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Sample records for electron devices chapter

  1. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  2. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  3. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  4. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  5. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  6. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  7. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  8. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  9. Electronic security device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  10. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  11. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  12. Device for electron beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Liebergeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for electron beam machining, in particular welding. It is aimed at continuous operation of the electron irradiation device. This is achieved by combining the electron gun with a beam guiding chamber, to which vacuum chambers are connected. The working parts to be welded can be arranged in the latter

  13. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed

  14. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  15. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  16. Remote detection of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen L [Los Alamos, NM; Fortgang, Clifford M [Los Alamos, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus and method for detecting solid-state electronic devices are described. Non-linear junction detection techniques are combined with spread-spectrum encoding and cross correlation to increase the range and sensitivity of the non-linear junction detection and to permit the determination of the distances of the detected electronics. Nonlinear elements are detected by transmitting a signal at a chosen frequency and detecting higher harmonic signals that are returned from responding devices.

  17. Electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Role of portal imaging; Port films vs. EPID; Image guidance: Elekta volume view; Delivery verification; Automation tasks of portal imaging; Types of portal imaging (Fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera-based imaging; Liquid ion chamber imaging; Amorpho-silicon portal imagers; Fluoroscopic portal imaging; Kodak CR reader; and Other types of portal imaging devices); QA of EPID; and Portal dosimetry (P.A.)

  18. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  19. Electronic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartill, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is the translation of information from particle detectors to computers. Large solid angle general purpose detectors at the intersection regions of high energy e+e- storage rings and pp and pp storage rings are discussed. Three choices for data acquisition are reviewed: use CAMAC (Computer Aided Measurement and Control), start from scratch and design a system, or wait for the final version of the proposed FASTBUS to be developed. The do-it-yourself procedure includes designs of drift chamber discriminator, time to amplitude converter, and data card block diagram. Trigger systems, the fast decision making systems judging an event interesting enough for a read-out cycle to be initiated, are discussed. Finally, a FASTBUS system layout, with its goals of minimum bus speed, general system topologies, and support multiple smart devices is given

  20. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  1. Electronic device and method of manufacturing an electronic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An electronic device comprising at least one die stack having at least a first die (D1) comprising a first array of light emitting units (OLED) for emitting light, a second layer (D2) comprising a second array of via holes (VH) and a third die (D3) comprising a third array of light detecting units

  2. Fullerene Derived Molecular Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subbash

    1998-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale electronic devices. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal grapheme sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural and electronic properties of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme.

  3. Capacitor ageing in electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. N. Vital

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moment when an electronic component doesn’t work like requirements, previously established is a task that need to be considered since began of a system design. However, the use of different technologies, operating under several environmental conditions, makes a component choice a complex step in system design. This paper analyzes the effects that ageing phenomenon of capacitors may introduce in electronic devices operation. For this reason, reliability concepts, processes and mechanism of degradation are presented. Additionally, some mathematical models are presented to assist maintenance activities or component replacement. The presented approach compares the operability of intact and aged components.

  4. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymers; LB films; biosensor microactuators; monolayers. ... have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices.

  5. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  6. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  7. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  8. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  9. Investigation of Electronic Corrosion at Device Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    This work presents device level testing of a lead free soldered electronic device tested with bias on under cyclic humidity conditions in a climatic chamber. Besides severe temperature and humidity during testing some devices were deliberately contaminated before testing. Contaminants investigated...

  10. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  11. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Philip Wong, H-S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  12. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  13. Graphene nanoribbons for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhansong; Granzner, Ralf; Kittler, Mario; Schwierz, Frank [FG Festkoerperelektronik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Haehnlein, Bernd; Auge, Manuel; Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Alexander A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Davydov, Valery Y. [Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanoribbons show unique properties and have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past. Intensive theoretical and experimental studies on such nanostructures at both the fundamental and application-oriented levels have been performed. The present paper discusses the suitability of graphene nanoribbons devices for nanoelectronics and focuses on three specific device types - graphene nanoribbon MOSFETs, side-gate transistors, and three terminal junctions. It is shown that, on the one hand, experimental devices of each type of the three nanoribbon-based structures have been reported, that promising performance of these devices has been demonstrated and/or predicted, and that in part they possess functionalities not attainable with conventional semiconductor devices. On the other hand, it is emphasized that - in spite of the remarkable progress achieved during the past 10 years - graphene nanoribbon devices still face a lot of problems and that their prospects for future applications remain unclear. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  15. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  16. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein

  17. Observation of molecular level behavior in molecular electronic junction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitani, Masato

    In this dissertation, I utilize AFM based scanning probe measurement and surface enhanced Raman scattering based vibrational spectroscopic analysis to directly characterize topographic, electronic, and chemical properties of molecules confined in the local area of M3 junction to elucidate the molecular level behavior of molecular junction electronic devices. In the introduction, the characterization of molecular electronic devices with different types of metal-molecule-metal (M3) structures based upon self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is reviewed. A background of the characterization methods I use in this dissertation, conducting probe atomic force microscopy (cp-AFM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is provided in chapter 1. Several attempts are performed to create the ideal top metal contacts on SAMs by metal vapor phase deposition in order to prevent the metal penetration inducing critical defects of the molecular electronic devices. The scanning probe microscopy (SPM), such as cp-AFM, contact mode (c-) AFM and non-contact mode (nc-) AFM, in ultra high vacuum conditions are utilized to study the process of the metal-SAM interface construction in terms of the correlation between the morphological and electrical properties including the metal nucleation and filament generation as a function of the functionalization of long-chain alkane thiolate SAMs on Au. In chapter 2, the nascent condensation process of vapor phase Al deposition on inert and reactive SAMs are studied by SPM. The results of top deposition, penetration, and filament generation of deposited Al are discussed and compared to the results previously observed by spectroscopic measurements. Cp-AFM was shown to provide new insights into Al filament formation which has not been observed by conventional spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, the electronic characteristics of individual Al filaments are measured. Chapter 3 reveals SPM characterization of Au deposition onto --COOH terminated SAMs

  18. 78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... importing wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  19. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  20. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Ismailov; D. V. Evdulov; A. G. Mustafaev; D. K. Ramazanova

    2014-01-01

    In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  1. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  2. INTERFACE ELECTRONIC MEDICAL CARD ON MOBILE DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Nechyporenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept designed by electronic medical card for heterogeneous environment of medical information systems at various levels. Appropriate model and technical solution. Done evaluating operating systems for mobile devices. Designed and produced by the project mobile application on Android OS as an electronic medical record on a Tablet PC Acer.

  3. Indium antimonide quantum well structures for electronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisooriya, Madhavie

    The electron effective mass is smaller in InSb than in any other III-V semiconductor. Since the electron mobility depends inversely on the effective mass, InSb-based devices are attractive for field effect transistors, magnetic field sensors, ballistic transport devices, and other applications where the performance depends on a high mobility or a long mean free path. In addition, electrons in InSb have a large g-factor and strong spin orbit coupling, which makes them well suited for certain spin transport devices. The first n-channel InSb high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was produced in 2005 with a power-delay product superior to HEMTs with a channel made from any other III-V semiconductor. The high electron mobility in the InSb quantum-well channel increases the switching speed and lowers the required supply voltage. This dissertation focuses on several materials challenges that can further increase the appeal of InSb quantum wells for transistors and other electronic device applications. First, the electron mobility in InSb quantum wells, which is the highest for any semiconductor quantum well, can be further increased by reducing scattering by crystal defects. InSb-based heteroepitaxy is usually performed on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates due to the lack of a lattice matched semi-insulating substrate. The 14.6% mismatch between the lattice parameters of GaAs and InSb results in the formation of structural defects such as threading dislocations and microtwins which degrade the electrical and optical properties of InSb-based devices. Chapter 1 reviews the methods and procedures for growing InSb-based heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce techniques for minimizing the crystalline defects in InSb-based structures grown on GaAs substrates. Chapter 2 discusses a method of reducing threading dislocations by incorporating AlyIn1-ySb interlayers in an AlxIn1-xSb buffer layer and the reduction of microtwin defects by growth

  4. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  5. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    The pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for the waterproof containment and operation of a touch-screen computer or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. The case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may be a small gas cartridge (e.g., CO2), or may be provided from an external source, such as the diver\\'s breathing air. A pressure relief valve is also provided.

  6. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinfu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  7. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, imported by Apple Inc...

  8. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by reason...

  9. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  10. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths.

  11. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Deyell, Marc W

    2018-01-08

    Over the past decade, technological advancements have transformed the delivery of care for arrhythmia patients. From early transtelephonic monitoring to new devices capable of wireless and cellular transmission, remote monitoring has revolutionized device care. In this article, we review the current evolution and evidence for remote monitoring in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. From passive transmission of device diagnostics, to active transmission of patient- and device-triggered alerts, remote monitoring can shorten the time to diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that remote monitoring can reduce hospitalization and emergency room visits, and improve survival. Remote monitoring can also reduce the health care costs, while providing increased access to patients living in rural or marginalized communities. Unfortunately, as many as two-thirds of patients with remote monitoring-capable devices do not use, or are not offered, this feature. Current guidelines recommend remote monitoring and interrogation, combined with annual in-person evaluation in all cardiac device patients. Remote monitoring should be considered in all eligible device patients and should be considered standard of care. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browning, Nigel D; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2000-01-01

    ..., and microanalysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Ensuing chapters examine identi®cation of new superconducting compounds, imaging of superconducting properties by lowtemperature scanning electron microscopy, imaging of vortices by electron holography and electronic structure determination by electron energy loss spectro...

  13. A device for electron gun emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.; Corveller, P.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    In order to improve the final emittance of the beam delivered by the ALS electron linac a new gun is going to be installed. To measure its emittance and evaluate the contribution of different factors to emittance growth we have developed an emittance measurement device. We describe the experimental and mathematical procedure we have followed, and give some results of measurements

  14. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  15. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  16. Theory of semiconductor junction devices a textbook for electrical and electronic engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Leck, J H

    1967-01-01

    Theory of Semiconductor Junction Devices: A Textbook for Electrical and Electronic Engineers presents the simplified numerical computation of the fundamental electrical equations, specifically Poisson's and the Hall effect equations. This book provides the fundamental theory relevant for the understanding of semiconductor device theory. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the application of band theory to the special case of semiconductors, both intrinsic and extrinsic. This text then describes the electrical properties of conductivity, semiconductors, and Hall effe

  17. Electronic medical devices: a primer for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, James B

    2003-07-01

    Electronic medical devices (EMDs) with downloadable memories, such as implantable cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, drug pumps, insulin pumps, and glucose monitors, are now an integral part of routine medical practice in the United States, and functional organ replacements, such as the artificial heart, pancreas, and retina, will most likely become commonplace in the near future. Often, EMDs end up in the hands of the pathologist as a surgical specimen or at autopsy. No established guidelines for systematic examination and reporting or comprehensive reviews of EMDs currently exist for the pathologist. To provide pathologists with a general overview of EMDs, including a brief history; epidemiology; essential technical aspects, indications, contraindications, and complications of selected devices; potential applications in pathology; relevant government regulations; and suggested examination and reporting guidelines. Articles indexed on PubMed of the National Library of Medicine, various medical and history of medicine textbooks, US Food and Drug Administration publications and product information, and specifications provided by device manufacturers. Studies were selected on the basis of relevance to the study objectives. Descriptive data were selected by the author. Suggested examination and reporting guidelines for EMDs received as surgical specimens and retrieved at autopsy. Electronic medical devices received as surgical specimens and retrieved at autopsy are increasing in number and level of sophistication. They should be systematically examined and reported, should have electronic memories downloaded when indicated, will help pathologists answer more questions with greater certainty, and should become an integral part of the formal knowledge base, research focus, training, and practice of pathology.

  18. Reading from electronic devices versus hardcopy text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Jennifer E; Rosenfield, Mark; Saá, Gianinna

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic reading devices has increased dramatically. However, some individuals report increased visual symptoms when reading from electronic screens. This investigation compared reading from two electronic devices (Amazon Kindle or Apple Ipod) versus hardcopy text in two groups of 20 subjects. Subjects performed a 20 min reading task for each condition. Both the accommodative response and reading rate were monitored during the trial. Immediately post-task, subjects completed a questionnaire concerning the ocular symptoms experienced during the task. In comparing the Kindle with hardcopy, no significant difference in the total symptom score was observed, although the mean score for the symptoms of tired eyes and eye discomfort was significantly higher with the Kindle. No significant differences in reading rate were found. When comparing the Ipod with hardcopy, no significant differences in symptom scores were found. The mean reading rate with the Ipod was significantly slower than for hardcopy while the mean lag of accommodation was significantly larger for the Ipod. Given the significant increase in symptoms with the Kindle, and larger lag of accommodation and reduced reading rate with the Ipod, one may conclude that reading from electronic devices is not equivalent to hardcopy.

  19. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  20. Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Yang, Paul; Khaderi, Khizer R; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  2. Electronic equipment and software for device 'FAZA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Petrov, L.A.; Oeschler, H.; Lips, F.; Bart, R.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic equipment and software for the device FAZA are described. The device, designed for studying the nuclear multifragmentation process, consists of 5 time-of-flight telescopes, a position-sensitive avalanche chamber and 58 PM tubes. The time resolution of the time-of-flight telescopes is 0.5 ns, which allows a velocity resolution of 1.5%. The spatial resolution of the large avalanche counter is 4 mm, which allows angular resolution of 1 deg. Analogue signals from each PM tube come to two ADCs, to which strobes are supplied with a 400 ns shift. It allows codes corresponding to Cherenkov radiation and deexcitation of CsJ(Tl) to be distinguished in a two-dimensional plot. 8 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Advanced Materials and Devices for Bioresorbable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yoon Kyeung; Rogers, John A

    2018-05-15

    Recent advances in materials chemistry establish the foundations for unusual classes of electronic systems, characterized by their ability to fully or partially dissolve, disintegrate, or otherwise physically or chemically decompose in a controlled fashion after some defined period of stable operation. Such types of "transient" technologies may enable consumer gadgets that minimize waste streams associated with disposal, implantable sensors that disappear harmlessly in the body, and hardware-secure platforms that prevent unwanted recovery of sensitive data. This second area of opportunity, sometimes referred to as bioresorbable electronics, is of particular interest due to its ability to provide diagnostic or therapeutic function in a manner that can enhance or monitor transient biological processes, such as wound healing, while bypassing risks associated with extended device load on the body or with secondary surgical procedures for removal. Early chemistry research established sets of bioresorbable materials for substrates, encapsulation layers, and dielectrics, along with several options in organic and bio-organic semiconductors. The subsequent realization that nanoscale forms of device-grade monocrystalline silicon, such as silicon nanomembranes (m-Si NMs, or Si NMs) undergo hydrolysis in biofluids to yield biocompatible byproducts over biologically relevant time scales advanced the field by providing immediate routes to high performance operation and versatile, sophisticated levels of function. When combined with bioresorbable conductors, dielectrics, substrates, and encapsulation layers, Si NMs provide the basis for a broad, general class of bioresorbable electronics. Other properties of Si, such as its piezoresistivity and photovoltaic properties, allow other types of bioresorbable devices such as solar cells, strain gauges, pH sensors, and photodetectors. The most advanced bioresorbable devices now exist as complete systems with successful demonstrations of

  4. Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: FINK@HMI.DE; Saad, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Science, Al Balqa University, Salt (Jordan); Dhamodaran, S. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Chandra, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Fahrner, W.R. [Chair of Electronic Devices, Institute of Electrotechnique, Fernuniversitaet, Hagen (Germany); Hoppe, K. [South Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Hagen (Germany); Chadderton, L.T. [Institute of Advanced Studies, ANU Canberra, GPO Box 4, ACT (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    An overview is given on a family of novel electronic devices consisting of an insulating layer containing conducting or semiconducting nuclear tracks, deposited on a semiconducting substrate, and connected by at least one back and two surface contacts. Conducting and semiconducting latent tracks may emerge directly from swift heavy ion irradiation. Etched tracks in insulators can be filled with adequate materials to make them conducting or semiconducting. For this purpose metallic or semiconducting nanoclusters were deposited. We have denoted termed these devices made with latent tracks as 'tunable electronic anisotropic material on semiconductor' (TEAMS), if based on latent ion tracks, and as 'tunable electronic material in pores in oxide on semiconductor' (TEMPOS), if based on etched tracks. Depending on the band-to-band transition between tracks and substrate and on the ratio of surface to track conductivity, the current/voltage characteristics of TEAMS and TEMPOS structures can be modified in many different ways leading to tunable resistors, capacitors and diodes. Both devices show negative differential resistances. This should enable tunable tunneldiodes. TEAMS or TEMPOS structures can be controlled by various external physical and/or chemical parameters leading to sensors. It is even possible to combine different input currents and/or external parameters according to AND/OR logics. The currents through a clustered layer on a TEMPOS structure can be described by the Barbasi-Albert model of network theory enabling to calculate a 'radius of influence'r{sub ROI} around each surface contact, beyond which neighboring contacts do not influence each other. The radius of influence can be well below 1{mu}m leading to nanometric TEMPOS structures.

  5. Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Saad, A.; Dhamodaran, S.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W.R.; Hoppe, K.; Chadderton, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given on a family of novel electronic devices consisting of an insulating layer containing conducting or semiconducting nuclear tracks, deposited on a semiconducting substrate, and connected by at least one back and two surface contacts. Conducting and semiconducting latent tracks may emerge directly from swift heavy ion irradiation. Etched tracks in insulators can be filled with adequate materials to make them conducting or semiconducting. For this purpose metallic or semiconducting nanoclusters were deposited. We have denoted termed these devices made with latent tracks as 'tunable electronic anisotropic material on semiconductor' (TEAMS), if based on latent ion tracks, and as 'tunable electronic material in pores in oxide on semiconductor' (TEMPOS), if based on etched tracks. Depending on the band-to-band transition between tracks and substrate and on the ratio of surface to track conductivity, the current/voltage characteristics of TEAMS and TEMPOS structures can be modified in many different ways leading to tunable resistors, capacitors and diodes. Both devices show negative differential resistances. This should enable tunable tunneldiodes. TEAMS or TEMPOS structures can be controlled by various external physical and/or chemical parameters leading to sensors. It is even possible to combine different input currents and/or external parameters according to AND/OR logics. The currents through a clustered layer on a TEMPOS structure can be described by the Barbasi-Albert model of network theory enabling to calculate a 'radius of influence'r ROI around each surface contact, beyond which neighboring contacts do not influence each other. The radius of influence can be well below 1μm leading to nanometric TEMPOS structures

  6. 14 CFR 91.21 - Portable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 91.21 Section... electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate, nor may any operator or pilot in command of an aircraft allow the operation of, any portable electronic device...

  7. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28...

  8. Non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A.; Li, Haiyan; Earmme, Taeshik; Ren, Guoqiang

    2017-11-07

    Non-fullerene electron acceptors for highly efficient organic photovoltaic devices are described. The non-fullerene electron acceptors have an extended, rigid, .pi.-conjugated electron-deficient framework that can facilitate exciton and charge derealization. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can physically mix with a donor polymer and facilitate improved electron transport. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can be incorporated into organic electronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells.

  9. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; Von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo 2 O 4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization. (topical review)

  10. Robust Optimal Design of Quantum Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociel Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal design of a sequence of quantum barriers, in order to manufacture an electronic device at the nanoscale such that the dependence of its transmission coefficient on the bias voltage is linear. The technique presented here is easily adaptable to other response characteristics. There are two distinguishing features of our approach. First, the transmission coefficient is determined using a semiclassical approximation, so we can explicitly compute the gradient of the objective function. Second, in contrast with earlier treatments, manufacturing uncertainties are incorporated in the model through random variables; the optimal design problem is formulated in a probabilistic setting and then solved using a stochastic collocation method. As a measure of robustness, a weighted sum of the expectation and the variance of a least-squares performance metric is considered. Several simulations illustrate the proposed technique, which shows an improvement in accuracy over 69% with respect to brute-force, Monte-Carlo-based methods.

  11. 76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and...''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of...

  12. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  13. Economic analysis of evolution/devolution of electronic devices functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipov A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the researcher of this article has presented the analysis of evolution/devolution of electronic devices functionality as well as the analysis of the current situation at the computers and mobile devices market, and some thoughts about new products. Is a newer device better? Are corporations producing really new devices or they are only the improvement of old ones.

  14. Electronic Payments using Mobile Communication Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, B.D. van der; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a first mobile communication device (1) and a second mobile communication device (2), each mobile communication device being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least one of the mobile communication devices being provided with an

  15. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  16. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  17. MEMS/Electronic Device Design and Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows DoD to design and characterize state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices. Device designers develop their own...

  18. Quality assurance for electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, S.; Rajapakshe, R.; Gluhchev, G.; Luchka, K.

    1997-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDS) are assuming an ever-increasing role in the verification of radiation treatment accuracy. They are used both in a passive capacity, for the determination of field displacement distributions (''setup errors''), and also in an active role whereby the patient setup is corrected on the basis of electronic portal images. In spite of their potential impact on the precision of patient treatment, there are few quality assurance procedures available, and most of the EPIDS in clinical use are subject, at best, to only perfunctory quality assurance. The goals of this work are (a) to develop an objective and reproducible test for EPID image quality on the factory floor and during installation of the EPID on site; (b) to provide the user with a simple and accurate tool for acceptance, commissioning, and routine quality control; and (c) to initiate regional, national and international collaboration in the implementation of standardized, objective, and automated quality assurance procedures. To this end we have developed an automated test in which a simple test object is imaged daily, and the spatial and contrast resolution of the EPID are automatically evaluated in terms of ''acceptable'', ''warning'' and ''stop'' criteria. Our experience over two years shows the test to be highly sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in time and effort. Inter-institutional trials are under way in Canada, US and Europe which indicate large variations in EPID image quality from one EPID to another, and from one center to another. We expect the new standardized quality assurance procedure to lead to improved, and consistent image quality, increased operator acceptance of the technology, and agreement on uniform standards by equipment suppliers and health care agencies. (author)

  19. Recent progress in power electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yasuhiko; Yatsuo, Tsutomu

    1987-02-01

    Recent progress and future trends of power semiconductor devices (especially with respect to motor speed control) were described. Conventional discrete devices such as thyristors, bipolar transistors, unipolar transistors and Bi-MOS devices were referenced to. Reference was also made to High Voltage ICs. There has been steady progress with each of these power devices in current carrying capability, voltage blocking capability and switching speed. The Bipolar-MOS integreated device and the High Voltage IC are particularly interesting because their abilities and performances are much enhanced by skillful combination with conventional discrete devices. However, no one device meets all the needs, and it will always be necessary to select the right device for a specific task. (11 figs, 35 refs)

  20. 3D Printed structural electronics: embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; Schipper, M.M.R. de; Werff, J.J.J. van der; Germs, W.W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  1. 3D Printed structural electronics : embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; de Schipper, M.R.; van der Werff, J.J.; Germs, W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  2. Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Pearton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices provides comprehensive coverage of reliability procedures and approaches for electron and photonic devices. These include lasers and high speed electronics used in cell phones, satellites, data transmission systems and displays. Lifetime predictions for compound semiconductor devices are notoriously inaccurate due to the absence of standard protocols. Manufacturers have relied on extrapolation back to room temperature of accelerated testing at elevated temperature. This technique fails for scaled, high current density devices. Device failure is driven by electric field or current mechanisms or low activation energy processes that are masked by other mechanisms at high temperature. The Handbook addresses reliability engineering for III-V devices, including materials and electrical characterization, reliability testing, and electronic characterization. These are used to develop new simulation technologies for device operation and ...

  3. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  4. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  5. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  6. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  7. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ...) Cold cathode microwave generator and ceramic electron multiplier-ceramic multiplier using a novel secondary electron yield materials of MgO and CNT was demonstrated as well as cooling structures...

  8. Automatic shadowing device for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, F W; Bogitch, S

    1960-01-01

    For the past ten years in the laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University of California, and before that at Rochester, New York, every evaporation was done with the aid of an automatic shadowing device. For several months the automatic shadowing device has been available at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) Hiroshima, Japan with the modifications described. 1 reference.

  9. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  10. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  11. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  12. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  13. Thermal modeling and design of electronic systems and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, R.A.; Lehmann, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal control electronic devices, particularly those in complex systems with high heat flux density, continues to be of interest to engineers involved in system cooling design and analysis. This volume contains papers presented at the 1990 ASME Winter Annual Meeting in two K-16 sponsored sessions: Empirical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Complex Electronic Systems and Design and Modeling of Heat Transfer Devices in High-Density Electronics. The first group deals with understanding the heat transfer processes in these complex systems. The second group focuses on the use of analysis techniques and empirically determined data in predicting device and system operating performance

  14. Driver electronic device use in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  15. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  16. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  17. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  18. Tissue-electronics interfaces: from implantable devices to engineered tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical electronic devices are interfaced with the human body to extract precise medical data and to interfere with tissue function by providing electrical stimuli. In this Review, we outline physiologically and pathologically relevant tissue properties and processes that are important for designing implantable electronic devices. We summarize design principles for flexible and stretchable electronics that adapt to the mechanics of soft tissues, such as those including conducting polymers, liquid metal alloys, metallic buckling and meandering architectures. We further discuss technologies for inserting devices into the body in a minimally invasive manner and for eliminating them without further intervention. Finally, we introduce the concept of integrating electronic devices with biomaterials and cells, and we envision how such technologies may lead to the development of bionic organs for regenerative medicine.

  19. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavunny, Shojan P.; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Scott, James F.

    2015-01-01

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho 2 Hf 2 O 7 (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E g of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

  20. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavunny, Shojan P.; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-03-01

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho2Hf2O7 (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ˜20 and very low dielectric loss of ˜0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap Eg of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  1. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Scott, James F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-16

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E{sub g} of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  2. Inventory Control: A Small Electronic Device for Studying Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows how the rate of reaction can be studied using a simple electronic device that overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium. The device, used in conjunction with an oscilloscope, supplies the voltages that represent the chemical variables that take part in the equilibrium.…

  3. Electronic system of TBR tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P. da.

    1980-01-01

    The electronics developed as a part of the TBR project, which involves the construction of a small tokamak at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, is described. On the basis of tokamak parameter values, the electronics for the toroidal field, ohmic/heating and vertical field systems is presented, including capacitors bank, switches, triggering circuits and power supplies. A controlled power oscilator used in discharge cleaning and pre-ionization is also described. The performance of the system as a function of the desired plasma parameters is discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. An examination of safety reports involving electronic flight bags and portable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of safety considerations with the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) by examining safety reports from Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS),...

  5. Non-destructive Reliability Evaluation of Electronic Device by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Un; Kim, Koung Suk; Kang, Ki Soo; Jo, Seon Hyung

    2001-01-01

    This paper propose electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI) for reliability evaluation of electronic device. Especially, vibration problem in a fan of air conditioner, motor of washing machine and etc. is important factor to design the devices. But, it is difficult to apply previous method, accelerometer to the devices with complex geometry. ESPI, non-contact measurement technique applies a commercial fan of air conditioner to vibration analysis. Vibration mode shapes, natural frequency and the range of the frequency are decided and compared with that of FEM analysis. In mechanical deign of new product, ESPI adds weak point of previous method to supply effective design information

  6. Molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Cao, Lingchao; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben

    2004-12-13

    Over the past several years, there have been many significant advances toward the realization of electronic computers integrated on the molecular scale and a much greater understanding of the types of materials that will be useful in molecular devices and their properties. It was demonstrated that individual molecules could serve as incomprehensibly tiny switch and wire one million times smaller than those on conventional silicon microchip. This has resulted very recently in the assembly and demonstration of tiny computer logic circuits built from such molecular scale devices. The purpose of this review is to provide a general introduction to molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

  7. Few-electron Qubits in Silicon Quantum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Calculation of the charge relaxation time T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.1 The absence of spin blockade in dual-gated DQD devices . . . . . . . 70...2013. 98 115 [102] M. Pioro-Ladrière, T. Obata, Y. Tokura, Y.-S. Shin, T. Kubo , K. Yoshida, T. Taniyama, and S. Tarucha. Nat. Phys., 4:776–779

  8. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  9. Incorporating Ethical Consumption into Electronic Device Acquisition: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes that librarians practice ethical consumption when purchasing electronic devices. Though librarians have long been engaged with environmentalism and social justice, few have suggested that such issues as e-waste and sweatshop labor should impact our decisions to acquire e-readers, tablets, and other electronics. This article…

  10. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  11. Electronic cigarette devices and oro-facial trauma (Literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. F.; Ismail, A. F.; Daud, A.

    2017-08-01

    Detrimental effects of cigarette smoking have been well described and recognized globally. With recent advancement of technology, electronic cigarette has been introduced and gained its popularity and became a global trend, especially among young adults. However, the safety of the electronic devices remains debatable. This paper aimed to compile and review the reported cases of oro-facial trauma related to the usage of electronic cigarette devices. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline in December 2016. The search terms used were a combination of “oral trauma”, “dental trauma”, “oral injury” and “electronic cigarette”. The search included all abstract published from the inception of the database until December 2016. Abstract that was written in English, case report, letter to editors, clinical and human studies were included for analysis. All selected abstract were searched for full articles. A total of 8 articles were included for review. All of the articles were published in 2016 with mostly case reports. The sample size of the studies ranged from 1 to 15 patients. Seven of the included articles are from United States of America and one from Mexico. Our review concluded that the use of electronic cigarette devices posed not only a safety concern but also that the devices were mostly unregulated. There should be a recognized authority body to regulate the safety and standard of the electronic devices.

  12. Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yue; Zhang Jinfeng; Shen Bo; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal—oxide—semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources. (invited papers)

  13. Consumers' Use of Personal Electronic Devices in the Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Bazaco, Michael C; Chen, Yi

    2018-02-23

    Smartphones, tablets, and other personal electronic devices have become ubiquitous in Americans' daily lives. These devices are used by people throughout the day, including while preparing food. For example, a device may be used to look at recipes and therefore be touched multiple times during food preparation. Previous research has indicated that cell phones can harbor bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Klebsiella spp. This investigation was conducted with data from the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and from subsequent focus groups to determine the frequency with which consumers use personal electronic devices in the kitchen while preparing food, the types of devices used, and hand washing behaviors after handling these devices. The 2016 FSS is the seventh wave of a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The goal of the FSS is to evaluate U.S. adult consumer attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about food safety. The FSS included 4,169 adults that were contacted using a dual-frame (land line and cell phone interviews) random-digit-dial sampling process. The personal electronics module was the first of three food safety topics discussed by each of eight consumer focus groups, which were convened in four U.S. cities in fall 2016. Results from the 2016 FSS revealed that of those individuals who use personal electronic devices while cooking, only about one third reported washing hands after touching the device and before continuing cooking. This proportion is significantly lower than that for self-reported hand washing behaviors after touching risky food products such as raw eggs, meat, chicken, or fish. Results from the focus groups highlight the varied usage of these devices during food preparation and the related strategies consumers are using to incorporate personal electric devices into their cooking routines.

  14. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  15. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  16. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  17. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  18. 75 FR 10502 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-667; Investigation No. 337-TA-673] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices; Notice of... Entirety AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  19. Nature-Inspired Structural Materials for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; He, Ke; Chen, Geng; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-10-25

    Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques. This review covers the smart designs of structural materials inspired by natural materials and their utility in the construction of flexible devices. First, we summarize structural materials that accommodate mechanical deformations, which is the fundamental requirement for flexible devices to work properly in complex environments. Second, we discuss the functionalities of flexible devices induced by nature-inspired structural materials, including mechanical sensing, energy harvesting, physically interacting, and so on. Finally, we provide a perspective on newly developed structural materials and their potential applications in future flexible devices, as well as frontier strategies for biomimetic functions. These analyses and summaries are valuable for a systematic understanding of structural materials in electronic devices and will serve as inspirations for smart designs in flexible electronics.

  20. Electronic device for endosurgical skills training (EDEST): study of reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagador, J B; Uson, J; Sánchez, M A; Moyano, J L; Moreno, J; Bustos, P; Mateos, J; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2011-05-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery procedures are commonly used in many surgical practices, but surgeons need specific training models and devices due to its difficulty and complexity. In this paper, an innovative electronic device for endosurgical skills training (EDEST) is presented. A study on reliability for this device was performed. Different electronic components were used to compose this new training device. The EDEST was focused on two basic laparoscopic tasks: triangulation and coordination manoeuvres. A configuration and statistical software was developed to complement the functionality of the device. A calibration method was used to assure the proper work of the device. A total of 35 subjects (8 experts and 27 novices) were used to check the reliability of the system using the MTBF analysis. Configuration values for triangulation and coordination exercises were calculated as 0.5 s limit threshold and 800-11,000 lux range of light intensity, respectively. Zero errors in 1,050 executions (0%) for triangulation and 21 errors in 5,670 executions (0.37%) for coordination were obtained. A MTBF of 2.97 h was obtained. The results show that the reliability of the EDEST device is acceptable when used under previously defined light conditions. These results along with previous work could demonstrate that the EDEST device can help surgeons during first training stages.

  1. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  2. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  3. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. Introduction to organic electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Optoelectronic Materials, N. Peyghambarian and M. Fallahi Introduction to Optoelectronic Device Principles, J. Piprek Basic Electronic Structures and Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Optoelectronic Materials, S.-S. Sun Charge Transport in Conducting Polymers, V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein Major Classes of Organic Small Molecules for Electronic and Optoelectronics, X. Meng, W. Zhu, and H. Tian Major Classes of Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Strategies, Y. Li and J. Hou Low Energy Gap, Conducting, and Transparent Polymers, A. Kumar, Y. Ner, and G.A. Sotzing Conjugated Polymers, Fullerene C60, and Carbon Nanotubes for Optoelectronic Devices, L. Qu, L. Dai, and S.-S. Sun Introduction of Organic Superconducting Materials, H. Mori Molecular Semiconductors for Organic Field-Effect Transistors, A. Facchetti Polymer Field-Effect Transistors, H.G.O. Sandberg Organic Molecular Light-Emitting Materials and Devices, F. So and J. Shi Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Devices and Materials, X. Gong and ...

  5. Development of beam diagnostic devices for characterizing electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, D.; Tiwari, R.; Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R.L.; Sarukte, H.; Waghmare, A.; Thakur, N.; Dixit, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    The electron guns for the DC accelerators and RF Linacs are designed and developed at EBC/APPD/BARC, Kharghar. These electron guns need to be characterized for its design and performance. Two test benches were developed for characterizing the electron guns. Various beam diagnostic devices for measuring beam currents and beam sizes were developed. Conical faraday cup, segmented faraday cup, slit scanning bellows movement arrangement, multi-plate beam size measurement setup, multi- wire beam size measurement setup, Aluminum foil puncture assembly etc. were developed and used. The paper presents the in-house development of various beam diagnostics for characterizing electron guns and their use. (author)

  6. Conceptual design and simulation investigation of an electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guozhen; Zhang, Yanchao; Cai, Ling; Su, Shanhe; Chen, Jincan

    2015-01-01

    Most electronic cooling devices are powered by an external bias applied between the cold and the hot reservoirs. Here we propose a new concept of electronic cooling, in which cooling is achieved by using a reservoir of hot electrons as the power source. The cooling device incorporates two energy filters with the Lorentzian transmission function to respectively select low- and high-energy electrons for transport. Based on the proposed model, we analyze the performances of the device varying with the resonant levels and half widths of two energy filters and establish the optimal configuration of the cooling device. It is believed that such a novel device may be practically used in some nano-energy fields. - Highlights: • A new electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons is proposed. • Two energy filters are employed to select the electrons for transport. • The effects of the resonant levels and half widths of two filters are discussed. • The maximum cooling power and coefficient of performance are calculated. • The optimal configuration of the cooling device is determined.

  7. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncheva, Mila; Gracias, David H; Jacobs, Heiko O; Whitesides, George M

    2002-04-16

    This paper introduces a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled on the folding of a chain of polypeptide structural motifs into a globular protein. Millimeter-size polyhedra-patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots-were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly, the string folded spontaneously into two domains: one functioned as a ring oscillator, and the other one as a shift register. This example demonstrates that biomimetic principles of design and self-organization can be applied to generate multifunctional electronic systems of complex, three-dimensional architecture.

  8. Plykin type attractor in electronic device simulated in MULTISIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2011-12-01

    An electronic device is suggested representing a non-autonomous dynamical system with hyperbolic chaotic attractor of Plykin type in the stroboscopic map, and the results of its simulation with software package NI MULTISIM are considered in comparison with numerical integration of the underlying differential equations. A main practical advantage of electronic devices of this kind is their structural stability that means insensitivity of the chaotic dynamics in respect to variations of functions and parameters of elements constituting the system as well as to interferences and noises.

  9. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  10. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-01-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. - Highlights: • Novel scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) called TESEM. • Use of the gaseous detection device (GDD) in scintillation mode that allows high resolution bright and dark field imaging in the TESEM. • Novel approach towards a unification of both vacuum and environmental conditions in both bulk/surface and transmission mode of electron microscopy

  11. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-850] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on May 23, 2012...

  12. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Prakash, S.; Estrada, D.; Pop, E.

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight Web Service and a Web site interface have been developed, which enable remote measurements of electronic devices as a "virtual laboratory" for undergraduate engineering classes. Using standard browsers without additional plugins (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, or even Safari on an iPhone), remote users can control a Keithley…

  13. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  14. Electron density measurement in an evolving plasma. Experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Terenzio; Dagai, Michel

    1960-01-01

    The experimental devices described here allow the electron density measurements in the 10 16 e/m 3 to 10 20 e/m 3 interval. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1223-1225, sitting of 15 February 1960 [fr

  15. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Allard, B.A.M.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Meulendijks, N.M.M.; Jansen, H.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils

  16. Expert system for fault diagnostic in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, G

    1984-03-01

    Troubleshooting of electronic devices and highly complex PCBS (printed circuit boards) is an area where expert systems can be used. In addition to the difficulties intrinsic to this area it is also impossible to integrate the amount of knowledge based on experience in a traditional model. 8 references.

  17. Chapter 2.3 Cellulose Nanofibril Composite Substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications, including malleable displays and wearable computers. Current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates uses plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from cellulose...

  18. Opto-electronic devices with nanoparticles and their assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chieu Van

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field; engineering matters at the nano-meter scale. A key nanomaterial is nanoparticles (NPs). These sub-wavelength (background noise. The second device is based on a one-dimensional (1-D) self-directed self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by dielectric materials. Depending on the coverage density of the Au NPs assembly deposited on the device, electronic emission was observed at ultra-low bias of 40V, leading to low-power plasma generation in air at atmospheric pressure. Light emitted from the plasma is apparent to the naked eyes. Similarly, 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by iron oxide was fabricated and exhibits ferro-magnetic behavior. The multi-functional 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs has great potential in modern electronics such as solid state lighting, plasma-based nanoelectronics, and memory devices.

  19. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-03-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    A Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) based device is developed for investigation of hot electron enhanced chemistry. A model of the device is presented explaining the key concepts of the functionality and the character- istics. The MIS hot electron emitter is fabricated using cleanroom technology...... and the process sequence is described. An Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) setup is modified to facilitate experiments with electron emission from the MIS hot electron emitters and hot electron chemistry. Simulations show the importance of keeping tunnel barrier roughness to an absolute minimum. The tunnel oxide...... to be an important energy loss center for the electrons tunneling through the oxide lowering the emission e±ciency of a factor of 10 for a 1 nm Ti layer thickness. Electron emission is observed under ambient pressure conditions and in up to 2 bars of Ar. 2 bar Ar decrease the emission current by an order...

  1. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  2. Low power signal processing electronics for wearable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Custom designed microchips, known as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), offer the lowest possible power consumption electronics. However, this comes at the cost of a longer, more complex and more costly design process compared to one using generic, off-the-shelf components. Nevertheless, their use is essential in future truly wearable medical devices that must operate for long periods of time from physically small, energy limited batteries. This presentation will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in ASIC technology for providing online signal processing for use in these wearable medical devices.

  3. On the OSL curve shape and preheat treatment of electronic components from portable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woda, Clemens; Greilich, Steffen; Beerten, Koen

    2010-01-01

    The shape of the OSL decay curve and the effect of longer time delays between accidental exposure and readout of alumina-rich electronic components from portable electronic devices are investigated. The OSL decay curve follows a hyperbolic decay function, which is interpreted as an approximation ...

  4. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  5. Investigation of ceramic devices by analytical electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, M.; Saijo, H.; Isshiki, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Sato, S.; Nomura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramics are widely used as capacitors and varistors. Their electrical properties depend on the structure, which is deeply influenced not only by the composition of raw materials and additives but also by heating treatments in the production process. This paper reviews our investigations of SrTiO 3 ceramic devices, which have been performed using various microscopy techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy (CLSEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging method in a FE-(scanning) transmission electron microscope(FE-(S)TEM). (author)

  6. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  7. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  8. Device for monitoring electron-ion ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Shalyapin, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is classified as the method of collective ion acceleration. The device for electron-ion ring parameters monitoring is described. The invention is aimed at increasing functional possibilities of the device at the expense of the enchance in the number of the ring controlled parameters. The device comprises three similar plane mirrors installed over accelerating tube circumference and a mirror manufactured in the form of prism and located in the tube centre, as well as the system of synchrotron radiation recording and processing. Two plane mirrors are installed at an angle of 45 deg to the vertical axis. The angle of the third plane mirror 3 α and that of prismatic mirror 2 α to the vertical axis depend on geometric parameters of the ring and accelerating tube and they are determined by the expression α=arc sin R K /2(R T -L), where R K - ring radius, R T - accelerating tube radius, L - the height of segment, formed by the mirror and inner surface of the accelerating tube. The device suggested permits to determine longitudinal dimensions of the ring, its velocity and the number of electrons and ions in the ring

  9. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  11. 3D Design Tools for Vacuum Electron Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levush, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    A reduction of development costs will have a significant impact on the total cost of the vacuum electron devices. Experimental testing cycles can be reduced or eliminated through the use of simulation-based design methodology, thereby reducing the time and cost of development. Moreover, by use of modern optimization tools for automating the process of seeking specific solution parameters and for studying dependencies of performance on parameters, new performance capabilities can be achieved, without resorting to expensive cycles of hardware fabrication and testing. Simulation-based-design will also provide the basis for sensitivity studies for determining the manufacturing tolerances associated with a particular design. Since material properties can have a critical effect on the performance of the vacuum electron devices, the design tools require precise knowledge of material characteristics, such as dielectric properties of the support rods, loss profile etc. Sensitivity studies must therefore include the effects of materials properties variation on device performance. This will provide insight for choosing the proper technological processes in order to achieve these tolerances, which is of great importance for achieving cost reduction. A successful design methodology depends on the development of accurate and efficient design tools with predictive capabilities. These design tools must be based on realistic models capable of high fidelity representation of geometry and materials, they must have optimization capabilities, and they must be easy to use

  12. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  13. Critical appraisal of cardiac implantable electronic devices: complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padeletti L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The

  14. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2875] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received an amended complaint entitled Certain Mobile Electronic Devices...

  15. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an... States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting or display replication...

  16. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction to Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation... of complaint entitled Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and...

  17. Electronic SSKIN pathway: reducing device-related pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Natalie

    2016-08-11

    This article describes how an interprofessional project in a London NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to develop an intranet-based medical device-related pressure ulcer prevention and management pathway for clinical staff working across an adult critical care directorate, where life-threatening events require interventions using medical devices. The aim of this project was to improve working policies and processes to define key prevention strategies and provide clinicians with a clear, standardised approach to risk and skin assessment, equipment use, documentation and reporting clinical data using the Trust's CareVue (electronic medical records), Datix (incident reporting and risk-management tool) and eTRACE (online clinical protocol ordering) systems. The process included the development, trial and local implementation of the pathway using collaborative teamwork and the SSKIN care bundle tool. The experience of identifying issues, overcoming challenges, defining best practice and cascading SSKIN awareness training is shared.

  18. Flexible organic electronic devices: Materials, process and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, Stergios

    2008-01-01

    The research for the development of flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) is rapidly increasing worldwide, since FEDs will change radically several aspects of everyday life. Although there has been considerable progress in the area of flexible inorganic devices (a-Si or solution processed Si), there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting and insulating), inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit customized properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods, which are characterized by a significant amount of multidisciplinary efforts. Furthermore, the development and encapsulation of organic electronic devices onto flexible polymeric substrates by large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll production processes will allow their market implementation in numerous application areas, including displays, lighting, photovoltaics, radio-frequency identification circuitry and chemical sensors, as well as to a new generation of modern exotic applications. In this work, we report on some of the latest advances in the fields of polymeric substrates, hybrid barrier layers, inorganic and organic materials to be used as novel active and functional thin films and nanomaterials as well as for the encapsulation of the materials components for the production of FEDs (flexible organic light-emitting diodes, and organic photovoltaics). Moreover, we will emphasize on the real-time optical monitoring and characterization of the growing films onto the flexible polymeric substrates by spectroscopic ellipsometry methods. Finally, the potentiality for the in-line characterization processes for the development of organic electronics materials will be emphasized, since it will also establish the framework for the achievement of the future scientific and technological breakthroughs

  19. Analysis of patient setup accuracy using electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onogi, Yuzo; Aoki, Yukimasa; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy is performed in many fractions, and accurate patient setup is very important. This is more significant nowadays because treatment planning and radiation therapy are more precisely performed. Electronic portal imaging devices and automatic image comparison algorithms let us analyze setup deviations quantitatively. With such in mind we developed a simple image comparison algorithm. Using 2459 electronic verification images (335 ports, 123 treatment sites) generated during the past three years at our institute, we evaluated the results of the algorithm, and analyzed setup deviations according to the area irradiated, use of a fixing device (shell), and arm position. Calculated setup deviation was verified visually and their fitness was classified into good, fair, bad, and incomplete. The result was 40%, 14%, 22%, 24% respectively. Using calculated deviations classified as good (994 images), we analyzed setup deviations. Overall setup deviations described in 1 SD along axes x, y, z, was 1.9 mm, 2.5 mm, 1.7 mm respectively. We classified these deviations into systematic and random components, and found that random error was predominant in our institute. The setup deviations along axis y (cranio-caudal direction) showed larger distribution when treatment was performed with the shell. Deviations along y (cranio-caudal) and z (anterior-posterior) had larger distribution when treatment occurred with the patient's arm elevated. There was a significant time-trend error, whose deviations become greater with time. Within all evaluated ports, 30% showed a time-trend error. Using an electronic portal imaging device and automatic image comparison algorithm, we are able to analyze setup deviations more precisely and improve setup method based on objective criteria. (author)

  20. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H

    2014-01-01

    -implantation, other check-ups are performed remotely. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires at five time points during the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The REMOTE-CIED study will provide insight into the patient perspective on remote monitoring in ICD patients, which could help to support patient......BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...

  1. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems....... The structure allows for effective suppression of radiation from the MED, while taking into consideration the integration and miniaturization aspects. To increase the sensitivity of the system, a compact LNA suitable for on-body applications has been developed. The LNA allows for an increase in the overall...

  2. Electronic transport properties in [n]cycloparaphenylenes molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Guo, Yandong; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Hongli; Zhou, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The electronic transport of [n]cycloparaphenylenes ([n]CPPs) is investigated based on nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in combination with the density-functional theory. Negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon is observed. Further analysis shows that the reduction of the transmission peak induced by the bias changing near Fermi energy results in the NDR effect. Replacing the electrode (from carbon chain to Au electrode), doping with N atom and changing the size of the nanohoop (n = 5, 6, 8, 10) have also been studied and the NDR still exists, suggesting the NDR behavior is the intrinsic feature of such [n]CPPs systems, which would be quite useful in future nanoelectronic devices.

  3. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...-0053] Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY... proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices. The agency... Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The proposed NHTSA...

  4. Characterization of electronics devices for computed tomography dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Cinthia Marques Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an examination of high diagnostic capability that delivers high doses of radiation compared with other diagnostic radiological examinations. The current CT dosimetry is mainly made by using a 100 mm long ionization chamber. However, it was verified that this extension, which is intended to collect ali scattered radiation of the single slice dose profile in CT, is not enough. An alternative dosimetry has been suggested by translating smaller detectors. In this work, commercial electronics devices of small dimensions were characterized for CT dosimetry. The project can be divided in five parts: a) pre-selection of devices; b) electrical characterization of selected devices; e) dosimetric characterization in Iaboratory, using radiation qualities specific to CT, and in a tomograph; d) evaluation of the dose profile in CT scanner (free in air and in head and body dosimetric phantom); e) evaluation of the new MSAD detector in a tomograph. The selected devices were OP520 and OP521 phototransistors and BPW34FS photodiode. Before the dosimetric characterization, three configurations of detectors, with 4, 2 and 1 OP520 phototransistor working as a single detector, were evaluated and the configuration with only one device was the most adequate. Hence, the following tests, for all devices, were made using the configuration with only one device. The tests of dosimetric characterization in laboratory and in a tomograph were: energy dependence, response as a function of air kerma (laboratory) and CTDI 100 (scanner), sensitivity variation and angular dependence. In both characterizations, the devices showed some energy dependence, indicating the need of correction factors depending on the beam energy; their response was linear with the air kerma and the CTDI 100 ; the OP520 phototransistor showed the largest variation in sensitivity with the irradiation and the photodiode was the most stable; the angular dependence was significant in the laboratory and

  5. Passive direct methanol fuel cells for portable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, F.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Majlan, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for electricity, clean, renewable energy resources must be developed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to develop a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) for portable electronic devices. The power output of six dual DMFCs connected in series with an active area of 4 cm 2 was approximately 600 mW, and the power density of the DMFCs was 25 mW cm -2 . The DMFCs were evaluated as a power source for mobile phone chargers and media players. The results indicated that the open circuit voltage of the DMFC was between 6.0 V and 6.5 V, and the voltage under operating conditions was 4.0 V. The fuel cell was tested on a variety of cell phone chargers, media players and PDAs. The cost of energy consumption by the proposed DMFC was estimated to be USD 20 W -1 , and the cost of methanol is USD 4 kW h. Alternatively, the local conventional electricity tariff is USD 2 kW h. However, for the large-scale production of electronic devices, the cost of methanol will be significantly lower. Moreover, the electricity tariff is expected to increase due to the constraints of fossil fuel resources and pollution. As a result, DMFCs will become competitive with conventional power sources.

  6. Theoretical modeling of electronic transport in molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Simone

    In this thesis a novel approach for simulating electronic transport in nanoscale structures is introduced. We consider an open quantum system (the electrons of structure) accelerated by an external electromotive force and dissipating energy through inelastic scattering with a heat bath (phonons) acting on the electrons. This method can be regarded as a quantum-mechanical extension of the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation. We use periodic boundary conditions and employ Density Functional Theory to recast the many-particle problem in an effective single-particle mean-field problem. By explicitly treating the dissipation in the electrodes, the behavior of the potential is an outcome of our method, at variance with the scattering approaches based on the Landauer formalism. We study the self-consistent steady-state solution, analyzing the out-of-equilibrium electron distribution, the electrical characteristics, the behavior of the self-consistent potential and the density of states of the system. We apply the method to the study of electronic transport in several molecular devices, consisting of small organic molecules or atomic wires sandwiched between gold surfaces. For gold wires we recover the experimental evidence that transport in short wires is ballistic, independent of the length of the wire and with conductance of one quantum. In benzene-1,4-dithiol we find that the delocalization of the frontier orbitals of the molecule is responsible for the high value of conductance and that, by inserting methylene groups to decouple the sulfur atoms from the carbon ring, the current is reduced, in agreement with the experimental measurements. We study the effect a geometrical distortion in a molecular device, namely the relative rotation of the carbon rings in a biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol molecule. We find that the reduced coupling between pi orbitals of the rings induced by the rotation leads to a reduction of the conductance and that this behavior is captured by a

  7. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  8. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  9. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational

  10. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, S., E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  11. Software to manage transformers using intelligent electronic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Zamboti Fortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power companies usually answer the increase in power demand by building new generation facilities. Nevertheless, an efficient use of energy could reduce and delay the costs of investment in new power plants. This paper shows a software system to manage transformers and evaluate losses when they work with zero loads. This system contributes to reduce the waste of energy with some simple actions such as shutting off an unused transformer or reconnecting disabled equipment based on the customer’s demand. It uses real time measurements collected from Intelligent Electronic Devices as a base for software decisions. It also measures and reports the total power saving.

  12. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2007-01-01

    density. Oxide thicknesses have been extracted by fitting a model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics to the C-V characteristics. By plotting I-V characteristics in a Fowler plot, a measure of the thickness of the oxide can be extracted from the tunnel current. These apparent thicknesses show a high degree......A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  13. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  14. Bifunctional electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices using bathocuproine as electron-transporting material and an electron acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.L.; Li, W.L.; Li, M.T.; Chu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices, using 4, 4',4''-tris (2-methylphenyl- phenylamino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as hole-transporting material and bathocuproine (BCP) as an electron-transporting material, were fabricated, which emitted bright green light peaked at 520 nm instead of the emission of m-MTDATA or BCP. It was attributed to the exciplex formation and emission at the interface of m-MTDATA and BCP. EL performance was significantly enhanced by a thin mixed layer (5 nm) of m-MTDATA and BCP inserted between the two organic layers of the original m-MTDATA/BCP bilayer device. The trilayer device showed maximum luminance of 1,205 cd/m 2 at 8 V. At a luminance of 100 cd/m 2 , the power efficiency is 1.64 cd/A. Commission International De L'Eclairoge (CIE) color coordinates of the output spectrum of the devices at 8 V are x=0.244 and y=0.464. These devices also showed photovoltaic (PV) properties, which were sensitive to UV light. The PV diode exhibits high open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 2.10 V under illumination of 365 nm UV light with 2 mW/cm 2 . And the short-circuit current (I sc ) of 92.5x10 -6 A/cm 2 , fill factor (FF) of 0.30 and power conversion efficiency (η e ) of 2.91% are respectively achieved. It is considered that strong exciplex emission in an EL device is a good indicator of efficient charge transfer at the organic interface, which is a basic requirement for good PV performance. Both the bilayer and trilayer devices showed EL and PV properties, suggesting their potential use as multifunction devices

  15. Bifunctional electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices using bathocuproine as electron-transporting material and an electron acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.L. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024 (China); Li, W.L. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)]. E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.cn; Li, M.T. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Chu, B. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices, using 4, 4',4''-tris (2-methylphenyl- phenylamino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as hole-transporting material and bathocuproine (BCP) as an electron-transporting material, were fabricated, which emitted bright green light peaked at 520 nm instead of the emission of m-MTDATA or BCP. It was attributed to the exciplex formation and emission at the interface of m-MTDATA and BCP. EL performance was significantly enhanced by a thin mixed layer (5 nm) of m-MTDATA and BCP inserted between the two organic layers of the original m-MTDATA/BCP bilayer device. The trilayer device showed maximum luminance of 1,205 cd/m{sup 2} at 8 V. At a luminance of 100 cd/m{sup 2}, the power efficiency is 1.64 cd/A. Commission International De L'Eclairoge (CIE) color coordinates of the output spectrum of the devices at 8 V are x=0.244 and y=0.464. These devices also showed photovoltaic (PV) properties, which were sensitive to UV light. The PV diode exhibits high open-circuit voltage (V {sub oc}) of 2.10 V under illumination of 365 nm UV light with 2 mW/cm{sup 2}. And the short-circuit current (I {sub sc}) of 92.5x10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2}, fill factor (FF) of 0.30 and power conversion efficiency ({eta} {sub e}) of 2.91% are respectively achieved. It is considered that strong exciplex emission in an EL device is a good indicator of efficient charge transfer at the organic interface, which is a basic requirement for good PV performance. Both the bilayer and trilayer devices showed EL and PV properties, suggesting their potential use as multifunction devices.

  16. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof... devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and... wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof...

  17. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  18. How people with cognitive disabilities experience electronic planning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Päivi; Lindstedt, Helena; Janeslätt, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person's capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. A model representing the respondents' experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life, four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition.

  19. Determining Hermeticity of Electron Devices by Dye Penetration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures that will normally detect and locate the sites of gross leaks in electron devices. 1.2 These procedures are suitable for use on selected parts during receiving inspection or to verify and locate leakage sites for production control. They are not quantitative; no indication of leak size can be inferred from the test. 1.3 These procedures are most suitable for use on transparent glass-encased devices; all methods are applicable to transparent parts with an internal cavity. Method A, Penetrant-Capillary, is also applicable to parts, such as terminals, end seals or base assemblies, without an internal cavity, and Method C, Penetrant-Pressure Followed by Vacuum, can be used on opaque parts with an internal cavity. Method B, Penetrant-Pressure, can also be used on opaque parts with an internal cavity if the part is opened after dye penetration and before inspection. Parts that have an internal cavity may either contain gas (such as air, nitrogen, nitrogen-helium mixture, etc.) o...

  20. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  1. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Active Materials in Electronic Sensor Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-05-12

    In the past decade, advances in electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-based electronic devices have created new opportunities for the development of next-generation sensors. Here we review this rapidly-growing field, with a focus on the different types of device configurations that have allowed for the use of MOFs as active components of electronic sensor devices.

  2. Challenges for single molecule electronic devices with nanographene and organic molecules. Do single molecules offer potential as elements of electronic devices in the next generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Interest in utilizing organic molecules to fabricate electronic materials has existed ever since organic (molecular) semiconductors were first discovered in the 1950s. Since then, scientists have devoted serious effort to the creation of various molecule-based electronic systems, such as molecular metals and molecular superconductors. Single-molecule electronics and the associated basic science have emerged over the past two decades and provided hope for the development of highly integrated molecule-based electronic devices in the future (after the Si-based technology era has ended). Here, nanographenes (nano-sized graphene) with atomically precise structures are among the most promising molecules that can be utilized for electronic/spintronic devices. To manipulate single small molecules for an electronic device, a single molecular junction has been developed. It is a powerful tool that allows even small molecules to be utilized. External electric, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical perturbations can change the physical and chemical properties of molecules in a way that is different from bulk materials. Therefore, the various functionalities of molecules, along with changes induced by external perturbations, allows us to create electronic devices that we cannot create using current top-down Si-based technology. Future challenges that involve the incorporation of condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry calculations, organic synthetic chemistry, and electronic device engineering are expected to open a new era in single-molecule device electronic technology.

  3. Prospective clinical evaluation of an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Graham, Mary V.; Bosch, Walter R.; Wong, John; Gerber, Russell L.; Cheng, Abel; Tinger, Alfred; Valicenti, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the clinical implementation of an electronic portal imaging device can improve the precision of daily external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In 1991, an electronic portal imaging device was installed on a dual energy linear accelerator in our clinic. After training the radiotherapy technologists in the acquisition and evaluation of portal images, we performed a randomized study to determine whether online observation, interruption, and intervention would result in more precise daily setup. The patients were randomized to one of two groups: those whose treatments were actively monitored by the radiotherapy technologists and those that were imaged but not monitored. The treating technologists were instructed to correct the following treatment errors: (a) field placement error (FPE) > 1 cm; (b) incorrect block; (c) incorrect collimator setting; (d) absent customized block. Time of treatment delivery was recorded by our patient tracking and billing computers and compared to a matched set of patients not participating in the study. After the patients radiation therapy course was completed, an offline analysis of the patient setup error was planned. Results: Thirty-two patients were treated to 34 anatomical sites in this study. In 893 treatment sessions, 1,873 fields were treated (1,089 fields monitored and 794 fields unmonitored). Ninety percent of the treated fields had at least one image stored for offline analysis. Eighty-seven percent of these images were analyzed offline. Of the 1,011 fields imaged in the monitored arm, only 14 (1.4%) had an intervention recorded by the technologist. Despite infrequent online intervention, offline analysis demonstrated that the incidence of FPE > 10 mm in the monitored and unmonitored groups was 56 out of 881 (6.1%) and 95 out of 595 (11.2%), respectively; p 10 mm was confined to the pelvic fields. The time to treat patients in this study was 10.78 min (monitored) and 10.10 min (unmonitored

  4. Effect of interior geometry on local climate inside an electronic device enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Electronic enclosure design and the internal arrangement of PCBs and components influence microclimate inside the enclosure. This work features a general electronic unit with parallel PCBs. One of the PCB is considered to have heat generating components on it. The humidity and temperature profiles...... geometry of the device and related enclosure design parameters on the humidity and temperature profiles inside the electronic device enclosure....

  5. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  6. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2882] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and... the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  7. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.; El, Labban Abdulrahman; Usman, Anwar; Beaujuge, Pierre; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc

  8. Molecular self-assembly approaches for supramolecular electronic and organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hin-Lap

    Molecular self-assembly represents an efficient bottom-up strategy to generate structurally well-defined aggregates of semiconducting pi-conjugated materials. The capability of tuning the chemical structures, intermolecular interactions and nanostructures through molecular engineering and novel materials processing renders it possible to tailor a large number of unprecedented properties such as charge transport, energy transfer and light harvesting. This approach does not only benefit traditional electronic devices based on bulk materials, but also generate a new research area so called "supramolecular electronics" in which electronic devices are built up with individual supramolecular nanostructures with size in the sub-hundred nanometers range. My work combined molecular self-assembly together with several novel materials processing techniques to control the nucleation and growth of organic semiconducting nanostructures from different type of pi-conjugated materials. By tailoring the interactions between the molecules using hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking, semiconducting nanoplatelets and nanowires with tunable sizes can be fabricated in solution. These supramolecular nanostructures were further patterned and aligned on solid substrates through printing and chemical templating methods. The capability to control the different hierarchies of organization on surface provides an important platform to study their structural-induced electronic properties. In addition to using molecular self-assembly to create different organic nanostructures, functional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed by spontaneous chemisorption on surfaces was used to tune the interfacial property in organic solar cells. Devices showed dramatically improved performance when appropriate SAMs were applied to optimize the contact property for efficiency charge collection.

  9. Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojan P. Pavunny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the ternary dielectric, LaGdO3, synthesized and qualified in our laboratory as a novel high-k dielectric material for logic and memory device applications in terms of its excellent features that include a high linear dielectric constant (k of ~22 and a large energy bandgap of ~5.6 eV, resulting in sufficient electron and hole band offsets of ~2.57 eV and ~1.91 eV, respectively, on silicon, good thermal stability with Si and lower gate leakage current densities within the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS specified limits at the sub-nanometer electrical functional thickness level, which are desirable for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS, bipolar (Bi and BiCMOS chips applications, is presented in this review article.

  10. Creating Electronic Books-Chapters for Computers and Tablets Using Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations, EjsS Modeling Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares my journey (tools used, design principles derived and modeling pedagogy implemented) when creating electronic books-chapters (epub3 format) for computers and tablets using Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations, (old name EJS, new EjsS) Modeling Tool. The theory underpinning this work grounded on learning by doing through dynamic and interactive simulation-models that can be more easily made sense of instead of the static nature of printed materials. I started combining related co...

  11. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, P; Schwenn, P E; Bettinger, C J; Irimia-Vladu, M; Mostert, A B

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist. (review article)

  12. Thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Chen, Sih-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices. The effects of heat load of heater and input current to thermoelectric cooler are experimentally determined. A theoretical model of thermal analogy network is developed to predict the thermal performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module. The result shows that the prediction by the model agrees with the experimental data. At a specific heat load, the thermoelectric air-cooling module reaches the best cooling performance at an optimum input current. In this study, the optimum input currents are from 6 A to 7 A at the heat loads from 20 W to 100 W. The result also demonstrates that the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs better performance at a lower heat load. The lowest total temperature difference-heat load ratio is experimentally estimated as -0.54 W K -1 at the low heat load of 20 W, while it is 0.664 W K -1 at the high heat load of 100 W. In some conditions, the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs worse than the air-cooling heat sink only. This article shows the effective operating range in which the cooling performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module excels that of the air-cooling heat sink only.

  13. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  14. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  15. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  16. The Effect of Electronic Devices Self-Efficacy, Electronic Devices Usage and Information Security Awareness on Identity-Theft Anxiety Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Identity-theft means stealing someone's personal information and using it without his or her permission. Each year, millions of Americans are becoming the victims of identity-theft, and this is one of the seriously growing and widespread issues in the U.S. This study examines the effect of electronic devices self-efficacy, electronic devices…

  17. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet...

  18. 77 FR 31875 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the Commission is...

  19. 77 FR 32995 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the...

  20. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has issued (1) a limited exclusion order against infringing electronic devices...

  1. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  2. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices.... 1337 in the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of the infringement of claims of six...

  3. 78 FR 23593 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices... the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics that infringe certain claims of six Immersion patents. 77...

  4. Electronic device, system on chip ad method of monitoring data traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Therefore, an electronic device is provided which comprises a plurality of processing units (IP1-IP6), and a network-based interconnect (N) coupling the processing units (IP1-IP6) for enabling at least one first communication path (C) between the processing units (IP1-IP6). The electronic device

  5. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.

    1987-01-01

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law [fr

  6. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  7. Device intended for measurement of induced trapped charge in insulating materials under electron irradiation in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkorissat, R; Benramdane, N; Jbara, O; Rondot, S; Hadjadj, A; Belhaj, M

    2013-01-01

    A device for simultaneously measuring two currents (i.e. leakage and displacement currents) induced in insulating materials under electron irradiation has been built. The device, suitably mounted on the sample holder of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), allows a wider investigation of charging and discharging phenomena that take place in any type of insulator during its electron irradiation and to determine accurately the corresponding time constants. The measurement of displacement current is based on the principle of the image charge due to the electrostatic influence phenomena. We are reporting the basic concept and test results of the device that we have built using, among others, the finite element method for its calibration. This last method takes into account the specimen chamber geometry, the geometry of the device and the physical properties of the sample. In order to show the possibilities of the designed device, various applications under different experimental conditions are explored. (paper)

  8. iPosture: The Size of Electronic Consumer Devices Affects our Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Maarten W.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether incidental body posture, prompted by working on electronic devices of different sizes, affects power-related behaviors. Grounded in research showing that adopting expansive body postures increases psychological power, we hypothesized that working on larger devices, which forces people to physically expand, causes users to behave more assertively. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with one of four electronic devices that varied in size: an iPod Touch, an iPad,...

  9. Recent progress on thin-film encapsulation technologies for organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Duan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zheng; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Among the advanced electronic devices, flexible organic electronic devices with rapid development are the most promising technologies to customers and industries. Organic thin films accommodate low-cost fabrication and can exploit diverse molecules in inexpensive plastic light emitting diodes, plastic solar cells, and even plastic lasers. These properties may ultimately enable organic materials for practical applications in industry. However, the stability of organic electronic devices still remains a big challenge, because of the difficulty in fabricating commercial products with flexibility. These organic materials can be protected using substrates and barriers such as glass and metal; however, this results in a rigid device and does not satisfy the applications demanding flexible devices. Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers are other possible alternatives; however, these offer little protection to oxygen and water, thus rapidly degrading the devices. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is most effective in preventing water vapor and oxygen permeation into the flexible devices. Because of these (and other) reasons, there has been an intense interest in developing transparent barrier materials with much lower permeabilities, and their market is expected to reach over 550 million by 2025. In this study, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices is reviewed. To increase the stability of devices in air, several TFE technologies were applied to provide efficient barrier performance. In this review, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices, permeation rate measurement, traditional encapsulation technologies, and TFE technologies are presented.

  10. Trend of Energy Saving in Electronic Devices for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayanti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, energy saving is one of the performance indicators of competitiveness beside price, speed, bandwidth and reliability. This affects research and development (R&D activity in mechatronic systems which uses electronic components and electronic systems. A review of trend of electronic devices technology development has been conducted with focus on energy saving. This review includes electronic devices, semiconductor, and nanotechnology. It can be concluded that the trend in electronic devices is mainly dictated by semiconductor technology development. The trend can be concluded as smaller size, lower voltage leading to energy saving, less heat, higher speed, more reliable, and cheaper. In accordance to such technology development, R&D activities in mechatronics especially in Indonesia is being pushed to make proper alignment.Some of such alignment actions are surface mount technology (SMT for installing surface mount devices components (SMD, design layout and SMD troubleshooting tools as well as human resources training and development.

  11. Semiconductor Quantum Electron Wave Transport, Diffraction, and Interference: Analysis, Device, and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gregory Newell

    Semiconductor device dimensions are rapidly approaching a fundamental limit where drift-diffusion equations and the depletion approximation are no longer valid. In this regime, quantum effects can dominate device response. To increase further device density and speed, new devices must be designed that use these phenomena to positive advantage. In addition, quantum effects provide opportunities for a new class of devices which can perform functions previously unattainable with "conventional" semiconductor devices. This thesis has described research in the analysis of electron wave effects in semiconductors and the development of methods for the design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum devices based on these effects. First, an exact set of quantitative analogies are presented which allow the use of well understood optical design and analysis tools for the development of electron wave semiconductor devices. Motivated by these analogies, methods are presented for modeling electron wave grating diffraction using both an exact rigorous coupled-wave analysis and approximate analyses which are useful for grating design. Example electron wave grating switch and multiplexer designs are presented. In analogy to thin-film optics, the design and analysis of electron wave Fabry-Perot interference filters are also discussed. An innovative technique has been developed for testing these (and other) electron wave structures using Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). This technique uses a liquid-helium temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform spectroscopy of the electron transmittance as a function of electron energy. Experimental results show that BEEM can resolve even weak quantum effects, such as the reflectivity of a single interface between materials. Finally, methods are discussed for incorporating asymmetric electron wave Fabry-Perot filters into optoelectronic devices. Theoretical and experimental results show that such structures could

  12. Functional nanomaterials and devices for electronics, sensors and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between “More Moore” and “More than Moore” are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.

  13. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  14. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  15. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-11-11

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed electronics have been based on organic molecular electronics. Still some fundamental challenges remain: thermal instability, modest charge transport characteristics, and limited lithographic resolution. In the last decade, one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, like carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires, followed by two-dimensional materials, like graphene and transitional dichalcogenide materials, have shown interesting promise as next-generation printed electronic materials. Challenges, such as non-uniformity in growth, limited scalability, and integration issues, need to be resolved for the viable application of these materials to technology. Recently, the concept of printed high-performance complementary metal\\\\text-oxide semiconductor electronics has also emerged and been proven successful for application to electronics. Here, we review progress in CMOS technology and applications, including challenges faced and opportunities revealed.

  16. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... electronic digital media devices and components thereof imported by respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of Richardson, Texas (collectively ``Samsung''), and cease and desist orders against...

  17. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... electronics and display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  18. Smart home design for electronic devices monitoring based wireless gateway network using cisco packet tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Oloan; Zendrato, Niskarto; Laia, Yonata; Nababan, Marlince; Sitanggang, Delima; Purba, Windania; Batubara, Diarmansyah; Aisyah, Siti; Indra, Evta; Siregar, Saut

    2018-04-01

    In the era of technological development today, the technology has become the need for the life of today's society. One is needed to create a smart home in turning on and off electronic devices via smartphone. So far in turning off and turning the home electronic device is done by pressing the switch or remote button, so in control of electronic device control less effective. The home smart design is done by simulation concept by testing system, network configuration, and wireless home gateway computer network equipment required by a smart home network on cisco packet tracer using Internet Thing (IoT) control. In testing the IoT home network wireless network gateway system, multiple electronic devices can be controlled and monitored via smartphone based on predefined configuration conditions. With the Smart Ho me can potentially increase energy efficiency, decrease energy usage costs, control electronics and change the role of residents.

  19. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  20. Current voltage perspective of an organic electronic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ayash K.; Kumari, Nikita

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinearity in current (I) - voltage (V) measurement is a well-known attribute of two-terminal organic device, irrespective of the geometrical or structural arrangement of the device. Most of the existing theories that are developed for interpretation of I-V data, either focus current-voltage relationship of charge injection mechanism across the electrode-organic material interface or charge transport mechanism through the organic active material. On the contrary, both the mechanisms work in tandem charge conduction through the device. The transport mechanism is further complicated by incoherent scattering from scattering centres/charge traps that are located at the electrode-organic material interface and in the bulk of organic material. In the present communication, a collective expression has been formulated that comprises of all the transport mechanisms that are occurring at various locations of a planar organic device. The model has been fitted to experimental I-V data of Au/P3HT/Au device with excellent degree of agreement. Certain physical parameters such as the effective area of cross-section and resistance due to charge traps have been extracted from the fit.

  1. Modern Electronic Devices: An Increasingly Common Cause of Skin Disorders in Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Minghetti, Sara; Bertoldi, Alberto Maria; Martina, Emanuela; Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    : The modern conveniences and enjoyment brought about by electronic devices bring with them some health concerns. In particular, personal electronic devices are responsible for rising cases of several skin disorders, including pressure, friction, contact dermatitis, and other physical dermatitis. The universal use of such devices, either for work or recreational purposes, will probably increase the occurrence of polymorphous skin manifestations over time. It is important for clinicians to consider electronics as potential sources of dermatological ailments, for proper patient management. We performed a literature review on skin disorders associated with the personal use of modern technology, including personal computers and laptops, personal computer accessories, mobile phones, tablets, video games, and consoles.

  2. An electron cooling device in the one MeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busso, L.; Tecchio, L.; Tosello, F.

    1987-01-01

    The project of an electron cooling device at 700 KeV electron energy is reported. The single parts of the device is described in detail. Electron beam diagnostics and technical problems is discussed. The electron gun, the accelerating/decelerating column and the collector have been studied by menas of the Herrmannsfeldt's program and at present are under construction. The high voltage system and the electron cooling magnet are also under construction. Vacuum tests with both hot and cold cathodes have demonstrated that the vacuum requirements can be attained by the use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps between gun, collector and the cooling region. Both kinds of diagnostic for longitudinal and transversal electron temperature measurements are in progress. A first prototype of the synchronous picj-up was successfully tested at CERN SPS. At present the diagnostic with laser beam is in preparation. During the next year the device will be assembled and the laboratory test will be started

  3. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  4. Electronic properties of organic monolayers and molecular devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These devices exhibit a marked current–voltage rectification behavior due to resonant transport between the Si conduction band and the molecule highest occupied molecular orbital of the molecule. We discuss the role of metal Fermi level pinning in the current–voltage behavior of these molecular junctions. We also ...

  5. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  6. Electron transport in nano-scaled piezoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengping; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Tan, Yaohua; Newns, Dennis M.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Boykin, Timothy B.; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-05-01

    The Piezoelectronic Transistor (PET) has been proposed as a post-CMOS device for fast, low-power switching. In this device, the piezoresistive channel is metalized via the expansion of a relaxor piezoelectric element to turn the device on. The mixed-valence compound SmSe is a good choice of PET channel material because of its isostructural pressure-induced continuous metal insulator transition, which is well characterized in bulk single crystals. Prediction and optimization of the performance of a realistic, nano-scaled PET based on SmSe requires the understanding of quantum confinement, tunneling, and the effect of metal interface. In this work, a computationally efficient empirical tight binding (ETB) model is developed for SmSe to study quantum transport in these systems and the scaling limit of PET channel lengths. Modulation of the SmSe band gap under pressure is successfully captured by ETB, and ballistic conductance shows orders of magnitude change under hydrostatic strain, supporting operability of the PET device at nanoscale.

  7. Recent developments of truly stretchable thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Chi, Zhihe; Yang, Zhan; Chen, Xiaojie; Arnold, Michael S; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2018-03-29

    Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e.g. buckling), and the whole device can be bent, twisted, or stretched to meet the demands for practical applications, which are beyond the capability of conventional flexible devices that can only bend or twist. Recently, great achievements have been made toward truly stretchable electronics. Here, the contribution of this review is an effort to provide a panoramic view of the latest progress concerning truly stretchable electronic devices, of which we give special emphasis to three kinds of thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices: (1) thin film transistors, (2) electroluminescent devices (including organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells and perovskite light-emitting diodes), and (3) photovoltaics (including organic photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells). We systematically discuss the device design and fabrication strategies, the origin of device stretchability and the relationship between the electrical and mechanical behaviors of the devices. We hope that this review provides a clear outlook of these attractive stretchable devices for a broad range of scientists and attracts more researchers to devote their time to this interesting research field in both industry and academia, thus encouraging more intelligent lifestyles for human beings in the coming future.

  8. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed

  9. Humidity effects on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jun; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the effect of humidity on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device. The results show that different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier, which is a very important factor to affect the stability of electronic transport in the nanoscale system. A mechanism for the humidity effect is suggested. -- Highlights: ► Electronic transport in carbon based nanoscale device. ► Humidity affects the stability of electronic transport. ► Different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier.

  10. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  11. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse

  12. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  13. Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Raunsø, Jakob; Lamberts, Morten

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) following implantation of a first-time, permanent, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide administrative registers (beginning in 1996), we identified all...

  14. System Testability Analysis for Complex Electronic Devices Based on Multisignal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B; Tian, S L; Huang, J G

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider the system testability problems for electronic devices during their early design phase because modern electronic devices become smaller and more compositive while their function and structure are more complex. Multisignal model, combining advantage of structure model and dependency model, is used to describe the fault dependency relationship for the complex electronic devices, and the main testability indexes (including optimal test program, fault detection rate, fault isolation rate, etc.) to evaluate testability and corresponding algorithms are given. The system testability analysis process is illustrated for USB-GPIB interface circuit with TEAMS toolbox. The experiment results show that the modelling method is simple, the computation speed is rapid and this method has important significance to improve diagnostic capability for complex electronic devices

  15. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  16. Electronic health records and cardiac implantable electronic devices: new paradigms and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwiner, David J

    2016-10-01

    The anticipated advantages of electronic health records (EHRs)-improved efficiency and the ability to share information across the healthcare enterprise-have so far failed to materialize. There is growing recognition that interoperability holds the key to unlocking the greatest value of EHRs. Health information technology (HIT) systems including EHRs must be able to share data and be able to interpret the shared data. This requires a controlled vocabulary with explicit definitions (data elements) as well as protocols to communicate the context in which each data element is being used (syntactic structure). Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) provide a clear example of the challenges faced by clinicians when data is not interoperable. The proprietary data formats created by each CIED manufacturer, as well as the multiple sources of data generated by CIEDs (hospital, office, remote monitoring, acute care setting), make it challenging to aggregate even a single patient's data into an EHR. The Heart Rhythm Society and CIED manufacturers have collaborated to develop and implement international standard-based specifications for interoperability that provide an end-to-end solution, enabling structured data to be communicated from CIED to a report generation system, EHR, research database, referring physician, registry, patient portal, and beyond. EHR and other health information technology vendors have been slow to implement these tools, in large part, because there have been no financial incentives for them to do so. It is incumbent upon us, as clinicians, to insist that the tools of interoperability be a prerequisite for the purchase of any and all health information technology systems.

  17. Use of portable electronic devices in a hospital setting and their potential for bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Rao, Amitha; Reyes-Sacin, Carlos; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Szpunar, Susan; Riederer, Kathleen; Kaye, Keith; Fishbain, Joel T; Levine, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Portable electronic devices are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. As with other fomites, these devices represent a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogens. We conducted a convenience sampling of devices in 2 large medical centers to identify bacterial colonization rates and potential risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Powered PiezoelectricBatteries to Supply Power to Wearable Electronic Devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jose' Luis; Rubio, Antonio; Moll, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Consumer electronic equipments are becoming small, portable devices that provide users with a wide range of functionality, from communication to music playing. The battery technology and the power consumption of the device limit the size, weight and autonomous lifetime. One promising alternative to batteries (and fuel cells, that must be refueled as well) is to use the parasitic energy dissipated in the movement of the wearer of the device to power it. We analyze in this work the current stat...

  19. A device for determination of the electrical potential of a rocket carrying an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Musatov, L.S.; Shutte, N.M.; Beliashin, A.P.; Denstchikova, L.I.; Kopilov, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the principle of operation, sensors and electronics of a device for determination of the electrical potential relative to the surrounding medium of a rocket carrying an electric gun are presented. The device operated successfully on board an Eridan rocket during the ARAKS experiment. (Auth.)

  20. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  1. Silicon based nanogap device for investigating electronic transport through 12 nm long oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, S.; Albert, E.; Csaba, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated vertical nanogap electrode devices based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates for investigating the electronic transport properties of long, conjugated molecular wires. Our nanogap electrode devices comprise smooth metallic contact pairs situated at the sidewall of an SOI s...

  2. 76 FR 79708 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices And Related Software; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... present in the pdQ device. 6. Do the Accused iPhones meet the ``switching the mobile phone system from... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-721] Certain Portable Electronic Devices... into the United States, the sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation...

  3. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  4. The physical basis of electronics an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D J; Hammond, P

    1975-01-01

    The Physical Basis of Electronics: An Introductory Course, Second Edition is an 11-chapter text that discusses the physical concepts of electronic devices. This edition deals with the considerable advances in electronic techniques, from the introduction of field effect transistors to the development of integrated circuits. The opening chapters discuss the fundamentals of vacuum electronics and solid-state electronics. The subsequent chapters deal with the other components of electronic devices and their functions, including semiconductor diode and transistor as an amplifier and a switch. The d

  5. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application...

  6. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part III - Electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.; Jovanovic, S.

    1961-12-01

    This report describes functioning of the reactor oscillator electronic system. Two methods of oscillator operation were discussed. The first method is so called method of amplitude modulation of the reactor power, and the second newer method is phase method. Both methods are planned for the present reactor oscillator

  7. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare, E-mail: amilazzo@ncmir.ucsd.edu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lanman, Jason [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Klienfelder, Stuart [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Xuong, Nguyen-Huu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  8. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Moldovan, Grigore; Lanman, Jason; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C.; Klienfelder, Stuart; Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kirkland, Angus I.; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2010-01-01

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  9. Electronic device for automatic control of exposure in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic instrument for calculating and controlling exposure in radiography practice using radioisotopes is described. When using this equipment, only factor to be known is the dose required by the film for a given density and the thickness of material inspected. It eliminates all the problems arising out of various parameters such as source decay etc in the conventional procedure for calculating exposure time. Principle of operation, the electronic circuitry adopted and the functional aspects of the system are described in detail. Exposure doses for different industrial films have been related to the instrumental readouts. The system reproducibility and reliability have been evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the present system and the future development to overcome the problems are indicated. (author)

  10. Activating students' interest in lectures and practical courses using their electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtmans, M.; van Rens, L.; van Muijlwijk- Koezen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive teaching with larger groups of students can be a challenge, but the use of mobile electronic devices by students (smartphones, tablets, laptops) can be used to improve classroom interaction. We have examined several types of tasks that can be electronically enacted in classes and

  11. 78 FR 16707 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2943] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting... International Trade Commission (USITC): http://edis.usitc.gov . \\3\\ Electronic Document Information System (EDIS...; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  12. 78 FR 2437 - Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2927] Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic...: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices...

  13. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2869] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting... Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electronic...

  14. Thermal protection of electronic devices with the Nylon6/66-PEG nanofiber membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ya; Li Xue-Weis; He Ji-Huan; Wang Ping

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials for thermal energy storage have been widely applied to clothing insulation, electronic products of heat energy storage. The thermal storage potential of the nanofiber membranes was analyzed using the differential scanning calorimetry. Effect of microstructure of the membrane on energy storage was analyzed, and its applications to electronic devices were elucidated.

  15. 78 FR 56737 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired persons are...

  16. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review n... for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc...

  17. 78 FR 72712 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov...

  18. Exploring coherent transport through π-stacked systems for molecular electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian; Solomon, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Understanding electron transport across π-stacked systems can help to elucidate the role of intermolecular tunneling in molecular junctions and potentially with the design of high-efficiency molecular devices. Here we show how conjugation length and substituent groups influence the electron trans...

  19. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  20. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Harvard University Office for Sponsored Programs...including journal references , in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 03/21/2016 03/21/2016 03...limited kinetics of electron doping in correlated oxides, Applied Physics Letters (07 2015) TOTAL: 1 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted

  1. Latest progress in gallium-oxide electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Wong, Man Hoi; Konishi, Keita; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Lin, Chia-Hung; Kamimura, Takafumi; Ravikiran, Lingaparthi; Sasaki, Kohei; Goto, Ken; Takeyama, Akinori; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2018-02-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has emerged as a new competitor to SiC and GaN in the race toward next-generation power switching and harsh environment electronics by virtue of the excellent material properties and the relative ease of mass wafer production. In this proceedings paper, an overview of our recent development progress of Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and Schottky barrier diodes will be reported.

  2. An analysis of radiation effects on electronics and soi-mos devices as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikraiam, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on semiconductors and electronic components are analyzed. The performance of such circuitry depends upon the reliability of electronic devices where electronic components will be unavoidably exposed to radiation. This exposure can be detrimental or even fatal to the expected function of the devices. Single event effects (SEE), in particular, which lead to sudden device or system failure and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of electronic devices in such systems are discussed. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is introduced as an alternative for radiation-hardened devices. I-V Characteristics Curves for SOI-MOS devices subjected to a different total radiation doses are illustrated. In addition, properties of some semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, and AlGaN/GaN are compared with those of SOI devices. The recognition of the potential usefulness of SOI-MOS semiconductor materials for harsh environments is discussed. A summary of radiation effects, impacts and mitigation techniques is also presented. (authors)

  3. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Plasma electron density measurement with multichannel microwave interferometer on the HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Deming; Zhang Hongyin; Liu Zetian; Ding Xuantong; Li Qirui; Wen Yangxi

    1989-11-01

    A multichannel microwave interferometer which is composed of different microwave interferometers (one 2 mm band, one 4 mm band and two 8 mm band) has been used to measure the plasma electron density on HL-1 tokamak device. The electron density approaching to 5 x 10 13 cm -3 is measured by a 2 mm band microwave interferometer. In the determinable range, the electron density profile in the cross-section on HL-1 device has been measured by this interferometer. A microcomputer data processing system is also developed

  5. Electronic spectrum of a deterministic single-donor device in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A.; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a single-electron transistor (SET) based on an individual phosphorus dopant that is deterministically positioned between the dopant-based electrodes of a transport device in silicon. Electronic characterization at mK-temperatures reveals a charging energy that is very similar to the value expected for isolated P donors in a bulk Si environment. Furthermore, we find indications for bulk-like one-electron excited states in the co-tunneling spectrum of the device, in sharp contrast to previous reports on transport through single dopants

  6. The use of electronic devices for communication with colleagues and other healthcare professionals - nursing professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Niemi, Anne; Hupli, Maija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to describe nursing professionals' experiences of the use of electronic devices for communication with colleagues and other healthcare professionals. Information and communication technology applications in health care are rapidly expanding, thanks to the fast-growing penetration of the Internet and mobile technology. Communication between professionals in health care is essential for patient safety and quality of care. Implementing new methods for communication among healthcare professionals is important. A cross-sectional survey was used in the study. The data were collected in spring 2012 using an electronic questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions. The target group comprised the nursing professionals (N = 567, n = 123) in one healthcare district who worked in outpatient clinics in publically funded health care in Finland. Nursing professionals use different electronic devices for communication with each other. The most often used method was email, while the least used methods were question-answer programmes and synchronous communication channels on the Internet. Communication using electronic devices was used for practical nursing, improving personnel competences, organizing daily operations and administrative tasks. Electronic devices may speed up the management of patient data, improve staff cooperation and competence and make more effective use of working time. The obstacles were concern about information security, lack of technical skills, unworkable technology and decreasing social interaction. According to our findings, despite the obstacles related to use of information technology, the use of electronic devices to support communication among healthcare professionals appears to be useful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Design and Testing of Electronic Devices for Harsh Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nico, Costantino

    This thesis reports an overview and the main results of the research activity carried out within the PhD programme in Information Engineering of the University of Pisa (2010-2012). The research activity has been focused on different fields, including Automotive and High Energy Physics experiments, according to a common denominator: the development of electroni c devices and systems operating in harsh environments. There are many applications that forc e the adoption of design methodologies and strategies focused on this type of envir onments: military, biom edical, automotive, industrial and space. The development of solutions fulfilling specific operational requirements, therefore represents an interesting field of research. The first research activity has been framed within the ATHENIS project, funded by the CORDIS Commission of the European Community, and aiming at the development of a System-on-Chip, a r egulator for alternators employed on vehicles, presenting both configurability an d t...

  8. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology Minnesota State University,. Mankato, MN 56001 .... in a cage that is placed on a receiver plate connected to a computer. Each telemetry device is assigned a code and hence could be used for different animals at a given time. Fig. 1: Total ...

  9. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    2017-08-20

    Aug 20, 2017 ... expertise and poor infrastructure (Kay et al. 2011; King et al. 2012); concerns around security, and privacy of highly sensitive patient data (Wickramasinghe & Goldberg, 2009;. Whittaker, 2012), scalable architecture, which would enable programmes to run on every device in the market (Ehrler et al. 2013).

  10. Nanoporous metal film: An energy-dependent transmission device for electron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, S.; Degiovanni, A.; Lapena, L.; Morin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We measure electron transmission through free-standing ultrathin nanoporous gold films, using the coherent electron beam emitted by sharp field emission tips in a low energy electron projection microscope setup. Transmission coefficient versus electron wavelength plots show periodic oscillations between 75 and 850 eV. These oscillations result from the energy dependence of interference between paths through the gold and paths through the nanometer-sized pores of the film. We reveal that these films constitute high transmittance quantum devices acting on electron waves through a wavelength-dependent complex transmittance defined by the porosity and the thickness of the film.

  11. Symmetric low-voltage powering system for relativistic electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, A.N.; Krastelev, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    A special driver for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons and several methods of localized electron flow forming in the interaction region of relativistic magnetrons are proposed and discussed. Two experimental installations are presented and discussed. One of them is designed for laboratory research and demonstration experiments at a rather low voltage. The other one is a prototype of a full-scale installation for an experimental research at relativistic levels of voltages on the microwave generation in the new integrated system consisting of a relativistic magnetron and symmetrical induction driver

  12. Integrated electronic device for processing impulses from neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Mihai; Pirvu, Ion

    2009-01-01

    The developing of nuclear power is a key factor in decreasing energy Romania's dependence on imports of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas). An important point in achieving this goal is to use the experience acquired in the design and use of the equipment produced with the participation of INR specialists for Cernavoda NPP, Units 1 and 2. The design based on Surface Mount Technology (SMT) and the implementation of electronic interface modules of computer processing and detectors of radiation or nuclear particles contribute both to modernize and increase the performance of equipment. (authors)

  13. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Chemistry During Electronic Processing" by Professor Richard Osgood, Jr.; "In Situ Optical Diagnostics of Semiconductors Prepared by Laser Chemical Processing...N(Igde Area Code) 22c OFF ft SYMBO. Professors Georee Flynn and Richard Os~ood I MSL DD Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous edotions are obsolete SECURITY...and D. L. Smith, Phys.I Rev. Lett. 62, 649 (1989). 19. E. A. Caridi, T. Y. Chang, K. W. Goossen and L. F. Eastman, AOLi Phvs. Tett. 56, 659 (1990). 1

  14. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  15. Fiber-based wearable electronics: a review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Shu, Lin; Li, Qiao; Chen, Song; Wang, Fei; Tao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-08-20

    Fiber-based structures are highly desirable for wearable electronics that are expected to be light-weight, long-lasting, flexible, and conformable. Many fibrous structures have been manufactured by well-established lost-effective textile processing technologies, normally at ambient conditions. The advancement of nanotechnology has made it feasible to build electronic devices directly on the surface or inside of single fibers, which have typical thickness of several to tens microns. However, imparting electronic functions to porous, highly deformable and three-dimensional fiber assemblies and maintaining them during wear represent great challenges from both views of fundamental understanding and practical implementation. This article attempts to critically review the current state-of-arts with respect to materials, fabrication techniques, and structural design of devices as well as applications of the fiber-based wearable electronic products. In addition, this review elaborates the performance requirements of the fiber-based wearable electronic products, especially regarding the correlation among materials, fiber/textile structures and electronic as well as mechanical functionalities of fiber-based electronic devices. Finally, discussions will be presented regarding to limitations of current materials, fabrication techniques, devices concerning manufacturability and performance as well as scientific understanding that must be improved prior to their wide adoption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ballistic electron emission spectroscopy on Ag/Si devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, A; Bobisch, C A; Matena, M; Moeller, R [Department of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: amin.bannani@uni-due.de

    2008-09-17

    In this work we report on ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) studies on epitaxial layers of silver grown on silicon surfaces, with either a Si(111)-(7 x 7) or Si(100)-(2 x 1) surface reconstruction. The experiments were done at low temperature and in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In addition, BEES measurements on polycrystalline Ag films grown on hydrogen-terminated H:Si(111)-(1 x 1) and H:Si(100)-(2 x 1) surfaces were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were evaluated by BEES. The results are compared to the values for the barrier height reported for macroscopic Schottky diodes. We show that the barrier heights for the epitaxial films substantially differ from the values measured on polycrystalline Ag films, suggesting a strong effect of the interface on the barrier height.

  17. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  18. Recent Progress of Textile-Based Wearable Electronics: A Comprehensive Review of Materials, Devices, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae Sang; Eom, Jimi; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Wearable electronics are emerging as a platform for next-generation, human-friendly, electronic devices. A new class of devices with various functionality and amenability for the human body is essential. These new conceptual devices are likely to be a set of various functional devices such as displays, sensors, batteries, etc., which have quite different working conditions, on or in the human body. In these aspects, electronic textiles seem to be a highly suitable possibility, due to the unique characteristics of textiles such as being light weight and flexible and their inherent warmth and the property to conform. Therefore, e-textiles have evolved into fiber-based electronic apparel or body attachable types in order to foster significant industrialization of the key components with adaptable formats. Although the advances are noteworthy, their electrical performance and device features are still unsatisfactory for consumer level e-textile systems. To solve these issues, innovative structural and material designs, and novel processing technologies have been introduced into e-textile systems. Recently reported and significantly developed functional materials and devices are summarized, including their enhanced optoelectrical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the remaining challenges are discussed, and effective strategies to facilitate the full realization of e-textile systems are suggested. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  20. Rational design of metal-organic electronic devices: A computational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar

    Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-pi, and pi-pi interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d 10 cyclo-[M(mu-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(mu-Pz)] 3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device

  1. Transmission electron microscopy of InP-based compound semiconductor materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.N.G.

    1990-01-01

    InP/InGaAsP-based heteroepitaxial structures constitute the major optoelectronic devices for state-of-the-art long wavelength optical fiber communication system.s Future advanced device structures will require thin heteroepitaxial quantum wells and superlattices a few tens of angstrom or less in thickness, and lateral dimensions ranging from a few tens angstrom for quantum dots and wires to a few μm in width for buried heterostructure lasers. Due to the increasing complexity of the device structure required by band-gap engineering, the performance of these devices becomes susceptible to any lattice imperfections present in the structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), therefore, becomes the most important technique in characterizing the structural integrity of these materials. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) not only provides the necessary geometric information on the device structure; a careful study of the materials science behind the observed lattice imperfections provides directions for optimization of both the epitaxial growth parameters and device processing conditions. Furthermore, for device reliability studies, TEM is the only technique that unambiguously identifies the cause of device degradation. In this paper, the authors discuss areas of application of various TEM techniques, describe the TEM sample preparation technique, and review case studies to demonstrate the power of the TEM technique

  2. Electronic adherence monitoring device performance and patient acceptability: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Stewart, Alistair William; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter Nigel; Mitchell, Edwin Arthur; Foster, Juliet Michelle

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the performance and patient acceptability of an inhaler electronic monitoring device in a real-world childhood asthma population. Children 6 to 15 years presenting with asthma to the hospital emergency department and prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were included. Participants were randomized to receive a device with reminder features enabled or disabled for use with their preventer. Device quality control tests were conducted. Questionnaires on device acceptability, utility and ergonomics were completed at six months. A total of 1306 quality control tests were conducted; 84% passed pre-issue and 87% return testing. The most common failure reason was actuation under-recording. Acceptability scores were high, with higher scores in the reminder than non-reminder group (median, 5 th -95 th percentile: 4.1, 3.1-5.0 versus 3.7, 2.3-4.8; p 90%) rated the device easy to use. Feedback was positive across five themes: device acceptability, ringtone acceptability, suggestions for improvement, effect on medication use, and effect on asthma control. This study investigates electronic monitoring device performance and acceptability in children using quantitative and qualitative measures. Results indicate satisfactory reliability, although failure rates of 13-16% indicate the importance of quality control. Favorable acceptability ratings support the use of these devices in children.

  3. Ignitor electrode system design for the pulses electron irradiators device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lely Susita RM; Ihwanul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The designed ignitor electrode system is a system used to initiate the plasma discharge. It consists of two pieces which are placed on both side of the plasma vessel. Each of the ignitor electrode system consists of a cathode, an anode and insulator between the cathode and the anode. The best cathode material for ignitor electrode system is Mg due to its lowest ion erosion rate (γi =11.7 μg/C) and its low cohesive energy (1.51 eV). The specifications of ignitor electrode system designed for the pulse electron irradiators is as follow: Mg cathode materials in the form of rod having a diameter of 6.35 mm and length of 76.75 mm. Anode material are made of non magnetic of SS 304 cylinder shaped with an outer diameter of 88.53 mm, an inner diameter of 81.53 mm and a thickness of 3.50 mm. Insulating material between the cathode and the anode is made of teflon cylinder shaped, outer diameter of 9.50 mm, an inner diameter of 6.35 mm and a length of 30 mm. Based on the ignitor electrode system design, the next step is construction and function test of the ignitor electrode system. (author)

  4. An electroluminescence device for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, T; Hama, T; Adachi, D; Nakashizu, Y; Okamoto, H

    2009-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal (NC) ink are demonstrated. The EL properties of these devices were investigated along with the structural and optical properties of ZnS:Mn NCs with an emphasis on their dependence on crystal size. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the NCs, with a crystal size of 3-4 nm, are nearly monodisperse; the crystal size can be controlled by the Zn 2+ concentration in the starting solution for coprecipitation. The results of optical studies indicate the presence of quantum confinement effects; in addition, the NC surfaces are well passivated, regardless of the crystal size. Finally, an increase in the luminance of EL devices with a decrease in crystal size is observed, which suggests the excitation mechanism of ZnS:Mn NC EL devices.

  5. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.

  6. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices. (paper)

  7. Medical device integration: CIOs must bridge the digital divide between devices and electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2009-02-01

    To get funding approved for medical device integration, ClOs suggest focusing on specific patient safety or staff efficiency pain points. Organizations that make clinical engineering part of their IT team report fewer chain-of-command issues. It also helps IT people understand the clinical goals because the engineering people have been working closely with clinicians for years. A new organization has formed to work on collaboration between clinical engineers and IT professionals. For more information, go to www.ceitcollaboration.org. ECRI Institute has written a guide to handling the convergence of medical technology and hospital networks. Its "Medical Technology for the IT Professional: An Essential Guide for Working in Today's Healthcare Setting" also details how IT professionals can assist hospital technology planning and acquisition, and provide ongoing support for IT-based medical technologies. For more information, visit www.ecri.org/ITresource.

  8. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik

    2010-01-01

    . In the first half of the study, patients using the device reported 91% compliance versus 85% in the control group. This difference diminished after crossover (88 versus 86%). BP was not affected. Electronic monitoring data on compliance revealed taking, dosing and timing compliance between 45 and 52% in study...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...... and were randomized to either electronic compliance monitoring with a reminder and monitoring device or standard therapy for 6 months. Both groups were crossed over after 6 months. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using self-reported compliance and BP. RESULTS: Data from 398 patients were analysed...

  9. Proceedings of the national conference on vacuum electronic devices and applications: souvenir and extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum electronic devices have carved out a strategic niche for themselves in the areas of satellite based communications and broadcasting, industrial and medical accelerators, and, high power RF systems required in high energy particle accelerators, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, plasma heating systems in nuclear fusion reactors for power generation etc. Besides, these devices continue to have their major applications in various defence related communication, RADAR and ECM systems. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Electronic Equipment of Self-Actuated Mobile Device for Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janecka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The device dealt in this work is determined namely for carrying invalid persons on various types of stairs or other not flat surfaces. But it can serve also to other purposes.To enable fulfilling all given demands, the design was consulted with other research workers solving the tasks of similar features.Resulting mechanical device, enabling aspects of movement required, is controlled by electronic and microprocessor circuits that obtain the input information from sensitive units investigating the terrain.

  11. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  12. A video-amplifier device for the transmission-type electron microscope ELMISCOP I of Siemens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groboth, G.; Hoerl, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    In order to get a visual image of the sample at the final screen of a transmission-type electron microscope and to keep at the same time the sample at low temperature a video-amplifier device has been developed by the authors. Details about its design and the necessary reconstruction of the electron microscope equipment are given. The beam current density at the transparent screen is reduced to 10 -12 -10 -13 A.cm -2 . Moreover the costs of this video-amplifier device are lower than those available. (CR)

  13. Electronic Devices for Controlling the Very High Voltage in the ALICE TPC Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccioli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the core of the ALICE experiment at CERN. The TPC Very High Voltage project covers the development of the control system for the power supply that generates the 100kV necessary for the drift field in the TPC. This paper reports on the project progress, introducing the control system architecture from the electronics up to the control level. All the electronic devices will be described, highlighting their communication issues, and the challenges in integrating these devices in a PLC-based control system.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for surface modification of flexible and printed electronic devices: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Nam; Lee, Seung Min; Mishra, Anurag [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Young, E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Recently, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma, especially those operated at low gas temperatures, have become a topic of great interest for the processing of flexible and printed electronic devices due to several benefits such as the reduction of process and reactor costs, the employment of easy-to-handle apparatuses and the easier integration into continuous production lines. In this review, several types of typical atmospheric pressure plasma sources have been addressed, and the processes including surface treatment, texturing and sintering for application to flexible and printed electronic devices have been discussed.

  15. Radiation effects and soft errors in integrated circuits and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fleetwood, D M

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a detailed treatment of radiation effects in electronic devices, including effects at the material, device, and circuit levels. The emphasis is on transient effects caused by single ionizing particles (single-event effects and soft errors) and effects produced by the cumulative energy deposited by the radiation (total ionizing dose effects). Bipolar (Si and SiGe), metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), and compound semiconductor technologies are discussed. In addition to considering the specific issues associated with high-performance devices and technologies, the book includes th

  16. European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (5th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-07

    Associazione Elettrotecnica e Elettronica Italia Circuiti Componente Tecnologia Elettroniche CECC CENELEC Electronic Components Committee EC The Commission...compared to the results of 2D transient device simulations in cylinder coordinates as well as to 3D transient device simulations (Table 1, 2). M3 In...non- Sabs. abs. drift charge 3.3 3.7 6.3 6.1 M Qdrft / feCM 3D diffusion 6.3 13.6 3.0 12.8 device charge simu- Qdiffl fC V M (E Wl ation "R’ L L

  17. Emerging technologies to power next generation mobile electronic devices using solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewei JIA; Yubo DUAN; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as MP3, mobile phones, and wearable or implanted medical devices have already or will soon become a necessity in peoples' lives.However, the further development of these devices is restricted not only by the inconvenient charging process of the power module, but also by the soaring prices of fossil fuel and its downstream chain of electricity manipulation.In view of the huge amount of solar energy fueling the world biochemically and thermally, a carry-on electricity harvester embedded in portable devices is emerging as a most noteworthy research area and engineering practice for a cost efficient solution. Such a parasitic problem is intrinsic in the next generation portable devices. This paper is dedicated to presenting an overview of the photovoltaic strategy in the chain as a reference for researchers and practitioners committed to solving the problem.

  18. Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices: a paradigm shift for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Varma, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    Traditional follow-up of cardiac implantable electronic devices involves the intermittent download of largely nonactionable data. Remote monitoring represents a paradigm shift from episodic office-based follow-up to continuous monitoring of device performance and patient and disease state. This lessens device clinical burden and may also lead to cost savings, although data on economic impact are only beginning to emerge. Remote monitoring technology has the potential to improve the outcomes through earlier detection of arrhythmias and compromised device integrity, and possibly predict heart failure hospitalizations through integration of heart failure diagnostics and hemodynamic monitors. Remote monitoring platforms are also huge databases of patients and devices, offering unprecedented opportunities to investigate real-world outcomes. Here, the current status of the field is described and future directions are predicted.

  19. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-04

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  20. Compact toroidal energy storage device with relativistically densified electrons through the use of travelling magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new concept for a small compact multimegajoule energy storage device utilizing relativistically densified electron beam circulating in a torus is presented. The electron cloud is produced through inductive charge injection by a travelling magnetic wave circulating the torus. Parameters are given for two representative toroidal energy storage devices, consisting of 1 m and 32 m in radius respectively, which could store more than 4 x 10 17 electrons and 30' MJ in energy. The concept utilizes the idea that large electric and magnetic fields can be produced by a partially space-charge neutralized intense relativistic electron beam which could become many orders of magnitude greater than the externally applied field confining the beam. In the present approach, the electron cloud densification can be achieved gradually by permitting multiple traversals of the magnetic wave around the torus. The magnetic mirror force acts on the orbital magnetic electron dipole moment and completely penetrates the entire electron cloud. As the electrons gain relativistic energies, the beam can be continuously densified at the front of the travelling wave, where the magnetic field is rising with time. The use of travelling magnetic wave to accelerate an electron cloud and the use of large electric field at the thusly accelerated cloud form the basis for a high beam intensity and hence high energy storage. Technical considerations and several potential applications, which include the driving of a powerful gyrotron, are discussed

  1. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The use of a thinned back-side illuminated charge coupled device chip as two-dimensional sensor working in direct electron bombarded mode at optimum energy of the incident signal electrons is demonstrated and the measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are described. The MTF was measured for energy of electrons 4 keV using an edge projection method and a stripe projection method. The decrease of the MTF for a maximum spatial frequency of 20.8 cycles/mm, corresponding to the pixel size 24x24 μm, is 0.75≅-2.5 dB, and it is approximately the same for both horizontal and vertical directions. DQE was measured using an empty image and the mixing factor method. Empty images were acquired for energies of electrons from 2 to 5 keV and for various doses, ranging from nearly dark image to a nearly saturated one. DQE increases with increasing energy of bombarded electrons and reaches 0.92 for electron energy of 5 keV. For this energy the detector will be used for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope

  2. An overview of power electronic converter technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic technology which is an enabling tool for modern wind and marine energy conversion systems. In this chapter, the main power electronic devices are described. Various power electronic converter topologies are represented, and commonly used modulation schemes...

  3. Designing electronic anisotropy of three-dimensional carbon allotropes for the all-carbon device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li-Chun, E-mail: xulichun@tyut.edu.cn; Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiu-Yan [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yan, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-07-13

    Extending two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheets to a three-dimensional (3D) network can enhance the design of all-carbon electronic devices. Based on the great diversity of carbon atomic bonding, we have constructed four superlattice-type carbon allotrope candidates, containing sp{sup 2}-bonding transport channels and sp{sup 3}-bonding insulating layers, using density functional theory. It was demonstrated through systematic simulations that the ultra-thin insulating layer with only three-atom thickness can switch off the tunneling transport and isolate the electronic connection between the adjacent graphene strips, and these alternating perpendicular strips also extend the electron road from 2D to 3D. Designing electronic anisotropy originates from the mutually perpendicular π bonds and the rare partial charge density of the corresponding carriers in insulating layers. Our results indicate the possibility of producing custom-designed 3D all-carbon devices with building blocks of graphene and diamond.

  4. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  5. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  6. A Novel Electronic Device for Measuring Urine Flow Rate: A Clinical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aliza Goldman; Hagar Azran; Tal Stern; Mor Grinstein; Dafna Wilner

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Currently, most vital signs in the intensive care unit (ICU) are electronically monitored. However, clinical practice for urine output (UO) measurement, an important vital sign, usually requires manual recording of data that is subject to human errors. In this study, we assessed the ability of a novel electronic UO monitoring device to measure real-time hourly UO versus current clinical practice. Design: Patients were connected to the RenalSense Clarity RMS Sensor Kit with a sensor...

  7. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  8. Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Vertical GaN Devices for Power Electronics in Extreme Environments Isik C. Kizilyalli (1), Robert J. Kaplar (2), O. Aktas (1), A. M. Armstrong (2...electronics applications. In this paper vertical p-n diodes and transistors fabricated on pseudo bulk low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) GaN substrates are...discussed. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and being able to control doping has allowed the realization of vertical

  9. Spectromicroscopic Insights into the Morphology and Interfaces of Operational Organic Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Organic electronics, e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), have attracted strong interest in both academia and industry during the last decades due to their unique capabilities offered by organic semiconductors. The micro-/nano-structures in active layers and the interface engineering in organic electronics are extremely important for desired device functionalities. In this thesis, the structure-function relations...

  10. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron...... holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p-. n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic...

  11. Molecular Electronics of Self-Assembled Monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xintai

    This thesis deals withmolecular electronic investigations on self-assembledmonolayers. The thesis is divided into seven chapters, as outlined below.Chapter 1 is a general introduction of the history of molecular electronics and its current state.Chapter 2 is separated into three parts. Part I...... providesa brief introduction toself-assembledmonolayers(SAMs), includingits structure, formation, and its role in molecular electronic investigations. Part II is an introduction of different molecular functions, which are interesting for designing real devices. Part III is an introduction of a novel carbon...... material: graphene, and how such material can be incorporated intothe field of molecular electronics.Chapter 3 is a brief introduction of important instruments used in this thesis.Chapter 4, 5 and 6 describe the major experimental work in this thesis. Chapter 4 introduces two novel anchoring...

  12. Spatial distribution of electrons on a superfluid helium charge-coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takita, Maika; Bradbury, F R; Lyon, S A; Gurrieri, T M; Wilkel, K J; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, M S

    2012-01-01

    Electrons floating on the surface of superfluid helium have been suggested as promising mobile spin qubits. Three micron wide channels fabricated with standard silicon processing are filled with superfluid helium by capillary action. Photoemitted electrons are held by voltages applied to underlying gates. The gates are connected as a 3-phase charge-coupled device (CCD). Starting with approximately one electron per channel, no detectable transfer errors occur while clocking 10 9 pixels. One channel with its associated gates is perpendicular to the other 120, providing a CCD which can transfer electrons between the others. This perpendicular channel has not only shown efficient electron transport but also serves as a way to measure the uniformity of the electron occupancy in the 120 parallel channels.

  13. Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamzina, Diana

    Diana Gamzina March 2016 Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Multiscale Thermo-Mechanical Design and Analysis of High Frequency and High Power Vacuum Electron Devices Abstract A methodology for performing thermo-mechanical design and analysis of high frequency and high average power vacuum electron devices is presented. This methodology results in a "first-pass" engineering design directly ready for manufacturing. The methodology includes establishment of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, evaluation of convective film heat transfer coefficients, identification of material options, evaluation of temperature and stress field distributions, assessment of microscale effects on the stress state of the material, and fatigue analysis. The feature size of vacuum electron devices operating in the high frequency regime of 100 GHz to 1 THz is comparable to the microstructure of the materials employed for their fabrication. As a result, the thermo-mechanical performance of a device is affected by the local material microstructure. Such multiscale effects on the stress state are considered in the range of scales from about 10 microns up to a few millimeters. The design and analysis methodology is demonstrated on three separate microwave devices: a 95 GHz 10 kW cw sheet beam klystron, a 263 GHz 50 W long pulse wide-bandwidth sheet beam travelling wave tube, and a 346 GHz 1 W cw backward wave oscillator.

  14. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. Houtenbos, M. Ehlers, E. & Waard, D. de

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of

  15. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the

  16. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  17. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet... mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-3 and 5...

  18. Near field resonant inductive coupling to power electronic devices dispersed in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Bruning, H.; Bakker, S.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate inductive coupling as a way to wirelessly power electronic devices dispersed in water. The most important parameters determining this efficiency are: (1) the coupling between transmitting and receiving coils, (2) the quality factors of the transmitting

  19. Radiation effects and hardness of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, R.; Friant, A.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief review of industrial and nuclear specificity and radiation effects in electronics components (semiconductors) the need for a specific test methodology of semiconductor devices is emphasized. Some studies appropriate for nuclear industry at D. LETI/DEIN/CEN-SACLAY are related [fr

  20. 76 FR 50253 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-797] Certain Portable Electronic Devices and....C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on July 8, 2011, under section...

  1. 78 FR 32689 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices... Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled...

  2. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having... pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on March 12, 2013...

  3. 78 FR 116 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2927] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has...

  4. 78 FR 6834 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-867] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on...

  5. 76 FR 60870 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-808] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices... Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on August 16, 2011, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U...

  6. 77 FR 68828 - Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-861] Certain Cases for Portable Electronic Devices; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with...

  7. 76 FR 70490 - Certain Electronic Devices With Graphics Data Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-813] Certain Electronic Devices With... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on September 22, 2011, under section 337 of...

  8. 76 FR 47610 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-796] Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and.... 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on July 5, 2011, under section...

  9. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-724] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade...

  10. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-831] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on January 10, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  11. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-726] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of....S. International Trade Commission on May 13, 2010, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  12. 77 FR 20847 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade.... International Trade Commission on February 7, 2012, and an amended complaint was filed with the U.S...

  13. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  14. Nanocellulose-enabled electronics, energy harvesting devices, smart materials and sensors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Aleksey Yermakov; Chiu Tai Law; Rani Elhajjar

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials have a number of interesting and unique properties that make them well-suited for use in electronics applications such as energy harvesting devices, actuators and sensors. Cellulose nanofibrils and nanocrystals have good mechanical properties, high transparency, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, among other properties that facilitate...

  15. A benchmark study of commercially available copper nanoparticle inks for application in organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polino, G.; Abbel, R.; Shanmugam, S.; Bex, G.J.P.; Hendriks, R.; Brunetti, F.; Di Carlo, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A set of three commercial copper nanoparticle based inkjet inks has been benchmarked with respect to their potential to form conducting printed structures for future applications in organic electronic devices. Significant differences were observed in terms of jetting properties, spreading behaviour

  16. 75 FR 3154 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Exemptions for Certain Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... that use solar power or other power sources), such as music players, headphones, some toys and games... basis that replacing or installing parts of a children's electronic device is not a children's activity... are not installed. We decline to revise the rule as suggested by some commenters. We have determined...

  17. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof... certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers...''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of...

  18. Effect of interface of electronics devices constructed with different materials to X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Weibing; Chen Panxun

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of X-ray nearby interface which is constructed with different materials is introduced in this paper. And the affect to electronics devices of this behavior is analyzed, the affect factors of four interfaces are calculated by Monte-Carlo method

  19. Five Ways to Hack and Cheat with Bring-Your-Own-Device Electronic Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Bring-your-own-device electronic examinations (BYOD e-exams) are a relatively new type of assessment where students sit an in-person exam under invigilated conditions with their own laptop. Special software restricts student access to prohibited computer functions and files, and provides access to any resources or software the examiner approves.…

  20. Cardiac implantable electronic device and associated risk of infective endocarditis in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Bundgaard, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) are at increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) as are patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). However, few data exist on the IE risk after AVR surgery in patients with a CIED. Methods and results: Using the Danish...

  1. 77 FR 11157 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices and Related Software; Final Determination Finding No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... investigation). The complaint named Apple Inc. as the Respondent. On October 17, 2011, the ALJ issued his final... Commission has subject matter jurisdiction and that Apple did not contest that the Commission has in rem and... electronic devices and related software. Regarding infringement, the ALJ found that Apple does not infringe...

  2. Complex composition film condensation in the sluice device of an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuev, V.I.; Lesovoj, M.V.; Vlasov, D.A.; Malygin, M.V.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Tomashpol'skij, Yu.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the sluice device of an electron microscope a system is developed for material laser evaporation and vapor condensation on a substrate, situated in the microscope specimen holder. Substrate heating by laser radiation to 100 deg C is used. The system is applied for investigating growth of high-temperature superconductor films

  3. 75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ..., Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... music players, and computers, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,714,091... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that...

  4. Electronic device, system on chip and method for monitoring a data flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a plurality of processing units (IP1-IP6), a network-based inter-connect (N) coupled to the processing units (IP1-IP6) and at least one monitoring unit (P1, P2) for monitoring a data flow of at least one first communication path between the processing

  5. Neuromimetic Circuits with Synaptic Devices Based on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sieu D.; Shi, Jian; Meroz, Yasmine; Mahadevan, L.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2014-12-01

    Strongly correlated electron systems such as the rare-earth nickelates (R NiO3 , R denotes a rare-earth element) can exhibit synapselike continuous long-term potentiation and depression when gated with ionic liquids; exploiting the extreme sensitivity of coupled charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom to stoichiometry. We present experimental real-time, device-level classical conditioning and unlearning using nickelate-based synaptic devices in an electronic circuit compatible with both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We establish a physical model for the device behavior based on electric-field-driven coupled ionic-electronic diffusion that can be utilized for design of more complex systems. We use the model to simulate a variety of associate and nonassociative learning mechanisms, as well as a feedforward recurrent network for storing memory. Our circuit intuitively parallels biological neural architectures, and it can be readily generalized to other forms of cellular learning and extinction. The simulation of neural function with electronic device analogs may provide insight into biological processes such as decision making, learning, and adaptation, while facilitating advanced parallel information processing in hardware.

  6. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  7. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  8. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.

  9. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  10. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-01-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes. (review)

  11. Progress of alternative sintering approaches of inkjet-printed metal inks and their application for manufacturing of flexible electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined high resolution structures with excellent electrical conductivities are key components of almost every electronic device. Producing these by printing metal based conductive inks on polymer foils represents an important step forward towards the manufacturing of plastic electronic

  12. Microdiffraction imaging—a suitable tool to characterize organic electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Liewald

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring device architecture and active film morphology is crucial for improving organic electronic devices. Therefore, knowledge about the local degree of crystallinity is indispensable to gain full control over device behavior and performance. In this article, we report on microdiffraction imaging as a new tool to characterize organic thin films on the sub-micron length scale. With this technique, which was developed at the ID01 beamline at the ESRF in Grenoble, a focused X-ray beam (300 nm diameter, 12.5 keV energy is scanned over a sample. The beam size guarantees high resolution, while material and structure specificity is gained by the choice of Bragg condition.Here, we explore the possibilities of microdiffraction imaging on two different types of samples. First, we measure the crystallinity of a pentacene thin film, which is partially buried beneath thermally deposited gold electrodes and a second organic film of fullerene C60. The data shows that the pentacene film structure is not impaired by the subsequent deposition and illustrates the potential of the technique to characterize artificial structures within fully functional electronic devices. Second, we investigate the local distribution of intrinsic polymorphism of pentacene thin films, which is very likely to have a substantial influence on electronic properties of organic electronic devices. An area of 40 μm by 40 μm is scanned under the Bragg conditions of the thin-film phase and the bulk phase of pentacene, respectively. To find a good compromise between beam footprint and signal intensity, third order Bragg condition is chosen. The scans show complementary signal distribution and hence demonstrate details of the crystalline structure with a lateral resolution defined by the beam footprint (300 nm by 3 μm.The findings highlight the range of applications of microdiffraction imaging in organic electronics, especially for organic field effect transistors and for organic solar

  13. Innovative, wearable snap connector technology for improved device networking in electronic garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lee, Kang S.; Gans, Eric; Winterhalter, Carole A.; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) wearable snap connector technology that provides for the transfer of data and power throughout an electronic garment (e-garment). These connectors resemble a standard garment button and can be mated blindly with only one hand. Fully compatible with military clothing, their application allows for the networking of multiple electronic devices and an intuitive method for adding/removing existing components from the system. The attached flexible cabling also permits the rugged snap connectors to be fed throughout the standard webbing found in military garments permitting placement in any location within the uniform. Variations of the snap electronics/geometry allow for integration with USB 2.0 devices, RF antennas, and are capable of transferring high bandwidth data streams such as the 221 Mbps required for VGA video. With the trend towards providing military officers with numerous electronic devices (i.e., heads up displays (HMD), GPS receiver, PDA, etc), POC's snap connector technology will greatly improve cable management resulting in a less cumbersome uniform. In addition, with electronic garments gaining widespread adoption in the commercial marketplace, POC's technology is finding applications in such areas as sporting good manufacturers and video game technology.

  14. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  15. Study of device of electron-ion treatment of mother baking yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapenkov, A.M.; Merinov, N.S.; Nazarov, V.N.; Balan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Devices for electron- ion treatment of mother baking yeasts are considered and classified by the way of aerions removal from the ionization zone: the first ones - by means of the electric field, the other - by air directed flux. Devices of the first type require high voltage - 20-60 kV. Electrodynamic ion generator has been applied as a device of the second type; considered is its construction, principal of operation, given are diagrams of ion flux dependence. The methods of process calculations in the generator and experimental results are presented. The main advantage of the generator of the second type is operation at low (3-5 kV) voltages. It is shown, that the yeast growth module can achieve 36% at essential increase of biomass when using these yeasts as sowing. The device can be used for biostimulation and antisepting of food raw materials

  16. Electrochemical fabrication and electronic behavior of polypyrrole nano-fiber array devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ling; Zhao Yaomin; Jia Nengqin; Zhou Qin; Zhao Chongjun; Yan Manming; Jiang Zhiyu

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemically active Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-fiber array device was fabricated via electrochemical deposition method using aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) membrane as template. After alkaline treatment electrochemically active PPy nano-fiber lost electrochemical activity, and became electrochemically inactive PPy. The electronic properties of PPy nano-fiber array devices were measured by means of a simple method. It was found that for an indium-tin oxide/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber device, the conductivity of nano-fiber increased with the increase of voltage applied on the two terminals of nano-fiber. The electrochemical inactive PPy nano-fiber might be used as a nano-fiber switching diode. Both Au/electrochemically active PPy and Au/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber devices demonstrate rectifying behavior, and might have been used for further application as nano-rectifiers

  17. Electrochemical fabrication and electronic behavior of polypyrrole nano-fiber array devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Liu [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yaomin, Zhao [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nengqin, Jia [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qin, Zhou [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chongjun, Zhao [Photon Craft Project, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Japan Science and Technology Agency, Shanghai 201800 (China); Manming, Yan [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhiyu, Jiang [Department of Chemistry, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2006-05-01

    Electrochemically active Polypyrrole (PPy) nano-fiber array device was fabricated via electrochemical deposition method using aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) membrane as template. After alkaline treatment electrochemically active PPy nano-fiber lost electrochemical activity, and became electrochemically inactive PPy. The electronic properties of PPy nano-fiber array devices were measured by means of a simple method. It was found that for an indium-tin oxide/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber device, the conductivity of nano-fiber increased with the increase of voltage applied on the two terminals of nano-fiber. The electrochemical inactive PPy nano-fiber might be used as a nano-fiber switching diode. Both Au/electrochemically active PPy and Au/electrochemically inactive PPy nano-fiber devices demonstrate rectifying behavior, and might have been used for further application as nano-rectifiers.

  18. Atomic origin of high-temperature electron trapping in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiao, E-mail: xiao.shen@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    MOSFETs based on wide-band-gap semiconductors are suitable for operation at high temperature, at which additional atomic-scale processes that are benign at lower temperatures can get activated, resulting in device degradation. Recently, significant enhancement of electron trapping was observed under positive bias in SiC MOSFETs at temperatures higher than 150 °C. Here, we report first-principles calculations showing that the enhanced electron trapping is associated with thermally activated capturing of a second electron by an oxygen vacancy in SiO{sub 2} by which the vacancy transforms into a structure that comprises one Si dangling bond and a bond between a five-fold and a four-fold Si atoms. The results suggest a key role of oxygen vacancies and their structural reconfigurations in the reliability of high-temperature MOS devices.

  19. Measurements of hot spots and electron beams in Z-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.

    1988-04-01

    Hot spots and Electron Beams have been observed in different types of Z-pinches. There is, however, no conclusive evidence on how either are formed although there has been much theoretical interest in both these phenomena. In this thesis, nanosecond time resolved and time correlated, X-ray and optical diagnostics, are performed on two different types of Z-pinch: a 4 kJ, 30 kV Gas Puff Z-pinch and a 28 kJ, 60 kV Plasma Focus. The aim being to study hot spots and electron beams, as well as characterise the plasma, two different Z-pinch devices. Computer codes are developed to analyse the energy and time resolved data obtained in this work. These codes model both, X-ray emission from a plasma and X-ray emission due to electron beam bombardment of a metal surface. The hot spot and electron beam parameters are measured, from the time correlated X-ray data using these computer codes. The electron beams and the hot spots are also correlated to the plasma behaviour and to each other. The results from both devices are compared with each other and with the theoretical work on hot spot and electron beam formation. A previously unreported 3-5 keV electron temperature plasma is identified, in the gas puff Z-pinch plasma, prior to the formation of the hot spots. it is shown, therefore, that the hot spots are more dense but not hotter than the surrounding plasma. Two distinct periods of electron beam generation are identified in both devices. (author)

  20. Development of Micron-Resolved Electron Spectroscopy to Study Organic Thin Films in Real Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Fan, L.-J.; Yang, Y.-W.; Su, J.-W.; Chan, S.-W.; Chen, M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward application of an electron energy analyzer equipped with an image detector to micron-resolved electron spectroscopic studies of organic thin film devices is reported. The electron spectroscopies implemented include synchrotron-based UPS, XPS, and Auger yield NEXAFS. Along the non-energy-dispersion direction of the analyzer, a spatial resolution of ∼40 μm is obtained through the employment of entrance slits, electrostatic lenses and segmented CCD detector. One significant benefit offered by the technique is that the electronic transport and electronic structure of the same micron-sized sample can be directly examined. The example illustrated is a top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) fabricated from semiconducting triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene and gold electrodes. It is found that an extensive out-diffusion of gold atoms to adjacent conduction channels takes place, presumably due to the inability of soft organic materials in dissipating the excess energy with which gaseous Au atoms possess.

  1. Electron beam fabrication of a microfluidic device for studying submicron-scale bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled restriction of cellular movement using microfluidics allows one to study individual cells to gain insight into aspects of their physiology and behaviour. For example, the use of micron-sized growth channels that confine individual Escherichia coli has yielded novel insights into cell growth and death. To extend this approach to other species of bacteria, many of whom have dimensions in the sub-micron range, or to a larger range of growth conditions, a readily-fabricated device containing sub-micron features is required. Results Here we detail the fabrication of a versatile device with growth channels whose widths range from 0.3 μm to 0.8 μm. The device is fabricated using electron beam lithography, which provides excellent control over the shape and size of different growth channels and facilitates the rapid-prototyping of new designs. Features are successfully transferred first into silicon, and subsequently into the polydimethylsiloxane that forms the basis of the working microfluidic device. We demonstrate that the growth of sub-micron scale bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli cultured in minimal medium can be followed in such a device over several generations. Conclusions We have presented a detailed protocol based on electron beam fabrication together with specific dry etching procedures for the fabrication of a microfluidic device suited to study submicron-sized bacteria. We have demonstrated that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be successfully loaded and imaged over a number of generations in this device. Similar devices could potentially be used to study other submicron-sized organisms under conditions in which the height and shape of the growth channels are crucial to the experimental design. PMID:23575419

  2. Views of patients and professionals about electronic multicompartment medication devices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Bond, Christine; Kinnear, Moira; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-10-17

    To explore the perceived acceptability, advantages and disadvantages of electronic multicompartment medication devices. Qualitative study using 8 focus groups and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Recordings were transcribed and analysed thematically. Strategies were employed to ensure the findings were credible and trustworthy. Community pharmacists (n=11), general practitioners (n=9), community nurses (n=12) and social care managers (n=8) were recruited from the National Health Service (NHS) and local authority services. Patients (n=15) who were current conventional or electronic multicompartment medication device users or had medication adherence problems were recruited from community pharmacies. 3 informal carers participated. Electronic multicompartment medication devices which prompt the patient to take medication may be beneficial for selected individuals, particularly those with cognitive impairment, but who are not seriously impaired, provided they have a good level of dexterity. They may also assist individuals where it is important that medication is taken at fixed time intervals. These are likely to be people who are being supported to live alone. No single device suited everybody; smaller/lighter devices were preferred but their usefulness was limited by the small number/size of storage compartments. Removing medications was often challenging. Transportability was an important factor for patients and carers. A carer's alert if medication is not taken was problematic with multiple barriers to implementation and no consensus as to who should receive the alert. There was a lack of enthusiasm among professionals, particularly among pharmacists, due to concerns about responsibility and funding for devices as well as ensuring devices met regulatory standards for storage and labelling. This study provides indicators of which patients might benefit from an electronic multicompartment medication device as well as the kinds of features to consider when

  3. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, P. B. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book.

  4. Simulation of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriato, D.

    2001-09-01

    In this thesis a drift diffusion model coupled with self-consistent solutions of Poisson's and Schroedinger's equations, is developed and used to investigate the operation of Gunn diodes and GaN-based LEDs. The model also includes parameters derived from Monte Carlo calculations of the simulated devices. In this way the characteristics of a Monte Carlo approach and of a quantum solver are built into a fast and flexible drift-diffusion model that can be used for testing a large number of heterostructure designs in a time-effective way. The full model and its numerical implementation are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the theory of Gunn diodes is presented. A basic model of the dynamics of domain formation and domain transport is described with particular regard to accumulation and dipole domains. Several modes of operation of the Gunn device are described, varying from the resonance mode to the quenched mode. Details about transferred electron devices and negative differential resistance in semiconductor materials are given. In chapter 4 results from the simulation of a simple conventional gunn device confirm the importance of the doping condition at the cathode. Accumulation or dipole domains are achieved respectively with high and low doping densities. The limits of a conventional Gunn diode are explained and solved by introducing the heterostructure Gunn diode. This new design consists of a conventional GaAs transit region coupled with an electron launcher at the cathode, made using an AIGaAs heterostructure step. Simulations show the importance of the insertion of a thin highly-doped layer between the transit region and the electron launcher in order to improve device operation. Chapter 5 is an introduction to Ill-nitrides, in particular GaN and its alloy ln-GaN. We outline the discrepancy in the elastic and piezoelectric parameters found in the literature. Strain, dislocations and piezoelectricity are presented as the main features of a InGaN/GaN system

  5. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G., E-mail: fuochi@isof.cnr.i [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A. [CNR-ISOF, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kovacs, A. [Institute of Isotopes, HAS, P.O.Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mehta, K. [Arbeiterstrandbad Strasse 72, Vienna, A-1210 (Austria); Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S. [Aerial, Parc d' Innovation Rue Laurent Fries F-67400 Illkirch (France)

    2010-03-11

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  6. Energy monitoring device for 1.5-2.4 MeV electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Kovács, A.; Mehta, K.; Kuntz, F.; Plumeri, S.

    2010-03-01

    An easy-to-use and robust energy monitoring device has been developed for reliable detection of day-to-day small variations in the electron beam energy, a critical parameter for quality control and quality assurance in industrial radiation processing. It has potential for using on-line, thus providing real-time information. Its working principle is based on the measurement of currents, or charges, collected by two aluminium absorbers of specific thicknesses (dependent on the beam energy), insulated from each other and positioned within a faraday cup-style aluminium cage connected to the ground. The device has been extensively tested in the energy range of 4-12 MeV under standard laboratory conditions at Institute of Isotopes and CNR-ISOF using different types of electron accelerators; namely, a TESLA LPR-4 LINAC (3-6 MeV) and a L-band Vickers LINAC (7-12 MeV), respectively. This device has been also tested in high power electron beam radiation processing facilities, one equipped with a 7-MeV LUE-8 linear accelerator used for crosslinking of cables and medical device sterilization, and the other equipped with a 10 MeV Rhodotron TT100 recirculating accelerator used for in-house sterilization of medical devices. In the present work, we have extended the application of this method to still lower energy region, i.e. from 1.5 to 2.4 MeV. Also, we show that such a device is capable of detecting deviation in the beam energy as small as 40 keV.

  7. Processing and characterization of device solder interconnection and module attachment for power electronics modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shatil

    This research is focused on the processing of an innovative three-dimensional packaging architecture for power electronics building blocks with soldered device interconnections and subsequent characterization of the module's critical interfaces. A low-cost approach termed metal posts interconnected parallel plate structure (MPIPPS) was developed for packaging high-performance modules of power electronics building blocks (PEBB). The new concept implemented direct bonding of copper posts, not wire bonding of fine aluminum wires, to interconnect power devices as well as joining the different circuit planes together. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this packaging approach by constructing PEBB modules (consisting of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs), diodes, and a few gate driver elements and passive components). In the 1st phase of module fabrication with IGBTs with Si3N 4 passivation, we had successfully fabricated packaged devices and modules using the MPIPPS technique. These modules were tested electrically and thermally, and they operated at pulse-switch and high power stages up to 6kW. However, in the 2nd phase of module fabrication with polyimide passivated devices, we experienced significant yield problems due to metallization difficulties of these devices. The under-bump metallurgy scheme for the development of a solderable interface involved sputtering of Ti-Ni-Cu and Cr-Cu, and an electroless deposition of Zn-Ni-Au metallization. The metallization process produced excellent yield in the case of Si3N4 passivated devices. However, under the same metallization schemes, devices with a polyimide passivation exhibited inconsistent electrical contact resistance. We found that organic contaminants such as hydrocarbons remain in the form of thin monolayers on the surface, even in the case of as-received devices from the manufacturer. Moreover, in the case of polyimide passivated devices, plasma cleaning introduced a few carbon constituents on the

  8. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengseng [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Kailiang, E-mail: kailiang_zhang@163.com [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Ruixia, E-mail: yangrx@hebut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  9. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mengseng; Zhang, Kailiang; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  10. Radiation hardness and qualification of semiconductor electronic devices for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, A.; Payat, R.

    1984-05-01

    After a brief review of radiation effects in semiconductors and radiation damage in semiconductor devices, the problems of qualification of electronic equipment to be used in nuclear reactors are compared to those relative to nuclear weapons or space experiments. The conclusion is that data obtained at very high dose rates or under pulsed irradiation in weapons and space programs should not be directly applied to nuclear plant instrumentation. The need for a specific qualification of semiconductor devices appropriate for nuclear reactors is emphasized. Some irradiation studies at IRDI/DEIN (CEN-Saclay) are related [fr

  11. Observation of theoretical power saturation by the KHI free electron laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Fumihiko; Yokoyama, Minoru; Kawai, Masayuki; Miura, Hidenori; Koike, Hidehito; Sobajima, Masaaki; Nomaru, Keiji; Kuroda, Haruo

    2002-01-01

    The saturation of free electron laser (FEL) output power by the KHI-FEL device was achieved on 3rd, October 2000 at the wavelength of 9.3 μm. The FEL device has operated thereafter successfully in the wavelength region between 4.0 and 16.0 μm. The macropulse average FEL power of 37.5 kW, which is the theoretical saturation level, has been obtained at the wavelength of 7.9 μm. The net FEL gain was estimated to be 16%. (author)

  12. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  13. Direct Detection and Imaging of Low-Energy Electrons with Delta-Doped Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, S.; Yu, Q.; Smith, A. L.; Jones, T. J.; Tombrello, T. A.; Elliott, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    We report the use fo delta-doped charge-coupled devices (CCDs) for direct detection of electrons in the 50-1500 eV energy range. These are the first measurements with a solid state device to detect electrons in this energy range.

  14. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of implanting electronic devices such as transmitters and data loggers into captive and free-ranging animals has increased greatly in the past two decades. The devices have become smaller, more reliable, and more capable (Printz 2004; Wilson and Gifford 2005; Metcalfe et al. 2012). Compared with externally mounted devices, implanted devices are largely invisible to external viewers such as tourists and predators; exist in a physically protected, thermally stable environment in mammals and birds; and greatly reduce drag and risk of entanglement. An implanted animal does not outgrow its device or attachment method as can happen with collars and harnesses, which allows young animals to be more safely equipped. However, compared with mounting external devices, implantation requires greater technical ability to perform the necessary anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery. More than 83% of publications in the 1990s that used radiotelemetry on animals assumed that there were no adverse effects on the animal (Godfrey and Bryant 2003). It is likely that some studies using implanted electronic devices have not been published due to a high level of unexpected mortality or to aberrant behavior or disappearance of the implanted animals, a phenomenon known as the “file drawer” problem (Rosenthal 1979; Scargle 2000). The near absence of such studies from the published record may be providing a false sense of security that procedures being used are more innocuous than they actually are. Similarly, authors sometimes state that it was unlikely that device implantation was problematic because study animals appeared to behave normally, or authors state that previous investigators used the same technique and saw no problems. Such statements are suppositions if no supporting data are provided or if the animals were equipped because there was no other way to follow their activity. Moreover, such suppositions ignore other adverse effects that affect behavior indirectly, and

  15. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  16. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  17. Measurement and production of electron deflection using a sweeping magnetic device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damrongkijudom, N.; Oborn, B.; Rosenfeld, A.; Butson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deflection and removal of high energy electrons produced by a medical linear accelerator has been attained by a Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) permanent magnetic deflector device. This work was performed in an attempt to confirm the theoretical amount of electron deflection which could be produced by a magnetic field for removal of electrons from a clinical x-ray beam. This was performed by monitoring the paths of mostly monoenergetic clinical electron beams (6MeV to 20MeV) swept by the magnetic fields using radiographic film and comparing to first order deflection models. Results show that the measured deflection distance for 6 MeV electrons was 18 ± 6 cm and the calculated deflection distance was 21.3 cm. For 20 MeV electrons, this value was 5 ± 2 cm for measurement and 5.1 cm for calculation. The magnetic fields produced can thus reduce surface dose in treatment regions of a patient under irradiation by photon beams and we can predict the removal of all electron contaminations up to 6 MeV from a 6 MV photon beam with the radiation field size up to 10 x 10 cm 2 . The model can also estimate electron contamination still present in the treatment beam at larger field sizes

  18. High current density M-type cathodes for vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ji; Yu Zhiqiang; Shao Wensheng; Zhang Ke; Gao Yujuan; Yuan Haiqing; Wang Hui; Huang Kaizhi; Chen Qilue; Yan Suqiu; Cai Shaolun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated high current density emission capabilities of M-type cathodes used for vacuum electron devices (VEDs). The experimental results of emission and lifetime evaluating in both close-spaced diode structure and electron gun testing vehicles are given. Emission current densities measured in the diode structure at 1020 deg. C Br in the CW mode were above 10 A/cm 2 ; while in electron gun testing vehicles, emission current densities were above 8 A/cm 2 in CW mode and above 32 A/cm 2 in pulsed mode, respectively. The current density above 94 A/cm 2 has been acquired in no. 0306 electron gun vehicle while the practical temperature is 1060 deg. C Br . For a comparison some of the data from I-scandate cathodes are presented. Finally, several application examples in practical travelling wave tubes (TWTs) and multi beam klystrons (MBKs) are also reported

  19. Electron energy device for LINAC based Pulse Radiolysis Facility of RPCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toley, M.A.; Shinde, S.J.; Chaudhari, B.B.; Sarkar, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    The pulse radiolysis facility is the experimental centerpiece of the radiation chemistry activities of the Radiation and Photochemistry Division (RPCD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This facility was created in 1986 which is based on a 7 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) procured from M/s Radiation Dynamics Ltd., UK. The electron energy is one of the principal parameters that influence the dose distribution within the sample irradiated with a beam of energetic electrons. An easy-to-use and robust device has been developed that can reliably detect day-today small variations in the beam energy. It consists of two identical aluminum plates except for their thickness, which are electrically insulated from each other. The thickness of each plate is carefully selected depending on the electron beam energy. The charge (or current) collected by each plate, under irradiation is measured. The ratio of the charge (or current) signal from the front plate to the sum of the signals from the front and rear plates is very sensitive to the beam energy. The high sensitivity and robustness make this device quite suitable for Electron energy measurement for Pulse radiolysis Facility at RPCD. (author)

  20. Development of a physical and electronic model for RuO 2 nanorod rectenna devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Justin

    Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) nanorods are an emergent technology in nanostructure devices. As the physical size of electronics approaches a critical lower limit, alternative solutions to further device miniaturization are currently under investigation. Thin-film nanorod growth is an interesting technology, being investigated for use in wireless communications, sensor systems, and alternative energy applications. In this investigation, self-assembled RuO2 nanorods are grown on a variety of substrates via a high density plasma, reactive sputtering process. Nanorods have been found to grow on substrates that form native oxide layers when exposed to air, namely silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Samples were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurements were performed on single nanorods to characterize structure and electrical conductivity. The C-AFM probe tip is placed on a single nanorod and I-V characteristics are measured, potentially exhibiting rectifying capabilities. An analysis of these results using fundamental semiconductor physics principles is presented. Experimental data for silicon substrates was most closely approximated by the Simmons model for direct electron tunneling, whereas that of aluminum substrates was well approximated by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The native oxide of titanium is regarded as a semiconductor rather than an insulator and its ability to function as a rectifier is not strong. An electronic model for these nanorods is described herein.

  1. Controlling charge injection in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-12-01

    We demonstrate control and improvement of charge injection in organic electronic devices by utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to manipulate the Schottky energy barrier between a metal electrode and the organic electronic material. Hole injection from Cu electrodes into the electroluminescent conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy,5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] was varied by using two conjugated-thiol based SAMs. The chemically modified electrodes were incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/polymer Schottky energy barriers and current-voltage characteristics were measured. Decreasing (increasing) the Schottky energy barrier improves (degrades) charge injection into the polymer.

  2. Electron beam gun with kinematic coupling for high power RF vacuum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, Philipp

    2016-11-22

    An electron beam gun for a high power RF vacuum device has components joined by a fixed kinematic coupling to provide both precise alignment and high voltage electrical insulation of the components. The kinematic coupling has high strength ceramic elements directly bonded to one or more non-ductile rigid metal components using a high temperature active metal brazing alloy. The ceramic elements have a convex surface that mates with concave grooves in another one of the components. The kinematic coupling, for example, may join a cathode assembly and/or a beam shaping focus electrode to a gun stem, which is preferably composed of ceramic. The electron beam gun may be part of a high power RF vacuum device such as, for example, a gyrotron, klystron, or magnetron.

  3. Stress testing on silicon carbide electronic devices for prognostics and health management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion systems for energy storage and other distributed energy resource applications are among the drivers of the important role that power electronics plays in providing reliable electricity. Wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) will help increase the performance and efficiency of power electronic equipment while condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) will increase the operational availability of the equipment and thereby make it more cost effective. Voltage and/or temperature stress testing were performed on a number of SiC devices in order to accelerate failure modes and to identify measureable shifts in electrical characteristics which may provide early indication of those failures. Those shifts can be interpreted and modeled to provide prognostic signatures for use in CM and/or PHM. Such experiments will also lead to a deeper understanding of basic device physics and the degradation mechanisms behind failure.

  4. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, R.K.; Bera, A.; Raju, R.S.; Tanwar, A.K.; Baek, I.K.; Min, S.H.; Kwon, O.J.; Sattorov, M.A.; Lee, K.W.; Park, G.-S.

    2013-01-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  5. Development of alloy-film coated dispenser cathode for terahertz vacuum electron devices application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, R. K.; Bera, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Raju, R. S. [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Rajasthan (India); Tanwar, A. K.; Baek, I. K.; Min, S. H.; Kwon, O. J.; Sattorov, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. W. [LIG Nex1, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, G.-S., E-mail: gunsik@snu.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for THz-Bio Application Systems, and Seoul-Teracom Inc., Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    High power terahertz vacuum electron devices demand high current density and uniform emission dispenser cathode. It was found that the coating of noble metals e.g., Os, Ir, and Re on the surface of tungsten dispenser cathodes enhances the emission capabilities and uniformity. Hence metal coated cathode might be the best candidate for terahertz devices applications. In this study, ternary-alloy-film cathode (2Os:2Re:1 W) and Os coated cathode have been developed and the results are presented. The cathodes made out of this alloy coating showed 1.5 times higher emission and 0.02 eV emission uniformity as compared to those of simply Os coated cathodes which can be used in terahertz devices application.

  6. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  7. A novel and compact nanoindentation device for in situ nanoindentation tests inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanomechanical tests provide a unique insight into mechanical behaviors of materials, such as fracture onset and crack propagation, shear band formation and so on. This paper presents a novel in situ nanoindentation device with dimensions of 103mm×74mm×60mm. Integrating the stepper motor, the piezoelectric actuator and the flexure hinge, the device can realize coarse adjustment of the specimen and precision loading and unloading of the indenter automatically. A novel indenter holder was designed to guarantee that the indenter penetrates into and withdraws from the specimen surface vertically. Closed-loop control of the indentation process was established to solve the problem of nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator and to enrich the loading modes. The in situ indentation test of Indium Phosphide (InP inside the scanning electron microscope (SEM was carried out and the experimental result indicates the feasibility of the developed device.

  8. The design and investigation of hybrid ferromagnetic/silicon spin electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this study concerns the design and investigation of ferromagnetic/silicon hybrid spin electronic devices as part of a wider project to design a novel spin valve transistor. The key issue to obtain a room temperature spin electronic device is the electrical injection of a spin polarised current from a ferromagnetic contact into a semiconductor. Despite many attempts concentrating on GaAs and InAs only small (< 1%) effects have been observed, making it difficult to confirm spin injection. Lateral devices were designed and fabricated using standard device fabrication procedures to produce arrays of Co/Si/So junctions. Subsequent designs aimed to reduce the number of junctions and improve device isolation. Evidence for spin dependent MR of up to 0.56% was observed in Co/p-Si/Co junctions with silicon gaps up to 16 μm in length. The maximum MR was observed when the first Co/Si Schottky barrier was reverse biased forming a high resistance interface. Vertical devices were designed in an attempt to eliminate any alternative current paths by using a well defined, 1 μm thick silicon membrane. Despite attempts to include oxide barriers, no spin dependent MR was observed in these devices. However, a novel vertical silicon based design has been made which should facilitate further advanced studies of spin injection and transport. The spin diffusion length in n-type silicon has been calculated as a function of doping concentration and temperature by considering the spin relaxation mechanisms in the semiconductor. Discussion has been made concerning p-type silicon and comparisons made with GaAs, indicating that n-Si should show longer spin diffusion lengths. The key design criteria for designing room temperature spin electronic devices have been highlighted. These include the use of a high leakage Schottky barrier or tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and p-Si and a contact to the silicon to enable appropriate biasing to each FM/Si interface. (author)

  9. Rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); An, Young Jin [Jeonnam Science and Technology Promotion Center, Yeongam-gun, Jeollanam-do 526-897 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations are being developed through a unique R2R-AALD system. • The encapsulations have resulted in life time enhancement of PVP memristor devices. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks. • Encapsulated devices performed efficiently even after bending test for 100 cycles. - Abstract: Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (R{sub a}) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation having R{sub a} of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Electrical current–voltage (I–V) measurements confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one

  10. Electronic Fiscal Devices (EFDs) An Empirical Study of their Impact on Taxpayer Compliance and Administrative Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Casey; Patricio Castro

    2015-01-01

    Several administrations have adopted electronic fiscal devices (EFDs) in their quest to combat noncompliance, particularly as regards sales and the value-added tax (VAT) payable on sales. The introduction of EFDs typically requires considerable effort and has costs both for the administration and for the taxpayers that are affected by the requirements of the new rules. Despite their widespread use, and their considerable cost, EFDs can only be effective if they are a part of a comprehensive c...

  11. Electronic Systems for the Protection of Superconducting Devices in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R; Mess, K H

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider LHC [1] incorporates an unprecedented amount of superconducting components: magnets, bus-bars, and current leads. Most of them require active protection in case of a transition from the superconducting to the resistive state, the so-called quench. The electronic systems ensuring the reliable quench detection and further protection of these devices have been developed and produced over the last years and are currently being put into operation

  12. Implementation of Transformer Protection by Intelligent Electronic Device for Different Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Y V Aruna, Beena S

    2015-01-01

    Protection of power system equipments was traditionally done by using electromagnetic relay, static relays, and numerical relays. At present the microprocessor based relays are replacing the old Electromagnetic relays because of their high level accuracy and fast operation. RET670(Transformer protection relay ), an IED (INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICE) provides fast and selective protection, monitoring, and control of all types of transformer. The configured IED is tested under diff...

  13. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-25

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, solar cells, or all-optical switches. In the present document, we choose to focus the discussion on organic all-optical switching applications. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  14. Profile consistency, anomalous electron thermal conduction, and confinement analysis of tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Wenxiao

    1992-01-01

    Assuming that there exists a position in the tokamak plasma where the energy transport is dominated by local anomalous electron thermal conduction and taking advantage of the basic experimental result usually referred to as profile consistency, the authors obtain a more convincing approach to the description of the confinement property of tokamak devices without touching upon the physical mechanism of global plasma energy transport. 8 refs

  15. Adaptive Learning Rule for Hardware-based Deep Neural Networks Using Electronic Synapse Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Suhwan; Bae, Jong-Ho; Eum, Jai-Ho; Lee, Sungtae; Kim, Chul-Heung; Kwon, Dongseok; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning rule based on a back-propagation (BP) algorithm that can be applied to a hardware-based deep neural network (HW-DNN) using electronic devices that exhibit discrete and limited conductance characteristics. This adaptive learning rule, which enables forward, backward propagation, as well as weight updates in hardware, is helpful during the implementation of power-efficient and high-speed deep neural networks. In simulations using a three-layer perceptron net...

  16. Hydrogen doped thin film diamond. Properties and application for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The face centered cubic allotrope of carbon, diamond, is a semiconducting material which possesses a valuable combination of extreme properties such as super-hardness, highest thermal conductivity, chemical hardness, radiation hardness, wide bandgap and others. Advances in chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have lead to diamond becoming available in previously unattainable forms for example over large areas and with controllable purity. This has generated much research interest towards developing the knowledge and processing technology that would be necessary to fully exploit these extreme properties. Electronic devices fabricated on oxidised boron doped polycrystalline CVD diamond (PCD) displayed very poor and inconsistent characteristic. As a result, many electronic applications of polycrystalline diamond films were confined to ultra-violet (UV) and other forms of device which relied on the high intrinsic resistivity on undoped diamond films. If commercially accessible PCD films are to advance in areas which involve sophisticated electronic applications or to compete with existing semiconductors, the need for a more reliable and fully ionised dopant is paramount. This thesis describes a unique dopant discovered within the growth surface of PCD films. This dopant is related to hydrogen which arises during the growth of diamond films. The aim of this study is to characterise and identify possible applications for this form of dopant. The mechanism for carrier generation remains unknown and based on the experimental results in this work, a model is proposed. The Hall measurements conducted on this conductive layer revealed a p-type nature with promising properties for electronic device application. A more detail study based on electrical and surface science methods were carried out to identify the stability and operating conditions for this dopant. The properties of metal-semiconductor contacts on these surfaces were investigated. The fundamental knowledge

  17. Extending the Limits of Wireless Power Transfer to Miniaturized Implantable Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Dinis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Implantable electronic devices have been evolving at an astonishing pace, due to the development of fabrication techniques and consequent miniaturization, and a higher efficiency of sensors, actuators, processors and packaging. Implantable devices, with sensing, communication, actuation, and wireless power are of high demand, as they pave the way for new applications and therapies. Long-term and reliable powering of such devices has been a challenge since they were first introduced. This paper presents a review of representative state of the art implantable electronic devices, with wireless power capabilities, ranging from inductive coupling to ultrasounds. The different power transmission mechanisms are compared, to show that, without new methodologies, the power that can be safely transmitted to an implant is reaching its limit. Consequently, a new approach, capable of multiplying the available power inside a brain phantom for the same specific absorption rate (SAR value, is proposed. In this paper, a setup was implemented to quadruple the power available in the implant, without breaking the SAR limits. A brain phantom was used for concept verification, with both simulation and measurement data.

  18. Electronic cooling using an automatic energy transport device based on thermomagnetic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Yimin; Lian Wenlei

    2011-01-01

    Liquid cooling for thermal management has been widely applied in electronic cooling. The use of mechanical pumps often leads to poor reliability, high energy consumption and other problems. This paper presents a practical design of liquid cooling system by mean of thermomagnetic effect of magnetic fluids. The effects of several structure and operation factors on the system performance are also discussed. Such a device utilizes an earth magnet and the waste heat generated from a chip or other sources to maintain the flow of working fluid which transfers heat to a far end for dissipation. In the present cooling device, no additional energy other than the waste heat dissipated is consumed for driving the cooling system and the device can be considered as completely self-powered. Application of such a cooling system to a hot chip results in an obvious temperature drop of the chip surface. As the heat load increases, a larger heat dissipation rate can be realized due to a stronger thermomagnetic convection, which indicates a self-regulating feature of such devices. - Research highlights: → Automatic electronic cooling has been realized by means of thermomagnetic effect. → Application of the cooling system to a hot chip results in an obvious surface temperature drop. → The system possesses a self-regulating feature of cooling performance.

  19. Characterization of Initial Parameter Information for Lifetime Prediction of Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Boying; Yuan, Mengxiong; Zhang, Feifei; Guo, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Newly manufactured electronic devices are subject to different levels of potential defects existing among the initial parameter information of the devices. In this study, a characterization of electromagnetic relays that were operated at their optimal performance with appropriate and steady parameter values was performed to estimate the levels of their potential defects and to develop a lifetime prediction model. First, the initial parameter information value and stability were quantified to measure the performance of the electronics. In particular, the values of the initial parameter information were estimated using the probability-weighted average method, whereas the stability of the parameter information was determined by using the difference between the extrema and end points of the fitting curves for the initial parameter information. Second, a lifetime prediction model for small-sized samples was proposed on the basis of both measures. Finally, a model for the relationship of the initial contact resistance and stability over the lifetime of the sampled electromagnetic relays was proposed and verified. A comparison of the actual and predicted lifetimes of the relays revealed a 15.4% relative error, indicating that the lifetime of electronic devices can be predicted based on their initial parameter information.

  20. Characterization of Initial Parameter Information for Lifetime Prediction of Electronic Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    Full Text Available Newly manufactured electronic devices are subject to different levels of potential defects existing among the initial parameter information of the devices. In this study, a characterization of electromagnetic relays that were operated at their optimal performance with appropriate and steady parameter values was performed to estimate the levels of their potential defects and to develop a lifetime prediction model. First, the initial parameter information value and stability were quantified to measure the performance of the electronics. In particular, the values of the initial parameter information were estimated using the probability-weighted average method, whereas the stability of the parameter information was determined by using the difference between the extrema and end points of the fitting curves for the initial parameter information. Second, a lifetime prediction model for small-sized samples was proposed on the basis of both measures. Finally, a model for the relationship of the initial contact resistance and stability over the lifetime of the sampled electromagnetic relays was proposed and verified. A comparison of the actual and predicted lifetimes of the relays revealed a 15.4% relative error, indicating that the lifetime of electronic devices can be predicted based on their initial parameter information.

  1. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2{prime}-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM{close_quote}s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM{close_quote}s on the Ag surface potential. {ital Ab} {ital initio} Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L.; Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM close-quote s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM close-quote s on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM's on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices.

  4. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  5. The Structural Characterisation of Risk in the R&D Process of Functional Raw Materials for Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chikamori, Yoji; Nasu, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    The electronic materials and electronics device industries remain important to Japan in spite of the general decline of the Japanese electronics industry. There is risk and uncertainty when developing functional materials in the electronics industry. However, studies examining the uncertainty and risk variables in the development of functional materials are scarce. This study examines incremental research and development (R&D) developed for raw functional materials for electronics. Our analys...

  6. Design of Control System Device for Electron Gun Power Supply of 350 keV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Priyono; Budi Santosa; Taxwim

    2003-01-01

    The electron gun power supply control system of electron beam machine has been designed. Using this design regulator device for the electron gun power supply will be constructed. This regulator device was designed that it can be operated manually or automatically. Beside that, this was also provided with the safety system which is useful to scram the MBE when something wrong happened. The main components of the device are remote data communication system using infra red and fiber optic module, DC motor driver system, regulated transformer coupled by DC motor and operation panel system. (author)

  7. Fabrication of tunnel junction-based molecular electronics and spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel junction-based molecular devices (TJMDs) are highly promising for realizing futuristic electronics and spintronics devices for advanced logic and memory operations. Under this approach, ∼2.5 nm molecular device elements bridge across the ∼2-nm thick insulator of a tunnel junction along the exposed side edge(s). This paper details the efforts and insights for producing a variety of TJMDs by resolving multiple device fabrication and characterization issues. This study specifically discusses (i) compatibility between tunnel junction test bed and molecular solutions, (ii) optimization of the exposed side edge profile and insulator thickness for enhancing the probability of molecular bridging, (iii) effect of fabrication process-induced mechanical stresses, and (iv) minimizing electrical bias-induced instability after the device fabrication. This research will benefit other researchers interested in producing TJMDs efficiently. TJMD approach offers an open platform to test virtually any combination of magnetic and nonmagnetic electrodes, and promising molecules such as single molecular magnets, porphyrin, DNA, and molecular complexes.

  8. A new linear plasma device for the study of plasma waves in the electron magnetohydrodynamics regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Garima; Ravi, G.; Mukherjee, S.

    2018-06-01

    A new, user-friendly, linear plasma device has been developed in our laboratory where a quiescent (Δ n/n ≈ 1%), low temperature (1-10 eV), pulsed (3-10 ms) plasma can be produced over a large uniform region of 30-40 cm diameter and 40 cm length. Salient features of the device include the flexibility of tuning the plasma density in the range of 10^{10} to 10^{12} cm^{-3} and capability of scanning the plasma and field parameters in two dimensions with a precision of electromagnetic field parameters by miniature magnetic probes and Rogowski coils. The plasma produced is uniform and essentially unbounded for performing experiments on waves and turbulence. The whole device can be operated single-handedly by undergraduate or graduate students. The device can be opened, serviced, new antennas/probes installed and ready for operation in a matter of hours. Some results on the excitation of electromagnetic structures in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) are also presented to demonstrate the suitability of the device for carrying out such experiments.

  9. Does the Finite Size of Electrons Affect Quantum Noise in Electronic Devices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomés, E; Marian, D; Oriols, X

    2015-01-01

    Quantum transport is commonly studied with the use of quasi-particle infinite- extended states. This leads to a powerful formalism, the scattering-states theory, able to capture in compact formulas quantities of interest, such as average current, noise, etc.. However, when investigating the spatial size-dependence of quasi-particle wave packets in quantum noise with exchange and tunneling, unexpected new terms appear in the quantum noise expression. For this purpose, the two particle transmission and reflection probabilities for two initial one-particle wave packets (with opposite central momentums) spatially localized at each side of a potential barrier are studied. After the interaction, each wave packet splits into a transmitted and a reflected component. It can be shown that the probability of detecting two (identically injected) electrons at the same side of the barrier is different from zero in very common (single or double barrier) scenarios. This originates an increase of quantum noise which cannot be obtained through the scattering states formalism. (paper)

  10. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  11. Nanosecond-timescale spin transfer using individual electrons in a quadruple-quantum-dot device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Jovanovic, N.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech and Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-25

    The ability to coherently transport electron-spin states between different sites of gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots is an essential ingredient for a quantum-dot-based quantum computer. Previous shuttles using electrostatic gating were too slow to move an electron within the spin dephasing time across an array. Here, we report a nanosecond-timescale spin transfer of individual electrons across a quadruple-quantum-dot device. Utilizing enhanced relaxation rates at a so-called hot spot, we can upper bound the shuttle time to at most 150 ns. While actual shuttle times are likely shorter, 150 ns is already fast enough to preserve spin coherence in, e.g., silicon based quantum dots. This work therefore realizes an important prerequisite for coherent spin transfer in quantum dot arrays.

  12. Integration of the GET electronics for the CHIMERA and FARCOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, E.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Boiano, C.; Cardella, G.; Castoldi, A.; D’Andrea, M.; De Luca, S.; Favela, F.; Fichera, F.; Giudice, N.; Gnoffo, B.; Grimaldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Librizzi, F.; Litrico, P.; Maiolino, C.; Maffesanti, S.; Martorana, NS; Pagano, A.; Pagano, EV; Papa, M.; Parsani, T.; Passaro, G.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Previdi, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Saccà, G.; Salemi, G.; Sciliberto, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2018-05-01

    A new front-end based on digital GET electronics has been adopted for the readout of the CsI(Tl) detectors of the CHIMERA 4π multi-detector and for the new modular Femtoscopy Array for Correlation and Spectroscopy (FARCOS). It is expected that the coupling of CHIMERA with the FARCOS array, featuring high angular and energy resolution, and the adoption of the new digital electronics will be well suited for improving specific future data analysis, with the full shape storage of the signals, in the field of heavy ion reactions with stable and exotic beams around the Fermi energies domain. Integration of the GET electronics with CHIMERA and FARCOS devices and with the local analog data acquisition will be briefly discussed. We present some results from previous experimental tests and from the first in-beam experiment (Hoyle-Gamma) with the coupled GET+CHIMERA data acquisition.

  13. Stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Watanabe, S.

    2005-01-01

    A pure electron plasma has been produced in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap (Proto-RT). The temporal evolution of the electron plasma was investigated by the measurement of electrostatic fluctuations. Stable confinement was realized when the potential profile adjusted to match the magnetic surfaces. The confinement time varies as a function of the magnetic field strength and the neutral gas pressure, and is comparable to the diffusion time of electrons determined by the classical collisions with neutral gas. Although the addition of a toroidal magnetic field stabilized the electrostatic fluctuation of the plasma, the effects of the magnetic shear shortened the stable confinement time, possibly because of the obstacles of coil support structures

  14. [A design and study of a novel electronic device for cuff-pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shupeng; Li, Wei; Li, Wen; Song, Dejing; Chen, Desheng; Duan, Jun; Li, Chen; Li, Gang

    2017-06-01

    To design a novel electronic device for measuring the pressure in the cuff of the artificial airway; and to study the advantage of this device on continuous and intermittent cuff pressure monitoring. (1) a portable electronic device for cuff pressure measurement was invented, which could turn pressure signal into electrical signal through a pressure transducer. Meantime, it was possible to avoid pressure leak from the joint and the inside of the apparatus by modified Luer taper and sophisticated design. If the cuff pressure was out of the normal range, the apparatus could release a sound and light alarm. (2) Six traditional mechanical manometers were used to determine the cuff pressure in 6 tracheal tubes. The cuff pressure was maintain at 30 cmH 2 O (1 cmH 2 O = 0.098 kPa) by the manometer first, and repeated every 30 seconds for 4 times. (3) Study of continuous cuff pressure monitoring: We used a random number generator to randomize 6 tracheal tubes, 6 mechanical manometers and 6 our products by number 1-6, which has the same number of a group. Every group was further randomized into two balanced groups, one group used the mechanical manometer first, and the other used our product first. The baseline pressure was 30 cmH 2 O, measurement was performed every 4 hours for 6 times. When traditional mechanical manometer was used for cuff pressure monitoring, cuff pressure was decreased by an average of 2.9 cmH 2 O for each measurement (F = 728.2, P = 0.000). In study of continually monitoring, at each monitoring point, the pressure measured by electronic manometer was higher than the mechanical manometer. All the pressures measured by mechanical manometer were dropped below 20 cmH 2 O at 8th hour, and there was no pressure decrease below 20 cmH 2 O measured by electronic manometer in 24 hours by contrast. In study of intermittent monitoring, the same result was found. The pressure was dropped significantly with time when measured by mechanical manometer (F = 61.795, P

  15. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  16. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  17. A Novel Electronic Device for Measuring Urine Flow Rate: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Goldman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Currently, most vital signs in the intensive care unit (ICU are electronically monitored. However, clinical practice for urine output (UO measurement, an important vital sign, usually requires manual recording of data that is subject to human errors. In this study, we assessed the ability of a novel electronic UO monitoring device to measure real-time hourly UO versus current clinical practice. Design: Patients were connected to the RenalSense Clarity RMS Sensor Kit with a sensor integrated within a standard sterile urinary catheter drainage tube to monitor urine flow in real time. The Clarity RMS Sensor Kit was modified to incorporate a standard urinometer (Unomedical for the nursing staff to record UO as per their standard practice. The drainage bag was placed in a container on a scientific scale (Precisa BJ to be used as the gold standard. Interventions: Nursing records for hourly UO were collected and compared with the electronically recorded UO. Sensor measurements and nursing staff manual records of UO were compared with the scale data. Setting: The study setting was the ICU of Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem. Patients: Data from 23 patients with a urinary catheter were observed in this study. Measurements and main results: A total of 1046 hours of UO were recorded from 23 subjects. Compared with the scale data, the measurements of hourly urine flow measured with the RenalSense system were closer, had a better correlation, and narrower limits of agreement to gravimetrically determined values than the measurements obtained by the nurses. In addition, continuous monitoring of UO provided graphical display of response to repeated diuretic administration. Conclusions: An electronic device for recording UO has been shown to provide more reliable information of UO records and patient fluid status than current practice. Future applications of this device will provide valuable information to help set protocol goals such as decisions for

  18. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  19. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  20. An optimized electronic device for solar power harvesting dedicated to wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cam, Vincent; Le Maulf, Regis; Lemarchand, Laurent; Martin, William; Le Pen, Mathieu [LUNAM Univ., Bouguenais (France). IFSTTAR, MACS Dept.

    2012-07-01

    For economics as for practical reasons, this last decade, the use and dissemination of wireless sensor networks (WSN) became obvious; particularly in structural heath monitoring (SHM) use-cases where distances between sensors could be long and access to the structure quite difficult. Even if efforts are leaded to design small components and RF modules that ask for low-power, the need of an external source is often necessary. After have acquired knowledge in solar cells as in batteries technologies and methods to control charge/discharge phases as in optimizing algorithms, IFSTTAR laboratory has designed an electronic device that integrates those progress. This electronic device has a quite generic mission: for a panel of batteries chemistry (Lithium, NiMh) and a panel of solar cells sources (frome mW to some W), the system acts as an improved battery charger whatever the load ask for power. The system applies control algorithms based on battery capacity and chemistry profile. It also applies the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm. At any time, battery State Of Charge (SOC) can be requested via I2C bus as well as a warning signal is output when SOC becomes critical. Through standard pin connectors and a simple I2C interface, the system can be used by many wireless devices (sensors) that have to run autonomously. After the presentation of this system, a focus on its application on a real use-case will be given. (orig.)

  1. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: kalyan-yoti.mitra@mb.tu-chemnitz.de, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Martínez-Domingo, Carme [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Ramon, Eloi, E-mail: eloi.ramon@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology (ICN), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Carrabina, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.carrabina@uab.cat [Printed Microelectronics Group, CAIAC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Gomes, Henrique Leonel, E-mail: hgomes@ualg.pt [Universidade do Algarve, Institute of Telecommunications, Faro (Portugal); Baumann, Reinhard R., E-mail: reinhard.baumann@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Department of Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Chemnitz (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Department of Printed Functionalities, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  2. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Sowade, Enrico; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit

  3. Results of remote follow-up and monitoring in young patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvetti, Massimo S; Saputo, Fabio A; Palmieri, Rosalinda; Placidi, Silvia; Santucci, Lorenzo; Di Mambro, Corrado; Righi, Daniela; Drago, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Remote monitoring is increasingly used in the follow-up of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Data on paediatric populations are still lacking. The aim of our study was to follow-up young patients both in-hospital and remotely to enhance device surveillance. This is an observational registry collecting data on consecutive patients followed-up with the CareLink system. Inclusion criteria were a Medtronic device implanted and patient's willingness to receive CareLink. Patients were stratified according to age and presence of congenital/structural heart defects (CHD). A total of 221 patients with a device - 200 pacemakers, 19 implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and two loop recorders--were enrolled (median age of 17 years, range 1-40); 58% of patients were younger than 18 years of age and 73% had CHD. During a follow-up of 12 months (range 4-18), 1361 transmissions (8.9% unscheduled) were reviewed by technicians. Time for review was 6 ± 2 minutes (mean ± standard deviation). Missed transmissions were 10.1%. Events were documented in 45% of transmissions, with 2.7% yellow alerts and 0.6% red alerts sent by wireless devices. No significant differences were found in transmission results according to age or presence of CHD. Physicians reviewed 6.3% of transmissions, 29 patients were contacted by phone, and 12 patients underwent unscheduled in-hospital visits. The event recognition with remote monitoring occurred 76 days (range 16-150) earlier than the next scheduled in-office follow-up. Remote follow-up/monitoring with the CareLink system is useful to enhance device surveillance in young patients. The majority of events were not clinically relevant, and the remaining led to timely management of problems.

  4. Italian chapter of the International Society of cardiovascular ultrasound expert consensus document on training requirements for noncardiologists using hand-carried ultrasound devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Palmiero, Pasquale; Maiello, Maria; Losi, Maria-Angela

    2012-07-01

    Hand-carried ultrasound devices (HCDs), also named personal use echo, are pocket-size, compact, and battery-equipped echocardiographic systems. They have limited technical capabilities but offer some advantages compared with standard echocardiographic devices due to their simplicity of use, immediate availability at the patient's bedside, transportability, and relatively low cost. Current HCDs are considered as screening tools and are used to complement the physical examination by cardiologists. Many noncardiologic subspecialists, however, have adopted this technologic advancement rapidly raising the concern of an inappropriate use of HCD by health professionals who do not have any specific training. In keeping with the mission of the International Society of Cardiovascular Ultrasound to advance the science and art of cardiovascular ultrasound and encourage the knowledge of this subject, the purpose of this Expert Consensus document is to focus on the training for all health care professionals considering the use of HCD. Accordingly, this paper summarizes general aspects of HCD, such as technical characteristics and clinical indications, and then details the specific training requirements for noncardiologists (i.e., training program, minimum case load, duration, and certification of competence). © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B x ) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B z ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n e ∼ 2 × 10 11  cm −3 and T e ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma

  6. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  7. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  8. Electrochemistry, polymers and opto-electronic devices: a combination with a future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Marco-A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry came into life with the invention of the pile, by Volta in 1800. He combined different metal discs with a piece of tissue, swollen with an aqueous salt solution. The so-called Pila di Volta used a polymer for the first time in an electrochemical device and can be seen as a powerful idea to create new devices. Recently, polymers became an alternative to make thin and flexible devices. Thus, we find transparent plastic electrodes based on poly(ethylene terephtalate coated with a transition metal oxide. There are also polymer electrolytes based on complexes of inorganic salts and poly(ethylene oxide derivatives, with reasonable ionic conductivity in the absence of solvents. Finally, the electroactive polymers are efficient substitutes for the inorganic semiconductors because they can be synthetically tailored to produce the desired electronic answer. Combining these materials it is possible to assemble different types of electro-optical devices, like electrochromic, photoelectrochemical and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

  9. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  10. Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge transport in organic electronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bakulin, Artem A.

    2015-08-06

    The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge transport in organic electronic devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

  11. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  12. Three-dimensional hot electron photovoltaic device with vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddeti, Kalyan C; Lee, Changhwan; Lee, Young Keun; Park, Jeong Young

    2018-05-09

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes with vertically aligned array structures show substantial advantages in solar cells as an electron transport material that offers a large surface area where charges travel linearly along the nanotubes. Integrating this one-dimensional semiconductor material with plasmonic metals to create a three-dimensional plasmonic nanodiode can influence solar energy conversion by utilizing the generated hot electrons. Here, we devised plasmonic Au/TiO 2 and Ag/TiO 2 nanodiode architectures composed of TiO 2 nanotube arrays for enhanced photon absorption, and for the subsequent generation and capture of hot carriers. The photocurrents and incident photon to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) were obtained as a function of photon energy for hot electron detection. We observed enhanced photocurrents and IPCE using the Ag/TiO 2 nanodiode. The strong plasmonic peaks of the Au and Ag from the IPCE clearly indicate an enhancement of the hot electron flux resulting from the presence of surface plasmons. The calculated electric fields and the corresponding absorbances of the nanodiode using finite-difference time-domain simulation methods are also in good agreement with the experimental results. These results show a unique strategy of combining a hot electron photovoltaic device with a three-dimensional architecture, which has the clear advantages of maximizing light absorption and a metal-semiconductor interface area.

  13. Modal description of longitudinal space-charge fields in pulse-driven free-electron devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Lurie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In pulsed-beam free-electron devices, longitudinal space-charge fields result in collective effects leading to an expansion of short electron bunches along their trajectory. This effect restricts an application of intense ultrashort electron pulses in free-electron radiation sources. A careful theoretical treatment is required in order to achieve an accurate description of the self-fields and the resulted electron beam dynamics. In this paper, longitudinal space-charge fields are considered in the framework of a three-dimensional, space-frequency approach. The model is based on the expansion of the total electromagnetic field (including self-fields in terms of transverse eigenmodes of the (cold cavity, in which the field is excited and propagates. The electromagnetic field, originally obtained in the model as a solution of the wave equation, is shown to satisfy also Gauss’s law. We applied the theory to derive an analytical expression for the longitudinal electric field of a pointlike charge, moving along a waveguide at a constant velocity. This enables consideration and study of the role played by different terms of the resulted expressions, such as components arising from forward and backward waves, propagating waves, and under cutoff frequencies, and so on. Possible simplifications in evaluation of longitudinal space-charge fields are discussed.

  14. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Steven; Deferme, Wim

    2018-03-03

    Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  15. Using an electronic portal imaging device for exit dose measurements in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganowicz, M.; Wozniak, B.; Bekman, A.; Maniakowski, Z.

    2003-01-01

    To present a method of determining the exit dose with the use of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). The device used was the Portal Vision LC250 (Varian). The EPID signals on the central beam axis have been related to the exit dose. The exit dose measurements were performed with the ionisation chamber in the slab phantom at the distance of dose maximum from the exit surface of the phantom. EPID reading was investigated as a function of field size, phantom thickness and source-detector distance. The relation between dose rate and the EPID reading is described with empirical functions applicable to the obtained data. The exit dose is calculated from the EPID reading as a product of the calibration factor and appropriate correction factors. The determination of the exit dose rate from the EPID signal requires the knowledge of many parameters and earlier determination of essential characteristics. (author)

  16. Perioperative management for the prevention of bacterial infection in cardiac implantable electronic device placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Imai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have become important in the treatment of cardiac disease and placement rates increased significantly in the last decade. However, despite the use of appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates are increasing disproportionately to the implantation rate. CIED infection often requires explantation of all hardware, and at times results in death. Surgical site infection (SSI is the most common cause of CIED infection as a pocket infection. The best method of combating CIED infection is prevention. Prevention of CIED infections comprises three phases: before, during, and after device implantation. The most critical factors in the prevention of SSIs are detailed operative techniques including the practice of proper technique by the surgeon and surgical team.

  17. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  18. Comparison of visual and electronic devices for individual identification of dromedary camels under different farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, G; Díaz-Medina, E; Salama, A A K; Salama, O A E; El-Shafie, M H; El-Metwaly, H A; Ayadi, M; Aljumaah, R S; Alshaikh, M A; Yahyahoui, M H; Seddik, M M; Hammadi, M; Khorchani, T; Amann, O; Cabrera, S

    2016-08-01

    The camel industry uses traditional (i.e., iron brands and ear tags) and modern (i.e., microchips) identification (ID) systems without having performance results of reference. Previously iron-branded ( = 45; 1 yr) and microchipped ( = 59; 7 yr) camels showed problems of healing (8.6% of brands) and reading (only 42.9% of brands and 69.5% of microchips were readable), which made their use inadvisable. With the aim of proposing suitable ID systems for different farming conditions, an on-field study was performed using a total of 528 dromedaries at 4 different locations (Egypt, = 83; Spain, = 304; Saudi Arabia, = 90; and Tunisia, = 51). The ID devices tested were visual (button ear tags, 28.5 mm diameter, = 178; double flag ear tags, 50 by 15 mm, = 83; both made of polyurethane) and electronic (ear tags, = 90, and rumen boluses, = 555). Electronic ear tags were polyurethane-loop type (75 by 9 mm) with a container in which a 22-mm transponder of full-duplex technology was lodged. Electronic boluses of 7 types, varying in dimensions (50 to 76 mm length, 11 to 21 mm width, and 12.7 to 82.1 g weight) and specific gravity (SG; 1.49 to 3.86) and each of them containing a 31-mm transponder of half-duplex technology, were all administered to the dromedaries at the beginning of the study. When a low-SG bolus was lost, a high-SG bolus was readministered. Readability rates of each ID system were evaluated during 1 to 3 yr, according to device and location, and yearly values were estimated for comparison. On a yearly basis, visual ear tag readability was not fully satisfactory; it was lower for rectangular ear tags (66.3%) than for button ear tags (80.9%). Yearly readability of electronic ear tags was 93.7%. Bolus readability dramatically varied according to their SG; the SG 3.0 boluses were efficiently retained (99.6 to 100%) at all locations. In conclusion, according to the expected long lifespan of camels, low ID performances were observed for iron brands, injectable

  19. Electronic Properties and Device Applications of van-der-Waals Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Jacqueline de Dios

    Successful exfoliation of graphene and discoveries of its unique electrical and thermal properties have motivated searches for other quasi two-dimensional (2D) materials with interesting properties. The layered van der Waals materials can be cleaved mechanically or exfoliated chemically by breaking the relatively weak bonding between the layers. In this dissertation research I addressed a special group of inorganic van der Waals materials -- layered transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2, where M=Mo, W, Nb, Ta or Ti and X=S, Se or Te). The focus of the investigation was electronic properties of thin films of TaSe2 and MoS2 and their device applications. In the first part of the dissertation, I describe the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with the TaSe2 thin-film conducting channel. The layers of 2H-TaSe2 were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. It was established that devices with nanometer-scale thickness channels exhibited strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. It was found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe2--Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. In the second part of the dissertation, I describe the fabrication, electrical testing and measurements of the low-frequency 1/f noise in three-terminal devices with the MoS2 thin-film channel (f is the frequency). Analysis of the experimental data allowed us to distinguish channel and contact noise contributions for both as fabricated and aged devices. The noise characteristics of MoS 2--Ti/Au devices are in agreement with the McWhorter model description. The latter is contrary to what is observed in

  20. Electron beam and mechanical lithographies as enabling factors for organic-based device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visconti, P.; Pisignano, D.; Della Torre, A.; Persano, L.; Maruccio, G.; Biasco, A.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Organic-based photonics and molecular electronics are attracting an increasing interest in modern science. The realization of high-resolution master structures by electron beam lithography (EBL) and their transfer to different organic functional materials by mechanical lithographies allow to fully exploit the wide flexibility of molecular systems for opto- and nanoelectronic devices. Planar nanojunctions, consisting of two metallic electrodes separated by an insulating medium, permit to test the molecular conduction properties. Since the typical size of a biomolecule is of the order of a few nanometer, hybrid molecular electronic (HME) devices need metallic electrodes separated by a nanometer-scale channel. Conversely, photonic applications often require 100 nm to 1 μm features on large areas. In this work, we report on the fabrication of both large-area periodic master structures with resolution down to 200 nm, and planar metallic electrodes with sub-10 nm separation obtained by EBL followed by metal electroplating deposition. The fabricated 3-terminal bio-nanodevices show a transistor-like behaviour with a maximum voltage gain of 0.76. Moreover, we developed a number of mechanical patterning methods, including soft hot embossing, rapid prototyping, sub-micrometer fluidics, high- and room-temperature nanoimprinting, to fabricate planar nanostructures on both biomolecular and organic materials. These allowed us a high-fidelity pattern transfer up to 100-nm scale resolution, without reducing the emission yields of light-emitting organics, thus opening the way to the one-step realization of organic-based confined optoelectronic devices

  1. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  2. Polycrystalline intrinsic zinc oxide to be used in transparent electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, A.; Fortunato, E.; Goncalves, A.; Marques, A.; Aguas, H.; Pereira, L.; Ferreira, I.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present results of intrinsic/non-doped zinc oxide deposited at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering able to be used as a semiconductor material on electronic devices, like for example ozone gas sensors, ultra-violet detectors and thin film transistors. These films present a resistivity as high as 2.5x10 8 Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%. Concerning the structural properties, these films are polycrystalline presenting a uniform and very smooth surface

  3. Enhancing electron transport in Si:P delta-doped devices by rapid thermal anneal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K. E. J.; Augarten, Y.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We address the use of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) to enhance electron mobility and phase coherent transport in Si:P δ-doped devices encapsulated by low temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy while minimizing dopant diffusion. RTA temperatures of 500-700 deg. C were applied to δ-doped layers encapsulated at 250 deg. C. From 4.2 K magnetotransport measurements, we find that the improved crystal quality after RTA increases the mobility/mean free path by ∼40% and the phase coherence length by ∼25%. Our results suggest that the initial capping layer has near optimal crystal quality and transport improvement achieved by a RTA is limited

  4. Perioperative Interrogation of St. Jude Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices: A Guide for Anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Brett; Essandoh, Michael K

    2018-04-01

    Feelings of trepidation or uncertainty regarding cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in the perioperative period can often be mitigated by a thorough knowledge of societal recommendations, recommended management options, and familiarity with CIEDs. Given that effective interpretation of an interrogation report is vital to determining perioperative management options and applying societal recommendations, the creation and interpretation of St. Jude CIED interrogation reports are discussed. In an effort to increase the familiarity with St. Jude transvenous CIEDs amongst anesthesiologists, basic programming of a St. Jude pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) also are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Image timing and detector performance of a matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Oncology Centre of Auckland Hospital recently purchased a Varian PortalVision TM electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Image acquisition times, input-output characteristics and contrast-detail curves of this matrix liquid ion-chamber EPID have been measured to examine the variation in imaging performance with acquisition mode. The variation in detector performance with acquisition mode has been examined. The HV cycle time can be increased to improve image quality. Consideration should be given to the acquisition mode and HV cycle time used when imaging to ensure adequate imaging performance with reasonable imaging time. (author)

  6. Device controllers using an industrial personal computer of the PF 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Kakihara, Kazuhisa; Ogawa, Yujiro; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Shidara, Tetsuo; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Device controllers for electron guns and slits using an industrial personal computer have been designed and installed in the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV Electron Linac at KEK. The design concept of the controllers is to realize a reliable system and good productivity of hardware and software by using an industrial personal computer and a programmable sequence controller. The device controllers have been working reliably for several years. (author)

  7. Effects of magnetic barriers on transport and magnetoresistance in a two-dimensional electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H. L.; Zhang, X. W., E-mail: hedge80@sina.com.cn; Dai, B.; Ren, Y. [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Z. P. [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We study theoretically the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect of 2-dimensional electron system (2DES) by the transfer matrix method. To produce the inhomogeneous magnetic field, two magnetic strips are pre-deposited on the surface of 2DES. In our work, we fix the magnetization M in one magnetic strip and adjust the tilting angle θ of magnetization in the other. The result shows that the electronic transmission and conductance vary significantly for different θ. The minimum conductance can be obtained at θ = π which corresponds to the magnetization anti-parallel alignment. The magnetoresistance ratio (MRR) calculation also indicates we would get the maximum in that case. Furthermore, we consider the magnetization M dependence of MRR in this work. When M increases, MRR peaks get higher and broader and more numbers of peaks can be observed. These results offer an alternative to get a tunable GMR device which can be controlled by adjusting the magnetization M and the magnetized angle θ.

  8. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  9. Fabrication of dissimilar metal electrodes with nanometer interelectrode distance for molecular electronic device characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Carr, Dustin W.; Tiberio, Richard C.; Greenbaum, Elias; Simpson, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    We report a versatile process for the fabrication of dissimilar metal electrodes with a minimum interelectrode distance of less than 6 nm using electron beam lithography and liftoff pattern transfer. This technique provides a controllable and reproducible method for creating structures suited for the electrical characterization of asymmetric molecules for molecular electronics applications. Electrode structures employing pairs of Au electrodes and non-Au electrodes were fabricated in three different patterns. Parallel electrode structures 300 μm long with interelectrode distances as low as 10 nm, 75 nm wide electrode pairs with interelectrode distances less than 6 nm, and a multiterminal electrode structure with reproducible interelectrode distances of 8 nm were realized using this technique. The processing issues associated with the fabrication of these structures are discussed along with the intended application of these devices. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  10. Controlling charge injection in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We demonstrate control and improvement of charge injection in organic electronic devices by utilizing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to manipulate the Schottky energy barrier between a metal electrode and the organic electronic material. Hole injection from Cu electrodes into the electroluminescent conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy,5-(2{sup {prime}}-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] was varied by using two conjugated-thiol based SAMs. The chemically modified electrodes were incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/polymer Schottky energy barriers and current{endash}voltage characteristics were measured. Decreasing (increasing) the Schottky energy barrier improves (degrades) charge injection into the polymer. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Electronic equipment and radioisotope devices developed in the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques in the years 1975-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A short review of 43 devices developed in the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques of Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the years 1975-1983 is given. 20 radioisotope arrangements, 14 electronic devices, 7 detectors for gas chromatography and X-ray detection as well as 2 arrangements for sample preparation are presented. (author)

  12. 76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission... States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players... rendered asserted claim 5 invalid. The ALJ concluded that an industry exists within the United States that...

  13. 76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission....S.C. 1337) in the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable...

  14. Theoretical aspects of the electronical devices operating due to interaction between annular electron beams and the azimuthal surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girka, V O; Girka, I O [Kharkiv State Univ. (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The physical basis is discussed of electronic devices whose operation is based on the beam or dissipative instability of the azimuthal surface waves (ASW). The ASW are electromagnetic surface waves with extraordinary polarization (with field components E{sub r}, E{sub {phi}}, H{sub z}), propagating across the axial external steady magnetic field in the cylindrical metal waveguide with cold plasma filling. The ASW fields are described by Maxwell equations. To solve the problem, the authors used the Fourier method and numerical simulation of the equations obtained. The ASW excitation was examined under conditions of beam and dissipative instabilities due to the electron beam motion. The correction to ASW eigenfrequencies caused by the waveguide chamber noncircularity was also studied. ASW delaying leads to a negative frequency correction. The ASW energy can be emitted from the narrow slot in the metallic chamber of the waveguide. The optimum wavenumber range was found where the increment values are much greater than those of the ASW decrement caused by their energy radiation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs.

  15. A conceptual design of the set-up for solid state spectroscopy with free electron laser and insertion device radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Makhov, V N

    2001-01-01

    The set-up for complex solid state spectroscopy with the use of enhanced properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers is proposed. Very high flux and pulsed properties of radiation from insertion devices and free electron lasers offer the possibility for the use of such powerful techniques as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) for the studies of excited states of electronic excitations or defects in solids. The power density of radiation can become high enough for one more method of exited-state spectroscopy: transient optical absorption spectroscopy. The set-up is supposed to combine the EPR/ODMR spectrometer, i.e. cryostat supplied with superconducting magnet and microwave system, and the optical channels for excitation (by radiation from insertion devices or free electron laser) and detection of luminescence (i.e. primary and secondary monochromators). The set-up can be used both for 'conventional' spectroscopy of solids (reflec...

  16. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dose patient verification during treatment using an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    Today, amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (aSi EPID) are currently used to check the accuracy of patient positioning. However, they are not use for dose reconstruction yet and more investigations are required to allow the use of an aSi EPID for routine dosimetric verification. The aim of this work is first to study the dosimetric characteristics of the EPID available at the Institut Curie and then, to check patient dose during treatment using these EPID. First, performance optimization of the Varian aS500 EPID system is studied. Then, a quality assurance system is set up in order to certify the image quality on a daily basis. An additional study on the dosimetric performance of the aS500 EPID is monitored to assess operational stability for dosimetry applications. Electronic portal imaging device is also a useful tool to improve IMRT quality control. The validation and the quality assurance of a portal dose image prediction system for IMRT pre-treatment quality control are performed. All dynamic IMRT fields are verified in clinical routine with the new method based on portal dosimetry. Finally, a new formalism for in vivo dosimetry using transit dose measured with EPID is developed and validated. The absolute dose measurement issue using aSi EPID is described and the midplane dose determination using in vivo dose measurements in combination with portal imaging is used with 3D-conformal-radiation therapy. (author) [fr

  18. Single Nanostructure Electrochemical Devices for Studying Electronic Properties and Structural Changes in Lithiated Si Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2011-07-19

    Nanostructured Si is a promising anode material for the next generation of Li-ion batteries, but few studies have focused on the electrical properties of the Li-Si alloy phase, which are important for determining power capabilities and ensuring sufficient electrical conduction in the electrode structure. Here, we demonstrate an electrochemical device framework suitable for testing the electrical properties of single Si nanowires (NWs) at different lithiation states and correlating these properties with structural changes via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We fi nd that single Si NWs usually exhibit Ohmic I - V response in the lithiated state, with conductivities two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the delithiated state. After a number of sequential lithiation/delithiation cycles, the single NWs show similar conductivity after each lithiation step but show large variations in conductivity in the delithiated state. Finally, devices with groups of NWs in physical contact were fabricated, and structural changes in the NWs were observed after lithiation to investigate how the electrical resistance of NW junctions and the NWs themselves affect the lithiation behavior. The results suggest that electrical resistance of NW junctions can limit lithiation. Overall, this study shows the importance of investigating the electronic properties of individual components of a battery electrode (single nanostructures in this case) along with studying the nature of interactions within a collection of these component structures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  20. Effects of atmospheric neutrons on advanced micro-electronic devices, standards and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Baggio, J.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Flament, O.

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1980's, it is known that terrestrial cosmic rays, mainly reported as atmospheric neutrons, can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipments and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits and breakdown of power devices. The high-energy neutron fluxes of interest, larger than 10 MeV, range between 10 particles/cm 2 /hour at sea level and 10 4 particles/cm 2 /hour at typical airplanes flight altitude of 30000 feet, with modulation due to solar flares. In the 1990's, the phenomenon has pervaded as a consequence of the road-map of electronic devices especially the down-scaling of transistor dimensions, the increase of signal bandwidth and the increase of the size of DRAM and SRAM memory, stand-alone or embedded on processors and system-on-chips. Failure-in-time and soft error rate became unacceptable. Test standards and design solutions have been proposed to maintain reliability of commercial products and improve those used in special high-reliability equipments such as avionic computers. The paper describes the atmospheric neutron flux, the effects in the main classes of devices and specific cases such as neutron induced single event upset observed in CMOS vs. CMOS/SOI and some mitigation issues. In this paper, a model called CCPM (critical cross-point model) is proposed to provide critical graphs of technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS. (authors)

  1. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  2. Nanoscale RRAM-based synaptic electronics: toward a neuromorphic computing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangsu; Noh, Jinwoo; Choo, Myung-Lae; Sheri, Ahmad Muqeem; Chang, Man; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Chang Jung; Jeon, Moongu; Lee, Byung-Geun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2013-09-27

    Efforts to develop scalable learning algorithms for implementation of networks of spiking neurons in silicon have been hindered by the considerable footprints of learning circuits, which grow as the number of synapses increases. Recent developments in nanotechnologies provide an extremely compact device with low-power consumption.In particular, nanoscale resistive switching devices (resistive random-access memory (RRAM)) are regarded as a promising solution for implementation of biological synapses due to their nanoscale dimensions, capacity to store multiple bits and the low energy required to operate distinct states. In this paper, we report the fabrication, modeling and implementation of nanoscale RRAM with multi-level storage capability for an electronic synapse device. In addition, we first experimentally demonstrate the learning capabilities and predictable performance by a neuromorphic circuit composed of a nanoscale 1 kbit RRAM cross-point array of synapses and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor neuron circuits. These developments open up possibilities for the development of ubiquitous ultra-dense, ultra-low-power cognitive computers.

  3. Nanoscale RRAM-based synaptic electronics: toward a neuromorphic computing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangsu; Noh, Jinwoo; Choo, Myung-lae; Sheri, Ahmad Muqeem; Jeon, Moongu; Lee, Byung-Geun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Chang, Man; Kim, Young-Bae; Kim, Chang Jung; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop scalable learning algorithms for implementation of networks of spiking neurons in silicon have been hindered by the considerable footprints of learning circuits, which grow as the number of synapses increases. Recent developments in nanotechnologies provide an extremely compact device with low-power consumption. In particular, nanoscale resistive switching devices (resistive random-access memory (RRAM)) are regarded as a promising solution for implementation of biological synapses due to their nanoscale dimensions, capacity to store multiple bits and the low energy required to operate distinct states. In this paper, we report the fabrication, modeling and implementation of nanoscale RRAM with multi-level storage capability for an electronic synapse device. In addition, we first experimentally demonstrate the learning capabilities and predictable performance by a neuromorphic circuit composed of a nanoscale 1 kbit RRAM cross-point array of synapses and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor neuron circuits. These developments open up possibilities for the development of ubiquitous ultra-dense, ultra-low-power cognitive computers. (paper)

  4. Study of the effect of heavy ion energy on the sensitivity of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the sensitivity of advanced electronic devices in radiative environments. The work deals with the detailed modeling of the deposited energy induced by heavy-ion in matter, and the influence of taking it into account in the tools simulating the response of irradiated devices. To do so, a simulation chain was developed, combining different calculation codes at various scales. In a first step, the particle-matter interaction code Geant4 is used to model the heavy ion track. These tracks are then implemented in a TCAD simulator, in order to study the response of elementary transistors to these detailed energy deposits. This step is completed with experimental measurements. Finally, the study is extended to the circuit level, by interfacing the heavy ion tracks with a SEE prediction tool. These different steps evidence the need for taking into account the radial extension of the ion track to all simulation levels, to adequately model the response of advanced devices under heavy ion irradiations. (author) [fr

  5. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF, iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF, Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA. Results. Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0, iPad2 at 12PF (209.1, Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3, Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7, and printed book at 12PF (176.8. Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions. Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  6. [Electromagnetic interference in the current era of cardiac implantable electronic devices designed for magnetic resonance environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Valentina; Santini, Luca; Forleo, Giovanni B; Della Rocca, Domenico; Panattoni, Germana; Scali, Marta; Schirripa, Valentina; Danisi, Nicola; Ammirati, Fabrizio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades we are observing a continuous increase in the number of patients wearing cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). At the same time, we face daily with a domestic and public environment featured more and more by the presence and the utilization of new emitters and finally, more medical procedures are based on electromagnetic fields as well. Therefore, the topic of the interaction of devices with electromagnetic interference (EMI) is increasingly a real and actual problem.In the medical environment most attention is paid to magnetic resonance, nevertheless the risk of interaction is present also with ionizing radiation, electrical nerve stimulation and electrosurgery. In the non-medical environment, most studies reported in the literature focused on mobile phones, metal detectors, as well as on headphones or digital players as potential EMI sources, but many other instruments and tools may be intentional or non-intentional sources of electromagnetic fields.CIED manufacturers are more and more focusing on new technological features in order to make implantable devices less susceptible to EMI. However, patients and emitter manufacturers should be aware that limitations exist and that there is not complete immunity to EMI.

  7. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  8. Conformable Skin-Like Conductive Thin Films with AgNWs Strips for Flexible Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang SUN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good conductivity at high stretching strain is one of the main requirements for the fabrication of flexible electronic devices. The elastic nature of siloxane-based elastomers enables many innovative designs in wearable sensor devices and non-invasive insertion instruments, including skin-like tactile sensors. Over the last few years, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS thin films have been widely used as the substrates in the fabrication of flexible electronic devices due to their good elasticity and outstanding biocompatibility. However, these kind of thin films usually suffer poor resistance to tearing and insufficient compliance to curved surfaces, which limits their applications. Currently no three-dimensionally mountable tactile sensor arrays have been reported commercially available. In this work, we developed a kind of mechanically compliant skin-like conductive thin film by patterning silver nano wire traces in strip-style on Dragon Skin® (DS substrates instead of PDMS. High cross- link quality was achieved then. To further improve the conductivity, a thin gold layer was coated onto the silver nanowires (AgNWs strips. Four different gold deposition routines have been designed and investigated by using different E-beam and spin coating processing methods. Owning to the intrinsically outstanding physical property of the Dragon Skin material and the uniform embedment built in the gold deposition processes, the DS/AgNWs thin films showed convincible advantages over PDMS/AgNWs thin films in both mechanical capability and conductive stability. Through experimental tests, the DS/AgNWs electrode thin films were proven to be able to maintain high conductivity following repeated linear deformations.

  9. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  10. Personal medical electronic devices and walk-through metal detector security systems: assessing electromagnetic interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guag, Joshua; Addissie, Bisrat; Witters, Donald

    2017-03-20

    There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system. Magnetic fields from sample WTMD systems were characterized for emissions and exposure of certain PMEDs. A WTMD simulator system designed and evaluated by FDA in previous studies was used to mimic the PMED exposures to the waveform from sample WTMDs. The simulation system allows for controlled PMED exposure enabling careful study with adjustable magnetic field strengths and exposure duration, and provides flexibility for PMED exposure at elevated levels in order to study EMI effects on the PMED. The PMED samples consisted of six implantable cardiac pacemakers, six implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), five implantable neurostimulators, and three insulin pumps. Each PMED was exposed in the simulator to the sample WTMD waveforms using methods based on appropriate consensus test standards for each of the device type. Testing the sample PMEDs using the WTMD simulator revealed EMI effects on two implantable pacemakers and one implantable neurostimulator for exposure field strength comparable to actual WTMD field strength. The observed effects were transient and the PMEDs returned to pre-exposure operation within a few seconds after removal from the simulated WTMD exposure fields. No EMI was observed for the sample ICDs or insulin pumps. The findings are consistent with earlier studies where certain sample PMEDs exhibited EMI effects. Clinical implications were not addressed in this study. Additional studies are needed to evaluate potential PMED

  11. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  12. Effects of Thermal Resistance on One-Dimensional Thermal Analysis of the Epidermal Flexible Electronic Devices Integrated with Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Cui, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, flexible electronic devices are increasingly used in direct contact with human skin to monitor the real-time health of human body. Based on the Fourier heat conduction equation and Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, this paper deduces the analytical solutions of one - dimensional heat transfer for flexible electronic devices integrated with human skin under the condition of a constant power. The influence of contact thermal resistance between devices and skin is considered as well. The corresponding finite element model is established to verify the correctness of analytical solutions. The results show that the finite element analysis agrees well with the analytical solution. With bigger thermal resistance, temperature increase of skin surface will decrease. This result can provide guidance for the design of flexible electronic devices to reduce the negative impact that exceeding temperature leave on human skin.

  13. A Microcontroller Operated Device for the Generation of Liquid Extracts from Conventional Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain A; Bokota, Rachael E; Majeste, Andrew E; Murfee, Walter L; Wang, Shusheng

    2018-01-18

    Electronic cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among middle and high schoolers and are the most popular alternative tobacco product among adults. High quality, reproducible research on the consequences of electronic cigarette use is essential for understanding emerging public health concerns and crafting evidence based regulatory policy. While a growing number of papers discuss electronic cigarettes, there is little consistency in methods across groups and very little consensus on results. Here, we describe a programmable laboratory device that can be used to create extracts of conventional cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette aerosol. This protocol details instructions for the assembly and operation of said device, and demonstrates the use of the generated extract in two sample applications: an in vitro cell viability assay and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. This method provides a tool for making direct comparisons between conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, and is an accessible entry point into electronic cigarette research.

  14. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  15. Surface engineered two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials for electronic and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiang

    As the sizes of individual components in electronic and optoelectronic devices approach nano scale, the performance of the devices is often determined by surface properties due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. Surface phenomena have become one of the cornerstones in nanoelectronic industry. For this reason, research on the surface functionalization has been tremendous amount of growth over the past decades, and promises to be an increasingly important field in the future. Surface functionalization, as an effective technique to modify the surface properties of a material through a physical or chemical approach, exhibits great potential to solve the problems and challenges, and modulate the performance of nanomaterials based functional devices. Surface functionalization drives the developments and applications of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated by nanomaterials. In this thesis, I demonstrate two surface functionalization approaches, namely, surface transfer doping and H2 annealing, to effectively solve the problems and significantly enhance the performance of 2D (single structure black phosphorus (BP) and heterostructure graphene/Si Schottky junction), and quasi-1D (molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) nanobelt) nanomaterials based functional devices, respectively. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements were also carried out to explore the interfacial charge transfer occurring at the interface between the nanostructures and doping layers, and the gap states in MoO 3 thin films, which provides the underlying mechanism to understand and support our device measurement results. In the first part of this thesis, I will discuss the first surface functionalization approach, namely, surface transfer doping, to effectively modulate the ambipolar characteristics of 2D few-layer BP flakes based FETs. The ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors were effectively modulated through in situ surface functionalization with cesium carbonate (Cs2

  16. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  17. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  18. The Effects of the Removal of Electronic Devices for 48 Hours on Sleep in Elite Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunican, Ian C; Martin, David T; Halson, Shona L; Reale, Reid J; Dawson, Brian T; Caldwell, John A; Jones, Maddison J; Eastwood, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of evening use of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite judo athletes. Over 6 consecutive days and nights, 23 elite Australian judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes, all electronic devices were removed on days 3 and 4 (i.e., for 48 hours: the "device-restricted group"), whereas 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the "control group"). All athletes wore an activity monitor (Readiband) continuously to provide measures of sleep quantity and quality. Other self-reported (diary) measures included time in bed, electronic device use, and rate of perceived exertion during training periods. Cognitive performance (Cogstate) and physical performance (single leg triple hop test) were also measured. When considering night 2 as a "baseline" for each group, removal of electronic devices on nights 3 and 4 (device-restricted group) resulted in no significant differences in any sleep-related measure between the groups. When comparing actigraphy-based measures of sleep to subjective measures, all athletes significantly overestimated sleep duration by 58 ± 85 minutes (p = 0.001) per night and underestimated time of sleep onset by 37 ± 72 minutes (p = 0.001) per night. No differences in physical or cognitive function were observed between the groups. This study has shown that the removal of electronic devices for a period of two nights (48 hours) during a judo camp does not affect sleep quality or quantity or influence athletic or cognitive performance.

  19. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  20. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziurdzia, P; Brzozowski, I; Bratek, P; Gelmuda, W; Kos, A

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed

  1. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the large helical device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation, the polychromator monitors second harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz). At sufficient high density, the second harmonic X-mode polarisation is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarisation. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarisation was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarisation rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarisation rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator

  2. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  3. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  4. Electron cyclotron emission measurements by means of a grating polychromator on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.C. de; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Sasao, H.; Ito, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrum at the Large Helical Device (LHD) is measured by a 14-channel grating polychromator. During standard operation the polychromator monitors 2nd harmonic frequencies (100-150 GHz) with a spectral resolution of 1.5 GHz. At sufficient high density the 2nd harmonic X-mode polarization is optically thick and can be used to determine the temperature profile. However, the large magnetic field shear in LHD affects the ECE polarization. This effect has been studied numerically. The wave polarization was found to rotate in the laboratory frame. Experiments have been carried out by means of a polarization rotator in the diagnostic waveguide system, which confirmed the calculations. By a proper setting of the polarization rotator, the rotation can be corrected and pure X-mode is detected. Temperature profiles have been measured successfully by the polychromator. (author)

  5. Phrenic paralysis during cardiac electronic device implantation: incidence, causes and clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, María; Fontenla, Adolfo; Juliá, Justo; Parra, Juan José; Arribas, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Phrenic paralysis is a known complication of central venous catheterization, but it is not listed as a complication related to cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implants. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, causes, clinical picture, and management of phrenic paralysis occurring in this scenario. We retrospectively analysed data from our CIED implantation database and identified those patients who suffered phrenic paralysis during the implantation procedure. Four of 891 patients (subclavian puncture in 626) developed phrenic paralysis during pacemaker or defibrillator implant procedures. Severe respiratory failure needing ventilatory support occurred in two, being the phrenic paralysis transient in all of the cases. Transient phrenic paralysis may occur during CIED implantation probably related to the infiltration of local anaesthesia in the subclavian area. Mechanism, prevention, and management are discussed. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  7. Radiotherapy-Induced Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Dysfunction in Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Chamula, Mathilde; Brouillard, Émilie; Lavoie, Caroline; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Archambault, Louis; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Gaudreault, Valérie; Joncas, Sébastien X; Israeli, Zeev; Parviz, Yasir; Mamas, Mamas A; Lavi, Shahar

    2017-01-15

    Radiotherapy can affect the electronic components of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) resulting in malfunction and/or damage. We sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of CIED dysfunction (CIED-D) after radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Clinical characteristics, cancer, different types of CIEDs, and radiation dose were evaluated. The investigation identified 230 patients, mean age 78 ± 8 years and 70% were men. A total of 199 patients had pacemakers (59% dual chamber), 21 (9%) cardioverter-defibrillators, and 10 (4%) resynchronizators or defibrillators. The left pectoral (n = 192, 83%) was the most common CIED location. Sixteen patients (7%) experienced 18 events of CIED-D after radiotherapy. Reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction, and only 1 (6%) patient of those with CIED-D experienced symptoms of atrioventricular dyssynchrony. Those who had CIED-D tended to have a shorter device age at the time of radiotherapy compared to those who did not (2.5 ± 1.5 vs 3.8 ± 3.4 years, p = 0.09). The total dose prescribed to the tumor was significantly greater among those who had CIED-D (66 ± 30 vs 42 ± 23 Gy, p radiotherapy for cancer treatment, the occurrence of newly diagnosed CIED-D was 7%, and the reset to backup pacing mode was the most common encountered dysfunction. The total dose prescribed to the tumor was a predictor of CIED-D. Importantly, although the unpredictability of CIEDs under radiotherapy is still an issue, none of our patients experienced significant symptoms, life-threatening arrhythmias, or conduction disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatrists' Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Farifteh F; Fochtmann, Laura J; Clarke, Diana E; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K; Plovnick, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists' Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists' comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted.

  9. Psychiatrists’ Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtmann, Laura J.; Clarke, Diana E.; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K.; Plovnick, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists’ Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists’ comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted. PMID:26667248

  10. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  11. Radiographic implications of procedures involving cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs – Selected aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Steckiewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED implantation procedures require the use of X-rays, which is reflected by such parameters as total fluoroscopy time (TFT and dose-area product (DAP – defined as the absorbed dose multiplied by the area irradiated. Material and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 522 CIED implantation (424 de novo and 98 device upgrade and new lead placement procedures in 176 women and 346 men (mean age 75±11 years over the period 2012–2015. The recorded procedure-related parameters TFT and DAP were evaluated in the subgroups specified below. The group of 424 de novo procedures included 203 pacemaker (PM and 171 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD implantation procedures, separately stratified by single-chamber and dual-chamber systems. Another subgroup of de novo procedures involved 50 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT devices. The evaluated parameters in the group of 98 upgrade procedures were compared between 2 subgroups: CRT only and combined PM and ICD implantation procedures. Results: We observed differences in TFT and DAP values between procedure types, with PM-related procedures showing the lowest, ICD – intermediate (with values for single-chamber considerably lower than those for dual-chamber systems and CRT implantation procedures – highest X-ray exposure. Upgrades to CRT were associated with 4 times higher TFT and DAP values in comparison to those during other upgrade procedures. Cardiac resynchronization therapy de novo implantation procedures and upgrades to CRT showed similar mean values of these evaluated parameters. Conclusions: Total fluoroscopy time and DAP values correlated progressively with CIED implantation procedure complexity, with CRT-related procedures showing the highest values of both parameters. Med Pr 2017;68(3:363–374

  12. Transaxillary Subpectoral Placement of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Young Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe current indications of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have expanded to include young patients with serious cardiac risk factors, but CIED placement has the disadvantage of involving unsightly scarring and bulging of the chest wall. A collaborative team of cardiologists and plastic surgeons developed a technique for the subpectoral placement of CIEDs in young female patients via a transaxillary approach.MethodsFrom July 2012 to December 2015, subpectoral CIED placement via an axillary incision was performed in 10 young female patients, with a mean age of 25.9 years and mean body mass index of 20.1 kg/m2. In the supine position, with the patient's shoulder abducted, an approximately 5-cm linear incision was made along one of the deepest axillary creases. The submuscular plane was identified at the lateral border of the pectoralis major, and the dissection continued over the clavipectoral fascia until the subpectoral pocket could securely receive a pulse generator. Slight upward dissection also exposed an entrance to the subclavian vein, allowing the cardiology team to gain access to the vein. One patient with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent augmentation mammoplasty and CIED insertion simultaneously.ResultsOne case of late-onset device infection occurred. All patients were highly satisfied with the results and reported that they would recommend the procedure to others.ConclusionsWith superior aesthetic outcomes compared to conventional methods, the subpectoral placement of CIEDs via a transaxillary approach is an effective, single-incision method to hide operative scarring and minimize bulging of the device, and is particularly beneficial for young female or lean patients.

  13. Full-band quantum simulation of electron devices with the pseudopotential method: Theory, implementation, and applications

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    Pala, M. G.; Esseni, D.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the theory, implementation, and application of a quantum transport modeling approach based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and a full-band empirical pseudopotential Hamiltonian. We here propose to employ a hybrid real-space/plane-wave basis that results in a significant reduction of the computational complexity compared to a full plane-wave basis. To this purpose, we provide a theoretical formulation in the hybrid basis of the quantum confinement, the self-energies of the leads, and the coupling between the device and the leads. After discussing the theory and the implementation of the new simulation methodology, we report results for complete, self-consistent simulations of different electron devices, including a silicon Esaki diode, a thin-body silicon field effect transistor (FET), and a germanium tunnel FET. The simulated transistors have technologically relevant geometrical features with a semiconductor film thickness of about 4 nm and a channel length ranging from 10 to 17 nm. We believe that the newly proposed formalism may find applications also in transport models based on ab initio Hamiltonians, as those employed in density functional theory methods.

  14. Surface Passivation for Reliable Measurement of Bulk Electronic Properties of Heterojunction Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Benjamin; Guerra-Nunez, Carlos; Carron, Romain; Nishiwaki, Shiro; La Mattina, Fabio; Pianezzi, Fabian; Losio, Paolo A; Avancini, Enrico; Reinhard, Patrick; Haass, Stefan G; Lingg, Martina; Feurer, Thomas; Utke, Ivo; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2016-10-01

    Quantum efficiency measurements of state of the art Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells reveal current losses in the near infrared spectral region. These losses can be ascribed to inadequate optical absorption or poor collection of photogenerated charge carriers. Insight on the limiting mechanism is crucial for the development of more efficient devices. The electron beam induced current measurement technique applied on device cross-sections promises an experimental access to depth resolved information about the charge carrier collection probability. Here, this technique is used to show that charge carrier collection in CIGS deposited by multistage co-evaporation at low temperature is efficient over the optically active region and collection losses are minor as compared to the optical ones. Implications on the favorable absorber design are discussed. Furthermore, it is observed that the measurement is strongly affected by cross-section surface recombination and an accurate determination of the collection efficiency is not possible. Therefore it is proposed and shown that the use of an Al 2 O 3 layer deposited onto the cleaved cross-section significantly improves the accuracy of the measurement by reducing the surface recombination. A model for the passivation mechanism is presented and the passivation concept is extended to other solar cell technologies such as CdTe and Cu 2 (Zn,Sn)(S,Se) 4 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  16. Evaluation of image quality for various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of College of Health Science, Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-12-15

    In megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy, delivering the dose to the target volume is important while protecting the surrounding normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using an edge block in megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI). We used an edge block, which consists of tungsten with dimensions of 19 (thickness) × 10 (length) × 1 (width) cm3 and measured the pre-sampling MTF at 6 MV energy. Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM (Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), iViewGT (Elekta) and Clinac®iX (Varian) were used. As for MTF results, TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free(FFF) showed the highest values of 0.46 mm-1and1.40mm-1for MTF 0.5 and 0.1. In NPS, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the lowest noise distribution. In DQE, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the best efficiency at a peak DQE and 1 mm-1DQE of 0.0026 and 0.00014, respectively. This study could be used not only for traditional QA imaging but also for quantitative MTF, NPS, and DQE measurement for development of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)

  17. Detecting the Use of Intentionally Transmitting Personal Electronic Devices Onboard Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Randy; Ely, Jay J.; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The need to detect unauthorized usage of intentionally transmitting portable electronic devices (PEDs) onboard commercial aircraft is growing, while still allowing passengers to use selected unintentionally transmitting devices, such as laptop computers and CD players during non-critical stages of flight. The following paper presents an installed system for detecting PEDs over multiple frequency bands. Additionally, the advantages of a fixed verses mobile system are discussed. While data is presented to cover the frequency range of 20 MHz to 6.5 GHz, special attention was given to the Cellular/PCS bands as well as Bluetooth and the FRS radio bands. Measurement data from both the semi-anechoic and reverberation chambers are then analyzed and correlated with data collected onboard a commercial aircraft to determine the dominant mode of coupling inside the passenger cabin of the aircraft versus distance from the source. As a final check of system feasibility, several PEDs transmission signatures were recorded and compared with the expected levels.

  18. Improving Charge Injection in Organic Electronic Devices Using Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-03-01

    Organic electronic devices consist of one or more insulating organic layers contacted by metallic conductors. The Schottky energy barrier between the metal and the organic material is determined by the work function of the metal contact as described in the ideal Schottky model. The magnitude of the metal/organic Schottky energy barrier controls charge injection from the metal into the organic layer. Previously, polar alkane-thiol based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to change the Schottky energy barrier between the metal and an organic film by more than 1 eV. In these SAMs, the large energy gap of the alkane molecules blocks charge injection into the organic layer despite the decrease of the Schottky energy barrier. Here, we demonstrate improved charge injection into the organic material by using conjugated self-assembled monolayers. The conjugated SAMs have modest energy gaps which allow improved charge injection into the organic layer. We present measurements of current-voltage characteristics and metal/organic Schottky energy barriers for device structures both with and without conjugated SAMs.

  19. Electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines. Elektronische Zuendvorrichtung fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhard, W

    1983-07-14

    The purpose of the invention is to create an electronic ignition device for internal combustion engines, so that the exact setting of a required ignition timing can be done without troublesome balancing of the circuit and without temperature compensation processes. According to the invention, in order to solve this problem, the ignition device is characterized by an auxiliary circuit, with an auxiliary winding magnetically coupled to the ignition coil, a capacitor and a diode, which is connected in parallel with the control section of the control component. The auxiliary winding charges the capacitor up via the diode, as long as the induction and therefore the voltage in the auxiliary winding are increasing. After exceeding the maximum voltage, this is maintained at the capacitor while the voltage in the auxiliary winding decreases. If the difference reaches the threshold voltage of the control component, in particular of a thyristor, this is switched on and blocks the switching transistor. Due to this circuit, the ignition timing is very close behind the timing of the greatest possible energy input into the primary coil.

  20. An ontology-based annotation of cardiac implantable electronic devices to detect therapy changes in a national registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Arnaud; Mabo, Philippe; Chauvin, Michel; Burgun, Anita

    2015-05-01

    The patient population benefitting from cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is increasing. This study introduces a device annotation method that supports the consistent description of the functional attributes of cardiac devices and evaluates how this method can detect device changes from a CIED registry. We designed the Cardiac Device Ontology, an ontology of CIEDs and device functions. We annotated 146 cardiac devices with this ontology and used it to detect therapy changes with respect to atrioventricular pacing, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and defibrillation capability in a French national registry of patients with implants (STIDEFIX). We then analyzed a set of 6905 device replacements from the STIDEFIX registry. Ontology-based identification of therapy changes (upgraded, downgraded, or similar) was accurate (6905 cases) and performed better than straightforward analysis of the registry codes (F-measure 1.00 versus 0.75 to 0.97). This study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of ontology-based functional annotation of devices in the cardiac domain. Such annotation allowed a better description and in-depth analysis of STIDEFIX. This method was useful for the automatic detection of therapy changes and may be reused for analyzing data from other device registries.