H; Min, B I; Cho, H S

    2000-01-01

    Employing the self-consistent local approach, the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin orbital recursion method, we have investigated the electronic structures and the magnetic properties of 3d and 4d transition-metal (TM) impurities in ferromagnetic bcc Fe. In both 3d and 4d TM impurities, virtual bound states appear and are characterized by a high density of states in the energy spectrum. The characters of the states are studied by calculating the bond order between interaction orbitals. For early TM impurities, the states at the impurity sites have more antibonding characters, while the states at neighboring Fe sites have more bonding characters. For late TM impurities, the situation is reversed. late TM impurities of both the 3d and the 4d TM series have the same magnetic ordering as the host Fe atoms whereas early TM impurities have magnetic moments antiparallel to that of the host. As for the Mn impurity, an inward relaxation of neighboring Fe atoms stabilizes the antiferromagnetic ordering with respect to t...

  11. Analysis of the electronic structures of 3d transition metals doped CuGaS2 based on DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zongyan; Zhou Dacheng; Yi Juan

    2014-01-01

    3d transition metals doped CuGaS 2 are considered as possible absorbing material candidates for intermediated band thin film solar cells. The electronic structure and optical properties of 3d transition metals doped CuGaS 2 are investigated by using density functional theory calculations with the GGA + U method in the present work. The doping with 3d transition metals does not obviously change the crystal structure, band gap, and optical absorption edge of the CuGaS 2 host. However, in the case of CuGa 1−x TM x S 2 (TM = Ti, V, Cr, Fe, and Ni), there is at least one distinct isolated impurity energy level in the band gap, and the optical absorption is enhanced in the ultraviolet-light region. Therefore, these materials are ideal absorber material candidates for intermediated band thin film solar cells. The calculated results are very well consistent with experimental observations, and could better explain them. (semiconductor materials)

  12. Measuring surface topography with scanning electron microscopy. I. EZEImage: a program to obtain 3D surface data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponz, Ezequiel; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Bonetto, Rita Dominga

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in the science of materials and different parameters were developed to characterize the surface roughness. In a previous work, we studied the surface topography with fractal dimension at low scale and two parameters at high scale by using the variogram, that is, variance vs. step log-log graph, of a SEM image. Those studies were carried out with the FERImage program, previously developed by us. To verify the previously accepted hypothesis by working with only an image, it is indispensable to have reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface data. In this work, a new program (EZEImage) to characterize 3D surface topography in SEM has been developed. It uses fast cross correlation and dynamic programming to obtain reliable dense height maps in a few seconds which can be displayed as an image where each gray level represents a height value. This image can be used for the FERImage program or any other software to obtain surface topography characteristics. EZEImage also generates anaglyph images as well as characterizes 3D surface topography by means of a parameter set to describe amplitude properties and three functional indices for characterizing bearing and fluid properties.

  13. Characterisation of 3D-GaN/InGaN nanostructured Light Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, I J; Cherns, D; Wang, X; Waag, A; Wehmann, H-H

    2013-01-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterise GaN/InGaN 3D nanostructures grown on patterned GaN/sapphire substrates by MOVPE. It has been found that the growth of well ordered arrays of such nanostructures, containing multiple quantum wells on non-polar side-facets, can be achieved with a low density of defects. Growth changes and surface morphology play a major role in the nucleation of any defects present. The nanostructure morphology has been investigated and non-uniform growth on adjacent facets studied

  14. Characterisation of 3D-GaN/InGaN nanostructured Light Emitting Diodes by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, I. J.; Cherns, D.; Wang, X.; Waag, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.

    2013-11-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterise GaN/InGaN 3D nanostructures grown on patterned GaN/sapphire substrates by MOVPE. It has been found that the growth of well ordered arrays of such nanostructures, containing multiple quantum wells on non-polar side-facets, can be achieved with a low density of defects. Growth changes and surface morphology play a major role in the nucleation of any defects present. The nanostructure morphology has been investigated and non-uniform growth on adjacent facets studied.

  15. Micromachined VLSI 3D electronics. Final report for period September 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, C.P.; Steinbeck, J.; Hsueh, K.L.

    2001-03-31

    The phase I program investigated the construction of electronic interconnections through the thickness of a silicon wafer. The novel aspects of the technology are that the length-to-width ratio of the channels is as high as 100:1, so that the minimum amount of real estate is used for contact area. Constructing a large array of these through-wafer interconnections will enable two circuit die to be coupled on opposite sides of a silicon circuit board providing high speed connection between the two.

  16. Development in Electronic Packaging – Moving to 3D System Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szendiuch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronic industry is reducing package dimensions of components as well as complete electronics systems. Surface mount device passives and semiconductor chips have to be mounted together bringing a functional system that must realize the required function with necessary reliability and acceptable price. To make up a reliable and cost effective system, the size and weight is being reduced by employing lower voltages and higher speeds. For example, the typical size of SMD passives 30 years ago was 1206 when they were first introduced. Generally, all components including electrical joints are becoming miniaturized and smaller. The industry is moving toward a reduced size of 0201 and 01005 for passives, new fine pitch packages for actives, but the PCB now feature limits for further integration. System on Package (SOP is one way to reach the three-dimensional package concept where components will be placed in three-dimensional configuration. A similar concepts are “Package on Package” (PoP or ”Package in Package” (PiP.

  17. The linearly scaling 3D fragment method for large scale electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Zhengji [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) (United States); Meza, Juan; Shan Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Bailey, David; Wang Linwang [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Lee, Byounghak, E-mail: ZZhao@lbl.go [Physics Department, Texas State University (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The linearly scaling three-dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method is an O(N) ab initio electronic structure method for large-scale nano material simulations. It is a divide-and-conquer approach with a novel patching scheme that effectively cancels out the artificial boundary effects, which exist in all divide-and-conquer schemes. This method has made ab initio simulations of thousand-atom nanosystems feasible in a couple of hours, while retaining essentially the same accuracy as the direct calculation methods. The LS3DF method won the 2008 ACM Gordon Bell Prize for algorithm innovation. Our code has reached 442 Tflop/s running on 147,456 processors on the Cray XT5 (Jaguar) at OLCF, and has been run on 163,840 processors on the Blue Gene/P (Intrepid) at ALCF, and has been applied to a system containing 36,000 atoms. In this paper, we will present the recent parallel performance results of this code, and will apply the method to asymmetric CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods, which have potential applications in electronic devices and solar cells.

  18. Impact of the layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided silicon 3D sensors fabricated at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Mattedi, F.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy)

    2013-01-21

    We report on experimental results and TCAD simulations addressing the impact of layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided 3D diodes fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. Simulations are found to accurately reproduce the device characteristics, thus explaining the basic mechanisms governing the breakdown behavior and capacitance of different devices and providing useful hints for layout optimization.

  19. Impact of the layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided silicon 3D sensors fabricated at FBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Mattedi, F.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimental results and TCAD simulations addressing the impact of layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided 3D diodes fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. Simulations are found to accurately reproduce the device characteristics, thus explaining the basic mechanisms governing the breakdown behavior and capacitance of different devices and providing useful hints for layout optimization.

  20. Solar Radiation Transport in the Cloudy Atmosphere: A 3D Perspective on Observations and Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Marshak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of sunlight with clouds is a ubiquitous and often pleasant visual experience, but it conjures up major challenges for weather, climate, environmental science and beyond. Those engaged in the characterization of clouds (and the clear air nearby) by remote sensing methods are even more confronted. The problem comes, on the one hand, from the spatial complexity of real clouds and, on the other hand, from the dominance of multiple scattering in the radiation transport. The former ingredient contrasts sharply with the still popular representation of clouds as homogeneous plane-parallel slabs for the purposes of radiative transfer computations. In typical cloud scenes the opposite asymptotic transport regimes of diffusion and ballistic propagation coexist. We survey the three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative transfer literature over the past 50 years and identify three concurrent and intertwining thrusts: first, how to assess the damage (bias) caused by 3D effects in the operational 1D radiative transfer models? Second, how to mitigate this damage? Finally, can we exploit 3D radiative transfer phenomena to innovate observation methods and technologies? We quickly realize that the smallest scale resolved computationally or observationally may be artificial but is nonetheless a key quantity that separates the 3D radiative transfer solutions into two broad and complementary classes: stochastic and deterministic. Both approaches draw on classic and contemporary statistical, mathematical and computational physics.

  1. Fostering Persistence: 3D Printing and the Unforeseen Impact on Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Daniel L.; Dominguez, Victoria S.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching persistence and problem solving must begin with selecting a problem that can be solved mathematically, that allows for multiple methods of solving, and that generally captures the attention and curiosity of the student (Marcus and Fey 2003; NCTM 1991; Van de Walle 2003). This article shows how a STEM three-dimensional (3D) printing…

  2. Impact of mesh and DEM resolutions in SEM simulation of 3D seismic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Saad; van der Meijde, M.; van der Werff, H.M.A.; Shafique, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study shows that the resolution of a digital elevation model (DEM) and model mesh strongly influences 3D simulations of seismic response. Topographic heterogeneity scatters seismic waves and causes variation in seismic response (am-plification and deamplification of seismic amplitudes) at the

  3. Programming 2D/3D shape-shifting with hobbyist 3D printers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7mh00269f

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Teunis; Janbaz, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Materials and devices with advanced functionalities often need to combine complex 3D shapes with functionality-inducing surface features. Precisely controlled bio-nanopatterns, printed electronic components, and sensors/actuators are all examples of such surface features. However, the vast majority of the refined technologies that are currently available for creating functional surface features work only on flat surfaces. Here we present initially flat constructs that upon triggering by high temperatures change their shape to a pre-programmed 3D shape, thereby enabling the combination of surface-related functionalities with complex 3D shapes. A number of shape-shifting materials have been proposed during the last few years based on various types of advanced technologies. The proposed techniques often require multiple fabrication steps and special materials, while being limited in terms of the 3D shapes they could achieve. The approach presented here is a single-step printing process that requires only a hobbyist 3D printer and inexpensive off-the-shelf materials. It also lends itself to a host of design strategies based on self-folding origami, instability-driven pop-up, and ‘sequential’ shape-shifting to unprecedentedly expand the space of achievable 3D shapes. This combination of simplicity and versatility is a key to widespread applications. PMID:29308207

  4. The « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer for millisecond timescale electron measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Techer, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding electron acceleration mechanisms in planetary magnetospheres or energy dissipation at electron scale in the solar wind requires fast measurement of electron distribution functions on a millisecond time scale. Still, since the beginning of space age, the instantaneous field of view of plasma spectrometers is limited to a few degrees around their viewing plane. In Earth's magnetosphere, the NASA MMS spacecraft use 8 state-of-the-art sensor heads to reach a time resolution of 30 milliseconds. This costly strategy in terms of mass and power consumption can hardly be extended to the next generation of constellation missions that would use a large number of small-satellites. In the solar wind, using the same sensor heads, the ESA THOR mission is expected to reach the 5ms timescale in the thermal energy range, up to 100eV. We present the « 3-D donut » electrostatic analyzer concept that can change the game for future space missions because of its instantaneous hemispheric field of view. A set of 2 sensors is sufficient to cover all directions over a wide range of energy, e.g. up to 1-2keV in the solar wind, which covers both thermal and supra-thermal particles. In addition, its high sensitivity compared to state of the art instruments opens the possibility of millisecond time scale measurements in space plasmas. With CNES support, we developed a high fidelity prototype (a quarter of the full « 3-D donut » analyzer) that includes all electronic sub-systems. The prototype weights less than a kilogram. The key building block of the instrument is an imaging detector that uses EASIC, a low-power front-end electronics that will fly on the ESA Solar Orbiter and on the NASA Parker Solar Probe missions.

  5. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shiqin [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Moran, Kathryn [Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Robar, James L. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues.

  6. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 07: Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity and homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm uses calculated result of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation as input. Distances along ray lines from distal side of 90% isodose to distal surface of PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity is improved compared to that with uniform bolus. The printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal tissues

  7. The impact of active versus passive use of 3D technology: a study of dental students at Wuhan University, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengcai; Yan, Yanhong; Li, Rong; Hu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    A variety of computer-based 3D applications are becoming regular tools for dental students for self-learning. This study investigated the learning effectiveness of junior dental students in passively versus actively controlling the 3D virtual scenes of implant dentistry. Participants were randomized into three groups and were exposed to three designs of educational materials: traditional 2D webpages (2D); active-controlling 3D webpages (A3); and passive-controlling 3D webpages (P3). After reviewing the webpages, the participants were asked to complete a posttest to assess the relative quality of information acquisition. Their responses were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the P3 group received the highest score of 26.4±3.1 on the post-test, significantly better than the A3 group, which had the worst performance with a score of 20.3±4.0. The 2D group received a score of 24.2±4.6. There was a significant correlation between the scores on a mental rotations test and the subjects' performance on the posttest (p<0.001). A serious disadvantage of active control was indicated for individuals with low spatial ability. In 3D virtual reality assisted self-learning, passive control produces higher learning effects compared to active control. Too much active control may generate significantly negative impacts on students, especially for individuals with low spatial ability.

  8. STEM and ICT Instructional Worlds: The 3D Experience, The impact on today’s students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Edward Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In our project, 3D immersive virtual worlds have been implemented in middle schools for instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM.  The learning and playing, as a curricular tool, has enormous potential for engaging children of all ages in deep learning (Lim, Nonis, &  Hedberg 2006. STEM and ICT Instructional Worlds: The 3D Experience (STEM-ICT 3D is funded by the National Science Foundation Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST program. The project is intended to inspire middle school students to pursue studies and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics – particularly information and communication technology (ICT fields - as well as prepare students with the skills necessary to succeed in STEM education and careers. The project, based on research suggesting student gains in engagement, efficacy, and achievement (Barab, et al, 2005; Educause, 2006; Ketelhut, et al, 2006 proposes to translate the success of an earlier pilot toward a model that can be replicated in other middle schools over time.

  9. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  10. Impact of collimator leaf width on stereotactic radiosurgery and 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H. Dale; Wilder, Richard B.; Pappas, Conrad T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The authors undertook a study to analyze the impact of collimator leaf width on stereotactic radiosurgery and 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Twelve cases involving primary brain tumors, metastases, or arteriovenous malformations that had been planned with BrainLAB's conventional circular collimator-based radiosurgery system were re-planned using a β-version of BrainLAB's treatment planning software that is compatible with MRC Systems' and BrainLAB's micro-multileaf collimators. These collimators have a minimum leaf width of 1.7 mm and 3.0 mm, respectively, at isocenter. The clinical target volumes ranged from 2.7-26.1 cc and the number of static fields ranged from 3-5. In addition, for 4 prostate cancer cases, 2 separate clinical target volumes were planned using MRC Systems' and BrainLAB's micro-multileaf collimators and Varian's multileaf collimator: the smaller clinical target volume consisted of the prostate gland and the larger clinical target volume consisted of the prostate and seminal vesicles. For the prostate cancer cases, treatment plans were generated using either 6 or 7 static fields. A 'PITV ratio', which the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group defines as the volume encompassed by the prescription isodose surface divided by the clinical target volume, was used as a measure of the quality of treatment plans (a PITV ratio of 1.0-2.0 is desirable). Bladder and rectal volumes encompassed by the prescription isodose surface, isodose distributions and dose volume histograms were also analyzed for the prostate cancer patients. Results: In 75% of the cases treated with radiosurgery, a PITV ratio between 1.0-2.0 could be achieved using a micro-multileaf collimator with a leaf width of 1.7-3.0 mm at isocenter and 3-5 static fields. When the clinical target volume consisted of the prostate gland, the micro-multileaf collimator with a minimum leaf width of 3.0 mm allowed one to decrease the median volume of bladder and

  11. The impact of flattening-filter-free beam technology on 3D conformal RT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The removal of the flattening filter (FF) leads to non-uniform fluence distribution with a considerable increase in dose rate. It is possible to adapt FFF beams (flattening-filter-free) in 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) by using field in field techniques (FiF). The aim of this retrospective study is to clarify whether the quality of 3D CRT plans is influenced by the use of FFF beams. Method This study includes a total of 52 CT studies of RT locations that occur frequently in clinical practice. Dose volume targets were provided for the PTV of breast (n=13), neurocranium (n=11), lung (n=7), bone metastasis (n=10) and prostate (n=11) in line with ICRU report 50/62. 3D CRT planning was carried out using FiF methods. Two clinically utilized photon energies are used for a Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerator in FFF mode at 7MVFFF and 11MVFFF as well as in FF mode at 6MVFF and 10MVFF. The plan quality in relation to the PTV coverage, OAR (organs at risk) and low dose burden as well as the 2D dosimetric verification is compared with FF plans. Results No significant differences were found between FFF and FF plans in the mean dose for the PTV of breast, lung, spine metastasis and prostate. The low dose parameters V5Gy and V10Gy display significant differences for FFF and FF plans in some subgroups. The DVH analysis of the OAR revealed some significant differences. Significantly more fields (1.9 – 4.5) were necessary in the use of FFF beams for each location (p<0.0001) in order to achieve PTV coverage. All the tested groups displayed significant increases (1.3 – 2.2 times) in the average number of necessary MU with the use of FFF beams (p<0.001). Conclusions This study has shown that the exclusive use of a linear accelerator in FFF mode is feasible in 3D CRT. It was possible to realize RT plans in comparable quality in typical cases of clinical radiotherapy. The 2D dosimetric validation of the modulated fields verified the dose calculation and thus the

  12. Carbon Nanofibers Synthesized on Selective Substrates for Nonvolatile Memory and 3D Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Khan, Abdur R.

    2011-01-01

    A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) growth technique has been developed where the choice of starting substrate was found to influence the electrical characteristics of the resulting carbon nanofiber (CNF) tubes. It has been determined that, if the tubes are grown on refractory metallic nitride substrates, then the resulting tubes formed with dc PECVD are also electrically conducting. Individual CNFs were formed by first patterning Ni catalyst islands using ebeam evaporation and liftoff. The CNFs were then synthesized using dc PECVD with C2H2:NH3 = [1:4] at 5 Torr and 700 C, and approximately equal to 200-W plasma power. Tubes were grown directly on degenerately doped silicon substrates with resistivity rho approximately equal to 1-5 meterohm-centimeter, as well as NbTiN. The approximately equal to 200-nanometer thick refractory NbTiN deposited using magnetron sputtering had rho approximately equal to 113 microohm-centimeter and was also chemically compatible with CNF synthesis. The sample was then mounted on a 45 beveled Al holder, and placed inside a SEM (scanning electron microscope). A nanomanipulator probe stage was placed inside the SEM equipped with an electrical feed-through, where tungsten probes were used to make two-terminal electrical measurements with an HP 4156C parameter analyzer. The positive terminal nanoprobe was mechanically manipulated to physically contact an individual CNF grown directly on NbTiN as shown by the SEM image in the inset of figure (a), while the negative terminal was grounded to the substrate. This revealed the tube was electrically conductive, although measureable currents could not be detected until approximately equal to 6 V, after which point current increased sharply until compliance (approximately equal to 50 nA) was reached at approximately equal to 9.5 V. A native oxide on the tungsten probe tips may contribute to a tunnel barrier, which could be the reason for the suppressed transport at low biases

  13. Utilization of Titanium Particle Impact Location to Validate a 3D Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan-Ur-Rab, M.; Zahiri, S. H.; King, P. C.; Busch, C.; Masood, S. H.; Jahedi, M.; Nagarajah, R.; Gulizia, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cold spray is a solid-state rapid deposition technology in which metal powder is accelerated to supersonic speeds within a de Laval nozzle and then impacts onto the surface of a substrate. It is possible for cold spray to build thick structures, thus providing an opportunity for melt-less additive manufacturing. Image analysis of particle impact location and focused ion beam dissection of individual particles were utilized to validate a 3D multicomponent model of cold spray. Impact locations obtained using the 3D model were found to be in close agreement with the empirical data. Moreover, the 3D model revealed the particles' velocity and temperature just before impact—parameters which are paramount for developing a full understanding of the deposition process. Further, it was found that the temperature and velocity variations in large-size particles before impact were far less than for the small-size particles. Therefore, an optimal particle temperature and velocity were identified, which gave the highest deformation after impact. The trajectory of the particles from the injection point to the moment of deposition in relation to propellant gas is visualized. This detailed information is expected to assist with the optimization of the deposition process, contributing to improved mechanical properties for additively manufactured cold spray titanium parts.

  14. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Life-Cycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning...Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 182 - Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser

  15. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  16. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  17. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  18. Automation of 3D reconstruction of neural tissue from large volume of conventional serial section transmission electron micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2009-01-30

    We describe an approach for automation of the process of reconstruction of neural tissue from serial section transmission electron micrographs. Such reconstructions require 3D segmentation of individual neuronal processes (axons and dendrites) performed in densely packed neuropil. We first detect neuronal cell profiles in each image in a stack of serial micrographs with multi-scale ridge detector. Short breaks in detected boundaries are interpolated using anisotropic contour completion formulated in fuzzy-logic framework. Detected profiles from adjacent sections are linked together based on cues such as shape similarity and image texture. Thus obtained 3D segmentation is validated by human operators in computer-guided proofreading process. Our approach makes possible reconstructions of neural tissue at final rate of about 5 microm3/manh, as determined primarily by the speed of proofreading. To date we have applied this approach to reconstruct few blocks of neural tissue from different regions of rat brain totaling over 1000microm3, and used these to evaluate reconstruction speed, quality, error rates, and presence of ambiguous locations in neuropil ssTEM imaging data.

  19. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrich, T.; Kuehn, S.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed

  20. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: susanne.kuehn@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed.

  1. Eccentricity in Images of Circular and Spherical Targets and its Impact to 3D Object Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Luhmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a feature of projective geometry which causes eccentricity in the image measurement of circular and spherical targets. While it is commonly known that flat circular targets can have a significant displacement of the elliptical image centre with respect to the true imaged circle centre, it can also be shown that the a similar effect exists for spherical targets. Both types of targets are imaged with an elliptical contour. As a result, if measurement methods based on ellipses are used to detect the target (e.g. best-fit ellipses, the calculated ellipse centre does not correspond to the desired target centre in 3D space. This paper firstly discusses the use and measurement of circular and spherical targets. It then describes the geometrical projection model in order to demonstrate the eccentricity in image space. Based on numerical simulations, the eccentricity in the image is further quantified and investigated. Finally, the resulting effect in 3D space is estimated for stereo and multi-image intersections. It can be stated that the eccentricity is larger than usually assumed, and must be compensated for high-accuracy applications. Spherical targets do not show better results than circular targets. The paper is an updated version of Luhmann (2014 new experimental investigations on the effect of length measurement errors.

  2. Characterisation of 3D-GaN/InGaN core-shell nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Ian; Cherns, David [School of Physics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wang, Xue; Wehman, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Mandl, Martin; Strassburg, Martin [Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 4, 93055 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterise GaN/InGaN 3D nanostructures grown on patterned GaN/sapphire substrates by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It has been found that the growth of well ordered arrays of such nanostructures, containing multiple quantum wells on non-polar side-facets, can be achieved with a low density of defects. Growth changes and surface morphology play a major role in the nucleation of any defects present. The nanostructure morphology has been investigated and differing growth rates on adjacent facets studied. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Numerical simulation of runaway electrons: 3-D effects on synchrotron radiation and impurity-based runaway current dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, D.; Carbajal, L.; Spong, D.; Izzo, V.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations of runaway electrons (REs) with a particular emphasis on orbit dependent effects in 3-D magnetic fields are presented. The simulations were performed using the recently developed Kinetic Orbit Runaway electron Code (KORC) that computes the full-orbit relativistic dynamics in prescribed electric and magnetic fields including radiation damping and collisions. The two main problems of interest are synchrotron radiation and impurity-based RE dissipation. Synchrotron radiation is studied in axisymmetric fields and in 3-D magnetic configurations exhibiting magnetic islands and stochasticity. For passing particles in axisymmetric fields, neglecting orbit effects might underestimate or overestimate the total radiation power depending on the direction of the radial shift of the drift orbits. For trapped particles, the spatial distribution of synchrotron radiation exhibits localized "hot" spots at the tips of the banana orbits. In general, the radiation power per particle for trapped particles is higher than the power emitted by passing particles. The spatial distribution of synchrotron radiation in stochastic magnetic fields, obtained using the MHD code NIMROD, is strongly influenced by the presence of magnetic islands. 3-D magnetic fields also introduce a toroidal dependence on the synchrotron spectra, and neglecting orbit effects underestimates the total radiation power. In the presence of magnetic islands, the radiation damping of trapped particles is larger than the radiation damping of passing particles. Results modeling synchrotron emission by RE in DIII-D quiescent plasmas are also presented. The computation uses EFIT reconstructed magnetic fields and RE energy distributions fitted to the experimental measurements. Qualitative agreement is observed between the numerical simulations and the experiments for simplified RE pitch angle distributions. However, it is noted that to achieve quantitative agreement, it is necessary to use pitch angle

  4. Impacts of a CAREER Award on Advancing 3D Visualization in Geology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, M. I.

    2011-12-01

    CAREER awards provide a unique opportunity to develop educational activities as an integrated part of one's research activities. This CAREER award focused on developing interactive 3D visualization tools to aid geology students in improving their 3D visualization skills. Not only is this a key skill for field geologists who need to visualize unseen subsurface structures, but it is also an important aspect of geodynamic research into the processes, such as faulting and viscous flow, that occur during subduction. Working with an undergraduate student researcher and using the KeckCAVES developed volume visualization code 3DVisualizer, we have developed interactive visualization laboratory exercises (e.g., Discovering the Rule of Vs) and a suite of mini-exercises using illustrative 3D geologic structures (e.g., syncline, thrust fault) that students can explore (e.g., rotate, slice, cut-away) to understand how exposure of these structures at the surface can provide insight into the subsurface structure. These exercises have been integrated into the structural geology curriculum and made available on the web through the KeckCAVES Education website as both data-and-code downloads and pre-made movies. One of the main challenges of implementing research and education activities through the award is that progress must be made on both throughout the award period. Therefore, while our original intent was to use subduction model output as the structures in the educational models, delays in the research results required that we develop these models using other simpler input data sets. These delays occurred because one of the other goals of the CAREER grant is to allow the faculty to take their research in a new direction, which may certainly lead to transformative science, but can also lead to more false-starts as the challenges of doing the new science are overcome. However, having created the infrastructure for the educational components, use of the model results in future

  5. Correlating Intravital Multi-Photon Microscopy to 3D Electron Microscopy of Invading Tumor Cells Using Anatomical Reference Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karreman, Matthia A.; Mercier, Luc; Schieber, Nicole L.; Shibue, Tsukasa; Schwab, Yannick; Goetz, Jacky G.

    2014-01-01

    Correlative microscopy combines the advantages of both light and electron microscopy to enable imaging of rare and transient events at high resolution. Performing correlative microscopy in complex and bulky samples such as an entire living organism is a time-consuming and error-prone task. Here, we investigate correlative methods that rely on the use of artificial and endogenous structural features of the sample as reference points for correlating intravital fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. To investigate tumor cell behavior in vivo with ultrastructural accuracy, a reliable approach is needed to retrieve single tumor cells imaged deep within the tissue. For this purpose, fluorescently labeled tumor cells were subcutaneously injected into a mouse ear and imaged using two-photon-excitation microscopy. Using near-infrared branding, the position of the imaged area within the sample was labeled at the skin level, allowing for its precise recollection. Following sample preparation for electron microscopy, concerted usage of the artificial branding and anatomical landmarks enables targeting and approaching the cells of interest while serial sectioning through the specimen. We describe here three procedures showing how three-dimensional (3D) mapping of structural features in the tissue can be exploited to accurately correlate between the two imaging modalities, without having to rely on the use of artificially introduced markers of the region of interest. The methods employed here facilitate the link between intravital and nanoscale imaging of invasive tumor cells, enabling correlating function to structure in the study of tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:25479106

  6. Automatic contact algorithm in ppercase[dyna3d] for crashworthiness and impact problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whirley, Robert G.; Engelmann, Bruce E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit non-linear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. Key aspects of the proposed new method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without adhoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public ppercase[dyna3d] code. ((orig.))

  7. Impact of helical boundary conditions on nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veranda, M; Bonfiglio, D; Cappello, S; Chacón, L; Escande, D F

    2013-01-01

    Helical self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) regimes emerge both numerically—in 3D visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations—and experimentally, as in the RFX-mod device at high current (I P above 1 MA). These states, called quasi-single helicity (QSH) states, are characterized by the action of a MHD mode that impresses a quasi-helical symmetry to the system, thus allowing a high degree of magnetic chaos healing. This is in contrast with the multiple helicity (MH) states, where magnetic fluctuations create a chaotic magnetic field degrading the confinement properties of the RFP. This paper reports an extensive numerical study performed in the frame of 3D visco-resistive MHD which considers the effect of helical magnetic boundary conditions, i.e. of a finite value of the radial magnetic field at the edge (magnetic perturbation, MP). We show that the system can be driven to a selected QSH state starting from both spontaneous QSH and MH regimes. In particular, a high enough MP can force a QSH helical self-organization with a helicity different from the spontaneous one. Moreover, MH states can be turned into QSH states with a selected helicity. A threshold in the amplitude of MP is observed above which is able to influence the system. Analysis of the magnetic topology of these simulations indicates that the dominant helical mode is able to temporarily sustain conserved magnetic structures in the core of the plasma. The region occupied by conserved magnetic surfaces increases reducing secondary modes' amplitude to experimental-like values. (paper)

  8. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H; Ebel, A; Franzkowiak, V; Hendricks, J; Lippert, E; Moellhoff, M [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1998-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  9. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  10. Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels. We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample particle-in-cell (PIC simulation of a 30   fs, 200 TW laser interacting with a 0.75 cm long plasma with density 1.5×10^{18}  cm^{-3} to produce an ultrashort (10 fs monoenergetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3 nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications, we propose a parameter space, which is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1884126] in that it involves lower plasma densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.

  11. Wavelengths of the 3p-3d transitions of the Co- and Fe-like ions: The effects of electron correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mau Hsiung.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental observations of the 3p 6 3d 9 2 D - 3p 5 3d 10 2 p transitions of the Co-like ions and 3p 6 3d 8 3 F 4 - 3p 5 3d 9 3 F 3 of the Fe-like ions have recently been extended to highly charged ions of heavy elements up to uranium (Z = 92). A comparison between the observed energies and calculated values from the Dirac-Fock model indicated persistent discrepancies of 3 to 4 eV for all ions. Systematic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations for these transitions have been carried out with emphases on the effects of electron correlation. The previously found discrepancies theory and experiment have mostly removed after the inclusion of the electron-electron correlation effects in the theoretical calculations. 13 refs

  12. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement 2013 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER E N G IN EE RI N G L IB E o n 10 /1 4/ 13 . C op yr ig ht A SC E. F or p er so na l u se o nl y; a ll rig ht s r es er ve d. 2 composed of a measuring mechanism... a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 : S u s t a i n a b l e a n d E f f i c i e n t P a v e m e n t s © A S C E 2 0 1 3 A i r f i e l d a n d H i g h w a y P a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER...

  13. 3D-Printing: How Additive Manufacturing impacts Supply Chain Business Processes and Management Components

    OpenAIRE

    Oettmeier, Katrin; Hofmann, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The business implications of additive manufacturing (AM) are explored; specific focus thereby lies on the impact of AM technology adoption in customized parts production. Design/methodology/approach Based on two explorative case studies from the hearing aid industry, the impact of AM technology adoption on supply chain business processes and management components is analyzed. General systems theory and a supply chain management framework serve as theoretical underpinning....

  14. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d metal trioxide clusters-doped monolayer graphene: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Muhammad [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); M.U.E.T, S.Z.A.B, Campus Khairpur Mir' s, Sindh (Pakistan); Shuai, Yong, E-mail: shuaiyong1978@gmail.com [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping; Hassan, Muhammad [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • First-principles calculations are performed for TMO{sub 3} cluster-doped and TM atoms adsorbed at three O atoms-doped graphene. • Significant magnetic coupling behavior is observed between TM atoms and neighboring C and O atoms for both cases. • The direction of charge transfer is always from monolayer graphene to TMO{sub 3} clusters incorporated into graphene. • TiO{sub 3} and VO{sub 3} doped structures display dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior. • Five different orbitals (d{sub xy}, d{sub yz}, d{sub z}{sup 2}, d{sub xz} and d{sub x}{sup 2}{sub -y}{sup 2}) of 3d TM atoms give rise to magnetic moments for both cases. - Abstract: We present first-principles density-functional calculations for the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of monolayer graphene doped with 3d (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Mn and Ni) metal trioxide TMO{sub 3} halogen clusters. In this paper we used two approaches for 3d metal trioxide clusters (i) TMO{sub 3} halogen cluster was embedded in monolayer graphene substituting four carbon (C) atoms (ii) three C atoms were substituted by three oxygen (O) atoms in one graphene ring and TM atom was adsorbed at the hollow site of O atoms substituted graphene ring. All the impurities were tightly bonded in the graphene ring. In first case of TMO{sub 3} doped graphene layer, the bond length between C−O atom was reduced and bond length between TM-O atom was increased. In case of Cr, Fe, Co and Ni atoms substitution in between the O atoms, leads to Fermi level shifting to conduction band thereby causing the Dirac cone to move into valence band, however a band gap appears at high symmetric K-point. In case of TiO{sub 3} and VO{sub 3} substitution, system exhibits semiconductor properties. Interestingly, TiO{sub 3}-substituted system shows dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior with 2.00 μ{sub B} magnetic moment. On the other hand, the substitution of CoO{sub 3}, CrO{sub 3}, FeO{sub 3} and MnO{sub 3} induced 1.015 μ{sub B}, 2

  15. Comparison between 3D dynamics filter technique, field-in-field, electronic compensator in breast cancer; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D com filtro dinamico, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Cassia; Silva, Leonardo P.; Martins, Lais P.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Bastista, Delano V.S.; Vieira, Anna Myrian M.T.L.; Rocha, Igor M., E-mail: cassiatr@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The radiotherapy has been used in a wild scale in breast cancer treatment. With this high demand, new technologies have been developed to improve the dose distribution in the target while reducing the dose delivered in critical organs. In this study, performed with one clinical case, three planning were done for comparison: 3D technique with dynamic filter, 3D with field-in-field technique (forward-planned IMRT) and 3D technique using electronic compensator (ECOMP). The planning were done with a 6MV photon beam using the Eclipse software, version 8.6 (Varian Medical Systems). The PTV was drawn covering the whole breast and the critical organs were: the lung on the irradiated side, the heart, the contralateral breast and the anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The planning using the compensator technique permitted more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume. The V20 value of the lung on the irradiated side was 8,3% for the electronic compensator technique, 8,9% for the field-in-field technique and 8,2% for the dynamic filter technique. For the heart the dose range was 15.7 - 139.9 cGy, 16.3 - 148.4 cGy for the dynamic filter technique and 19.6 - 157.0 cGy for the field-in-field technique. The dose gradient was 11% with compensator electronic, 15% dynamic filter technique and 13% with field-in-field. The application of electronic technique in breast cancer treatment allows better dose distribution while reduces dose in critical organs, but in the same time requires a quality assurance. (author)

  16. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jingjing; Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2016-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer BN doped with 3D metal trioxide and tetraoxide superhalogen clusters are investigated using first-principle calculations. TMO_3_(_4_)-doped monolayer BN exhibits a low negative formation energy, whereas TM atoms embedded in monolayer BN show a high positive formation energy. TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. Compared with TMO_3-doped structures, TMO_4-doped structures have a higher structural stability because of their higher binding energies. Given their low negative formation energies, TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications than TMO_3-doped structures and TM atom-doped structures. Large magnetic moments per supercell and significant ferromagnetic couplings between a TM atom and neighboring B and N atoms on the BN layer were observed in all TMO_4-doped structures, except for TiO_4-doped structures. - Highlights: • TMO_3_(_4_) superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer BN were investigated. • TMO_3_(_4_) clusters are embedded more easily in monolayer BN than TM atoms. • TMO_4-doped structures are more favored for specific applications. • Large magnetic moments were observed in TMO_4-doped structures. • The band gap was sensitively dependent on the doped clusters.

  17. Association of intracellular and synaptic organization in cochlear inner hair cells revealed by 3D electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Anwen; West, Timothy; Moores, Carolyn; Ashmore, Jonathan; Fleck, Roland A; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Forge, Andrew

    2015-07-15

    The ways in which cell architecture is modelled to meet cell function is a poorly understood facet of cell biology. To address this question, we have studied the cytoarchitecture of a cell with highly specialised organisation, the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC), using multiple hierarchies of three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy analyses. We show that synaptic terminal distribution on the IHC surface correlates with cell shape, and the distribution of a highly organised network of membranes and mitochondria encompassing the infranuclear region of the cell. This network is juxtaposed to a population of small vesicles, which represents a potential new source of neurotransmitter vesicles for replenishment of the synapses. Structural linkages between organelles that underlie this organisation were identified by high-resolution imaging. Taken together, these results describe a cell-encompassing network of membranes and mitochondria present in IHCs that support efficient coding and transmission of auditory signals. Such techniques also have the potential for clarifying functionally specialised cytoarchitecture of other cell types. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The impact of ICT on market organisation – A case of 3D-models in engineering consultancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the use of ICT in production and delivery of technical engineering consultancy services on business structures with regard to industry convergence and transaction costs. The paper takes an empirical study on the introduction of 3D-modelling tools in the building...... section in a Scandinavian engineering consultancy firm as its point of departure. The discussion identifies three different structural aspects, which all are affected by the use of ICT: Internationalisation vs. Local markets, Outsourcing vs. Structural integration, and Division of work between actors...

  19. Excitation-energy-dependent resonances in x-ray emissions under near-threshold electron excitation of the Ce 3d and 4d levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.B.; Baun, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Soft x-ray appearance potential spectra of the 3d and 4d levels of polycrystalline cerium metal are reported in this paper. Resonant x-ray emissions are observed when the electron-excitation energy sweeps through the ionization energies of the 3d and 4d levels. The resonant x rays excited at the 3d-level onsets are considerably more intense, and are excited at a lower electron-excitation energy than the 3d-series characteristic x rays. In the neighborhood of the 4d-electron thresholds, four line-like structures extend to approx.8 eV below the 4d-electron binding energies, while two broad and more intense structures occur above the 4d onsets, with the largest one reaching a peak intensity at 12 eV above the 4d thresholds. The resonant emissions apparently arise from the decay of threshold-excited states which are bound to the inner vacancy and have core configurations nd 9 4f 3 , (n=3,4). The exchange interaction between the three 4f electrons and the respective d-orbital vacancy spreads the 4d-threshold structures over a 20 eV range of excitation energies and the 3d-threshold structures over a much smaller range

  20. 3D self-supported hierarchical Ni−Co architectures with integrated capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YanRu; Cheng, Baohai

    2016-01-01

    3D self-supported hierarchical Ni and Co co-hydroxide architectures are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application attributed to their prominent properties such as binder-free electrode fabrication process and high power density. However, the intrinsic conductivity of Ni and Co co-hydroxide is poor. How to develop a new type of supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced electronic conductivity and involving pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance is still challenging. Herein, we present a facile co-electrodeposition method to fabricate self-standing Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO monolithic electrode by growing a layer of Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y with layered structure on surface of conductive Ni nanotube, which increases specific surface area and prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption (electrochemical double layer capacitance performance) and fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitance performance). With the conductive Ni nanotube as current collector and electronic conductor, the binder-free Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO electrode exhibits high specific capacitance (92.4 mF cm"−"2 at 0.1 mA cm"−"2, the mass of active material per cm"−"2 is typically in 100 s μg). Moreover, Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO hybrids display excellent cycling stability with 93.3% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The results suggest Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO nanostructure constructed based on integrated features of pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity is expected to be a type of excellent electrode material for supercapacitor. - Highlights: • Ni−Co electrode is fabricated by growing layered structure on Ni nanotube surface. • The layered structure prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption and redox reactions. • The Ni nanotube serves as nanostructured current collector and electronic conductor. • The Ni−Co hybrids display 93.3% capacitance retention

  1. A New Approach to Sap Flow Measurement Using 3D Printed Gauges and Open-source Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.; Miner, G. L.; Kluitenberg, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new type of sap flow gauge was developed to measure transpiration from herbaceous plants using a modified heat pulse technique. Gauges were fabricated using 3D-printing technology and low-cost electronics to keep the materials cost under $20 (U.S.) per sensor. Each gauge consisted of small-diameter needle probes fastened to a 3D-printed frame. One needle contained a resistance heater to provide a 6 to 8 second heat pulse while the other probes measured the resultant temperature increase at two distances from the heat source. The data acquisition system for the gauges was built from a low-cost Arduino microcontroller. The system read the gauges every 10 minutes and stored the results on a SD card. Different numerical techniques were evaluated for estimating sap velocity from the heat pulse data - including analytical solutions and parameter estimation approaches . Prototype gauges were tested in the greenhouse on containerized corn and sunflower. Sap velocities measured by the gauges were compared to independent gravimetric measurements of whole plant transpiration. Results showed the system could measure daily transpiration to within 3% of the gravimetric measurements. Excellent agreement was observed when two gauges were attached the same stem. Accuracy was not affected by rapidly changing transpiration rates observed under partly cloudy conditions. The gauge-based estimates of stem thermal properties suggested the system may also detect the onset of water stress. A field study showed the gauges could run for 1 to 2 weeks on a small battery pack. Sap flow measurements on multiple corn stems were scaled up by population to estimate field-scale transpiration. During full canopy cover, excellent agreement was observed between the scaled-up sap flow measurements and reference crop evapotranspiration calculated from weather data. Data also showed promise as a way to estimate real-time canopy resistance required for model verification and development. Given the low

  2. Dosimetric impact of image-guided 3D conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaly, B; Song, W; Bauman, G S; Battista, J J; Van Dyk, J

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify the impact of image-guided conformal radiation therapy (CRT) on the dose distribution by correcting patient setup uncertainty and inter-fraction tumour motion. This was a retrospective analysis that used five randomly selected prostate cancer patients that underwent approximately 15 computed tomography (CT) scans during their radiation treatment course. The beam arrangement from the treatment plan was imported into each repeat CT study and the dose distribution was recalculated for the new beam setups. Various setup scenarios were then compared to assess the impact of image guidance on radiation treatment precision. These included (1) daily alignment to skin markers, thus representing a conventional beam setup without image guidance (2) alignment to bony anatomy for correction of daily patient setup error, thus representing on-line portal image guidance, and (3) alignment to the 'CTV of the day' for correction of inter-fraction tumour motion, thus representing on-line CT or ultrasound image guidance. Treatment scenarios (1) and (3) were repeated with a reduced CTV to PTV margin, where the former represents a treatment using small margins without daily image guidance. Daily realignment of the treatment beams to the prostate showed an average increase in minimum tumour dose of 1.5 Gy, in all cases where tumour 'geographic miss' without image guidance was apparent. However, normal tissue sparing did not improve unless the PTV margin was reduced. Daily realignment to the tumour combined with reducing the margin size by a factor of 2 resulted in an average escalation in tumour dose of 9.0 Gy for all five static plans. However, the prescription dose could be escalated by 13.8 Gy when accounting for changes in anatomy by accumulating daily doses using nonlinear image registration techniques. These results provide quantitative information on the effectiveness of image-guided radiation treatment of prostate cancer and demonstrate that

  3. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J; Ebel, A; Lippert, E; Petry, H [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1998-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  4. Process analysis of the modelled 3-D mesoscale impact of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meterorologie

    1997-12-31

    A mesoscale chemistry transport model is applied to study the impact of aircraft emissions on the atmospheric trace gas composition. A special analysis of the simulations is conducted to separate the effects of chemistry, transport, diffusion and cloud processes on the transformation of the exhausts of a subsonic fleet cruising over the North Atlantic. The aircraft induced ozone production strongly depends on the tropopause height and the cruise altitude. Aircraft emissions may undergo an effective downward transport under the influence of stratosphere-troposphere exchange activity. (author) 12 refs.

  5. Simulation of the Initial 3-D Instability of an Impacting Drop Vortex Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Wiwchar, Justin; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    , a Rayleigh centrifugal instability, or a vortex breakdown-type instability. Simulations which simply have a perturbed solitary ring result in an instability similar to that seen experimentally. Waviness of the core which would be expected from a Widnall instability is not visible. Adding an opposite......-signed secondary vortex ring or an image vortex ring to the initial conditions, to trigger a Rayleigh or breakdown respectively, does not appear to significantly change the instability from what is seen with a solitary ring. This suggests that a Rayleigh or vortex breakdown-type instability are not likely at work......Computational vortex particle method simulations of a perturbed vortex ring are performed to recreate and understand the instability seen in impacting water drop experiments. Three fundamentally different initial vorticity distributions are used to attempt to trigger a Widnall instability...

  6. Generación de modelos 3D a partir de imágenes SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy)

    OpenAIRE

    MÍNGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ, MARÍA TERESA

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Con la realización del presente trabajo, se pretenden obtener Modelos Digitales 3D (MD-3D) de imágenes de muy alta resolución obtenidas con un Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (SEM), utilizando la técnica fotogramétrica Structure from Motion (SfM) mediante el software Agisoft-PhotoScan. El objetivo es comprobar si este tipo de software, que utiliza la técnica SfM, es apto para imágenes obtenidas con equipos SEM y generar Modelos 3D. Esto permitiría poder realizar impr...

  7. Calculation of the electronic and magnetic structures of 3d impurities in the Hcp Fe matrix; Calculo da estrutura eletronica e magnetica de impurezas 3d na matriz do Fe HCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Fernando

    1995-12-31

    In this work we investigate the local magnetic properties and the electronic structure of HCP Fe, as well introducing transition metals atoms 3d (Cs, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in HCP iron matrix. We employed the discrete variational method (DVM), which is an orbital molecular method which incorporate the Hartree-Fock-Slater theory and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO), in the self-consistent charge approximation and the local density approximation of Von Barth and Hedin to the exchange-correlation potential. We used the embedded cluster model to investigate the electronic structure and the local magnetic properties for the central atom of a cluster of 27 atoms immersed in the microcrystal representing the HCP Fe. (author) 32 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 3D finite element modeling of epiretinal stimulation: Impact of prosthetic electrode size and distance from the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yu; Feng, Fuchen; Huang, Chenhui; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Wang, Guoxing

    2015-05-01

    A novel 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model was established to systematically investigate the impact of the diameter (Φ) of disc electrodes and the electrode-to-retina distance on the effectiveness of stimulation. The 3D finite element model was established based on a disc platinum stimulating electrode and a 6-layered retinal structure. The ground electrode was placed in the extraocular space in direct attachment with sclera and treated as a distant return electrode. An established criterion of electric-field strength of 1000 Vm-1 was adopted as the activation threshold for RGCs. The threshold current (TC) increased linearly with increasing Φ and electrode-to-retina distance and remained almost unchanged with further increases in diameter. However, the threshold charge density (TCD) increased dramatically with decreasing electrode diameter. TCD exceeded the electrode safety limit for an electrode diameter of 50 µm at an electrode-to-retina distance of 50 to 200 μm. The electric field distributions illustrated that smaller electrode diameters and shorter electrode-to-retina distances were preferred due to more localized excitation of RGC area under stimulation of different threshold currents in terms of varied electrode size and electrode-to-retina distances. Under the condition of same-amplitude current stimulation, a large electrode exhibited an improved potential spatial selectivity at large electrode-to-retina distances. Modeling results were consistent with those reported in animal electrophysiological experiments and clinical trials, validating the 3D finite element model of epiretinal stimulation. The computational model proved to be useful in optimizing the design of an epiretinal stimulating electrode for prosthesis.

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  11. A method for 3D-reconstruction of a muscle thick filament using the tilt series images of a single filament electron tomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, G; Pinto, A; Alamo, L; Baumann, B; Ye, F; Winkler, H; Taylor, K; Padrón, R

    2014-05-01

    Myosin interacting-heads (MIH) motifs are visualized in 3D-reconstructions of thick filaments from striated muscle. These reconstructions are calculated by averaging methods using images from electron micrographs of grids prepared using numerous filament preparations. Here we propose an alternative method to calculate the 3D-reconstruction of a single thick filament using only a tilt series images recorded by electron tomography. Relaxed thick filaments, prepared from tarantula leg muscle homogenates, were negatively stained. Single-axis tilt series of single isolated thick filaments were obtained with the electron microscope at a low electron dose, and recorded on a CCD camera by electron tomography. An IHRSR 3D-recontruction was calculated from the tilt series images of a single thick filament. The reconstruction was enhanced by including in the search stage dual tilt image segments while only single tilt along the filament axis is usually used, as well as applying a band pass filter just before the back projection. The reconstruction from a single filament has a 40 Å resolution and clearly shows the presence of MIH motifs. In contrast, the electron tomogram 3D-reconstruction of the same thick filament - calculated without any image averaging and/or imposition of helical symmetry - only reveals MIH motifs infrequently. This is - to our knowledge - the first application of the IHRSR method to calculate a 3D reconstruction from tilt series images. This single filament IHRSR reconstruction method (SF-IHRSR) should provide a new tool to assess structural differences between well-ordered thick (or thin) filaments in a grid by recording separately their electron tomograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zinner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    For three cloud cases the possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three

  13. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartutik, K; Pawiro, S A; Wibowo, W E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning. (paper)

  14. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Azmat, Mian [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Alzahrani, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  15. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Azmat, Mian; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Alzahrani, Eman

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  16. Impacts of Built-Up Area Expansion in 2D and 3D on Regional Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported the thermal effects of urban expansion from non-built-up land; however, how changes in building height in built-up land influence the regional thermal environment is still uncertain. Thus, taking the transitional region between the Chinese megacities of Beijing and Tianjin as the study area, this study investigated the impacts of built-up land expansion in 2D and 3D on regional land surface temperature (LST. The expansion in 2D refers to the conversion from non-built-up land to built-up land, whereas the expansion in 3D characterized the building height change in the built-up land, referring to the conversion from low- and moderate-rise building (LMRB to high-rise building (HRB lands. The land use change from 2010 to 2015 was manually interpreted from high spatial resolution SPOT5 and Gaofen2 images, and the LST information in the corresponding period was derived from Landsat5/8 thermal images using an image-based method. The results showed that between 2010 and 2015, approximately 87.25 km2 non-built-up land was transformed to built-up land, and 13.21 km2 LMRB land was built into HRB land. These two types of built-up land expansions have induced opposing thermal effects in regard to regional surface temperature. The built-up land expansions from cropland and urban green land have raised the regional LST. However, the built-up land expansion from LMRB to HRB lands has induced a cooling effect. Thus, this study suggested that for the cooling urban design, the building height should also be considered. Furthermore, for future studies on thermal impacts of urbanization, it should be cautioned that, besides the urban area expansion, the building height change should also be emphasized due to its potential cooling effects.

  17. Method for dose-reduced 3D catheter tracking on a scanning-beam digital x-ray system using dynamic electronic collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerley, David A. P.; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced 3D tracking using dynamic electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. Positions in the 2D focal spot array are selectively activated to create a regionof- interest (ROI) x-ray field around the tracked catheter. The ROI position is updated for each frame based on a motion vector calculated from the two most recent 3D tracking results. The technique was evaluated with SBDX data acquired as a catheter tip inside a chest phantom was pulled along a 3D trajectory. DEC scans were retrospectively generated from the detector images stored for each focal spot position. DEC imaging of a catheter tip in a volume measuring 11.4 cm across at isocenter required 340 active focal spots per frame, versus 4473 spots in full-FOV mode. The dose-area-product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for DEC versus full field-of-view (FOV) scanning were calculated using an SBDX Monte Carlo simulation code. DAP was reduced to 7.4% to 8.4% of the full-FOV value, consistent with the relative number of active focal spots (7.6%). For image sequences with a moving catheter, PSD was 33.6% to 34.8% of the full-FOV value. The root-mean-squared-deviation between DEC-based 3D tracking coordinates and full-FOV 3D tracking coordinates was less than 0.1 mm. The 3D distance between the tracked tip and the sheath centerline averaged 0.75 mm. Dynamic electronic collimation can reduce dose with minimal change in tracking performance.

  18. Effects of Added Mass and Structural Damping on Dynamic Responses of a 3D Wedge Impacting on Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact between the wave and the bottom of a high-speed vessel is often simplified as water-entry problems of wedges. Most investigations focus on the water entry of two dimensional (2D wedges. The effects of added mass and structural damping are still not fully investigated. By combining the normal mode method, the hydrodynamic impact model of rigid wedges and the potential flow theory, a dynamic model for predicting the response of a three dimensional (3D wedge impacting on water with a constant velocity is established in this paper. The present model can selectively consider the effects of the added mass and the structural damping. The present method has been validated through comparisons with results of published literatures and commercial software. It is found that the added mass can increase the stress response before the flow separation, and reduce the vibration frequency after the flow separation. Due to the effect of the added mass, the stress response of some positions after the flow separation is even higher than that before the flow separation. The structural damping has a negligible effect on the stress before the flow separation, but it can reduce vibration stress after the flow separation.

  19. Spatial modeling of the 3D morphology of hybrid polymer-ZnO solar cells, based on electron tomography data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenzel, O.; Hassfeld, H.; Thiedmann, R.; Koster, L. J. A.; Oosterhout, S. D.; van Bavel, S. S.; Wienk, M. M.; Loos, J.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Schmidt, V.

    A spatial stochastic model is developed which describes the 3D nanomorphology of composite materials, being blends of two different (organic and inorganic) solid phases. Such materials are used, for example, in photoactive layers of hybrid polymer zinc oxide solar cells. The model is based on ideas

  20. Impact of respiratory movement on the computed tomographic images of small lung tumors in three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Kagei, Kenji; Nishioka, Takeshi; Bo Xo; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning has often been performed while patients breathe freely, under the assumption that the computed tomography (CT) images represent the average position of the tumor. We investigated the impact of respiratory movement on the free-breathing CT images of small lung tumors using sequential CT scanning at the same table position. Methods: Using a preparatory free-breathing CT scan, the patient's couch was fixed at the position where each tumor showed its maximum diameter on image. For 16 tumors, over 20 sequential CT images were taken every 2 s, with a 1-s acquisition time occurring during free breathing. For each tumor, the distance between the surface of the CT table and the posterior border of the tumor was measured to determine whether the edge of the tumor was sufficiently included in the planning target volume (PTV) during normal breathing. Results: In the sequential CT scanning, the tumor itself was not visible in the examination slice in 21% (75/357) of cases. There were statistically significant differences between lower lobe tumors (39.4%, 71/180) and upper lobe tumors (0%, 0/89) (p < 0.01) and between lower lobe tumors and middle lobe tumor (8.9%, 4/45) (p < 0.01) in the incidence of the disappearance of the tumor from the image. The mean difference between the maximum and minimum distances between the surface of the CT table and the posterior border of the tumor was 6.4 mm (range 2.1-24.4). Conclusion: Three-dimensional treatment planning for lung carcinoma would significantly underdose many lesions, especially those in the lower lobe. The excess 'safety margin' might call into question any additional benefit of 3D treatment. More work is required to determine how to control respiratory movement

  1. Electron-impact excitation of Zn II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msezane, A.Z.; Henry, R.J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Collision strengths are calculated for excitation of Zn II from the 4s ground state to excited states 4p, 3d 9 4s 2 , 5s, and 4d in a five-state close-coupling approximation for the electron-impact energy range 15 5 3d 10 4s 2 in a two-state close-coupling approximation for the same energy range. Accurate target functions are used in the expansion. Very good agreement with measurements of absolute emission cross sections of Rogers et al. is obtained for energy region 15< E<100 eV, when cascade contributions are included. Poorer agreement is obtained with experiment for excitation of the 5s state, owing to sensitivities in the close-coupling approximation

  2. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-04: Novel 3D Printed Plastic Cutouts Filled with Aluminum Oxide for Same Day Electron Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikell, J; Lee, C; Lam, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Clinics that outsource electron cutout manufacturing may be unable to simulate and treat patients on the same day. To enable same day treatment, we investigate the use of 3D printed hollow cutouts filled with 30 grit Al_2O_3 powder. We verified the dosimetric equivalence of such a cutout relative to an outsourced Copper cutout. Methods: Printing was performed using a Ultibots Kossel 250 V-Slot 3D printer and polylactic acid filament. Printing files were derived from an in-house 3D model designed to mate with a Varian 6 cm electron cone. Relative to conventional cutouts (Copper or Cerrobend), the height of the hollow plastic cutout was extended by 1.0 cm to increase attenuation. Measurements were performed for 6 MeV in solid water at dmax (1.4 cm) with Gafchromic™ EBT3 film; the cutout was kidney-shaped with a long and short axis of approximately 5 and 2 cm, respectively. The Copper cutout was based on an outline of the 3D printed cutout.A calibration film was exposed immediately after the electron irradiations. All films, including an un-irradiated one, were from the same batch. Films were scanned on an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner. Film analysis was performed in DoseLab (MOBIUS Medical Systems, Houston, Tx). Results: Visual comparison of the physical cutouts revealed that the Copper cutout had a slightly smaller opening than the printed cutout. Line profiles through the registered films indicated agreement within 5% in the open section. 99.9% of pixels passed gamma analysis with 2% local percent difference, 2 mm DTA, and a 25% threshold. Conclusion: Same day simulation and treatment with electrons is feasible with 3D printing of a hollow cutout filled with Al_2O_3. Future work will include evaluations of additional cutout shapes at different depths for higher energies. Other printing materials, such as bismuth, are being tested.

  3. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  4. Reliability of a Novel CBCT-Based 3D Classification System for Maxillary Canine Impactions in Orthodontics: The KPG Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Luca; Martin, Conchita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate both intra- and interoperator reliability of a radiological three-dimensional classification system (KPG index) for the assessment of degree of difficulty for orthodontic treatment of maxillary canine impactions. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of fifty impacted canines, obtained using three different scanners (NewTom, Kodak, and Planmeca), were classified using the KPG index by three independent orthodontists. Measurements were repeated one month later. Based on these two sessions, several recommendations on KPG Index scoring were elaborated. After a joint calibration session, these recommendations were explained to nine orthodontists and the two measurement sessions were repeated. There was a moderate intrarater agreement in the precalibration measurement sessions. After the calibration session, both intra- and interrater agreement were almost perfect. Indexes assessed with Kodak Dental Imaging 3D module software showed a better reliability in z-axis values, whereas indexes assessed with Planmeca Romexis software showed a better reliability in x- and y-axis values. No differences were found between the CBCT scanners used. Taken together, these findings indicate that the application of the instructions elaborated during this study improved KPG index reliability, which was nevertheless variously influenced by the use of different software for images evaluation. PMID:24235889

  5. Reliability of a Novel CBCT-Based 3D Classification System for Maxillary Canine Impactions in Orthodontics: The KPG Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate both intra- and interoperator reliability of a radiological three-dimensional classification system (KPG index for the assessment of degree of difficulty for orthodontic treatment of maxillary canine impactions. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans of fifty impacted canines, obtained using three different scanners (NewTom, Kodak, and Planmeca, were classified using the KPG index by three independent orthodontists. Measurements were repeated one month later. Based on these two sessions, several recommendations on KPG Index scoring were elaborated. After a joint calibration session, these recommendations were explained to nine orthodontists and the two measurement sessions were repeated. There was a moderate intrarater agreement in the precalibration measurement sessions. After the calibration session, both intra- and interrater agreement were almost perfect. Indexes assessed with Kodak Dental Imaging 3D module software showed a better reliability in z-axis values, whereas indexes assessed with Planmeca Romexis software showed a better reliability in x- and y-axis values. No differences were found between the CBCT scanners used. Taken together, these findings indicate that the application of the instructions elaborated during this study improved KPG index reliability, which was nevertheless variously influenced by the use of different software for images evaluation.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of 3d-metal trioxides superhalogen cluster-doped monolayer MoS2: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun; He, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing first-principle calculations, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer MoS 2 doped with 3d transition-metal (TM) atoms and 3d-metal trioxides (TMO 3 ) superhalogen clusters are investigated. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen cluster-doped monolayers MoS 2 almost have negative formation energies except CoO 3 and NiO 3 doped monolayer MoS 2 , which are much lower than those of 3d TM-doped structures. 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters are more easily embedded in monolayer MoS 2 than 3d-metal atoms. MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic, and the total magnetic moments are approximately 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 μB per supercell, respectively. MnO 3 and FeO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become semiconductors, whereas CoO 3 and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 become half-metallic. Our studies demonstrate that the half-metallic ferromagnetic nature of 3d-metal TMO 3 superhalogen clusters-doped monolayer MoS 2 has a great potential for MoS 2 -based spintronic device applications. -- Highlights: •TMO 3 superhalogen clusters incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. •TMO 3 doped structures have much lower formation energies than TM doped structures. •TMO 3 cluster-doped MoS 2 are thermodynamically favored. •Significant charge transfers between O atoms and Mo atoms in TMO 3 doped structures. •MnO 3 , FeO 3 , CoO 3 , and NiO 3 incorporated into monolayer MoS 2 are magnetic.

  7. Theoretical study of H2/+/ spectroscopic properties. II, III. [2p and 3d excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckel, C. L.; Shafi, M.; Peek, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the theoretical spectroscopic properties of the 2p pi/sub u/ and 3d sigma/sub g/ excited states of the H2/+/ hydrogen molecular ion. Numerical integration of the Schrodinger equation is used to determine vibration-rotation eigenvalues. Dunham power series expansions are used to determine the equilibrium separation, potential coefficients, and spectroscopic constants. The eigenvalues are used to determine delta-G, Bv, Dv, and Hv.

  8. Impact of SPECT corrections on 3D-dosimetry for liver transarterial radioembolization using the patient relative calibration methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano, E-mail: mpacilio@scamilloforlanini.rm.it; Basile, Chiara [Department of Medical Physics, Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome 00152 (Italy); Ferrari, Mahila; Botta, Francesca; Cremonesi, Marta [Department of Medical Physics, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan 20141 (Italy); Chiesa, Carlo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Foundation, Milan 20133 (Italy); Lorenzon, Leda; Becci, Domenico [Postgraduate School of Medical Physics, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome 00185 (Italy); Mira, Marta [Post graduate Health Physics School, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Torres, Leonel Alberto; Vergara Gil, Alex [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Division of the Center of Isotopes (DIC-CENTIS), Havana 11100 (Cuba); Coca Perez, Marco [Department of PET-CT and Nuclear Medicine, Imaging Center Medscan-Concepciòn, Concepciòn 4070061 (Chile); Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, University of Lund, Lund 22100 (Sweden); Pani, Roberto [Department of Medico-surgical Sciences and Biotecnologies, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Many centers aim to plan liver transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with dosimetry, even without CT-based attenuation correction (AC), or with unoptimized scatter correction (SC) methods. This work investigates the impact of presence vs absence of such corrections, and limited spatial resolution, on 3D dosimetry for TARE. Methods: Three voxelized phantoms were derived from CT images of real patients with different body sizes. Simulations of {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT projections were performed with the SIMIND code, assuming three activity distributions in the liver: uniform, inside a “liver’s segment,” or distributing multiple uptaking nodules (“nonuniform liver”), with a tumoral liver/healthy parenchyma ratio of 5:1. Projection data were reconstructed by a commercial workstation, with OSEM protocol not specifically optimized for dosimetry (spatial resolution of 12.6 mm), with/without SC (optimized, or with parameters predefined by the manufacturer; dual energy window), and with/without AC. Activity in voxels was calculated by a relative calibration, assuming identical microspheres and {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT counts spatial distribution. 3D dose distributions were calculated by convolution with {sup 90}Y voxel S-values, assuming permanent trapping of microspheres. Cumulative dose-volume histograms in lesions and healthy parenchyma from different reconstructions were compared with those obtained from the reference biodistribution (the “gold standard,” GS), assessing differences for D95%, D70%, and D50% (i.e., minimum value of the absorbed dose to a percentage of the irradiated volume). γ tool analysis with tolerance of 3%/13 mm was used to evaluate the agreement between GS and simulated cases. The influence of deep-breathing was studied, blurring the reference biodistributions with a 3D anisotropic gaussian kernel, and performing the simulations once again. Results: Differences of the dosimetric indicators were noticeable in some cases, always negative

  9. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  10. Notochord manipulation does not impact oesophageal and tracheal formation from isolated foregut in 3D explant culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Laughlin, Danielle; Murphy, Paula; Puri, Prem

    2016-01-01

    Tracheo-oesophageal malformations result from disturbed foregut separation during early development. The notochord, a specialised embryonic structure, forms immediately adjacent to the dividing foregut. In the Adriamycin mouse model of oesophageal atresia, foregut and notochord abnormalities co-exist, and the site and severity of foregut malformations closely correlate to the position and extent of the notochord defects. Notochord and foregut abnormalities also co-exist in the Noggin Knockout mouse as well in a small number of human cases. The notochord is a source of powerful molecular signals during early embryogenesis, being particularly important for neural crest development. The influence of notochord signaling on the adjacent foregut is not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of notochord manipulation on foregut separation using a robust 3D explant method for culturing isolated foregut which permits oeosphageal and tracheal formation in vitro. Foregut was micro-dissected from embryonic day 9 mice (License B100/4447 Irish Medicines Board), embedded in collagen and cultured for 48 h with native notochord intact (n = 6), notochord removed (n = 10) or additional notochord transplanted from stage matched controls (n = 8). Specimens were analysed for foregut morphology and molecular patterning using immunohistochemistry for Hnf3b (an endoderm marker) and Sox2 (a notochord and oesophageal marker) on cryosections. Foregut separation into distinct oesophagus and trachea was observed in isolated foregut specimens with or without their native notochord. In specimens with additional notochord transplants, foregut morphology and molecular patterning were comparable to controls whether or not the native notochord was maintained. In particular foregut separation was not disrupted by the transplantation of additional notochord at the dorsal foregut endoderm. The relationship between the embryonic foregut and notochord is complex and ill

  11. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-01-01

    is predominantly vehicular engines, the situation will become worse when pollutants are trapped between buildings and disperse inside the street canyon and move vertically to create a recirculation vortex. Studying and visualizing the recirculation zone in 3D visualization is conceivable by using 3D city models......,engineers and policy makers to design the street geometry (building height and width, green areas, pedestrian walks, roads width, etc.)....

  12. Status report on the 'Merging' of the Electron-Cloud Code POSINST with the 3-D Accelerator PIC CODE WARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Azevedo, A.W.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Stoltz, P.H.

    2004-04-19

    We have integrated the electron-cloud code POSINST [1] with WARP [2]--a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell accelerator code developed for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion--so that the two can interoperate. Both codes are run in the same process, communicate through a Python interpreter (already used in WARP), and share certain key arrays (so far, particle positions and velocities). Currently, POSINST provides primary and secondary sources of electrons, beam bunch kicks, a particle mover, and diagnostics. WARP provides the field solvers and diagnostics. Secondary emission routines are provided by the Tech-X package CMEE.

  13. Design and numerical simulation of a 3-D electron plasma analyzer that resolves both energy and elevation angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.A.; Sablik, M.J.; Winningham, J.D.; Frahm, R.A.; Reiff, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF) will include, as one of its complement of thirteen scientific instruments, a plasma electron analyzer capable of providing 3-dimensional measurements of the energy and angular distribution of electrons in the solar wind, asteroidal and cometary environments. After initial instrument selection, mission planners at JPL suggested that an instrument capable of performing angular scanning electronically rather than mechanically be investigated. This paper describes the computer design of the new CRAF plasma electron detector, consisting of an electronic scanning component, called the 'elevation analyzer', and an energy analyzing component based on the Soft Particle Spectrometer (SPS) and its successor, the Spectrographic Particle Imager (SPI). Numerical simulation of each component's operation - consisting of ray-tracing particles through the electrostatic field of each analyzer and collecting statistics on those particles successfully transmitted - is used to determine the energy and angular response functions of each component and the design dimensions that optimize these responses. (orig.)

  14. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  15. Electron-impact excitation of complex atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, P.G.; Burke, V.M.; Dunseath, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    A new R-matrix approach for calculating cross sections and rate coefficients for electron-impact excitation of complex atoms and ions is described. This approach, based on an expansion of the total wavefunction in target configurations rather than in individual target states and taking advantage of the special status of the scattered electron in the collisional wavefunction, enables the angular integrals to be performed very much more efficiently than hitherto. It also enables electron correlation effects in the target and in the electron-target collision complex to be treated consistently, eliminating pseudo-resonances which have caused serious difficulties in some earlier work. A major new program package RMATRIX II has been written that implements this approach and, as an example, electron-impact excitation of Fe 2+ is considered where the four target configurations 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s, 3d 5 4p and 3d 5 4d are retained in the expansion of the total wavefunction. RMATRIX II is compared with the standard R-matrix program package and is found to be much more efficient showing that accurate electron scattering calculations involving complex targets, such as the astrophysically important low ionization stages of iron-peak elements, are now possible. (author)

  16. SANDYL, 3-D Time-Dependent and Space-Dependent Gamma Electron Cascade Transport by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggmark, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SANDYL performs three- dimensional, time and space dependent Monte Carlo transport calculations for photon-electron cascades in complex systems. 2 - Method of solution: The problem geometry is divided into zones of homogeneous atomic composition bounded by sections of planes and quadrics. The material of each zone is a specified element or combination of elements. For a photon history, the trajectory is generated by following the photon from scattering to scattering using the various probability distributions to find distances between collisions, types of collisions, types of secondaries, and their energies and scattering angles. The photon interactions are photoelectric absorption (atomic ionization), coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, and pair production. The secondary photons which are followed include Bremsstrahlung, fluorescence photons, and positron-electron annihilation radiation. The condensed-history Monte Carlo method is used for the electron transport. In a history, the spatial steps taken by an electron are pre-computed and may include the effects of a number of collisions. The corresponding scattering angle and energy loss in the step are found from the multiple scattering distributions of these quantities. Atomic ionization and secondary particles are generated with the step according to the probabilities for their occurrence. Electron energy loss is through inelastic electron-electron collisions, Bremsstrahlung generation, and polarization of the medium (density effect). Included in the loss is the fluctuation due to the variation in the number of energy-loss collisions in a given Monte Carlo step (straggling). Scattering angular distributions are determined from elastic nuclear-collision cross sections corrected for electron-electron interactions. The secondary electrons which are followed included knock-on, pair, Auger (through atomic ionizations), Compton, and photoelectric electrons. 3

  17. Calculation of 3-D free electron laser gain: Comparison with simulation and generalization to elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho; Kim, Kwang-Je; Xie, Ming.

    1992-08-01

    In the previous paper, we have derived a dispersion relation for the free electron laser (FEL) gain in the exponential regime taking account the diffraction and electron's betatron oscillation. Here, we compare the growth rates obtained by solving the dispersion relation with those obtained by simulation calculation for the waterbag and the Gaussian models for the electron's transverse phase space distribution. The agreement is found to be good except for the limiting case where the Rayleigh length is much longer than the gain length (1-D limit). We also generalize the analysis to the case where the electron beam cross section is elliptical as is usually the case in storage rings, and derive the first-order dispersion relation

  18. Non-equilibrium Modeling of the Fe XVII 3C/3D Line Ratio in an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Excited Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Li, Y.; Fogle, M.; Fontes, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements using an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and an Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Linac Coherent Light Source facility highlighted large discrepancies between the observed and theoretical values for the Fe xvii 3C/3D line intensity ratio. This result raised the question of whether the theoretical oscillator strengths may be significantly in error, due to insufficiencies in the atomic structure calculations. We present time-dependent spectral modeling of this experiment and show that non-equilibrium effects can dramatically reduce the predicted 3C/3D line intensity ratio, compared with that obtained by simply taking the ratio of oscillator strengths. Once these non-equilibrium effects are accounted for, the measured line intensity ratio can be used to determine a revised value for the 3C/3D oscillator strength ratio, giving a range from 3.0 to 3.5. We also provide a framework to narrow this range further, if more precise information about the pulse parameters can be determined. We discuss the implications of the new results for the use of Fe xvii spectral features as astrophysical diagnostics and investigate the importance of time-dependent effects in interpreting XFEL-excited plasmas.

  19. 3D assembly of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of field-effect transistors through nanomanipulation and electron-beam-induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ning; Shi, Qing; Wang, Huaping; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio; Nakajima, Masahiro; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (3D CNTFETs) possess predictable characteristics that rival those of planar CNTFETs and Si-based MOSFETs. However, due to the lack of a reliable assembly technology, they are rarely reported on, despite the amount of attention they receive. To address this problem, we propose the novel concept of a 3D CNTFET and develop its assembly strategy based on nanomanipulation and the electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) technique inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In particular, the electrodes in our transistor design are three metallic cuboids of the same size, and their front, top and back surfaces are all wrapped up in CNTs. The assembly strategy is employed to build the structure through a repeated basic process of pick-up, placement, fixing and cutting of CNTs. The pick-up and placement is performed through one nanomanipulator with four degrees of freedom. Fixing is carried out through the EBID technique so as to improve the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the CNT/electrodes connection. CNT cutting is undertaken using the typical method of electrical breakdown. Experimental results showed that two CNTs were successfully assembled on the front sides of the cubic electrodes. This validates our assembly method for the 3D CNTFET. Also, when contact resistance was measured, tens of kilohms of resistance was observed at the CNT-EBID deposition-FET electrodes junction.. This manifests the electrical reliability of our assembly strategy. (paper)

  20. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP1-04: Novel 3D Printed Plastic Cutouts Filled with Aluminum Oxide for Same Day Electron Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikell, J; Lee, C; Lam, K [University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Clinics that outsource electron cutout manufacturing may be unable to simulate and treat patients on the same day. To enable same day treatment, we investigate the use of 3D printed hollow cutouts filled with 30 grit Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. We verified the dosimetric equivalence of such a cutout relative to an outsourced Copper cutout. Methods: Printing was performed using a Ultibots Kossel 250 V-Slot 3D printer and polylactic acid filament. Printing files were derived from an in-house 3D model designed to mate with a Varian 6 cm electron cone. Relative to conventional cutouts (Copper or Cerrobend), the height of the hollow plastic cutout was extended by 1.0 cm to increase attenuation. Measurements were performed for 6 MeV in solid water at dmax (1.4 cm) with Gafchromic™ EBT3 film; the cutout was kidney-shaped with a long and short axis of approximately 5 and 2 cm, respectively. The Copper cutout was based on an outline of the 3D printed cutout.A calibration film was exposed immediately after the electron irradiations. All films, including an un-irradiated one, were from the same batch. Films were scanned on an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner. Film analysis was performed in DoseLab (MOBIUS Medical Systems, Houston, Tx). Results: Visual comparison of the physical cutouts revealed that the Copper cutout had a slightly smaller opening than the printed cutout. Line profiles through the registered films indicated agreement within 5% in the open section. 99.9% of pixels passed gamma analysis with 2% local percent difference, 2 mm DTA, and a 25% threshold. Conclusion: Same day simulation and treatment with electrons is feasible with 3D printing of a hollow cutout filled with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Future work will include evaluations of additional cutout shapes at different depths for higher energies. Other printing materials, such as bismuth, are being tested.

  1. The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Ok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV, three-dimensional (3D stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs.

  2. Electron impact excitation of copper atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    The optical excitation function method has been used in a crossed atom and electron beam arrangement to measure the electron impact cross section of the copper 4 2 P → 4 2 S resonance lines (324.8, 327.4 nm) from threshold (3.8 eV) to 8 eV. Relative experimental cross section data are normalized at an energy of 1000 eV with respect to first Born theory that includes the 4 2 S → 4 2 P resonance transition with an oscillator strength of 0.652 and cascading from the (3d 10 nd) 2 D states with n = 4, hor-ellipsis 10. The measured Cu 4 2 S 4 → 4 2 P cross section is compared with recent theoretical calculations in close-coupling approximation. Very good agreement is found with the ten-state close-coupling theory of Scheibner

  3. Impact of continuing scaling on the device performance of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinkai; Huo Zongliang; Jin Lei; Jiang Dandan; Hong Peizhen; Xu Qiang; Tang Zhaoyun; Li Chunlong; Ye Tianchun

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of 3D cylindrical junction-less charge trapping memory device performance regarding continuous scaling of the structure dimensions. The key device performance, such as program/erase speed, vertical charge loss, and lateral charge migration under high temperature are intensively studied using the Sentaurus 3D device simulator. Although scaling of channel radius is beneficial for operation speed improvement, it leads to a retention challenge due to vertical leakage, especially enhanced charge loss through TPO. Scaling of gate length not only decreases the program/erase speed but also leads to worse lateral charge migration. Scaling of spacer length is critical for the interference of adjacent cells and should be carefully optimized according to specific cell operation conditions. The gate stack shape is also found to be an important factor affecting the lateral charge migration. Our results provide guidance for high density and high reliability 3D CTM integration. (paper)

  4. Comparison of 3D cellular imaging techniques based on scanned electron probes: Serial block face SEM vs. Axial bright-field STEM tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, E L; Rao, A; Zhang, G; Hoyne, J D; Calco, G N; Kuo, B C; He, Q; Prince, A A; Pokrovskaya, I D; Storrie, B; Sousa, A A; Aronova, M A; Leapman, R D

    2018-06-01

    Microscopies based on focused electron probes allow the cell biologist to image the 3D ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells and tissues extending over large volumes, thus providing new insight into the relationship between cellular architecture and function of organelles. Here we compare two such techniques: electron tomography in conjunction with axial bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM), and serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The advantages and limitations of each technique are illustrated by their application to determining the 3D ultrastructure of human blood platelets, by considering specimen geometry, specimen preparation, beam damage and image processing methods. Many features of the complex membranes composing the platelet organelles can be determined from both approaches, although STEM tomography offers a higher ∼3 nm isotropic pixel size, compared with ∼5 nm for SBF-SEM in the plane of the block face and ∼30 nm in the perpendicular direction. In this regard, we demonstrate that STEM tomography is advantageous for visualizing the platelet canalicular system, which consists of an interconnected network of narrow (∼50-100 nm) membranous cisternae. In contrast, SBF-SEM enables visualization of complete platelets, each of which extends ∼2 µm in minimum dimension, whereas BF-STEM tomography can typically only visualize approximately half of the platelet volume due to a rapid non-linear loss of signal in specimens of thickness greater than ∼1.5 µm. We also show that the limitations of each approach can be ameliorated by combining 3D and 2D measurements using a stereological approach. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Initial Self-Consistent 3D Electron-Cloud Simulations of the LHC Beam with the Code WARP+POSINST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J; Furman, M A; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Grote, D P

    2005-01-01

    We present initial results for the self-consistent beam-cloud dynamics simulations for a sample LHC beam, using a newly developed set of modeling capability based on a merge [1] of the three-dimensional parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) accelerator code WARP [2] and the electron-cloud code POSINST [3]. Although the storage ring model we use as a test bed to contain the beam is much simpler and shorter than the LHC, its lattice elements are realistically modeled, as is the beam and the electron cloud dynamics. The simulated mechanisms for generation and absorption of the electrons at the walls are based on previously validated models available in POSINST [3, 4

  6. Atmospheric Motion Vectors from INSAT-3D: Initial quality assessment and its impact on track forecast of cyclonic storm NANAUK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S. K.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Kumar, Prashant; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Pal, P. K.; Kaushik, Nitesh; Sangar, Ghansham

    2016-03-01

    The advanced Indian meteorological geostationary satellite INSAT-3D was launched on 26 July 2013 with an improved imager and an infrared sounder and is placed at 82°E over the Indian Ocean region. With the advancement in retrieval techniques of different atmospheric parameters and with improved imager data have enhanced the scope for better understanding of the different tropical atmospheric processes over this region. The retrieval techniques and accuracy of one such parameter, Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMV) has improved significantly with the availability of improved spatial resolution data along with more options of spectral channels in the INSAT-3D imager. The present work is mainly focused on providing brief descriptions of INSAT-3D data and AMV derivation processes using these data. It also discussed the initial quality assessment of INSAT-3D AMVs for a period of six months starting from 01 February 2014 to 31 July 2014 with other independent observations: i) Meteosat-7 AMVs available over this region, ii) in-situ radiosonde wind measurements, iii) cloud tracked winds from Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) and iv) numerical model analysis. It is observed from this study that the qualities of newly derived INSAT-3D AMVs are comparable with existing two versions of Meteosat-7 AMVs over this region. To demonstrate its initial application, INSAT-3D AMVs are assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and it is found that the assimilation of newly derived AMVs has helped in reduction of track forecast errors of the recent cyclonic storm NANAUK over the Arabian Sea. Though, the present study is limited to its application to one case study, however, it will provide some guidance to the operational agencies for implementation of this new AMV dataset for future applications in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) over the south Asia region.

  7. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  8. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  9. Dynamic 3D strain measurements with embedded micro-structured optical fiber Bragg grating sensors during impact on a CFRP coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sidney; Geernaert, Thomas; De Pauw, Ben; Lamberti, Alfredo; Vanlanduit, Steve; Luyckx, Geert; Chiesura, Gabriele; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2017-04-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace applications, owing to their high strength-to-mass ratio. Such materials are nevertheless vulnerable to impact damage. It is therefore important to investigate the effects of impacts on composites. Here we embed specialty microstructured optical fiber Bragg grating based sensors inside a carbon fiber reinforced polymer, providing access to the 3D strain evolution within the composite during impact. We measured a maximum strain of -655 μɛ along the direction of impact, and substantially lower values in the two in-plane directions. Such in-situ characterization can trigger insight in the development of impact damage in composites.

  10. A how-to approach for a 3D simulation of charge transfer characteristics in a gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a detailed description of how to simulate charge transfer processes in a gaseous device is presented, taking the gas electron multiplier (GEM) as an example. A 3-dimensional simulation of the electric field and avalanche is performed. Results on charge transport are compared to experiment and agree within experimental errors; the avalanche mechanism and positive ion feedback are studied. The procedures used in the simulation are described in detail, and program scripts are appended. (15 refs).

  11. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2012-01-01

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  12. Correlative two-photon and serial block face scanning electron microscopy in neuronal tissue using 3D near-infrared branding maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Robert M; Peddie, Christopher J; Collinson, Lucy M; Ashby, Michael C; Verkade, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Linking cellular structure and function has always been a key goal of microscopy, but obtaining high resolution spatial and temporal information from the same specimen is a fundamental challenge. Two-photon (2P) microscopy allows imaging deep inside intact tissue, bringing great insight into the structural and functional dynamics of cells in their physiological environment. At the nanoscale, the complex ultrastructure of a cell's environment in tissue can be reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) using serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). This provides a snapshot of high resolution structural information pertaining to the shape, organization, and localization of multiple subcellular structures at the same time. The pairing of these two imaging modalities in the same specimen provides key information to relate cellular dynamics to the ultrastructural environment. Until recently, approaches to relocate a region of interest (ROI) in tissue from 2P microscopy for SBF-SEM have been inefficient or unreliable. However, near-infrared branding (NIRB) overcomes this by using the laser from a multiphoton microscope to create fiducial markers for accurate correlation of 2P and electron microscopy (EM) imaging volumes. The process is quick and can be user defined for each sample. Here, to increase the efficiency of ROI relocation, multiple NIRB marks are used in 3D to target ultramicrotomy. A workflow is described and discussed to obtain a data set for 3D correlated light and electron microscopy, using three different preparations of brain tissue as examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A 3D graphene interface (Si-doped) of Ag matrix with excellent electronic transmission and thermal conductivity via nano-assembly modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xianzhu; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-04-01

    The wide development of electronic materials requires higher load capacity and high temperature resistance. In this study, a novel architecture was fabricated consisting of a 3D reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-Si interface using a simple nano-assembly sintering to achieve high current capacity and excellent thermal features. Via the analysis of catalytic oxidation for methanol, the loading catalytic activity of nano-Ag still remained to a certain extent for the composite with 0.8 vol.% rGO. The final Ag-rGO composite apparently possesses a higher initial oxidation temperature and lower rate of oxidation for internal passing and shielding, and the thermal conductivity is significantly enhanced from 344 to 407 W m‑1 K‑1. Importantly, with a 3D synergistic transportation network, the resistivity of the Ag-rGO composite is much lower than pure Ag, and with a longer conductive time under a stress condition of current density of 6.0  ×  104 A cm‑2. Thermal-electronic features demonstrate that the dispersed graphene interface can efficiently suppress the primary failure pathways (high temperature) in Ag matrix and make it uniquely efficient for the advancement of microscale and thermal-management electronics.

  14. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R; Murshudov, Garib N; Short, Judith M; Scheres, Sjors H W; Henderson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  15. 3d morphometric analysis of lunar impact craters: a tool for degradation estimates and interpretation of maria stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldi, Valerio; Massironi, Matteo; Ninfo, Andrea; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    In this study we have applied 3D morphometric analysis of impact craters on the Moon by means of high resolution DTMs derived from LROC (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera) NAC (Narrow Angle Camera) (0.5 to 1.5 m/pixel). The objective is twofold: i) evaluating crater degradation and ii) exploring the potential of this approach for Maria stratigraphic interpretation. In relation to the first objective we have considered several craters with different diameters representative of the four classes of degradation being C1 the freshest and C4 the most degraded ones (Arthur et al., 1963; Wilhelms, 1987). DTMs of these craters were elaborated according to a multiscalar approach (Wood, 1996) by testing different ranges of kernel sizes (e.g. 15-35-50-75-100), in order to retrieve morphometric variables such as slope, curvatures and openness. In particular, curvatures were calculated along different planes (e.g. profile curvature and plan curvature) and used to characterize the different sectors of a crater (rim crest, floor, internal slope and related boundaries) enabling us to evaluate its degradation. The gradient of the internal slope of different craters representative of the four classes shows a decrease of the slope mean value from C1 to C4 in relation to crater age and diameter. Indeed degradation is influenced by gravitational processes (landslides, dry flows), as well as space weathering that induces both smoothing effects on the morphologies and infilling processes within the crater, with the main results of lowering and enlarging the rim crest, and shallowing the crater depth. As far as the stratigraphic application is concerned, morphometric analysis was applied to recognize morphologic features within some simple craters, in order to understand the stratigraphic relationships among different lava layers within Mare Serenitatis. A clear-cut rheological boundary at a depth of 200 m within the small fresh Linnè crater (diameter: 2.22 km), firstly hypothesized

  16. MCNP4C2, Coupled Neutron, Electron Gamma 3-D Time-Dependent Monte Carlo Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MCNP is a general-purpose, continuous-energy, generalized geometry, time-dependent, coupled neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo transport code system. MCNP4C2 is an interim release of MCNP4C with distribution restricted to the Criticality Safety community and attendees of the LANL MCNP workshops. The major new features of MCNP4C2 include: - Photonuclear physics; - Interactive plotting; - Plot superimposed weight window mesh; - Implement remaining macro-body surfaces; - Upgrade macro-bodies to surface sources and other capabilities; - Revised summary tables; - Weight window improvements. See the MCNP home page more information http://www-xdiv.lanl.gov/XCI/PROJECTS/MCNP with a link to the MCNP Forum. See the Electronic Notebook at http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/rsic.html for information on user experiences with MCNP. 2 - Methods:MCNP treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of materials in geometric cells bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces and some special fourth-degree surfaces. Pointwise continuous-energy cross section data are used, although multigroup data may also be used. Fixed-source adjoint calculations may be made with the multigroup data option. For neutrons, all reactions in a particular cross-section evaluation are accounted for. Both free gas and S(alpha, beta) thermal treatments are used. Criticality sources as well as fixed and surface sources are available. For photons, the code takes account of incoherent and coherent scattering with and without electron binding effects, the possibility of fluorescent emission following photoelectric absorption, and absorption in pair production with local emission of annihilation radiation. A very general source and tally structure is available. The tallies have extensive statistical analysis of convergence. Rapid convergence is enabled by a wide variety of variance reduction methods. Energy ranges are 0-60 MeV for neutrons (data generally only available up to

  17. Electron impact excitation of the iron peak element Fe II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsbottom, C.A.; Scott, M.P.; Bell, K.L.; McLaughlin, B.M.; Burke, P.G.; Keenan, F.P.; Sunderland, A.G.; Burke, V.M.; Noble, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Effective collision strengths for electron-impact excitation of Fe II are presented for all sextet-to-quartet transitions among the 38 LS states formed from the basis configurations 3d 6 4s, 3d 7 and 3d 6 4p. A total of 112 individual transitions are considered at electron temperatures in the range 30-100,000 K, encompassing values of importance for applications in astrophysics as well as laboratory plasmas. A limited comparison is made with earlier theoretical work and large differences are found to occur at the temperatures considered. In particular, it is found that the inclusion or omission of some (N+1)-bound configurations in the Hamiltonian matrices describing the collision process can have a huge effect on the resulting effective collision strengths, by up to a factor of four in some cases. (author)

  18. 3D imaging of cells and tissues by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana

    2013-01-01

    Integration of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) technology into a single FIB/SEM system permits use of the FIB as a nano-scalpel to reveal site-specific subsurface microstructures which can be examined in great detail by SEM. The FIB/SEM technology is widely used in the semiconductor industry and material sciences, and recently its use in the life sciences has been initiated. Samples for FIB/SEM investigation can be either embedded in a plastic matrix, the traditional means of preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens, or simply dried as in samples prepared for SEM imaging. Currently, FIB/SEM is used in the life sciences for (a) preparation by the lift-out technique of lamella for TEM analysis, (b) tomography of samples embedded in a matrix, and (c) in situ site-specific FIB milling and SEM imaging using a wide range of magnifications. Site-specific milling and imaging has attracted wide interest as a technique in structural research of single eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, small animals, and different animal tissue, but it still remains to be explored more thoroughly. In the past, preparation of samples for site-specific milling and imaging by FIB/SEM has typically adopted the embedding techniques used for TEM samples, and which have been very well described in the literature. Sample preparation protocols for the use of dried samples in FIB/SEM have been less well investigated. The aim of this chapter is to encourage application of FIB/SEM on dried biological samples. A detailed description of conventional dried sample preparation and FIB/SEM investigation of dried biological samples is presented. The important steps are described and illustrated, and direct comparison between embedded and dried samples of same tissues is provided. The ability to discover links between gross morphology of the tissue or organ, surface characteristics of any selected region, and intracellular structural details on the nanometer

  19. Test particles dynamics in the JOREK 3D non-linear MHD code and application to electron transport in a disruption simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, C.; Nardon, E.; Beyer, P.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; van Vugt, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    In order to contribute to the understanding of runaway electron generation mechanisms during tokamak disruptions, a test particle tracker is introduced in the JOREK 3D non-linear MHD code, able to compute both full and guiding center relativistic orbits. Tests of the module show good conservation of the invariants of motion and consistency between full orbit and guiding center solutions. A first application is presented where test electron confinement properties are investigated in a massive gas injection-triggered disruption simulation in JET-like geometry. It is found that electron populations initialised before the thermal quench (TQ) are typically not fully deconfined in spite of the global stochasticity of the magnetic field during the TQ. The fraction of ‘survivors’ decreases from a few tens down to a few tenths of percent as the electron energy varies from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The underlying mechanism for electron ‘survival’ is the prompt reformation of closed magnetic surfaces at the plasma core and, to a smaller extent, the subsequent reappearance of a magnetic surface at the edge. It is also found that electrons are less deconfined at 10 MeV than at 1 MeV, which appears consistent with a phase averaging effect due to orbit shifts at high energy.

  20. 3D gadolinium-enhanced MRI venography: Evaluation of central chest veins and impact on patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxtoby, J.W.; Widjaja, E.; Gibson, K.M.; Uzoka, K.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To assess the value of a simplified 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) venography for central chest veins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study of 24 patients, the MRI findings and medical records were reviewed to determine whether MRI results correlated with subsequent findings, and to determine the effect on clinical management. 3D steady state gradient-echo sequence, fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP), was used. We employed a simplified protocol not requiring bolus timing or subtraction to achieve rapid data acquisition and hence good compliance in this group of frail patients. Following intravenous administration of a bolus of gadolinium, two acquisitions were obtained in order to ensure adequate opacification of all veins. Individual partitions and maximum intensity projections were then analysed to determine whether the veins were patent, stenosed or occluded. RESULTS: The indications for MRI were to assess the patency of central veins for the purpose of cannulation or arteriovenous fistula formation in 17 patients. Out of the 12 patients who proceeded to an intervention, MRI venography successfully predicted an appropriate site in 10 patients. In the remaining seven patients, MRI venography was valuable in confirming or excluding the clinical suspicion of central venous thrombosis and directly influenced the management in five patients. CONCLUSION: 3D gadolinium-enhanced MRI venography is a valuable means of providing a global representation of the central venous system and guiding subsequent central venous cannulation. Oxtoby, J.W. et al. (2001)

  1. Impact of 3D virtual planning on reconstruction of mandibular and maxillary surgical defects in head and neck oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Max J H; Schepers, Rutger H; Kraeima, Joep

    2018-04-01

    This review describes the advances in 3D virtual planning for mandibular and maxillary reconstruction surgical defects with full prosthetic rehabilitation. The primary purpose is to provide an overview of various techniques that apply 3D technology safely in primary and secondary reconstructive cases of patients suffering from head and neck cancer. Methods have been developed to overcome the problem of control over the margin during surgery while the crucial decision with regard to resection margin and planning of osteotomies were predetermined by virtual planning. The unlimited possibilities of designing patient-specific implants can result in creative uniquely applied solutions for single cases but should be applied wisely with knowledge of biomechanical engineering principles. The high surgical accuracy of an executed 3D virtual plan provides tumor margin control during ablative surgery and the possibility of planned combined use of osseus free flaps and dental implants in the reconstruction in one surgical procedure. A thorough understanding of the effects of radiotherapy on the reconstruction, soft tissue management, and prosthetic rehabilitation is imperative in individual cases when deciding to use dental implants in patients who received radiotherapy.

  2. 3D analysis of the morphology and spatial distribution of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Ileana; Ersen, Ovidiu; Arenal, Raul; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Messaoudi, Cédric; Chizari, Kambiz; Janowska, Izabela; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2012-06-13

    We present here the application of the energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in the tomographic mode to determine the precise 3D distribution of nitrogen within nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). Several tilt series of energy-filtered images were acquired on the K ionization edges of carbon and nitrogen on a multiwalled N-CNT containing a high amount of nitrogen. Two tilt series of carbon and nitrogen 2D maps were then calculated from the corresponding energy-filtered images by using a proper extraction procedure of the chemical signals. Applying iterative reconstruction algorithms provided two spatially correlated C and N elemental-selective volumes, which were then simultaneously analyzed with the shape-sensitive reconstruction deduced from Zero-Loss recordings. With respect to the previous findings, crucial information obtained by analyzing the 3D chemical maps was that, among the two different kind of arches formed in these nanotubes (transversal or rounded ones depending on their morphology), the transversal arches contain more nitrogen than do the round ones. In addition, a detailed analysis of the shape-sensitive volume allowed the observation of an unexpected change in morphology along the tube axis: close to the round arches (with less N), the tube is roughly cylindrical, whereas near the transversal ones (with more N), its shape changes to a prism. This relatively new technique is very powerful in the material science because it combines the ability of the classical electron tomography to solve 3D structures and the chemical selectivity of the EFTEM imaging.

  3. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  4. Drawing the geometry of 3d transition metal-boron pairs in silicon from electron emission channeling experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Daniel; Wahl, Ulrich; Martins Correia, Joao; Augustyns, Valerie; De Lemos Lima, Tiago Abel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; David Bosne, Eric; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Although the formation of transition metal-boron pairs is currently well established in silicon processing, the geometry of these complexes is still not completely understood. We investigated the lattice location of the transition metals manganese, iron, cobalt and nickel in n- and p+-type silicon by means of electron emission channeling. For manganese, iron and cobalt, we observed an increase of sites near the ideal tetrahedral interstitial position by changing the doping from n- to p+-type Si. Such increase was not observed for Ni. We ascribe this increase to the formation of pairs with boron, driven by Coulomb interactions, since the majority of iron, manganese and cobalt is positively charged in p+-type silicon while Ni is neutral. We propose that breathing mode relaxation around the boron ion within the pair causes the observed displacement from the ideal tetrahedral interstitial site. We discuss the application of the emission channeling technique in this system and, in particular, how it provides insi...

  5. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  6. 3D spectrum imaging of multi-wall carbon nanotube coupled π-surface modes utilising electron energy-loss spectra acquired using a STEM/Enfina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seepujak, A.; Bangert, U.; Gutierrez-Sosa, A.; Harvey, A.J.; Blank, V.D.; Kulnitskiy, B.A.; Batov, D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have utilised electron energy-loss (EEL) spectra acquired in the plasmon (2-10 eV) regime in order to probe delocalised π-electronic states of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Interpretation of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra of MWCNTs in the 2-10 eV regime. Carbon (accepted for publication); Blank et al. J. Appl. Phys. 91 (2002) 1657). In the present contribution, EEL spectra were acquired from a 2D raster defined on a bottle-shaped MWCNT, using a Gatan UHV Enfina system attached to a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The technique utilised to isolate and sequentially filter each of the volume and surface resonances is described in detail. Utilising a scale for the intensity of a filtered mode enables one to 'see' the distribution of each resonance in the raster. This enables striking 3D resonance-filtered spectrum images (SIs) of π-collective modes to be observed. Red-shift of the lower energy split π-surface resonance provides explicit evidence of π-surface mode coupling predicted for thin graphitic films (Lucas et al. Phys. Rev. B 49 (1994) 2888). Resonance-filtered SIs are also compared to non-filtered SIs with suppressed surface contributions, acquired utilising a displaced collector aperture. The present filtering technique is seen to isolate surface contributions more effectively, and without the significant loss of statistics, associated with the displaced collector aperture mode. Isolation of collective modes utilising 3D resonance-filtered spectrum imaging, demonstrates a valuable method for 'pinpointing' the location of discrete modes in irregularly shaped nanostructures

  7. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  9. The Impacts of 3-D Earth Structure on GIA-Induced Crustal Deformation and Future Sea-Level Change in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, E. M.; Hay, C.; Latychev, K.; Gomez, N. A.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models used to constrain the extent of past ice sheets and viscoelastic Earth structure, or to correct geodetic and geological observables for ice age effects, generally only consider depth-dependent variations in Earth viscosity and lithospheric structure. A et al. [2013] argued that 3-D Earth structure could impact GIA observables in Antarctica, but concluded that the presence of such structure contributes less to GIA uncertainty than do differences in Antarctic deglaciation histories. New seismic and geological evidence, however, indicates the Antarctic is underlain by complex, high amplitude variability in viscoelastic structure, including a low viscosity zone (LVZ) under West Antarctica. Hay et al. [2016] showed that sea-level fingerprints of modern melting calculated using such Earth models differ from those based on elastic or 1-D viscoelastic Earth models within decades of melting. Our investigation is motivated by two questions: (1) How does 3-D Earth structure, especially this LVZ, impact observations of GIA-induced crustal deformation associated with the last deglaciation? (2) How will 3-D Earth structure affect predictions of future sea-level rise in Antarctica? We compute the gravitationally self-consistent sea level, uplift, and gravity changes using the finite volume treatment of Latychev et al. [2005]. We consider four viscoelastic Earth models: a global 1-D model; a regional, West Antarctic-like 1-D model; a 3-D model where the lithospheric thickness varies laterally; and a 3-D model where both viscosity and lithospheric thickness vary laterally. For our Last Glacial Maximum to present investigations we employ ICE6g [Peltier et al., 2015]. For our present-future investigations we consider a melt scenario consistent with GRACE satellite gravity derived solutions [Harig et al., 2015]. Our calculations indicate that predictions of crustal deformations due to both GIA and ongoing melting are strongly influenced by 3-D

  10. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  11. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Short, Judith M.; Scheres, Sjors H.W.; Henderson, Richard, E-mail: rh15@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  12. Impact of forced convective radiative heat and mass transfer mechanisms on 3D Carreau nanofluid: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoliquids retain remarkable features that have fascinated various researchers owing to their utilization in nanoscience and nanotechnology. We will present a mathematical relation for 3D forced convective heat and mass transfer mechanism of a Carreau nanoliquid over a bidirectional stretched surface. Additionally, the features of heat source/sink and nonlinear thermal radiation are considered for the 3D Carreau nanoliquid. The governing nonlinear PDEs are established and altered into a set of nonlinear ODEs by utilizing a suitable conversion. A numerical approach, namely the bvp4c is adopted to resolve the resultant equations. The achieved outcomes are schemed and conferred in detail for somatic parameters. It is realized that amassed values of Brownian motion parameter Nb lead to enhance the temperature of the Carreau nanoliquid while quite conflicting behavior is being noticed for the concentration of the Carreau nanoliquid. Moreover, it is also noted that the influence of heat source δ > 0 is relatively antithetic to heat sink δ communication with these results.

  13. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  14. Make or Buy: An Analysis of the Impacts of 3D Printing Operations, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-30

    engine has 19 3D-printed fuel nozzles inside, fourth-generation carbon- fiber composite blades, and parts made from CMCs. In addition to the 3D-printed...use a variety of materials, including plastics , metals, ceramics, and composites , and deploy multiple different processes to address a variety of...printed everything from plastic syringes to oil tank caps, to the silhouettes of planes that are used on the mock-up of the flight deck to keep the

  15. Impact of 2D/3D-project on LOCA-licensing analysis and reactor safety of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, F.; Krebs, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    In the past LOCA-licensing analysis has included large conservatisms to compensate for the lack of detailed two phase flow and full scale experimental data. The 2D/3D-project was established to improve the data base in order to minimize the conservatisms required. The significant results and findings of the full scale Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) and from the electrically heated Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) were particularly useful for understanding the multidimensional phenomena in the primary system and in the core of a PWR. UPTF results were used to verify the TRAC-PF1 analysis of a PWR with combined ECC-Injection during the reflood phase of a large break-LOCA. Comparison of these results with results from classic licensing calculations quantifies the large safety margin in earlier licensing procedures and in reactor systems. (orig.)

  16. Prosthesis-patient mismatch after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact of 2D-transthoracic echocardiography versus 3D-transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cristina; Sahlen, Anders; Winter, Reidar; Bäck, Magnus; Rück, Andreas; Settergren, Magnus; Manouras, Aristomenis; Shahgaldi, Kambiz

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the role of 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) and 3D-transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) in the determination of aortic annulus size prior transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and its' impact on the prevalence of patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM). Echocardiography plays an important role in measuring aortic annulus dimension in patients undergoing TAVI. This has great importance since it determines both eligibility for TAVI and selection of prosthesis type and size, and can be potentially important in preventing an inadequate ratio between the prosthetic valvular orifice and the patient's body surface area, concept known as prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM). A total of 45 patients were studied pre-TAVI: 20 underwent 3D-TEE (men/women 12/8, age 84.8 ± 5.6) and 25 2D-TTE (men/women 9/16, age 84.4 ± 5.4) in order to measure aortic annulus diameter. The presence of PPM was assessed before hospital discharge and after a mean period of 3 months. Moderate PPM was defined as indexed aortic valve area (AVAi) ≤ 0.85 cm(2)/m(2) and severe PPM as AVAi 3D-TEE and 2D-TTE respectively p value = n.s) and severe PPM occurred in 10 % of the patients who underwent 3D-TEE and in 20 % in those with 2D-TTE (p value = n.s). The echocardiographic evaluation 3 months post-TAVI showed 25 % moderate PPM in the 3D-TEE group compared with 24 % in the 2D-TTE group (p value = n.s) and no cases of severe PPM in the 3DTEE group comparing to 20 % in the 2D-TTE group (p = 0.032). Our results indicate a higher incidence of severe PPM in patients who performed 2DTTE compared to those performing 3DTEE prior TAVI. This suggests that the 3D technique should replace the 2DTTE analysis when investigating the aortic annulus diameter in patients undergoing TAVI.

  17. Abnormal distribution of low-latitude ionospheric electron density during November 2004 superstorm as reconstructed by 3-D CT technique from IGS and LEO/GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, R.; Ma, S.; Xu, J.; Xiong, C.; Yan, W.; Luhr, H.; Jakowski, N.

    2010-12-01

    Using time-dependent 3-D tomography method, the electron density distributions in the mid- and low-latitude ionosphere are reconstructed from GPS observations of joint ground-based IGS network and onboard CHAMP/GRACE satellites during November 2004 super-storm. For LEO satellite-based GPS receiving, both the occultation TEC data and that along the radio propagation paths above the LEO are used. The electron density images versus latitude/altitude/longitude are reconstructed for different sectors of America/Asia/Europe and produced every hour. The reconstructed electron densities are validated by satellite in situ measurements of CHAMP Langmuir probe and GRACE Ka-band SST (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking) derived electron density averaged between the two satellites, as well as by CIT simulations. It reveals some very interesting storm-time structures of Ne distributions, such as top-hat-like F2-3 double layer and column-like enhanced electron densities (CEED). The double layer structure appeared over a large latitude range from about -30 degree to 20 degree along East-Asian/Australia longitudes before local noon, looking like one additional smaller EIA structure standing above the usual one of EIA. It is consistent with the F-3 layer observed by ionosonde at an Australian low-latitude station. The CEED are found just 1-2 hours before the minimum of Dst and in the longitudinal sector about 157 E. They extend from the topside ionosphere toward plasmasphere, reaching at least about 2000 km as high. Their footprints stand on the two peaks of the EIA. This CEED is also seen in the image of 30.4 nm He ++ radiation by IMAGE, showing a narrow channel of enhanced density extending from afternoon ionosphere to plasmsphere westward. The forming mechanism of CEED and its relationship with SED and plasmaspheric plumes are worthy of further study. Acknowledgement: This work is supported by NSFC (No.40674078).

  18. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain...... on the formation of protrusions/retrusions....

  19. 3D structure determination from electron-microscope images: Electron crystallography of staurolite. [HFe[sub 2]Al[sub 9]Si[sub 4]O[sub 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, H.R.; Hu Meisheng (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Downing, K.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Donner Lab.); O' Keefe, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). National Center for Electron Microscopy)

    1992-09-01

    Resolution of better than 2 A has been obtained in many crystals by high-resolution electron microscopy. Although this resolution is sufficient to resolve interatomic spacings, structures are traditionally interpreted by comparing experimental images with contrast calculations. A drawback of this method is that images are 2D projections in which information is invariably obscured by overlap of atoms. 3D electron crystallography, developed by biophysicists to study proteins, has been used to investigate the crystal structure of staurolite. Amplitudes and phases of structure factors are obtained experimentally from high-resolution images (JEOL ARM 1000 at the National Center for Electron Microscopy at LBL), taken in different directions from thin regions where dynamic scattering is minimal. From images in five orientations (containing 59 independent reflections to a resolution of 1.38 A), a 3D electron potential map is constructed which resolves clearly all cations (Al, Si, Fe, including those with partial occupancy) and all O atoms. This method has great potential in crystal structure determinations of small domains in heterogeneous crystals which are inaccessible to X-ray analysis. It is estimated that 3D structure determinations should be possible on regions only about ten unit cells wide and should resolve not only atom positions but also site occupancies. The method is also applicable to space-group determination. (orig.).

  20. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  1. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  2. Detectors in 3D available for assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on 3D devices resulting from the vertical integration of pixel sensors and readout electronics. After 3D integration steps such as etching of through-silicon vias and backside metallization of readout integrated circuits, ASICs and sensors are interconnected to form a 3D pixel detector. Various 3D detectors have been devised in AIDA WP3 and their status and performance is assessed here.

  3. Integration of 3D imaging data in the assessment of aortic stenosis: impact on classification of disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget; Schoenhagen, Paul; Kapadia, Samir R; Svensson, Lars G; Rodriguez, Leonardo; Griffin, Brian P; Tuzcu, E Murat; Desai, Milind Y

    2011-09-01

    In patients with aortic stenosis (AS), precise assessment of severity is critical for treatment decisions. Estimation of aortic valve area (AVA) with transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE)-continuity equation (CE) assumes a circular left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). We evaluated incremental utility of 3D multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) over TTE assessment of AS severity. We included 51 patients (age, 81±8 years; 61% men; mean gradient, 42 ± 12 mm Hg) with calcific AS who underwent evaluation for treatment options. TTE parameters included systolic LVOT diameter (D) and continuous and pulsed wave (CW and PW) velocity-time integrals (VTI) through the LVOT and mean transaortic gradient. MDCT parameters included systolic LVOT area, ratio of maximal to minimal LVOT diameter (eccentricity index), and aortic planimetry (AVA(p)). TTE-CE AVA [(D(2)×0.786×VTIpw)/VTIcw] and dimensionless index (DI) [VTIpw/VTIcw] were calculated. Corrected AVA was calculated by substituting MDCT LVOT area into CE. The majority (96%) of patients had eccentric LVOT. LVOT area, measured on MDCT, was higher than on TTE (3.84 ± 0.8 cm(2) versus 3.03 ± 0.5 cm(2), P<0.01). TTE-AVA was smaller than AVA(p) and corrected AVA (0.67 ± 0.1cm(2), 0.82 ± 0.3 cm(2), and 0.86 ± 0.3 cm(2), P<0.01). Using TTE measurements alone, 73% of patients had congruence for severe AS (DI ≤0.25 and CE AVA <0.8 cm(2)), which increased to 92% using corrected CE. In patients with suspected severe AS, incorporation of MDCT-LVOT area into CE improves congruence for AS severity.

  4. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  5. Design and numerical implementation of a 3-D non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model for brain tissue during impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, D.W.A.; Peters, G.W.M.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Finite Element (FE) head models are often used to understand mechanical response of the head and its contents during impact loading in the head. CurrentFE models do not account for non-linear viscoelastic material behavior of brain tissue. We developed a new non-linear viscoelastic material model

  6. Electron impact excitation of complex atoms and ions. Pt. 2: forbidden transitions in Ni+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.S.T.; Berrington, K.A.; Burke, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    This letter reports the first application of the new R-matrix program package RMATRX II to electron impact excitation of a near neutral open d-shell ion. In this calculation for Ni + , all states corresponding to the configuration 3d 9 , 3d 8 4s and 3d 8 4p have been included in the expansion of the total wavefunction. Thermally averaged collision strengths for forbidden transitions involving the even parity states are presented in tabular form for temperatures between 5000 K and 20 000 K. The importance of including accurate C1 expansions for both the target and the (N + 1)-electron terms is demonstrated. (Author)

  7. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  8. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  9. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, Vince [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)

    2014-06-08

    The purpose of this guide is to help successive students handle WARP. It outlines the installation of WARP on personal computers as well as super-computers and clusters. It furthermore teaches the reader how to handle the WARP environment and run basic scripts. Lastly it outlines how to execute the current Hollow Electron Beam Lens scripts.

  10. SU-F-T-14: Dosimetric Impacts of Various Uncertainties in Cervical Cancer HDR Brachytherapy: Are Conventional Point Doses Good Surrogates for 3D Dosimetry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, X; Li, Z [University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Zheng, D [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Zhang, X; Narayanasamy, G; Morrill, S; Penagaricano, J; Paudel, N [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In the context of evaluating dosimetric impacts of a variety of uncertainties involved in HDR Tandem-and-Ovoid treatment, to study the correlations between conventional point doses and 3D volumetric doses. Methods: For 5 cervical cancer patients treated with HDR T&O, 150 plans were retrospectively created to study dosimetric impacts of the following uncertainties: (1) inter-fractional applicator displacement between two treatment fractions within a single insertion by applying Fraction#1 plan to Fraction#2 CT; (2) positional dwell error simulated from −5mm to 5mm in 1mm steps; (3) simulated temporal dwell error of 0.05s, 0.1s, 0.5s, and 1s. The original plans were based on point dose prescription, from which the volume covered by the prescription dose was generated as the pseudo target volume to study the 3D target dose effect. OARs were contoured. The point and volumetric dose errors were calculated by taking the differences between original and simulated plans. The correlations between the point and volumetric dose errors were analyzed. Results: For the most clinically relevant positional dwell uncertainty of 1mm, temporal uncertainty of 0.05s, and inter-fractional applicator displacement within the same insertion, the mean target D90 and V100 deviation were within 1%. Among these uncertainties, the applicator displacement showed the largest potential target coverage impact (2.6% on D90) as well as the OAR dose impact (2.5% and 3.4% on bladder D2cc and rectum D2cc). The Spearman correlation analysis shows a correlation coefficient of 0.43 with a p-value of 0.11 between target D90 coverage and H point dose. Conclusion: With the most clinically relevant positional and temporal dwell uncertainties and patient interfractional applicator displacement within the same insertion, the dose error is within clinical acceptable range. The lack of correlation between H point and 3D volumetric dose errors is a motivator for the use of 3D treatment planning in

  11. KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1, using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson’s coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the χ2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson’s coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the χ2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts.

  12. Short-term Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in an Adolescent Population on 3D Knee Kinematics

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Guillaume; Fuentes, Alexandre; Therrien, Marc; Grimard, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Gait analysis is a proven method for assessing knee biomechanical adaptations in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) patients and to quantify the impact of the reconstructive surgery (ACLR). In an adult population, ACLR has shown partial kinematic correction, as they remain in internal tibial rotation, putting them at risk of rotational instability and develop osteoartitis. ACLD adolescents likely adopt similar gait changes to reduce knee instability, but may show quicker ...

  13. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement

  14. Electron-impact excitation autoionization of Ga II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M.S.; Griffin, D.C.; Bottcher, C.

    1982-01-01

    The general-reaction theory of Feshbach is applied, within the framework of the distorted-wave approximation, to the calculation of excitation-autoionization resonances in the electron-impact ionization of Ga + . Although the spectrum of autoionizing levels for Ga + is quite complex, we focus our attention on the important 3d 10 4s 2 → 3d 9 4s 2 4p inner-shell excitations. For excitation of the 3d 9 4s 2 4p 1 P 1 autoionizing level we make a general-reaction-theory calculation for the dominant partial-wave cross section and compute a typical resonance profile in the ejected-electron differential cross section. We find that the quantum-mechanical interference between the direct and indirect processes has a small effect on the total ionization cross section. Employing an independent-processes approximation we calculate excitation-autoionization contributions to all twelve levels of the 3d 9 4s 2 4p configuration. Using the results of our calculations and their comparison with a recent crossed-beam experiment by Rogers et al., we discuss the accuracy of the distorted-wave method and the effects of configuration interaction on energy levels and excitation cross sections

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. Keywords: 3D microscopy dataset, 3D microscopy vision, 3D SEM surface reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM

  16. A 3-D Model Analysis of The Impact of Asian Anthropogenic Emissions on the Sulfur Cycle Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Thornton, Donald; Bandy, Alan; Huebert, Barry; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on the SO2 and sulfate aerosol levels over the Pacific region is examined in the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. We focus on the analysis of the data from the NASA Pacific Exploratory Missions (PEM) over the western North Pacific and the tropical Pacific. These missions include PEM-West A in September-October 1991, when the Asian outflow was at the minimum but the upper atmosphere was heavily influenced by the Pinatubo volcanic eruption, and PEM-West B in March-April 1994 when the Asian outflow was at the maximum, and PEM-Tropics A in August-September at a region relatively free of direct anthropogenic influences. Specifically, we will examine the relative importance of anthropogenic, volcanic and biogenic sources to the SO2 and sulfate concentrations over the Pacific, and quantify the processes controlling the distributions of SO2 and sulfate in both the boundary layer and the free troposphere. We will also assess the global impact of SO2 emission in Asia on the sulfate aerosol loading.

  17. Structure, magnetism and electronic properties in 3d-5d based double perovskite ({Sr_{1-x}} Y x )2FeIrO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, K. C.; Pramanik, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The 3d-5d based double perovskites are of current interest as they provide model systems to study the interplay between electronic correlation (U) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, we report detailed structural, magnetic and transport properties of doped double perovskite material (Sr1-x Y x )2FeIrO6 with x ≤slant 0.2 . With substitution of Y, the system retains its original crystal structure but structural parameters change with x in nonmonotonic fashion. The magnetization data for Sr2FeIrO6 show antiferromagnetic type magnetic transition around 45 K however, a close inspection of the data indicates a weak magnetic phase transition around 120 K. No change of structural symmetry has been observed down to low temperature, although the lattice parameters show sudden changes around the magnetic transitions. Sr2FeIrO6 shows an insulating behavior over the whole temperature range, which nevertheless does not change with Y substitution. The nature of charge conduction is found to follow thermally activated Mott’s variable range hopping and power law behavior for parent and doped samples, respectively. Interestingly, evolution of structural, magnetic and transport behavior in (Sr1-x Y x )2FeIrO6 is observed to reverse with x > 0.1 , which is believed to arise due to a change in the transition metal ionic state.

  18. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  19. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the students’ perceptions to the use of 3D electronic models in problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ming Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong has introduced innovative blended problem-based learning (PBL with the aid of 3D electronic models (e-models to Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS curriculum. Statistical results of pre- and post-semester questionnaire surveys illustrated compatibility of e-models in PBL settings. The students’ importance ratings of two objectives “Complete assigned tasks on time” and “Active listener”, and twenty-two facilitator evaluation items including critical thinking and group problem-solving skills had increased significantly. The students’ PBL preparation behavior, attentions to problem understanding, problem analysis, and learning resource quality were also found to be related to online support of e-models and its software. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions with visual text analytic software “Leximancer” improved validity of statistical results. Using e-model functions in treatment planning, problem analysis and giving instructions provided a method of informative communication. Therefore, it is critical for the faculty to continuously provide facilitator training and quality online e-model resources to the students.

  1. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K., E-mail: rakesh.materialscience@gmail.com; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  2. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Luehl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngiesser, B. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36 D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with {mu}-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each 'layer'. Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  3. Structure, magnetism and electronic properties in 3d-5d based double perovskite (Sr1-xYx)2FeIrO6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Kishor Chandra; Pramanik, Ashim Kumar

    2017-10-17

    The 3$d$-5$d$ based double perovskites are of current interest as they provide model system to study the interplay between electronic correlation ($U$) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here we report detailed structural, magnetic and transport properties of doped double perovskite material (Sr$_{1-x}$Y$_x$)$_2$FeIrO$_6$ with $x$ $\\leq$ 0.2. With substitution of Y, system retains its original crystal structure but structural parameters modify with $x$ in nonmonotonic fashion. The magnetization data for Sr$_2$FeIrO$_6$ show antiferromagnetic type magnetic transition around 45 K, however, a close inspection in data indicates a weak magnetic phase transition around 120 K. No change of structural symmetry has been observed down to low temperature, although the lattice parameters show sudden changes around the magnetic transitions. Sr$_2$FeIrO$_6$ shows an insulating behavior over the whole temperature range which yet does not change with Y substitution. Nature of charge conduction is found to follow thermally activated Mott's variable range hopping and power law behavior for parent and doped samples, respectively. Interestingly, evolution of structural, magnetic and transport behavior in (Sr$_{1-x}$Y$_x$)$_2$FeIrO$_6$ is observed to reverse with $x$ $>$ 0.1 which is believed to arise due to change in transition metal ionic state. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Coherence in electron-impact excitation of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batelaan, Hermanus.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental study into the electron-impact excitation to the 3 3 P, 3 1 D and 3 3 D states of Helium. The scattered electron and the photon, emitted by the excited atom, are measured in coincidence. The parameters, which can be varied, are the scattering angle and the kinetic energy of the projectile. Two parameters, which are used to characterize the excited state, are the angular momentum transferred to the atom, L perpendicular, and the alignment angle γ. It is shown that results of measurements on 3 1 D excitation with photon detection perpendicular to the scattering plane do not agree in the small scattering angle region with any of the model calculations currently available. Remarkable is the sign of L perpendicular, which appears to start of negatively at 60 eV. It is shown that for 3 3 P excitation the predicted large value of γ is indeed found experimentally. This supports the suggestion that exchange scattering is underestimated in model calculations for 1 P excitation. Another result is that for 1 P and 3 P excitation the behaviour of L perpendicular as a function of the scattering angle can be related at different impact energies with the help of a partial wave expansion. A scaling relation can be formulated for the behaviour of L perpendicular. The influence of a negative ion resonance to excitation of the 3 3 D state is investigated. Both in coincidence and non-coincidence measurements the presence of the resonance yields information on both the direct and indirect excitation of the 3 3 D state. It is shown that the coincident measurement gives an unique opportunity to determine the excited 3 3 D state completely. Results of measurements with photon detection in the scattering plane are given. They supplement previous 3 1 D and 3 3 D results and allow physical parameters, such as L perpendicular and γ, to be obtained. (H.W.). 132 refs.; 20 figs.; 18 tabs

  5. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  6. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  7. Comparison between 3D conventional techniques, field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation for mantle fields planning; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D convencional, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para planejamento de manto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Trindade, Cassia; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: pm.lais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    External radiotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma over diaphragm region requires large radiation fields with protections applied to larynx, humerus head and lungs. The size and shape of the field, which covers different depths, make it difficult to distribute a homogeneous dose. Techniques such as field-in-field and electronic tissue compensation may be used to make dose homogeneous and compensate the obliquity from the tissue. Three types of planning were performed for diagnose of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma: one plan with two fields, AP-PA (AP plan), another with four fields field-in- field (FF plan), and a third one with two fields and electronic tissue compensation (ETC plan). Results showed better gradient, cover of PTV and dose distribution for the ETC plan, besides the advantage from this technique of does not require protection blocks. In the meanwhile, AP and FF plans require simpler dosimetry and fewer MU. Related to the uniformity of dose distribution, AP plan showed hot areas in the neck region, FF plan showed hot areas in the shoulder region and ETC plan showed most uniform distribution without hot areas. The electronic tissue compensation is a useful tool for large and shaped fields as the mantle field, however higher MU and complex dosimetry should be taken in account. (author)

  8. Theoretical perspective on structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d metal tetraoxide clusters embedded into single and di-vacancy graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Muhammad [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, S.Z.A.B, Campus Khairpur Mir' s, Sindh (Pakistan); Shuai, Yong, E-mail: shuaiyong@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping; Muhammad, Hassan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • First-principles calculations are performed for TMO{sub 4} cluster-doped SV and DV monolayer graphene structures. • Ferromagnetism coupling behavior between TM atoms and neighboring C and O atoms was observed for all structural models. • The direction of charge transfer is always from graphene layer to TMO{sub 4} clusters. • CrO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 4} doped SV graphene systems display dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) behavior in their spin down channel. • CoO{sub 4}, CrO{sub 4}, FeO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 4} doped DV graphene systems exhibit DMS behavior in their spin up channel. - Abstract: Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal tetraoxide TMO{sub 4} superhalogen clusters doped single vacancy (SV) and divacancy (DV) monolayer graphene have been studied using first-principles calculations. We found that in both cases of TMO{sub 4} cluster substitution, all the impurity atoms are tightly bonded with graphene, having significant formation energy and large charge transfer occurs from graphene to TMO{sub 4} clusters. CrO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 4} substituted SV graphene structures exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior in their spin down channel with 2.15 μ{sub B} and 3.51 μ{sub B} magnetic moment, respectively. However, CoO{sub 4}, FeO{sub 4}, TiO{sub 4} and NiO{sub 4} substitution into SV graphene, leads to Fermi level shifting to conduction band, thereby causing the Dirac cone to move into valence band and a band gap appears at high symmetric K-point. Interestingly, CoO{sub 4}, CrO{sub 4}, FeO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 4} substituted DV graphene structures exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor behavior in their spin up channel with 1.74 μ{sub B}, 3.27 μ{sub B}, 3.09 μ{sub B} and 1.99 μ{sub B} magnetic moment, respectively. Detailed analysis of density of states (DOS) plots show that d orbitals of 3d TM atoms should be responsible for inducing magnetic moments in graphene. We believe that our results are

  9. 3D Micro-topography of Transferred Laboratory and Natural Ice Crystal Surfaces Imaged by Cryo and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, N. B.; Boaggio, K.; Bancroft, L.; Bandamede, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work has highlighted micro-scale roughness on the surfaces of ice crystals grown and imaged in-situ within the chambers of environmental scanning electron microscopes (ESEM). These observations appear to align with theoretical and satellite observations that suggest a prevalence of rough ice in cirrus clouds. However, the atmospheric application of the lab observations are indeterminate because the observations have been based only on crystals grown on substrates and in pure-water vapor environments. In this work, we present details and results from the development of a transfer technique which allows natural and lab-grown ice and snow crystals to be captured, preserved, and transferred into the ESEM for 3D imaging. Ice crystals were gathered from 1) natural snow, 2) a balloon-borne cirrus particle capture device, and 3) lab-grown ice crystals from a diffusion chamber. Ice crystals were captured in a pre-conditioned small-volume (~1 cm3) cryo-containment cell. The cell was then sealed closed and transferred to a specially-designed cryogenic dewer (filled with liquid nitrogen or crushed dry ice) for transport to a new Hitachi Field Emission, Variable Pressure SEM (SU-5000). The cryo-cell was then removed from the dewer and quickly placed onto the pre-conditioned cryo transfer stage attached to the ESEM (Quorum 3010T). Quantitative 3D topographical digital elevation models of ice surfaces are reported from SEM for the first time, including a variety of objective measures of statistical surface roughness. The surfaces of the transported crystals clearly exhibit signatures of mesoscopic roughening that are similar to examples of roughness seen in ESEM-grown crystals. For most transported crystals, the habits and crystal edges are more intricate that those observed for ice grown directly on substrates within the ESEM chamber. Portions of some crystals do appear smooth even at magnification greater than 1000x, a rare observation in our ESEM-grown crystals. The

  10. Does Multimedia Education with 3D Animation Impact Quality and Duration of Urologists' Interactions with their Prostate Cancer Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Alexandre; Aoun, Fouad; Ameye, Filip; Andrianne, Robert; De Meerleer, Gert; Denis, Louis; Joniau, Steven; Lambrecht, Antoon; Billiet, Ignace; Vanderdonck, Frank; Roumeguère, Thierry; Van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-09-01

    This large multicenter study aimed to assess the impact of the use of multimedia tools on the duration and the quality of the conversation between healthcare providers (urologists, radiotherapists and nurses) and their patients. 30 urological centers in Belgium used either videos or other instructive tools in their consultation with prostate cancer patients. Each consultation was evaluated for duration and quality using a visual analog scale. In total, 905 patient visits were evaluated: 447 without and 458 with video support. During consultations with video support, an average of 2.3 videos was shown. Video support was judged to be practical and to improve the quality of consultations, without loss of time, regardless of patient age or stage of disease management (p > 0.05). Healthcare providers indicate that the use of videos improved patient comprehension about prostate cancer, as well as the quality information exchange, without increasing consultation time. The use of video material was feasible in daily practice, and was easy to understand, relevant and culturally appropriate, even for the most elderly men. Multimedia education also helped to empower men to actively participate in their healthcare and treatment discussions. Ipsen NV.

  11. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  12. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. During the pulse buckling tests, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using PRONTO, a Sandia developed transient dynamics analysis code, and ABAQUS/Explicit with both shell and continuum elements. The calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history

  13. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  14. Individualized margins in 3D conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer: analysis of physiological movements and their dosimetric impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, François; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, André

    2008-01-01

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage.

  15. Individualized Margins in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy Planning for Lung Cancer: Analysis of Physiological Movements and Their Dosimetric Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, Francois; Beaulieu, Luc; Fortin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    In conformal radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, respiratory movements are not taken into account when a single computed tomography (CT) scan is performed. This study examines tumor movements to design individualized margins to account for these movements and evaluates their dosimetric impacts on planning volume. Fifteen patients undergoing CT-based planning for radical radiotherapy for localized lung cancer formed the study cohort. A reference plan was constructed based on reference gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (rGTV, rCTV, and rPTV, respectively). The reference plans were compared with individualized plans using individualized margins obtained by using 5 serial CT scans to generate individualized target volumes (iGTV, iCTV, and iPTV). Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was used for plan generation using 6- and 23-MV photon beams. Ten plans for each patient were generated and dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were calculated. Comparisons of volumetric and dosimetric parameters were performed using paired Student t-tests. Relative to the rGTV, the total volume occupied by the superimposed GTVs increased progressively with each additional CT scans. With the use of all 5 scans, the average increase in GTV was 52.1%. For the plans with closest dosimetric coverage, target volume was smaller (iPTV/rPTV ratio 0.808) but lung irradiation was only slightly decreased. Reduction in the proportion of lung tissue that received 20 Gy or more outside the PTV (V20) was observed both for 6-MV plans (-0.73%) and 23-MV plans (-0.65%), with p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. In conformal RT planning for the treatment of lung cancer, the use of serial CT scans to evaluate respiratory motion and to generate individualized margins to account for these motions produced only a limited lung sparing advantage

  16. Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of 3d transition metal nitrides in cubic zincblende, rocksalt and cesium chloride structures: a first-principles investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z T Y; Khare, S V; Zhou, X; Gall, D

    2014-01-01

    We report systematic results from ab initio calculations with density functional theory on three cubic structures, zincblende (zb), rocksalt (rs) and cesium chloride (cc), of the ten 3d transition metal nitrides. We computed lattice constants, elastic constants, their derived moduli and ratios that characterize mechanical properties. Experimental measurements exist in the literature of lattice constants for rs-ScN, rs-TiN and rs-VN and of elastic constants for rs-TiN and rs-VN, all of which are in good agreement with our computational results. Similarly, computed Vickers hardness (H V ) values for rs-TiN and rs-VN are consistent with earlier experimental results. Several trends were observed in our rich data set of 30 compounds. All nitrides, except for zb-CrN, rs-MnN, rs-FeN, cc-ScN, cc-CrN, cc-NiN and cc-ZnN, were found to be mechanically stable. A clear correlation in the atomic density with the bulk modulus (B) was observed with maximum values of B around FeN, MnN and CrN. The shear modulus, Young’s modulus, H V and indicators of brittleness showed similar trends and all showed maxima for cc-VN. The calculated value of H V for cc-VN was about 30 GPa, while the next highest values were for rs-ScN and rs-TiN, about 24 GPa. A relation (H V ∝θ D 2 ) between H V and Debye temperature (θ D ) was investigated and verified for each structure type. A tendency for anti-correlation of the elastic constant C 44 , which strongly influences stability and hardness, with the number of electronic states around the Fermi energy was observed. (paper)

  17. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  18. Quantification of anthropogenic impact on groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem using geochemical and isotope tools combined with 3-D flow and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, A. J.; Witczak, S.; Dulinski, M.; Wachniew, P.; Rozanski, K.; Kania, J.; Postawa, A.; Karczewski, J.; Moscicki, W. J.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) have important functions in all climatic zones as they contribute to biological and landscape diversity and provide important economic and social services. Steadily growing anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources creates a conflict situation between nature and man which are competing for clean and safe sources of water. Such conflicts are particularly noticeable in GDEs located in densely populated regions. A dedicated study was launched in 2010 with the main aim to better understand the functioning of a groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystem (GDTE) located in southern Poland. The GDTE consists of a valuable forest stand (Niepolomice Forest) and associated wetland (Wielkie Błoto fen). It relies mostly on groundwater from the shallow Quaternary aquifer and possibly from the deeper Neogene (Bogucice Sands) aquifer. In July 2009 a cluster of new pumping wells abstracting water from the Neogene aquifer was set up 1 km to the northern border of the fen. A conceptual model of the Wielkie Błoto fen area for the natural, pre-exploitation state and for the envisaged future status resulting from intense abstraction of groundwater through the new well field was developed. The main aim of the reported study was to probe the validity of the conceptual model and to quantify the expected anthropogenic impact on the studied GDTE. A wide range of research tools was used. The results obtained through combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrometric and isotope investigations provide strong evidence for the existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the deeper Neogene aquifer to the shallow Quaternary aquifer supporting the studied GDTE. Simulations of the groundwater flow field in the study area with the aid of a 3-D flow and transport model developed for Bogucice Sands (Neogene) aquifer and calibrated using environmental tracer data and observations of hydraulic head in three different locations on the study area

  19. Long-term osseointegration of 3D printed CoCr constructs with an interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A; Omar, Omar; Suska, Felicia; Snis, Anders; Matic, Aleksandar; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    In orthopaedic surgery, cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively for their high strength and wear properties, but with concerns over stress shielding and bone resorption due to the high stiffness of CoCr. The structural stiffness, principally related to the bulk and the elastic modulus of the material, may be lowered by appropriate design modifications, to reduce the stiffness mismatch between metal/alloy implants and the adjacent bone. Here, 3D printed CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants of similar macro-geometry and interconnected open-pore architecture prepared by electron beam melting (EBM) were evaluated following 26week implantation in adult sheep femora. Despite higher total bone-implant contact for Ti6Al4V (39±4%) than CoCr (27±4%), bone formation patterns were similar, e.g., densification around the implant, and gradual ingrowth into the porous network, with more bone in the outer half (periphery) than the inner half (centre). Raman spectroscopy revealed no major differences in mineral crystallinity, the apatite-to-collagen ratio, or the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed similar Ca/P ratio of the interfacial tissue adjacent to both materials. Osteocytes made direct contact with CoCr and Ti6Al4V. While osteocyte density and distribution in the new-formed bone were largely similar for the two alloys, higher osteocyte density was observed at the periphery of the porous network for CoCr, attributable to slower remodelling and a different biomechanical environment. The results demonstrate the possibility to achieve bone ingrowth into open-pore CoCr constructs, and attest to the potential for fabricating customised osseointegrated CoCr implants for load-bearing applications. Although cobalt chromium (CoCr) based alloys are used extensively in orthopaedic surgery, stress shielding due to the high stiffness of CoCr is of concern. To reduce the stiffness mismatch between CoCr and bone, CoCr and Ti6Al4V implants having

  20. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  1. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  2. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  3. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  4. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  5. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  6. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  7. The influence of core-valence electron correlations on the convergence of energy levels and oscillator strengths of ions with an open 3d shell using Fe VIII as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiaolong; Jin Fengtao; Zhao Gang; Yuan Jianmin

    2003-01-01

    Accurate atomic data, such as fine structure energy levels and oscillator strengths of different ionization stages of iron ions, are important for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, some important existing oscillator strengths for ions with an open 3d shell found in the literature might not be accurate enough for practical applications. As an example, the present paper checks the convergence behaviour of the energy levels and oscillator strengths of Fe VIII by systematically increasing the 3p n -3d n (n = 1, 2, 3 and 6) core-valence electron correlations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The results show that one should at least include up to 3p 3 -3d 3 core-valence electron correlations to obtain converged results. Large differences are found between the present oscillator strengths and other theoretical results in the literature for some strong transitions

  8. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  9. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  10. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  11. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  12. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Satou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2–1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.

  13. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yoshinori; Komine, Shigeki; Shimizu, Sumera

    2017-09-01

    Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2-1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.

  14. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  15. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  16. Electronic excitation of Na atom by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielschowsky, C.E.; Souza, G.G.B. de; Lucas, C.A.; Nogueira, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Electronic excitation of the 3s-3p transition in the Na atom was studied by intermediate energy electron impact spectroscopy. Differential Cross Sections (DCS) and Generalized Oscillator Strenghts (GOS) were determined experimentally for 1 KeV electrons. Theoretical results within the First Born Approximation as well as Glauber theory, were also performed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. WE-DE-201-06: Impact of Temporal Image Coregistration Methods On 3D Internal Dose Calculations in Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besemer, A; Marsh, I; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The calculation of 3D internal dose calculations in targeted radionuclide therapy requires the acquisition and temporal coregistration of a serial PET/CT or SPECT/CT images. This work investigates the dosimetric impact of different temporal coregistration methods commonly used for 3D internal dosimetry. Methods: PET/CT images of four mice were acquired at 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144 hrs post-injection of {sup 124}I-CLR1404. The therapeutic {sup 131}I-CLR1404 absorbed dose rate (ADR) was calculated at each time point using a Geant4-based MC dosimetry platform using three temporal image coregistration Methods: (1) no coregistration (NC), whole body sequential CT-CT affine coregistration (WBAC), and individual sequential ROI-ROI affine coregistration (IRAC). For NC, only the ROI mean ADR was integrated to obtain ROI mean doses. For WBAC, the CT at each time point was coregistered to a single reference CT. The CT transformations were applied to the corresponding ADR images and the dose was calculated on a voxel-basis within the whole CT volume. For IRAC, each individual ROI was isolated and sequentially coregistered to a single reference ROI. The ROI transformations were applied to the corresponding ADR images and the dose was calculated on a voxel-basis within the ROI volumes. Results: The percent differences in the ROI mean doses were as large as 109%, 88%, and 32%, comparing the WBAC vs. IRAC, NC vs. IRAC, and NC vs. WBAC methods, respectively. The CoV in the mean dose between the all three methods ranged from 2–36%. The pronounced curvature of the spinal cord was not adequately coregistered using WBAC which resulted in large difference between the WBAC and IRAC. Conclusion: The method used for temporal image coregistration can result in large differences in 3D internal dosimetry calculations. Care must be taken to choose the most appropriate method depending on the imaging conditions, clinical site, and specific application. This work is partially funded by

  18. Cirrus Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Diameter Retrieved by MODIS: Impacts of Single Habit Assumption, 3-D Radiative Effects, and Cloud Inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Mielonen, Tero; Li, Haoran; Zhang, Riwei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Chuanliang

    2018-01-01

    For inhomogeneous cirrus clouds, cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective diameter (De) provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 cloud products are associated with errors due to the single habit assumption (SHA), independent pixel assumption (IPA), photon absorption effect (PAE), and plane-parallel assumption (PPA). SHA means that every cirrus cloud is assumed to have the same shape habit of ice crystals. IPA errors are caused by three-dimensional (3D) radiative effects. PPA and PAE errors are caused by cloud inhomogeneity. We proposed a method to single out these different errors. These errors were examined using the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method simulations done for the MODIS 0.86 μm and 2.13 μm bands. Four midlatitude and tropical cirrus cases were studied. For the COT retrieval, the impacts of SHA and IPA were especially large for optically thick cirrus cases. SHA errors in COT varied distinctly with scattering angles. For the De retrieval, SHA decreased De under most circumstances. PAE decreased De for optically thick cirrus cases. For the COT and De retrievals, the dominant error source was SHA for overhead sun whereas for oblique sun, it could be any of SHA, IPA, and PAE, varying with cirrus cases and sun-satellite viewing geometries. On the domain average, the SHA errors in COT (De) were within -16.1%-42.6% (-38.7%-2.0%), whereas the 3-D radiative effects- and cloud inhomogeneity-induced errors in COT (De) were within -5.6%-19.6% (-2.9%-8.0%) and -2.6%-0% (-3.7%-9.8%), respectively.

  19. Performance of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera for Short-Range Imaging of SCI and Ejecta Curtain Generated from the Artificial Impact Crater Formed on Asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, K.; Shirai, K.; Ogawa, K.; Wada, K.; Honda, R.; Arakawa, M.; Sakatani, N.; Ikeda, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Deployable Camera 3-D (DCAM3-D) is a small high-resolution camera equipped on Deployable Camera 3 (DCAM3), one of the Hayabusa2 instruments. Hayabusa2 will explore asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) and conduct an impact experiment using a liner shooting device called Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI). DCAM3 will be detached from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft and observe the impact experiment. The purposes of the observation are to know the impact conditions, to estimate the surface structure of asteroid Ryugu, and to understand the physics of impact phenomena on low-gravity bodies. DCAM3-D requires high imaging performance because it has to image and detect multiple targets of different scale and radiance, i.e., the faint SCI before the shot from 1-km distance, the bright ejecta generated by the impact, and the asteroid. In this paper we report the evaluation of the performance of the CMOS imaging sensor and the optical system of DCAM3-D. We also describe the calibration of DCAM3-D. We confirmed that the imaging performance of DCAM3-D satisfies the required values to achieve the purposes of the observation.

  20. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  1. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  2. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hadwiger, Markus; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed; Behzad, Ali Reza; Madhavan, Poornima; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore

  3. Electron impact study of potassium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    An ''elastic'' scattering study for low impact energies (5--20 ev) is reported for electron impact excitation of KOH. The ''elastic'' scattering is regarded as the sum of elastic rotational and vibrational contributions to the scattering

  4. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  5. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  6. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  7. Geomanetically Induced Currents (GIC) calculation, impact assessment on transmission system and validation using 3-D earth conductivity tensors and GIC measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R.; McCalley, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) causes the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in the power transmission system that may cause large scale power outages and power system equipment damage. In order to plan for defense against GMD, it is necessary to accurately estimate the flow of GICs in the power transmission system. The current calculation as per NERC standards uses the 1-D earth conductivity models that don't reflect the coupling between the geoelectric and geomagnetic field components in the same direction. For accurate estimation of GICs, it is important to have spatially granular 3-D earth conductivity tensors, accurate DC network model of the transmission system and precisely estimated or measured input in the form of geomagnetic or geoelectric field data. Using these models and data the pre event, post event and online planning and assessment can be performed. The pre, post and online planning can be done by calculating GIC, analyzing voltage stability margin, identifying protection system vulnerabilities and estimating heating in transmission equipment. In order to perform the above mentioned tasks, an established GIC calculation and analysis procedure is needed that uses improved geophysical and DC network models obtained by model parameter tuning. The issue is addressed by performing the following tasks; 1) Geomagnetic field data and improved 3-D earth conductivity tensors are used to plot the geoelectric field map of a given area. The obtained geoelectric field map then serves as an input to the PSS/E platform, where through DC circuit analysis the GIC flows are calculated. 2) The computed GIC is evaluated against GIC measurements in order to fine tune the geophysical and DC network model parameters for any mismatch in the calculated and measured GIC. 3) The GIC calculation procedure is then adapted for a one in 100 year storm, in order to assess the impact of the worst case GMD on the power system. 4) Using the transformer models, the voltage

  8. Effects of trochanteric soft tissue thickness and hip impact velocity on hip fracture in sideways fall through 3D finite element simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2008-09-18

    A major worldwide health problem is hip fracture due to sideways fall among the elderly population. The effects of sideways fall on the hip are required to be investigated thoroughly. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the responses to trochanteric soft tissue thickness (T) variations and hip impact velocity (V) variations during sideways fall based on a previously developed CT scan derived 3D non-linear and non-homogeneous finite element model of pelvis-femur-soft tissue complex with simplified biomechanical representation of the whole body. This study is also aimed at quantifying the effects [peak impact force (F(max)), time to F(max), acceleration and peak principal compressive strain (epsilon(max))] of these variations (T,V) on hip fracture. It was found that under constant impact energy, for 81% decrease in T (26-5mm), F(max) and epsilon(max) increased by 38% and 97%, respectively. Hence, decrease in T (as in slimmer persons) strongly correlated to risk for hip fracture (phi) and strain ratio (SR) by 0.972 and 0.988, respectively. Also under same T and body weight, for 75% decrease in V (4.79-1.2m/s), F(max) and epsilon(max) decreased by 70% and 86%, respectively. Hence, increase in V (as in taller persons) strongly correlated to phi and SR by 0.995 and 0.984, respectively. For both variations in T and V, inter-trochanteric fracture situations were well demonstrated by phi as well as by SR and strain contours, similar to clinically observed fractures. These quantifications would be helpful for effective design of person-specific hip protective devices.

  9. 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Pittet, P.; Pares, G.; Cellier, R.; Quiquerez, L.; Chaves de Albuquerque, T.; Bechetoille, E.; Testa, E.; Lopez, J.-P.; Dauvergne, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2018-02-01

    Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a β- strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different β- particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower).

  10. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  11. Numerical analysis of the impact of an RF sheath on the Scrape-Off Layer in 2D and 3D turbulence simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Radio Frequency (RF heating studies, the response of the plasma of tokamaks to the presence of a locally polarized limiter is studied. In a first part, we use the TOKAM3X3D global edge turbulence code to analyse the impact of such biasing in a realistic geometry. Key features of experimental observations are qualitatively recovered, especially the extension of a potential and density perturbation on long, but finite, distances along connected field lines. The perturbation is also found to extend in the transverse direction. Both observations demonstrate the influence of perpendicular current loops on the plasma confirming the need for an accurate description in reduced models. In a second part, we use the TOKAM2D slab turbulence code to determine the validity of using a transverse Ohm's law for this purpose. Results indicate that a local Ohm's law with a constant and uniform perpendicular resistivity appears at least as an oversimplified description of perpendicular charge transport in a turbulent Scrape-Off Layer.

  12. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  13. Identification of an impact structure in the Upper Cretaceous of the Santos Basin in 3D seismic reflection data; Identificacao de uma estrutura de impacto no Cretaceo Superior da Bacia de Santos em sismica de reflexao 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Gustavo Alberto [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Interpretacao e Avaliacao das Bacias da Costa Sul Polo Sul]. E-mail: gustavoac@petrobras.com.br; Menezes, Jorge Rui Correa de; Bueno, Gilmar Vital

    2005-05-01

    This work presents the unpublished Praia Grande impact structure, located in the Santos basin, approximately 200 km southeast from the coastline of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The identification of this structure is based on the interpretation of three-dimensional seismic data, acquired and processed in 2004 for petroleum exploration in a PETROBRAS concession block in the Santos Basin. The main morphological elements imposed on Upper Cretaceous rocks are a structural high in the center of the crater, an adjacent ring syncline, and, externally, several concentric circular listric normal faults. The structure is apparently well preserved from erosion, measures around 20 km in diameter, is buried by 4 km of rocks and occurred in the Santonian (85,8-83,5 Ma). (author)

  14. Electron-impact excitation of the potassium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, J.O.; Solomon, J.E.; Korff, D.F.; Lin, C.C.; Lee, E.T.P.

    1979-01-01

    Absolute optical electron-impact excitation functions for 24 transitions of the sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental spectral series of potassium have been measured. The determination of the density of the potassium vapor in the collision chamber was made by measuring the degree of transmission, by the vapor, of potassium resonance radiation generated externally in a fluorescence cell. Direct excitation functions were determined for 14 states (5S, 6S, 7S, 8S, 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P, 3D, 5D, 6D, 5F, 6F, and 7F) with the aid of known radiative-transition probabilities. Theoretical calculations of these same 14 excitation functions, as well as 4D and 4F, were carried out by means of the Born approximation. The 4P, 5P, 5S, 3D, and 4D direct excitation functions at intermediate energies (10--25 eV) were also calculated by the method of multistate close coupling, neglecting projectile--target-electron exchange. The high-energy (above 100 eV) Born-approximation cross sections agree with the experimental results for 4P and for all S states, but are lower than experimental results, by 30--40%, for the D and F states. At intermediate energies the close-coupling excitation calculations agree well with the experimental excitation functions for 4P and 5P, but are significantly higher than experimental values for 5S and 3D. The discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results are probably due to a combination of systematic experimental errors, errors in the available transition-probability values, and errors in the theoretical excitation functions introduced by the use of approximate excited-state wave functions (Hartree-Fock-Slater), by the neglect of projectile--target-electron exchange. The polarization of the 4P-4S and 3D-4P radiation produced by electron impact was measured, and the results were used to determine the direct excitation functions of the separate magnetic sublevels of the 4P state

  15. The Impact of Different Levels of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction 3D on Image Quality of 320-Row Coronary CT Angiography: A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feger

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the systematic image quality evaluation of coronary CT angiography (CTA, reconstructed with the 3 different levels of adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR 3D and compared to filtered back projection (FBP with quantum denoising software (QDS.Standard-dose CTA raw data of 30 patients with mean radiation dose of 3.2 ± 2.6 mSv were reconstructed using AIDR 3D mild, standard, strong and compared to FBP/QDS. Objective image quality comparison (signal, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, contour sharpness was performed using 21 measurement points per patient, including measurements in each coronary artery from proximal to distal.Objective image quality parameters improved with increasing levels of AIDR 3D. Noise was lowest in AIDR 3D strong (p ≤ 0.001 at 20/21 measurement points; compared with FBP/QDS. Signal and contour sharpness analysis showed no significant difference between the reconstruction algorithms for most measurement points. Best coronary SNR and CNR were achieved with AIDR 3D strong. No loss of SNR or CNR in distal segments was seen with AIDR 3D as compared to FBP.On standard-dose coronary CTA images, AIDR 3D strong showed higher objective image quality than FBP/QDS without reducing contour sharpness.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00967876.

  16. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  17. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  18. Forbidden transitions in excitation by electron impact in Co3+: an R-matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancalie, V

    2011-01-01

    Collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of forbidden transitions between 136 terms arising from 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s and 3d 5 4p configurations of Co 3+ have been calculated using the R-matrix method. The accuracy of a series of models for the target terms was considered, which form the basis for R-matrix collision calculations. The importance of including configuration interaction wave functions both in the target-state expansion and in the (N+1)-electron quadratically integrable function expansion is discussed. Collision strengths were calculated for incident electron energies up to 6 Ryd. These results are believed to be the first such values for this system and will be important for plasma modelling.

  19. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Chandra M.; Mageras, Gikas S.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: In this presentation we will look into the basic components of 3-dimensional conformal treatment planning, and will discuss planning for some selected sites. We will also review some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning. External beam radiation therapy is one of the arms of cancer treatment. In the recent years 3-D conformal therapy had significant impact on the practice of external beam radiation therapy. Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-D treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. In this course we will give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning, such as field shaping with multileaf collimation, computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into treatment planning process

  20. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  1. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  2. Viewpoint on ‘Tuning shape, composition and magnetization of 3D cobalt nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID)’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate dream of materials design and fabrication is the ability to build-up materials with single atom precision in terms of positioning control and element selectivity, and to do it in a way that is fast and thus potentially viable as a commercial fabrication technology. While such a 3D atomic printing technology might stay an elusive goal for decades to come, it is interesting to notice that the reverse is actually already accomplished, namely the atomic scale analysis of materials and devices by means of an atomic probe system, which allows for the simultaneous chemical element analysis and atomic position measurement, even though it is a destructive technique. (viewpoint)

  3. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  4. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties in germanene by alkali, alkaline-earth, group III and 3d transition metal atom adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-shi; Zhang, Chang-wen; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Feng; Wang, Pei-ji; Hu, Shu-jun; Yan, Shi-shen; Liu, Yu-shen

    2014-08-14

    We performed first-principles calculations to study the adsorption characteristics of alkali, alkali-earth, group III, and 3d transition-metal (TM) adatoms on germanene. We find that the adsorption of alkali or alkali-earth adatoms on germanene has minimal effects on geometry of germanene. The significant charge transfer from alkali adatoms to germanene leads to metallization of germanene, whereas alkali-earth adatom adsorption, whose interaction is a mixture of ionic and covalent, results in semiconducting behavior with an energy gap of 17-29 meV. For group III adatoms, they also bind germanene with mixed covalent and ionic bonding character. Adsorption characteristics of the transition metals (TMs) are rather complicated, though all TM adsorptions on germanene exhibit strong covalent bonding with germanene. The main contributions to the strong bonding are from the hybridization between the TM 3d and Ge pz orbitals. Depending on the induced-TM type, the adsorbed systems can exhibit metallic, half-metallic, or semiconducting behavior. Also, the variation trends of the dipole moment and work function with the adsorption energy across the different adatoms are discussed. These findings may provide a potential avenue to design new germanene-based devices in nanoelectronics.

  5. Theoretical studies of atomic and quasiatomic excitations by electron and ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, K.F.

    1999-09-01

    Electron emission from ion induced excitations of Ca, Sc, Ti and V metal surfaces and from electron impact on transition metal oxides CoO and TiO 2 has been studied in this thesis. Both the autoionising emission from sputtered atoms and the 3p→3d and 3s→3d excitations in the oxides reveal strong atomic features. The work has involved explaining these spectra in an atomic approach, via the use of atomic structure calculations, cross section studies and empirical/semi-empirical analyses. The other aspect of this work involves extension of current theories of electron-atom scattering in the high electron energy impact regime. Overall it is shown that much can be learned about some solid-state spectra by relating them to atomic phenomena. (author)

  6. Procrustes-based geometric morphometrics on MRI images: An example of inter-operator bias in 3D landmarks and its impact on big datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboul, Amro; Ivanovska, Tatyana; Bülow, Robin; Biffar, Reiner; Cardini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Using 3D anatomical landmarks from adult human head MRIs, we assessed the magnitude of inter-operator differences in Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses. An in depth analysis of both absolute and relative error was performed in a subsample of individuals with replicated digitization by three different operators. The effect of inter-operator differences was also explored in a large sample of more than 900 individuals. Although absolute error was not unusual for MRI measurements, including bone landmarks, shape was particularly affected by differences among operators, with up to more than 30% of sample variation accounted for by this type of error. The magnitude of the bias was such that it dominated the main pattern of bone and total (all landmarks included) shape variation, largely surpassing the effect of sex differences between hundreds of men and women. In contrast, however, we found higher reproducibility in soft-tissue nasal landmarks, despite relatively larger errors in estimates of nasal size. Our study exemplifies the assessment of measurement error using geometric morphometrics on landmarks from MRIs and stresses the importance of relating it to total sample variance within the specific methodological framework being used. In summary, precise landmarks may not necessarily imply negligible errors, especially in shape data; indeed, size and shape may be differentially impacted by measurement error and different types of landmarks may have relatively larger or smaller errors. Importantly, and consistently with other recent studies using geometric morphometrics on digital images (which, however, were not specific to MRI data), this study showed that inter-operator biases can be a major source of error in the analysis of large samples, as those that are becoming increasingly common in the 'era of big data'.

  7. Resolving the impact of short-term variations in physical processes impacting on the spawning environment of eastern Baltic cod : application of a 3-D hydrodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael; Lehmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    /Kattegat area and in the western Baltic influence the water mass properties (high oxygen solubility). Eastward oriented transports of these well-oxygenated highly saline water masses may have a significant positive impact on the Baltic cod reproduction volume in the Bornholm Basin. Finally, we analysed how...... large scale and local atmospheric forcing conditions are related to the identified major processes affecting the reproduction volume. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  9. TRIPOLI-4.3.3 and 4.4, Coupled Neutron, Photon, Electron, Positron 3-D, Time Dependent Monte-Carlo, Transport Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, J.P.; Mazzolo, A.; Petit, O.; Peneliau, Y.; Roesslinger, B.

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TRIPOLI-4 is a general purpose radiation transport code. It uses the Monte Carlo method to simulate neutron and photon behaviour in three-dimensional geometries. The main areas of applications include but are not restricted to: radiation protection and shielding, nuclear criticality safety, fission and fusion reactor design, nuclear instrumentation. In addition, it can simulate electron-photon cascade showers. It computes particle fluxes and currents and several related physical quantities such as, reaction rates, dose rates, heating, energy deposition, effective multiplication factor, perturbation effects due to density, concentration or partial cross-section variations. The summary precises the types of particles, the nuclear data format and cross sections, the energy ranges, the geometry, the sources, the calculated physical quantities and estimators, the biasing, the time-dependant transport for neutrons, the perturbation, the coupled particle transport and the qualification benchmarks. Data libraries distributed with the TRIPOLI-4: ENDFB6R4, ENDL, JEF2, Mott-Rutherford and Qfission. NEA-1716/04: TRIPOLI-4.4 does not contain the source programs. New features available in TRIPOLI-4 version 4 concern the following points: New biasing features, neutron collision in multigroup homogenized mode, display of the collision sites, ENDF format evaluations, computation of the gamma source produced by neutrons, output format for all results, Verbose level for output warnings, photons reactions rates, XML format output, ENDF format evaluations, combinatorial geometry checks, Green's functions files, and neutronics-shielding coupling. 2 - Methods: The geometry package allows the user to describe a three dimensional configuration by means of surfaces (as in the MCNP code) and also through predefined shapes combine with operators (union, intersection, subtraction...). It is also possible to repeat a pattern to built a network of networks

  10. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  13. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  14. The impact of electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Kaiyin

    1997-01-01

    The development of electronic commerce offers a promising way for business to meet challenges of the ever changing market. The fast advancing information infrastructure makes the connectiviry possible to reach almost everywhere in the world, but it does not ensure a successful business process. The

  15. Tracing man's impact on groundwater dependent ecosystem using geochemical an isotope tools combined with 3D flow and transport modeling: case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Anna; Witczak, Stanislaw; Kania, Jaroslaw; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Dulinski, Marek; Jench, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Niepolomice Forest. There is a growing concern that continued exploitation of those wells may lead to lowering water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, may trigger drastic changes in this unique ecosystem. A dedicated study was launched with the main aim to quantify the interaction between Niepolomice Forest, with the focus the Wielkie Bloto fen, and the underlying Bogucice Sands aquifer. The work was pursued along three major lines: (i) vertical profiling of the Wielkie Bloto fen aimed at characterizing chemical and isotope contrast in the shallow groundwater occupying the Quaternary cover in order to identify upward leakage of deeper groundwater in the investigated area, (ii) regular monitoring of flow rate, chemistry and environmental isotopes of the Dluga Woda stream draining the Wielkie Bloto fen, and (iii) 3D modeling of groundwater flow in the vicinity of the Wielkie Bloto fen focusing on quantifying the impact of the Wola Batorska well field on the regional groundwater flow patterns. The results of isotope and chemical analyses confirmed existence of upward seepage of groundwater from the Bogucice Sands aquifer in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen. Preliminary assessment of the water balance of Dluga Woda catchment indicates that the baseflow originating from groundwater seepage is equal approximately 16% of the annual precipitation. Results of 3D flow model applied to the study area indicate that prolonged operation of the well-field Wola Batorska at maximum capacity may lead to substantial lowering of water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, endanger further existence of this unique GDTE. Acknowledgements. Partial financial support of this work through GENESIS project (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) funded by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536, and through statutory funds of the AGH University of Science and Technology (projects No.11.11.140.026 and 11.11.220.01) is kindly acknowledged.

  16. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  18. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    2002-11-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnation points between 2D and 3D computations. The inner most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed. (au)

  19. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  20. Impact of 3D image-based PDR brachytherapy on outcome of patients treated for cervix carcinoma in France: Results of the French STIC prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Harter, Valentin; Delannes, Martine; Haie-Meder, Christine; Quetin, Philippe; Kerr, Christine; Castelain, Bernard; Thomas, Laurence; Peiffert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In 2005 a French multicentric non randomized prospective study was initiated to compare two groups of patients treated for cervix carcinoma according to brachytherapy (BT) method: 2D vs 3D dosimetry. The BT dosimetric planning method was chosen for each patient in each center according to the availability of the technique. This study describes the results for 705 out of 801 patients available for analysis. Patients and methods: For the 2D arm, dosimetry was planned on orthogonal X-Rays using low dose rate (LDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) BT. For the 3D arm, dosimetry was planned on 3D imaging (mainly CT) and performed with PDR BT. Each center could follow the dosimetric method they were used to, according to the chosen radioelement and applicator. Manual or graphical optimization was allowed. Three treatment regimens were defined: Group 1: BT followed by surgery; 165 patients (2D arm: 76; 3D arm: 89); Group 2: EBRT (+chemotherapy), BT, then surgery; 305 patients (2D arm: 142; 3D arm: 163); Group 3: EBRT (+chemotherapy), then BT; 235 patients, (2D arm: 118; 3D arm: 117). The DVH parameters for CTVs (High Risk CTV and Intermediate Risk CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were computed as recommended by GYN GEC ESTRO guidelines. Total doses were converted to equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2). Side effects were prospectively assessed using the CTCAEv3.0. Results: The 2D and 3D arms were well balanced with regard to age, FIGO stage, histology, EBRT dose and chemotherapy. For each treatment regimen, BT doses and volumes were comparable between the 2D and 3D arms in terms of dose to point A, isodose 60 Gy volume, dose to ICRU rectal points, and TRAK. Dosimetric data in the 3D arm showed that the dose delivered to 90% of the High Risk CTV (HR CTV D90) was respectively, 81.2 Gy α/β10 , 63.2 Gy α/β10 and 73.1 Gy α/β10 for groups 1, 2 and 3. The Intermediate Risk (IR) CTV D90 was respectively, 58.5 Gy α/β10 , 57.3 Gy α/β10 and 61.7 Gy α/β10 for groups 1

  1. The impact of 3D volume of interest definition on accuracy and precision of activity estimation in quantitative SPECT and planar processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-06-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important factor impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimates. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively, of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g. in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from -1 to 1 voxels in increments of with 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ activity estimations were

  2. The impact of 3D volume of interest definition on accuracy and precision of activity estimation in quantitative SPECT and planar processing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Bin [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Frey, Eric C, E-mail: bih2006@med.cornell.ed, E-mail: efrey1@jhmi.ed [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287-0859 (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important factor impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimates. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed {sup 111}In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively, of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g. in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from -1 to 1 voxels in increments of with 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ activity estimations

  3. Recognition of Symmetric 3D Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 722-757 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : rotation symmetry * reflection symmetry * 3D complex moments * 3D rotation invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/suk-0431156.pdf

  4. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  5. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  6. Pulse dose-rate brachytherapy and treatment of uterine cervix cancer: impact of a 3D or a 2D dosimetric support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournat, H.; Chilles, A.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Peiffert, D.; Ahmad, F.; Metayer, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate two dosimetric supports used in pulse dose rate brachytherapy (P.D.R.): coverage of target volumes, dose to organs at risk, residual tumor after surgery, survival. Patients and methods Twenty patients treated for uterine cervix tumor first by brachytherapy P.D.R. had a dosimetric CT-scan after implantation. For 9 patients, the treatment was planned from standard radiographies and then reported on CT-scan images. For 11 patients, it was directly planned from CT-scan. Six weeks after, 18 patients underwent surgery. Results With a median follow-up of 22 months, 2 year actuarial survival was 89%. Six patients developed grade II urinary or gynecological complications (LENT SOMA scale). No residual tumor was found for 12 patients (7 with a 3D treatment and 5 a 2 D treatment). Ninety-five percent of C.T.V.H.R. received 53 Gy (2D treatment) or 63 Gy (3D treatment). Two cm 3 of bladder wall received 63 Gy (2D) or 74 Gy (3D) although 2 cm 3 of rectal wall received 37 Gy (2D) and 35 Gy (3D). Conclusion Using CT-scan made us improve the coverage of the uterine cervix but increase the dose received by the bladder, without increasing the rate of histological remission after surgery. We should be prudent before changing our practice. (authors)

  7. The magic of nanoplasmonics: from superhydrophobic and 3D suspended devices for SERS/TERS-like applications to hot-electrons based nanoscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2014-05-02

    The ability to confine light in small volumes, associated to low background signals, is an important technological achievement for a number of disciplines such as biology or electronics. In fact, decoupling the source position from the sample area allows an unprecedented sensitivity which can be exploited in different systems. The most direct implications are however related to either Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) or Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS). Furthermore, while the combination with super-hydrophobic patterns can overcome the typical diffusion limit of sensors, focused surface plasmons decaying into hot electrons can be exploited to study the electronic properties of the sample by means of a Schottky junction. Within this paper these techniques will be briefly described and the key role played by both surface and localized plasmons will be highlighted. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  8. The magic of nanoplasmonics: from superhydrophobic and 3D suspended devices for SERS/TERS-like applications to hot-electrons based nanoscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.; Toma, A.; Giugni, A.; Torre, B.; Malerba, M.; Miele, E.; De Angelis, F.; Liberale, Carlo; Das, Gobind; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to confine light in small volumes, associated to low background signals, is an important technological achievement for a number of disciplines such as biology or electronics. In fact, decoupling the source position from the sample area allows an unprecedented sensitivity which can be exploited in different systems. The most direct implications are however related to either Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) or Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS). Furthermore, while the combination with super-hydrophobic patterns can overcome the typical diffusion limit of sensors, focused surface plasmons decaying into hot electrons can be exploited to study the electronic properties of the sample by means of a Schottky junction. Within this paper these techniques will be briefly described and the key role played by both surface and localized plasmons will be highlighted. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  9. Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields....

  10. Electronic and atomic impacts on large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gspann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Describing first the generation and properties of molecular beams of large Van der Waals clusters such as speed distribution, cluster size distribution, and internal temperature of the clusters, the review then features the results of electronic impacts on large clusters: metastable electronic cluster excitations, ejection of positive cluster ions of less than 100 atoms from much larger parent clusters, and ionization of the large clusters. Atomic impacts at thermal energies are treated with respect to the scattering cross section of the clusters, their drag coefficient in free molecular flow, and the peculiarities of impacts on helium clusters of either isotope. (Auth.)

  11. Investigation of voltages and electric fields in silicon semi 3D radiation detectors using Silvaco/ATLAS simulation tool and a scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Palviainen, T; Tuuva, T; Eranen, S; Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Tuovinen, E

    2006-01-01

    The structure of silicon semi three-dimensional radiation detector is simulated on purpose to find out its electrical characteristics such as the depletion voltage and electric field. Two-dimensional simulation results are compared to voltage and electric field measurements done by a scanning electron microscope.

  12. Electron-impact excitation of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, D.A.; Dalgarno, A.

    1989-01-01

    A simple expression is derived that relates the rate coefficient for dipole-allowed electron-impact excitation of a molecular ion in the Coulomb-Born approximation to the Einstein A coefficient for the corresponding radiative decay. Results are given for several molecular ions of astrophysical interest. A general analytic expression is obtained for the equilibrium rotational level populations in the ground vibrational state of any molecular ion excited by collisions with electrons. The expression depends only upon the electron temperature, the electron density, and the rotational constant of the molecular ion. A similar expression is obtained for neutral polar molecules

  13. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  14. 3D-full wave and kinetics numerical modelling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources plasma: steps towards self-consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Sorbello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism. The most important clues coming out from the simulations are that although vacuum field RF field distribution (that is a cavity, modal field distribution) is perturbed by the plasma medium, the non-uniformity in the electric field amplitude still persists in the plasma filled cavity. This non-uniformity can be correlated with non-uniform plasma distribution, explaining a number of experimental observations

  15. Single 3d transition metal atoms on multi-layer graphene systems: electronic configurations, bonding mechanisms and role of the substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sessi, V.; Stepanow, S.; Rudenko, A.N.; Krotzky, S.; Kern, K.; Hiebel, F.; Mallet, P.; Veuillen, J.-Y.; Šipr, Ondřej; Honolka, Jan; Brookes, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, Jun (2014), 1-11 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * magnetic adsorbates * x-ray absorption spectroscopy * surface magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2014

  16. Electronic structure of CoPc adsorbed on Ag(100): Evidence for molecule-substrate interaction mediated by Co 3d orbitals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salomon, E.; Amsalem, P.; Marom, N.; Vondráček, Martin; Kronik, L.; Koch, N.; Angot, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2013), "075407-1"-"075407-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cobalt-phthalocyanine * molecule-substrate interaction * photoemission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  17. 21CMMC with a 3D light-cone: the impact of the co-evolution approximation on the astrophysics of reionisation and cosmic dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    We extend 21CMMC, a Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampler of 3D reionisation simulations, to perform parameter estimation directly on 3D light-cones of the cosmic 21cm signal. This brings theoretical analysis closer to the tomographic 21-cm observations achievable with next generation interferometers like HERA and the SKA. Parameter recovery can therefore account for modes which evolve with redshift/frequency. Additionally, simulated data can be more easily corrupted to resemble real data. Using the light-cone version of 21CMMC, we quantify the biases in the recovered astrophysical parameters if we use the 21cm power spectrum from the co-evolution approximation to fit a 3D light-cone mock observation. While ignoring the light-cone effect under most assumptions will not significantly bias the recovered astrophysical parameters, it can lead to an underestimation of the associated uncertainty. However significant biases (˜few - 10 σ) can occur if the 21cm signal evolves rapidly (i.e. the epochs of reionisation and heating overlap significantly) and: (i) foreground removal is very efficient, allowing large physical scales (k {≲} 0.1 Mpc-1) to be used in the analysis or (ii) theoretical modelling is accurate to within ˜10 per cent in the power spectrum amplitude.

  18. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zengmin; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting. It provides an update on recent developments in bioprinting and its applications. 3D bioprinting has profound impacts on biomedical research and industry. It offers a new way to industrialize tissue biofabrication. It has great potential for regenerating tissues and organs to overcome the shortage of organ transplantation.

  19. YieldStar based reticle 3D measurements and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaenkatesan, Vidya; Finders, Jo; ten Berge, Peter; Plug, Reinder; Sijben, Anko; Schellekens, Twan; Dillen, Harm; Pocobiej, Wojciech; Jorge, Vasco G.; van Dijck, Jurgen

    2016-09-01

    YieldStar (YS) is an established ASML-built scatterometer that is capable of measuring wafer Critical Dimension (CD), Overlay and Focus. In a recent work, the application range of YS was extended to measure 3D CD patterns on a reticle (pattern CD, height, Side Wall Angle-SWA). The primary motivation for this study came from imaging studies that indicated a need for measuring and controlling reticle 3D topography. CD scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), 3D multiple detector SEM (3D-SEM) are the preferred tools for reticle metrology. While these tools serve the industry well, the current research to the impact of reticle 3D involves extensive costs, logistic challenges and increased reticle lead time. YS provides an attractive alternative as it can measure pattern CD, SWA and height in a single measurement and at high throughput. This work demonstrates the capability of YS as a reticle metrology tool.

  20. Charge-compensation in 3d-transition-metal-oxide intercalation cathodes through the generation of localized electron holes on oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Roberts, Matthew R; Hao, Rong; Guerrini, Niccoló; Pickup, David M; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Edström, Kristina; Guo, Jinghua; Chadwick, Alan V; Duda, Laurent C; Bruce, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    During the charging and discharging of lithium-ion-battery cathodes through the de- and reintercalation of lithium ions, electroneutrality is maintained by transition-metal redox chemistry, which limits the charge that can be stored. However, for some transition-metal oxides this limit can be broken and oxygen loss and/or oxygen redox reactions have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. We present operando mass spectrometry of (18)O-labelled Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2, which demonstrates that oxygen is extracted from the lattice on charging a Li1.2[Ni0.13(2+)Co0.13(3+)Mn0.54(4+)]O2 cathode, although we detected no O2 evolution. Combined soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that, in addition to oxygen loss, Li(+) removal is charge compensated by the formation of localized electron holes on O atoms coordinated by Mn(4+) and Li(+) ions, which serve to promote the localization, and not the formation, of true O2(2-) (peroxide, O-O ~1.45 Å) species. The quantity of charge compensated by oxygen removal and by the formation of electron holes on the O atoms is estimated, and for the case described here the latter dominates.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Peter R., E-mail: pmarti46@uwo.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada and Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare [Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Ward, Aaron D. [Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter R; Cool, Derek W; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm(3) or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was consistently greater when using

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm 3 or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each tumor was

  4. Electron Impact Excitation-Ionization of Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Esam Abobakr A.

    In the last few decades, the study of atomic collisions by electron-impact has made significant advances. The most difficult case to study is electron impact ionization of molecules for which many approximations have to be made and the validity of these approximations can only be checked by comparing with experiment. In this thesis, I have examined the Molecular three-body distorted wave (M3DW) or Molecular four-body distorted wave (M4DW) approximations for electron-impact ionization. These models use a fully quantum mechanical approach where all particles are treated quantum mechanically and the post collision interaction (PCI) is treated to all orders of perturbation. These electron impact ionization collisions play central roles in the physics and chemistry of upper atmosphere, biofuel, the operation of discharges and lasers, radiation induced damage in biological material like damage to DNA by secondary electrons, and plasma etching processes. For the M3DW model, I will present results for electron impact single ionization of small molecules such as Water, Ethane, and Carbon Dioxide and the much larger molecules Tetrahydrofuran, phenol, furfural, 1-4 Benzoquinone. I will also present results for the four-body problem in which there are two target electrons involved in the collision. M4DW results will be presented for dissociative excitation-ionization of orientated D2. I will show that M4DW calculations using a variational wave function for the ground state that included s- and p- orbital states give better agreement to the experimental measurements than a ground state approximated as a product of two 1s-type Dyson orbitals.

  5. 3D analysis of synaptic vesicle density and distribution after acute foot-shock stress by using serial section transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, M; Darkner, S; Nava, N

    2017-01-01

    was employed to compare two groups of male rats: (1) rats subjected to foot-shock stress and (2) rats with sham stress as control group. Two-dimensional (2D) density measures are common in microscopic images and are estimated by following a 2D path in-section. However, this method ignores the slant...... in comparison to the 2D measures. Our results showed that acute foot-shock stress exposure significantly affected both the spatial distribution and density of the synaptic vesicles within the presynaptic terminal.......Behavioural stress has shown to strongly affect neurotransmission within the neocortex. In this study, we analysed the effect of an acute stress model on density and distribution of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles within medial prefrontal cortex. Serial section transmission electron microscopy...

  6. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  9. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  10. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  11. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  12. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  13. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  14. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  15. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  16. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  17. Hyaluronan (HA) interacting proteins RHAMM and hyaluronidase impact prostate cancer cell behavior and invadopodia formation in 3D HA-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Lisa A; Xu, Xian; Labrada, Lyana N; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Xiao, Longxi; van Golen, Kenneth L; Jia, Xinqiao; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence of HA in connective tissues and its role in the promotion of cancer cell motility and tissue invasion, making the system ideal to study invasion through bone marrow or other HA-rich connective tissues. The bio-compatible cross-linking process we used allows for direct encapsulation of cancer cells within the gel where they adopt a distinct, cluster-like morphology. Metastatic PCa cells in these hydrogels develop fingerlike structures, "invadopodia", consistent with their invasive properties. The number of invadopodia, as well as cluster size, shape, and convergence, can provide a quantifiable measure of invasive potential. Among candidate hyaluronan interacting proteins that could be responsible for the behavior we observed, we found that culture in the HA hydrogel triggers invasive PCa cells to differentially express and localize receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM)/CD168 which, in the absence of CD44, appears to contribute to PCa motility and invasion by interacting with the HA hydrogel components. PCa cell invasion through the HA hydrogel also was found to depend on the activity of hyaluronidases. Studies shown here reveal that while hyaluronidase activity is necessary for invadopodia and inter-connecting cluster formation, activity alone is not sufficient for acquisition of invasiveness to occur. We therefore suggest that development of invasive behavior in 3D HA-based systems requires development of additional cellular features, such as activation of motility associated pathways that regulate formation of invadopodia. Thus, we report development of a 3D system amenable to dissection of

  18. Mitigating Space Weather Impacts on the Power Grid in Real-Time: Applying 3-D EarthScope Magnetotelluric Data to Forecasting Reactive Power Loss in Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bonner, L. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    Current efforts to assess risk to the power grid from geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) that result in geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) seek to identify potential "hotspots," based on statistical models of GMD storm scenarios and power distribution grounding models that assume that the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust and mantle varies only with depth. The NSF-supported EarthScope Magnetotelluric (MT) Program operated by Oregon State University has mapped 3-D ground electrical conductivity structure across more than half of the continental US. MT data, the naturally occurring time variations in the Earth's vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level, are used to determine the MT impedance tensor for each site (the ratio of horizontal vector electric and magnetic fields at ground level expressed as a complex-valued frequency domain quantity). The impedance provides information on the 3-D electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. We demonstrate that use of 3-D ground conductivity information significantly improves the fidelity of GIC predictions over existing 1-D approaches. We project real-time magnetic field data streams from US Geological Survey magnetic observatories into a set of linear filters that employ the impedance data and that generate estimates of ground level electric fields at the locations of MT stations. The resulting ground electric fields are projected to and integrated along the path of power transmission lines. This serves as inputs to power flow models that represent the power transmission grid, yielding a time-varying set of quasi-real-time estimates of reactive power loss at the power transformers that are critical infrastructure for power distribution. We demonstrate that peak reactive power loss and hence peak risk for transformer damage from GICs does not necessarily occur during peak GMD storm times, but rather depends on the time-evolution of the polarization of the GMD's inducing fields

  19. A spiro-bifluorene based 3D electron acceptor with dicyanovinylene substitution for solution-processed non-fullerene organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Debin

    2015-04-20

    A novel electron acceptor, namely 2,2′-(12H,12′H-10,10′-spirobi[indeno[2,1-b]fluorene]-12,12′-diylidene)dimalononitrile (4CN-spiro), exhibiting a three-dimensional molecular structure was synthesized and its thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, crystal, and photovoltaic properties were investigated. The novel acceptor exhibits excellent thermal stability with a decomposition temperature of 460 °C, an absorption extending to 600 nm, and a LUMO level of −3.63 eV. Solution processed bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells were fabricated using 4CN-spiro as an acceptor and polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) as a donor polymer. The effect of the donor-to-acceptor ratio and processing conditions on the device performance was investigated. A device processed from tetrachloroethane with a donor to acceptor weight ratio of 1 : 1 yielded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.80%.

  20. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.

    2017-07-01

    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  1. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 < x < 1) reversibly form light-induced trap states, which pin their PL to a low energy. This may explain the low voltages obtained from solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  2. High-resolution 3D seismic reflection imaging across active faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimation in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    We collected and interpreted high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data across a hypothesized fault scarp, along the largest active fault that could generate hazardous earthquakes in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The processed and interpreted 3D seismic cube, linked with nearby borehole stratigraphy, suggests that a monocline that deforms lower Pleistocene units is unconformably overlain by middle Pleistocene conglomerates. Judging from structural patterns and vertical separation on the lower-middle Pleistocene units and the ground surface, the hypothesized scarp was interpreted as a terrace riser rather than as a manifestation of late Pleistocene structural growth resulting from repeated fault activity. Devastating earthquake scenarios had been predicted along the fault in question based on its proximity to the metropolitan area, however our new results lead to a significant decrease in estimated fault length and consequently in the estimated magnitude of future earthquakes associated with reactivation. This suggests a greatly reduced seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan area from earthquakes generated by active intraplate crustal faults.

  3. 3D analysis of semiconductor devices: A combination of 3D imaging and 3D elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bianzhu; Gribelyuk, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    3D analysis of semiconductor devices using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental tomography is presented. 3D STEM Z-contrast tomography is useful in revealing the depth information of the sample. However, it suffers from contrast problems between materials with similar atomic numbers. Examples of EDS elemental tomography are presented using an automated EDS tomography system with batch data processing, which greatly reduces the data collection and processing time. 3D EDS elemental tomography reveals more in-depth information about the defect origin in semiconductor failure analysis. The influence of detector shadowing and X-rays absorption on the EDS tomography's result is also discussed.

  4. Electron impact ionization of Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrance, P.; Rachafi, S.; Jureta, J.; Meyer, F.; Chantrenne, S.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute electron impact ionization cross-sections have been measured for the Neon-like Ar 8+ in the energy range from below the threshold for the metastable state to 2500 eV. No contribution of metastable states is observed. The results are well reproduced by the Distorted Wave Born Approximation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  5. The role of amino acid electron-donor/acceptor atoms in host-cell binding peptides is associated with their 3D structure and HLA-binding capacity in sterile malarial immunity induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Almonacid, Hannia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental residues located in some HABPs are associated with their 3D structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random, distorted {alpha}-helix structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms bound to HLA-DR53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. -- Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues being one of the parasitic diseases causing the highest worldwide mortality due to the parasite's multiple evasion mechanisms, such as immunological silence. Membrane and organelle proteins are used during invasion for interactions mediated by high binding ability peptides (HABPs); these have amino acids which establish hydrogen bonds between them in some of their critical binding residues. Immunisation assays in the Aotus model using HABPs whose critical residues had been modified have revealed a conformational change thereby enabling a protection-inducing response. This has improved fitting within HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules where amino acid electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random or distorted {alpha}-helix structures preferentially bound to HLA-DR53 molecules, whilst HABPs having amino acid electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. This data has great implications for vaccine development.

  6. Electron impact study of potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to measure the sum of the elastic, rotational and vibrational scattering of electrons by KOH at low impact energies (5 to 20 eV) at angles from 10 to 120 deg. Energy loss spectra taken in the 0 to 18 eV range using an electron impact spectrometer are used to identify the species contributing to electric scattering. At temperatures between 300 and 500 C, only inelastic spectral features belonging to water are detected, while at temperatures from 500 to 800 C strong atomic K lines, indicative of molecular dissociation, and H2 energy loss features become prominent. No features attributable to KOH, the KOH dimer, O2 or potassium oxides were observed, due to the effects of the dissociation products, and it is concluded that another technique will have to be developed in order to measure electron scattering by KOH.

  7. Electron impact ionization of large krypton clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shao-Hui; Li Ru-Xin; Ni Guo-Quan; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We show that the detection of ionization of very large van der Waals clusters in a pulsed jet or a beam can be realized by using a fast ion gauge. Rapid positive feedback electron impact ionization and fragmentation processes,which are initially ignited by electron impact ionization of the krypton clusters with the electron current of the ion gauge, result in the appearance of a progressional oscillation-like ion spectrum, or just of a single fast event under critical conditions. Each line in the spectrum represents a correlated explosion or avalanche ionization of the clusters.The phenomena have been analysed qualitatively along with a Rayleigh scattering experiment of the corresponding cluster jet.

  8. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  9. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  10. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  11. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  12. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  13. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  14. Dissociative Excitation of Thymine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, William; Tiessen, Collin; Hein, Jeffrey; Trocchi, Joshuah; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2014-05-01

    A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of thymine (C5H6N2O2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. A special stainless steel oven is used to vaporize the thymine and form it into a beam where it is intersected by a magnetically collimated electron beam, typical current 50 μA. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The probability of extracting excited C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. In addition to spectral data, excitation probability curves as a function of electron energy will be presented for the main emission features. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.

  15. 3D Printing and Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehnberg, Märtha; Ponte, Stefano

    From the birth of industrialization, access to new technology has been a decisive factor in how value added is created and distributed across networks of global production. This article provides a balanced assessment of the potential impact that one of these technologies (3D printing, or 3DP) may...

  16. 3D discrete angiogenesis dynamic model and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic 3D model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution 3D stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of dynamic sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  18. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  19. Electron Impact Ionization of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenser, B.; Lezius, M.; Scheier, P.; Deutsch, H.; Maerk, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute partial and total cross sections for the electron impact ionization of C 60 have been measured using a novel approach for the absolute calibration. The results obtained reveal not only an anomalous large parent ion cross section (as compared to the other ionization channels), but also anomalies for the production of multiply charged parent and fragment ions. This special behavior has its origin in the specific electronic and geometric structure of C 60 . Semiclassical calculations for singly charged ions support the measured data

  20. Dissociative Excitation of Adenine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, J. William; Trocchi, Joshuah; Dech, Jeffery; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative excitation of adenine (C6H5NH2) into excited atomic fragments has been studied in the electron impact energy range from threshold to 300 eV. A crossed beam system coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator is used to study emissions in the wavelength range from 110 to 200 nm. The beam of adenine vapor from a stainless steel oven is crossed at right angles by the electron beam and the resultant UV radiation is detected in a mutually orthogonal direction. The strongest feature in the spectrum is H Lyman- α. Financial support from NSERC and CFI, Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  2. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  3. FABLAB PRONTO3D: learning with practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Trevisan Pupo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development and use of digital fabrication techniques for architecture, product design, engineering, construction, among many others, has caused impact changes on design processes since its beginning until final construction. New construction methods have been developed with the use of those new techniques, spreading many ways of possibilities hardly achieved before. Nowadays, spaces called FABLABs offer a range of procedures and equipment that provide the manufacture of scale models, prototypes or final elements in different fidelity degrees. This paper shows the possibilities and activities being implemented, with the use of technology, at PRONTO3D - Prototyping and New 3D Oriented Technology Laboratory, at UFSC, that belongs to PRONTO3D Network Labs, in Santa Catarina State, since 2013.

  4. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  5. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  6. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  7. Electron impact phenomena and the properties of gaseous ions

    CERN Document Server

    Field, F H; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1970-01-01

    Electron Impact Phenomena and the Properties of Gaseous Ions, Revised Edition deals with data pertaining to electron impact and to molecular gaseous ionic phenomena. This book discusses electron impact phenomena in gases at low pressure that involve low-energy electrons, which result in ion formation. The text also describes the use of mass spectrometers in electron impact studies and the degree of accuracy obtained when measuring electron impact energies. This book also reviews relatively low speed electrons and the transitions that result in the ionization of the atomic system. This text the

  8. Proposal of custom made wrist orthoses based on 3D modelling and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Schmitz, Cristiane; Marega Pinhel, Marcelo; Palma Setti, Joao A; Nohama, Percy

    2017-07-01

    Accessibility to three-dimensional (3D) technologies, such as 3D scanning systems and additive manufacturing (like 3D printers), allows a variety of 3D applications. For medical applications in particular, these modalities are gaining a lot of attention enabling several opportunities for healthcare applications. The literature brings several cases applying both technologies, but none of them focus on the spreading of how this technology could benefit the health segment. This paper proposes a new methodology, which employs both 3D modelling and 3D printing for building orthoses, which could better fit the demands of different patients. Additionally, there is an opportunity for sharing expertise, as it represents a trendy in terms of the maker-movement. Therefore, as a result of the proposed approach, we present a case study based on a volunteer who needs an immobilization orthosis, which was built for exemplification of the whole process. This proposal also employs freely available 3D models and software, having a strong social impact. As a result, it enables the implementation and effective usability for a variety of built to fit solutions, hitching useful and smarter technologies for the healthcare sector.

  9. Impact of inter- and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors on PTV margins. Different alignment techniques in 3D conformal prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langsenlehner, T.; Doeller, C.; Winkler, P.; Kapp, K.S.; Galle, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze interfraction and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors (RSE) after online repositioning to determine PTV margins for 3 different alignment techniques in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The present prospective study included 44 prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducials treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Daily localization was based on skin marks followed by marker detection using kilovoltage (kV) imaging and subsequent patient repositioning. Additionally, in-treatment megavoltage (MV) images were obtained for each treatment field. In an off-line analysis of 7,273 images, interfraction prostate motion, RSE after marker-based prostate localization, prostate position during each treatment session, and the effect of treatment time on intrafraction deviations were analyzed to evaluate PTV margins. Margins accounting for interfraction deviation, RSE and intrafraction motion were 14.1, 12.9, and 15.1 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) direction for skin mark alignment and 9.6, 8.7, and 2.6 mm for bony structure alignment, respectively. Alignment to implanted markers required margins of 4.6, 2.8, and 2.5 mm. As margins to account for intrafraction motion increased with treatment prolongation PTV margins could be reduced to 3.9, 2.6, and 2.4 mm if treatment time was ≤ 4 min. With daily online correction and repositioning based on implanted fiducials, a significant reduction of PTV margins can be achieved. The use of an optimized workflow with faster treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc techniques (VMAT) could allow for a further decrease. (orig.)

  10. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  11. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  12. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Beica , Rozalia; Sharbono , Charles; Ritzdorf , Tom

    2008-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/16838); International audience; Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturizatio...

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  15. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  16. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  17. Diffractive optical element for creating visual 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharsky, Alexander; Goncharsky, Anton; Durlevich, Svyatoslav

    2016-05-02

    A method is proposed to compute and synthesize the microrelief of a diffractive optical element to produce a new visual security feature - the vertical 3D/3D switch effect. The security feature consists in the alternation of two 3D color images when the diffractive element is tilted up/down. Optical security elements that produce the new security feature are synthesized using electron-beam technology. Sample optical security elements are manufactured that produce 3D to 3D visual switch effect when illuminated by white light. Photos and video records of the vertical 3D/3D switch effect of real optical elements are presented. The optical elements developed can be replicated using standard equipment employed for manufacturing security holograms. The new optical security feature is easy to control visually, safely protected against counterfeit, and designed to protect banknotes, documents, ID cards, etc.

  18. Dosimetric impact of inter-observer variability for 3D conformal radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy: the rectal tumor target definition case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobefalo, Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta; Mancosu, Pietro; Bignardi, Mario; Reggiori, Giacomo; Tozzi, Angelo; Tomatis, Stefano; Alongi, Filippo; Fogliata, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Navarria, Piera

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dosimetric effect induced by inter-observer variability in target definition for 3D-conformal RT (3DCRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (RA) techniques for rectal cancer treatment. Ten patients with rectal cancer subjected to neo-adjuvant RT were randomly selected from the internal database. Four radiation oncologists independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV) in blind mode. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as CTV + 7 mm in the three directions. Afterwards, shared guidelines between radiation oncologists were introduced to give general criteria for the contouring of rectal target and the four radiation oncologists defined new CTV following the guidelines. For each patient, six intersections (I) and unions (U) volumes were calculated coupling the contours of the various oncologists. This was repeated for the contours drawn after the guidelines. Agreement Index (AI = I/U) was calculated pre and post guidelines. Two RT plans (one with 3DCRT technique using 3–4 fields and one with RA using a single modulated arc) were optimized on each radiation oncologist’s PTV. For each plan the PTV volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%) was calculated for both target and non-target PTVs. The inter-operator AI pre-guidelines was 0.57 and was increased up to 0.69 post-guidelines. The maximum volume difference between the various CTV couples, drawn for each patient, passed from 380 ± 147 cm 3 to 137 ± 83 cm 3 after the introduction of guidelines. The mean percentage for the non-target PTV V95% was 93.7 ± 9.2% before and 96.6 ± 4.9%after the introduction of guidelines for the 3DCRT, for RA the increase was more relevant, passing from 86.5 ± 13.8% (pre) to 94.5 ± 7.5% (post). The OARs were maximally spared with VMAT technique while the variability between pre and post guidelines was not relevant in both techniques. The contouring inter-observer variability has dosimetric effects in the PTV coverage

  19. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (3D) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes.

  20. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  1. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  2. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  3. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  4. Relativistic theory of electron-impact ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    A relativistic version of an earlier, non-relativistic, formulation of the theory of ionization of an atomic system by electron impact is presented. With a time-independent resolvent operator taken as the basis for the dynamics, a wave equation is derived for a system with open channels consisting of two positive-energy electrons in an external field generated by the residual ion. Virtual intermediate states can be accounted for by the effective Hamiltonian that appears in the wave equation and which in principle may be constructed perturbatively. The asymptotic form of the wavefunction, modified by the effects of the long-range Coulomb interactions of the two electrons in the external field, is derived. These electrons are constrained, by projection operators which appear naturally in the theory, to propagate in positive-energy states only. The long-range Coulomb effects take the form of phase factors similar to those that are found in the non-relativistic version of the theory. With the boundary conditions established, an integral identity for the ionization amplitude is derived, and used to set up a distorted-wave Born expansion for the transition amplitude involving Coulomb-modified propagating waves.

  5. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  6. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  7. 3D IC for future HEP detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, J; Badman, R; Lipton, R; Johnson, M; Spiegel, L; Deptuch, G; Ye, Z; Heintz, U; Narain, M; Triphati, M; Kenney, C; Parker, S; Siddons, D P

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. We describe ongoing R and D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce ''active tiles'' which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield

  8. An interactive 3D framework for anatomical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Götzelmann, Timo; Hartmann, Knut; Nürnberger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Object: This paper presents a 3D framework for Anatomy teaching. We are mainly concerned with the proper understanding of human anatomical 3D structures. Materials and methods: The main idea of our approach is taking an electronic book such as Henry Gray’s Anatomy of the human body, and a set of 3D models properly labeled, and constructing the correct linking that allows users to perform mutual searches between both media. Results: We implemented a system where learners can intera...

  9. Electron-impact excitation of Fe II: Effective collision strengths for optically allowed fine-structure transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsbottom, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present collision strengths and Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths for the electron-impact excitation of Fe II. We consider specifically the optically allowed lines for transitions from the 3d 6 4s and 3d 7 even parity configuration states to the 3d 6 4p odd parity configuration levels. The parallel suite of Breit-Pauli codes are utilized to compute the collision cross-sections where relativistic effects are included explicitly in both the target and the scattering approximation. A total of 100 LS or 262-jj levels formed from the basis configurations 3d 6 4s, 3d 7 and 3d 6 4p were included in the wavefunction representation of the target, including all doublet, quartet and sextet terms. The Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths are computed across a wide range of electron temperatures from 100 to 100,000 K, temperatures of importance in astrophysical and plasma applications. A detailed comparison is made with previous works and significant differences were found to occur for some of the transitions considered. We conclude that in order to obtain converged collision strengths and effective collision strengths for these allowed transitions it is necessary to include contributions from partial waves up to L = 50 explicitly in the calculation, and in addition, account for contributions from even higher partial waves through a 'top up' procedure.

  10. A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations simulating dynamic pulse buckling tests of cylindrical shells under axial impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial