Detection of Electromechanical Wave Propagation Using Synchronized Phasor Measurements
Suryawanshi, Prakash; Dambhare, Sanjay; Pramanik, Ashutosh
2014-01-01
Considering electrical network as a continuum has become popular for electromechanical wave analysis. This paper reviews the concept of electromechanical wave propagation. Analysis of large number of generator ring system will be an easy way to illustrate wave propagation. The property of traveling waves is that the maximum and minimum values do not occur at the same time instants and hence the difference between these time delays can be easily calculated. The homogeneous, isotropic 10 generator ring system is modeled using electromagnetic transient simulation programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the time delays and wave velocities using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD)/Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The disturbances considered here are generator disconnections and line trips.
Fully Coupled Electromechanical Elastodynamic Model for Guided Wave Propagation Analysis
Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
2013-01-01
Physics-based computational models play a key role in the study of wave propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage detection methodologies. Due to the complex nature of guided waves, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, a fully coupled electromechanical elastodynamic model for wave propagation in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material system is developed. The final framework provides the full three dimensional displacement and electrical potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated theoretically and proven computationally efficient. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. Collocated actuation of the fundamental Lamb wave modes is modeled over a range of frequenc...
Rahman, S; Barnes, C H W
2005-01-01
We describe and evaluate a numerical solution strategy for simulating surface acoustic waves through semiconductor devices with complex geometries. This multi-physics problem is of particular relevance to the design of quantum electronic devices. The mathematical model consists of two coupled partial differential equations for the elastic wave propagation and the electric field, respectively, in anisotropic piezoelectric media. These equations are discretized by the finite element method in space and by a finite difference method in time. The latter method yields a convenient numerical decoupling of the governing equations. We describe how a computer implementation can utilize the decoupling and via object-oriented programming techniques reuse independent codes for the Poisson equation and the linear time-dependent elasticity equation. First we apply the simulator to a simplified model problem for verifying the implementation, and thereafter we show that the methodology is capable of simulating a real-world c...
Ferrarese, Giorgio
2011-01-01
Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics
Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes
2010-01-01
In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a
Sobczyk, K
1985-01-01
This is a concise, unified exposition of the existing methods of analysis of linear stochastic waves with particular reference to the most recent results. Both scalar and vector waves are considered. Principal attention is concentrated on wave propagation in stochastic media and wave scattering at stochastic surfaces. However, discussion extends also to various mathematical aspects of stochastic wave equations and problems of modelling stochastic media.
David, P
2013-01-01
Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear
TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES
Andrei G. Marchuk
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.
Wave propagation in elastic solids
Achenbach, Jan
1984-01-01
The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, Julian L
1990-01-01
This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...
Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation
Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie
2013-04-23
Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.
Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.
Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu
2017-01-23
Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively.
Wave propagation and group velocity
Brillouin, Léon
1960-01-01
Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter
Wave equations for pulse propagation
Shore, B.W.
1987-06-24
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation.
Wave Propagation in Modified Gravity
Lindroos, Jan Ø; Mota, David F
2015-01-01
We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the non-linear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within General Relativity such approximation is good and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and non-linearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated to the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that t...
Propagation of sound waves in ducts
Jacobsen, Finn
2000-01-01
Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....
Love wave propagation in layered magneto- electro-elastic structures
2008-01-01
An analytical approach was taken to investigate Love wave propagation in a layered magneto-electro-elastic structure, where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) mate-rial thin layer was bonded to a semi-infinite piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) sub-strate. Both piezoelectric and piezomagnetic ceramics were polarized in the anti-plane (z-axis) direction. The analytical solution of dispersion relations was obtained for magneto-electrically open and short boundary conditions. The phase velocity, group velocity, magneto-electromechanical coupling factor, electric po-tential, and magnetic potential were calculated and discussed in detail. The nu-merical results show that the piezomagnetic effects have remarkable effect on the propagation of Love waves in the layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structures.
Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures
DU JianKe; JIN XiaoYing; WANG Ji
2008-01-01
An analytical approach was taken to investigate Love wave propagation in a layered magneto-electro-elastic structure,where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) mate-rial thin layer was bonded to a semi-infinite piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) sub-strate.Both piezoelectric and piezomagnetic ceramics were polarized in the anti-plane (z-axis) direction.The analytical solution of dispersion relations was obtained for magneto-electrically open and short boundary conditions.The phase velocity,group velocity,magneto-electromechanical coupling factor,electric po-tential,and magnetic potential were calculated and discussed in detail.The nu-merical results show that the piezomagnetic effects have remarkable effect on the propagation of Love waves in the layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structures.
Wave equations for pulse propagation
Shore, B. W.
1987-06-01
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.
Propagation of sound waves in ducts
Jacobsen, Finn
2000-01-01
Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....
Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium
M D Sharma
2008-12-01
Biot ’s theory for wave propagation in saturated porous solid is modiﬁed to study the propagation of thermoelastic waves in poroelastic medium. Propagation of plane harmonic waves is considered in isotropic poroelastic medium. Relations are derived among the wave-induced temperature in the medium and the displacements of ﬂuid and solid particles. Christoffel equations obtained are modiﬁed with the thermal as well as thermoelastic coupling parameters. These equations explain the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are attenuating longitudinal waves and one is a non-attenuating transverse wave. Thermal properties of the medium have no effect on the transverse wave. The velocities and attenuation of the longitudinal waves are computed for a numerical model of liquid-saturated sandstone. Their variations with thermal as well as poroelastic parameters are exhibited through numerical examples.
Observations of Obliquely Propagating Electron Bernstein Waves
Armstrong, R. J.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Stenzel, R. L.
1981-01-01
Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation.......Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation....
Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.
Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai
2007-03-01
An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.
Comparison characteristics of surface acoustic waves propagating on LGT and quartz substrates
ZHANG Guowei; SHI Wenkang; JI Xiaojun; HAN Tao
2004-01-01
For comprehending the propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on novel piezoelectric crystal Langatate (LGT), the numerical analysis of the most important propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on LGT are presented and compared with that of quartz. The results are that the phase velocity on LGT is generally about 1000 m/s slower than that on quartz; there are zero temperature cuts and pure mode directions on LGT; the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) of LGT is larger than that of quartz. The results show that LGT has lower propagation velocity, higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, good temperature stability and other good characteristic. The results also show that there are somewhat deviations with different material constants, especially, the temperature coefficient of frequency.
Lamb Wave Propagation in Laminated Composite Structures
Gopalakrishnan, S.
2013-01-01
Damage detection using guided Lamb waves is an important tool in Structural health Monitoring. In this paper, we outline a method of obtaining Lamb wave modes in composite structures using two dimensional Spectral Finite Elements. Using this approach, Lamb wave dispersion curves are obtained for laminated composite structures with different fibre orientation. These propagating Lamb wave modes are pictorially captured using tone burst signal.
Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2006-01-01
Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....
Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves
Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A
2013-01-01
Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte
Voigt-wave propagation in active materials
Mackay, Tom G
2015-01-01
If a dissipative anisotropic dielectric material, characterized by the permittivity matrix $\\underline{\\underline{\\epsilon}}$, supports Voigt-wave propagation, then so too does the analogous active material characterized by the permittivity matrix $\\underline{\\underline{{\\tilde{\\epsilon}}}}$, where $\\underline{\\underline{{\\tilde{\\epsilon}}}}$ is the hermitian conjugate of $\\underline{\\underline{\\epsilon}}$. Consequently, a dissipative material that supports Voigt-wave propagation can give rise to a material that supports the propagation of Voigt waves with attendant linear gain in amplitude with propagation distance, by infiltration with an active dye.
Lamb waves propagation in layered piezoelectric/piezomagnetic plates.
Ezzin, Hamdi; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2017-04-01
A dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of harmonic waves in magneto-electro-elastic plates composed of piezoelectric BaTiO3(B) and magnetostrictive CoFe2O4(F) material. The state-vector approach is employed to derive the propagator matrix which connects the field variables at the upper interface to those at the lower interface of each layer. The ordinary differential approach is employed to determine the wave propagating characteristics in the plate by imposing the traction-free boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the layered plate. The dispersion curves of the piezoelectric-piezomagnetic plate are shown for different thickness ratios. The numerical results show clearly the influence of different stacking sequences as well as thickness ratio on dispersion curves and on magneto-electromechanical coupling factor. These findings could be relevant to the analysis and design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices constructed from piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials.
Slow wave propagation in soft adhesive interfaces.
Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan K; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan
2016-11-16
Stick-slip in sliding of soft adhesive surfaces has long been associated with the propagation of Schallamach waves, a type of slow surface wave. Recently it was demonstrated using in situ experiments that two other kinds of slow waves-separation pulses and slip pulses-also mediate stick-slip (Viswanathan et al., Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 5265-5275). While separation pulses, like Schallamach waves, involve local interface detachment, slip pulses are moving stress fronts with no detachment. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of these three waves in a linear elastodynamics framework. Different boundary conditions apply depending on whether or not local interface detachment occurs. It is shown that the interface dynamics accompanying slow waves is governed by a system of integral equations. Closed-form analytical expressions are obtained for the interfacial pressure, shear stress, displacements and velocities. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves emerge naturally as wave solutions of the integral equations, with oppositely oriented directions of propagation. Wave propagation is found to be stable in the stress regime where linearized elasticity is a physically valid approximation. Interestingly, the analysis reveals that slow traveling wave solutions are not possible in a Coulomb friction framework for slip pulses. The theory provides a unified picture of stick-slip dynamics and slow wave propagation in adhesive contacts, consistent with experimental observations.
ANALYSE OF PULSE WAVE PROPAGATION IN ARTERIES
PAN Yi-shan; JIA Xiao-bo; CUI Chang-kui; XIAO Xiao-chun
2006-01-01
Based upon the blood vessel of being regarded as the elasticity tube, and that the tissue restricts the blood vessel wall, the rule of pulse wave propagation in blood vessel was studied. The viscosity of blood, the elastic modulus of blood vessel, the radius of tube that influenced the pulse wave propagation were analyzed. Comparing the result that considered the viscosity of blood with another result that did not consider the viscosity of blood, we finally discover that the viscosity of blood that influences the pulse wave propagation can not be neglected; and with the accretion of the elastic modulus the speed of propagation augments and the press value of blood stream heightens; when diameter of blood vessel reduces, the press of blood stream also heightens and the speed of pulse wave also augments. These results will contribute to making use of the information of pulse wave to analyse and auxiliarily diagnose some causes of human disease.
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Wave propagation and scattering in random media
Ishimaru, Akira
1978-01-01
Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an
PROPAGATION OF CYLINDRICAL WAVES IN POROELASTIC MEDIA
Vorona Yu.V.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates the harmonic axisymmetric wave propagation in poroelastic media. The computational formulas for the study of displacements and stresses that occur during vibrations in a wide frequency range are proposed.
Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations
Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.
2011-01-01
Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the wa
Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves
Lindzen, Richard S.
1988-01-01
The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.
Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.
Valdez, M; Balachandran, B
2013-04-01
In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated
Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.
Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F
2010-04-01
Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.
Ezzin, Hamdi; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2016-07-01
A theoretical approach is taken into consideration to investigate Love wave propagation in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric layer on a piezomagnetic half-space. The magneto-electrically open and short conditions are applied to solve the problem. The phase and group velocity of the Love wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The variations of magneto-electromechanical coupling factor, mechanical displacements, electric and magnetic potentials along the thickness direction of the layers are obtained and discussed. The numerical results clearly show the influence of different stacking sequences on dispersion curves and on magneto-electromechanical coupling factor. This work may be relevant to analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials.
FLEXURAL WAVE PROPAGATION IN NARROW MINDLIN'S PLATE
HU Chao; HAN Gang; FANG Xue-qian; HUANG Wen-hu
2006-01-01
Appling Mindlin's theory of thick plates and Hamilton system to propagation of elastic waves under free boundary condition, a solution of the problem was given.Dispersion equations of propagation mode of strip plates were deduced from eigenfunction expansion method. It was compared with the dispersion relation that was gained through solution of thick plate theory proposed by Mindlin. Based on the two kinds of theories,the dispersion curves show great difference in the region of short waves, and the cutoff frequencies are higher in Hamiltonian systems. However, the dispersion curves are almost the same in the region of long waves.
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes
Ziepke, A; Engel, H
2016-01-01
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we can observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation. In addition, using the Fick-Jacobs approach for the highly diffusive limit we show that wave velocities within tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pul...
Ducted propagation of chorus waves: Cluster observations
K. H. Yearby
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Ducted propagation of whistler waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system was discussed and studied long before the first in-situ spacecraft measurements. While a number of implicit examples of the existence of ducted propagation have been found, direct observation of ducts has been hampered by the low sampling rates of measurements of the plasma density. The present paper is based on Cluster observations of chorus waves. The ability to use measurements of the spacecraft potential as a proxy for high time resolution electron density measurements is exploited to identify a number of cases when increased chorus wave power, observed within the radiation belts, is observed simultaneously with density enchantments. It is argued that the observation of ducted propagation of chorus implies modification of numerical models for plasma-wave interactions within the radiation belts.
Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves
Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas
1969-01-01
Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a
Unidirectional propagation of designer surface acoustic waves
Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2014-01-01
We propose an efficient design route to generate unidirectional propagation of the designer surface acoustic waves. The whole system consists of a periodically corrugated rigid plate combining with a pair of asymmetric narrow slits. The directionality of the structure-induced surface waves stems from the destructive interference between the evanescent waves emitted from the double slits. The theoretical prediction is validated well by simulations and experiments. Promising applications can be anticipated, such as in designing compact acoustic circuits.
Faraday Pilot-Waves: Generation and Propagation
Galeano-Rios, Carlos; Milewski, Paul; Nachbin, André; Bush, John
2015-11-01
We examine the dynamics of drops bouncing on a fluid bath subjected to vertical vibration. We solve a system of linear PDEs to compute the surface wave generation and propagation. Waves are triggered at each bounce, giving rise to the Faraday pilot-wave field. The model captures several of the behaviors observed in the laboratory, including transitions between a variety of bouncing and walking states, the Doppler effect, and droplet-droplet interactions. Thanks to the NSF.
Turbulent Transitions in Optical Wave Propagation.
Pierangeli, D; Di Mei, F; Di Domenico, G; Agranat, A J; Conti, C; DelRe, E
2016-10-28
We report the direct observation of the onset of turbulence in propagating one-dimensional optical waves. The transition occurs as the disordered hosting material passes from being linear to one with extreme nonlinearity. As the response grows, increased wave interaction causes a modulational unstable quasihomogeneous flow to be superseded by a chaotic and spatially incoherent one. Statistical analysis of high-resolution wave behavior in the turbulent regime unveils the emergence of concomitant rogue waves. The transition, observed in a photorefractive ferroelectric crystal, introduces a new and rich experimental setting for the study of optical wave turbulence and information transport in conditions dominated by large fluctuations and extreme nonlinearity.
Tropical response to extratropical eastward propagating waves
S. Sridharan
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Space–time spectral analysis of ERA-interim winds and temperature at 200 hPa for December 2012–February 2013 shows the presence of eastward propagating waves with period near 18 days in mid-latitude meridional winds at 200 hPa. The 18 day waves of k = 1–2 are dominantly present at latitudes greater than 80°, whereas the waves of k = 3–4 are dominant at 60° of both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Though the 18 day wave of smaller zonal wavenumbers (k = 1–2 are confined to high latitudes, there is an equatorward propagation of the 18 day wave of k = 4 and 5. The wave amplitude of k = 5 is dominant than that of k = 4 at tropical latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH, there is a poleward tilt in the phase of the wave of k = 5 at mid-latitudes, as height increases indicating the baroclinic nature of the wave, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, the wave has barotropic structure as there is no significant phase variation with height. At the NH subtropics, the wave activity is confined to 500–70 hPa with moderate amplitudes. It is reported for the first time that the wave of similar periodicity (18 day and zonal structure (k = 5 as that of extratropical wave disturbance has been observed in tropical OLR, a proxy for tropical convection. We suggest that the selective response of the tropical wave forcing may be due to the lateral forcing of the eastward propagating extratropical wave of similar periodicity and zonal structure.
Yuan, Xiaoyan
2009-01-01
This thesis work builds upon the theoretical studies and full-wave analysis of radio frequency micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (RF M/NEMS) integrated multi-functional reconfigurable antennas(MRAs). This is a part of the overall M/NEMS research efforts performed in the RF NEMS Laboratory at USU, which includes design, microfabrication, test, and characterization of M/NEMS integrated congitive wireless communication systems (fig. A.1). The thesis work focuses on two MRAs. 1) A tri...
Wave propagation on microstate geometries
Keir, Joseph
2016-01-01
Supersymmetric microstate geometries were recently conjectured to be nonlinearly unstable due to numerical and heuristic evidence, based on the existence of very slowly decaying solutions to the linear wave equation on these backgrounds. In this paper, we give a thorough mathematical treatment of the linear wave equation on both two and three charge supersymmetric microstate geometries, finding a number of surprising results. In both cases we prove that solutions to the wave equation have uniformly bounded local energy, despite the fact that three charge microstates possess an ergoregion; these geometries therefore avoid Friedman's "ergosphere instability". In fact, in the three charge case we are able to construct solutions to the wave equation with local energy that neither grows nor decays, although this data must have nontrivial dependence on the Kaluza-Klein coordinate. In the two charge case we construct quasimodes and use these to bound the uniform decay rate, showing that the only possible uniform dec...
Wave propagation in complex coordinates
Horsley, S A R; Philbin, T G
2015-01-01
We investigate the analytic continuation of wave equations into the complex position plane. For the particular case of electromagnetic waves we provide a physical meaning for such an analytic continuation in terms of a family of closely related inhomogeneous media. For bounded permittivity profiles we find the phenomenon of reflection can be related to branch cuts in the wave that originate from poles of the permittivity at complex positions. Demanding that these branch cuts disappear, we derive a large family of inhomogeneous media that are reflectionless for a single angle of incidence. Extending this property to all angles of incidence leads us to a generalized form of the Poschl Teller potentials. We conclude by analyzing our findings within the phase integral (WKB) method.
Wave Propagation in Smart Materials
Pedersen, Michael
1999-01-01
In this paper we deal with the behavior of solutions to hyperbolicequations such as the wave equation:\\begin{equation}\\label{waveeq1}\\frac{\\partial^2}{\\partial t^2}u-\\Delta u=f,\\end{equation}or the equations of linear elasticity for an isotropic medium:\\begin{equation}\\label{elasteq1}\\frac{\\parti...
Wave Propagation in Smart Materials
Pedersen, Michael
1999-01-01
In this paper we deal with the behavior of solutions to hyperbolic equations such as the wave equation: \\begin{equation}\\label{waveeq1} \\frac{\\partial^2}{\\partial t^2}u-\\Delta u=f, \\end{equation} or the equations of linear elasticity for an isotropic medium: \\begin{equation}\\label{elasteq1} \\frac...
Topology Optimization for Transient Wave Propagation Problems
Matzen, René
as for vectorial elastic wave propagation problems using finite element analysis [P2], [P4]. The concept is implemented in a parallel computing code that includes efficient techniques for performing gradient based topology optimization. Using the developed computational framework the thesis considers four...... new technology, by designing new materials and their layout. The thesis presents a general framework for applying topology optimization in the design of material layouts for transient wave propagation problems. In contrast to the high level of modeling in the frequency domain, time domain topology...
Propagation of shock waves through clouds
Zhou, Xin Xin
1990-10-01
The behavior of a shock wave propagating into a cloud consisting of an inert gas, water vapor and water droplets was investigated. This has particular application to sonic bangs propagating in the atmosphere. The finite different method of MacCormack is extended to solve the one and two dimensional, two phase flow problems in which mass, momentum and energy transfers are included. The FCT (Fluid Corrected Transport) technique developed by Boris and Book was used in the basic numerical scheme as a powerful corrective procedure. The results for the transmitted shock waves propagating in a one dimensional, semi infinite cloud obtained by the finite difference approach are in good agreement with previous results by Kao using the method characteristics. The advantage of the finite difference method is its adaptability to two and three dimensional problems. Shock wave propagation through a finite cloud and into an expansion with a 90 degree corner was investigated. It was found that the transfer processes between the two phases in two dimensional flow are much more complicated than in the one dimensional flow cases. This is mainly due to the vortex and expansion wave generated at the corner. In the case considered, further complications were generated by the reflected shock wave from the floor. Good agreement with experiment was found for one phase flow but experimental data for the two phase case is not yet available to validate the two phase calculations.
Free Propagation of Wave in Viscoelastic Cables with Small Curvature
邹宗兰
2003-01-01
The coupled longitudinal-transverse waves propagating freely along a viscoelastic cable was studied. The frequency-spectrum equation governing propagating waves and the formulations of the phase velocities and the group velocities characterizing propagating waves were derived. The effects of viscosity parameters on the phase velocities and the group velocities were investigated with numerical simulation. The analyses show that viscosity has a strong influence on the phase velocity and the group velocity of propagating waves and attenuation waves for longitudinal-dominant waves, but the phase velocities of propagating waves of transverse-dominant waves do not change with viscosity.
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation
Schakel, M.D.
2011-01-01
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed, creat
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media
Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...
Domain Wall Propagation through Spin Wave Emission
Wang, X.S.; Yan, P.; Shen, Y.H.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Wang, X.R.
2012-01-01
We theoretically study field-induced domain wall motion in an electrically insulating ferromagnet with hard- and easy-axis anisotropies. Domain walls can propagate along a dissipationless wire through spin wave emission locked into the known soliton velocity at low fields. In the presence of damping
Electromagnetic wave propagations in conjugate metamaterials.
Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang
2017-03-06
In this work, by employing field transformation optics, we deduce a special kind of materials called conjugate metamaterials, which can support intriguing electromagnetic wave propagations, such as negative refractions and lasing phenomena. These materials could also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens, and the so-called "perfect lens" is demonstrated to be a limiting case.
Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.
Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.
Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…
Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings
Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2017-01-01
The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....
Thermoelastic wave propagation in laminated composites plates
Verma K. L.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The dispersion of thermoelastic waves propagation in an arbitrary direction in laminated composites plates is studied in the framework of generalized thermoelasticity in this article. Three dimensional field equations of thermoelasticity with relaxation times are considered. Characteristic equation is obtained on employing the continuity of displacements, temperature, stresses and thermal gradient at the layers’ interfaces. Some important particular cases such as of free waves on reducing plates to single layer and the surface waves when thickness tends to infinity are also discussed. Uncoupled and coupled thermoelasticity are the particular cases of the obtained results. Numerical results are also obtained and represented graphically.
Love Wave Propagation in Poro elasticity
Y.V. Rama Rao
1978-10-01
Full Text Available It is observed that on similar reasons as in classical theory of elasticity, SH wave propagation in a semi infinite poroelastic body is not possible and is possible when there is a layer of another poro elastic medium over it i.e., Love waves. Two particular cases are considered in one of which phase velocity can be determined for a given wave length. In the same case, equation for phase velocity is of the same form as that of the classical theory of Elasticity.
The effect of the localization of Q wave myocardial infarction on ventricular electromechanics.
O'Sullivan, Christine A; Ramzy, Ihab S; Li, Wei; Sutton, Richard; Coats, Andrew; Gibson, Derek G; Henein, Michael Y
2002-08-01
The exact location of a Q wave myocardial infarction has an important effect on overall left ventricular function. To assess the effect of localization of Q wave infarction on left ventricular minor and long axis function, with particular reference to electromechanical disturbances. We studied 72 patients with Q wave myocardial infarction; 35 anterior, age 61+/-15 years and 37 inferior, age 62+/-12 years. ECG intervals were automatically measured by Hewlett-Packard Pagewriter and LV dimension and filling velocities studied by transthoracic echocardiography and simultaneous phonocardiogram. Findings were compared with 21 controls of similar age. Heart rate and all ECG intervals were similar in the two patient groups and controls. QRS axis was more to the left in patients with inferior MI. Normal septal q wave was absent in lead V5 and V6 in 33/35 (94%) patients with anterior MI and in only 3/37 (8%) with inferior MI, pchange in early diastole. This disturbance in electromechanical behaviour might play an important role in the differing outcomes between the two different sites of myocardial infarction.
Solitary Wave Propagation Influenced by Submerged Breakwater
王锦; 左其华; 王登婷
2013-01-01
The form of Boussinesq equation derived by Nwogu (1993) using velocity at an arbitrary distance and surface elevation as variables is used to simulate wave surface elevation changes. In the numerical experiment, water depth was divided into five layers with six layer interfaces to simulate velocity at each layer interface. Besides, a physical experiment was carried out to validate numerical model and study solitary wave propagation.“Water column collapsing”method (WCCM) was used to generate solitary wave. A series of wave gauges around an impervious breakwater were set-up in the flume to measure the solitary wave shoaling, run-up, and breaking processes. The results show that the measured data and simulated data are in good agreement. Moreover, simulated and measured surface elevations were analyzed by the wavelet transform method. It shows that different wave frequencies stratified in the wavelet amplitude spectrum. Finally, horizontal and vertical velocities of each layer interface were analyzed in the process of solitary wave propagation through submerged breakwater.
Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood
Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu
2014-01-01
We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry, E-mail: rochtch@iptm.ru; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula [Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, 53 Kabanbay Batyr St., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Irzhak, Dmitry; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes.
Ziepke, A; Martens, S; Engel, H
2016-09-07
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.
Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves
Alexander Warmuth
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating bright fronts. Coronal waves, as these perturbations are usually referred to, have now been observed in a wide range of spectral channels, yielding a wealth of information. Many findings have supported the “classical” interpretation of the disturbances: fast-mode MHD waves or shocks that are propagating in the solar corona. However, observations that seemed inconsistent with this picture have stimulated the development of alternative models in which “pseudo waves” are generated by magnetic reconfiguration in the framework of an expanding coronal mass ejection. This has resulted in a vigorous debate on the physical nature of these disturbances. This review focuses on demonstrating how the numerous observational findings of the last one and a half decades can be used to constrain our models of large-scale coronal waves, and how a coherent physical understanding of these disturbances is finally emerging.
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes
Ziepke, A.; Martens, S.; Engel, H.
2016-09-01
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.
Propagating wave correlations in complex systems
Creagh, Stephen C.; Gradoni, Gabriele; Hartmann, Timo; Tanner, Gregor
2017-01-01
We describe a novel approach for computing wave correlation functions inside finite spatial domains driven by complex and statistical sources. By exploiting semiclassical approximations, we provide explicit algorithms to calculate the local mean of these correlation functions in terms of the underlying classical dynamics. By defining appropriate ensemble averages, we show that fluctuations about the mean can be characterised in terms of classical correlations. We give in particular an explicit expression relating fluctuations of diagonal contributions to those of the full wave correlation function. The methods have a wide range of applications both in quantum mechanics and for classical wave problems such as in vibro-acoustics and electromagnetism. We apply the methods here to simple quantum systems, so-called quantum maps, which model the behaviour of generic problems on Poincaré sections. Although low-dimensional, these models exhibit a chaotic classical limit and share common characteristics with wave propagation in complex structures.
Fractional Calculus in Wave Propagation Problems
Mainardi, Francesco
2012-01-01
Fractional calculus, in allowing integrals and derivatives of any positive order (the term "fractional" kept only for historical reasons), can be considered a branch of mathematical physics which mainly deals with integro-differential equations, where integrals are of convolution form with weakly singular kernels of power law type. In recent decades fractional calculus has won more and more interest in applications in several fields of applied sciences. In this lecture we devote our attention to wave propagation problems in linear viscoelastic media. Our purpose is to outline the role of fractional calculus in providing simplest evolution processes which are intermediate between diffusion and wave propagation. The present treatment mainly reflects the research activity and style of the author in the related scientific areas during the last decades.
Obliquely propagating dust-density waves
Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.
2008-02-01
Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.
Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials
Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2010-01-01
In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...... of artificial branches of the refractive index and simplicity in implementation. We prove the validity of the method on three case studies of homogeneous magnetized plasma, bi-cross and U-shaped metamaterials....
Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media
Antoun, T
2009-12-17
Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.
EXACT ANALYSIS OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN AN INFINITE RECTANGULAR BEAM
孙卫明; 杨光松; 李东旭
2004-01-01
The Fourier series method was extended for the exact analysis of wave propagation in an infinite rectangular beam. Initially, by solving the three-dimensional elastodynamic equations a general analytic solution was derived for wave motion within the beam. And then for the beam with stress-free boundaries, the propagation characteristics of elastic waves were presented. This accurate wave propagation model lays a solid foundation of simultaneous control of coupled waves in the beam.
Seismic Wave Propagation on the Tablet Computer
Emoto, K.
2015-12-01
Tablet computers widely used in recent years. The performance of the tablet computer is improving year by year. Some of them have performance comparable to the personal computer of a few years ago with respect to the calculation speed and the memory size. The convenience and the intuitive operation are the advantage of the tablet computer compared to the desktop PC. I developed the iPad application of the numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation. The numerical simulation is based on the 2D finite difference method with the staggered-grid scheme. The number of the grid points is 512 x 384 = 196,608. The grid space is 200m in both horizontal and vertical directions. That is the calculation area is 102km x 77km. The time step is 0.01s. In order to reduce the user waiting time, the image of the wave field is drawn simultaneously with the calculation rather than playing the movie after the whole calculation. P and S wave energies are plotted on the screen every 20 steps (0.2s). There is the trade-off between the smooth simulation and the resolution of the wave field image. In the current setting, it takes about 30s to calculate the 10s wave propagation (50 times image updates). The seismogram at the receiver is displayed below of the wave field updated in real time. The default medium structure consists of 3 layers. The layer boundary is defined by 10 movable points with linear interpolation. Users can intuitively change to the arbitrary boundary shape by moving the point. Also users can easily change the source and the receiver positions. The favorite structure can be saved and loaded. For the advance simulation, users can introduce the random velocity fluctuation whose spectrum can be changed to the arbitrary shape. By using this application, everyone can simulate the seismic wave propagation without the special knowledge of the elastic wave equation. So far, the Japanese version of the application is released on the App Store. Now I am preparing the
Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings
Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2017-04-01
The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drives for diesel engines by capturing both their spatial periodicity and axial motion. The Method of Varying Amplitudes is employed in the analysis. It is shown that the compound wave traveling in the axially moving periodic string comprises many components with different frequencies and wavenumbers. This is in contrast to non-moving periodic structures, for which all components of the corresponding compound wave feature the same frequency. Due to this "multi-frequency" character of the wave motion, the conventional notion of frequency band-gaps appears to be not applicable for the moving periodic strings. Thus, for such structures, by frequency band-gaps it is proposed to understand frequency ranges in which the primary component of the compound wave attenuates. Such frequency band-gaps can be present for a moving periodic string, but only if its axial velocity is lower than the transverse wave speed, and, the higher the axial velocity, the narrower the frequency band-gaps. The revealed effects could be of potential importance for applications, e.g. they indicate that due to spatial inhomogeneity, oscillations of axially moving periodic chains always involve a multitude of frequencies.
Propagation of a constant velocity fission wave
Deinert, Mark
2011-10-01
The ideal nuclear fuel cycle would require no enrichment, minimize the need fresh uranium, and produce few, if any, transuranic elements. Importantly, the latter goal would be met without the reprocessing. For purely physical reasons, no reactor system or fuel cycle can meet all of these objectives. However, a traveling-wave reactor, if feasible, could come remarkably close. The concept is simple: a large cylinder of natural (or depleted) uranium is subjected to a fast neutron source at one end, the neutrons would transmute the uranium downstream and produce plutonium. If the conditions were right, a self-sustaining fission wave would form, producing yet more neutrons which would breed more plutonium and leave behind little more than short-lived fission products. Numerical studies have shown that fission waves of this type are also possible. We have derived an exact solution for the propagation velocity of a fission wave through fertile material. The results show that these waves fall into a class of traveling wave phenomena that have been encountered in other systems. The solution places a strict conditions on the shapes of the flux, diffusive, and reactive profiles that would be required for such a phenomenon to persist. The results are confirmed numerically.
Propagating magnetohydrodynamics waves in coronal loops.
De Moortel, I
2006-02-15
High cadence Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observations show that outward propagating intensity disturbances are a common feature in large, quiescent coronal loops, close to active regions. An overview is given of measured parameters of such longitudinal oscillations in coronal loops. The observed oscillations are interpreted as propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves and are unlikely to be flare-driven. A strong correlation, between the loop position and the periodicity of the oscillations, provides evidence that the underlying oscillations can propagate through the transition region and into the corona. Both a one- and a two-dimensional theoretical model of slow magnetoacoustic waves are presented to explain the very short observed damping lengths. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the TRACE observations and show that a combination of the area divergence and thermal conduction agrees well with the observed amplitude decay. Additionally, the usefulness of wavelet analysis is discussed, showing that care has to be taken when interpreting the results of wavelet analysis, and a good knowledge of all possible factors that might influence or distort the results is a necessity.
Torsional wave propagation in solar tornadoes
Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Ghanbari, E.; Ghaffari, G.; Safari, H.
2017-03-01
Aims: We investigate the propagation of torsional waves in coronal structures together with their collimation effects in the context of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The interplay of the equilibrium twist and rotation of the structure, e.g. jet or tornado, together with the density contrast of its internal and external media is studied to shed light on the nature of torsional waves. Methods: We consider a rotating magnetic cylinder embedded in a plasma with a straight magnetic field. This resembles a solar tornado. In order to express the dispersion relations and phase speeds of the axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic waves, the second-order thin flux tube approximation is implemented for the internal medium and the ideal MHD equations are implemented for the external medium. Results: The explicit expressions for the phase speed of the torsional wave show the modification of the torsional wave speed due to the equilibrium twist, rotation, and density contrast of the tornado. The speeds could be either sub-Alfvénic or ultra-Alfvénic depending on whether the equilibrium twist or rotation is dominant. The equilibrium twist increases the phase speed while the equilibrium rotation decreases it. The good agreement between the explicit versions for the phase speed and that obtained numerically proves adequate for the robustness of the model and method. The density ratio of the internal and external media also play a significant role in the speed and dispersion. Conclusions: The dispersion of the torsional wave is an indication of the compressibility of the oscillations. When the cylinder is rotating or twisted, in contrast to when it only possesses a straight magnetic field, the torsional wave is a collective mode. In this case its phase speed is determined by the Alfvén waves inside and outside the tornado.
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
Enhancing propagation characteristics of truncated localized waves in silica
Salem, Mohamed
2011-07-01
The spectral characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the immunity of the truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica to decay and distortion is enhanced as the non-linearity of the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector gets stronger, in contrast to free-space propagating waves, which suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2011 IEEE.
Investigation into stress wave propagation in metal foams
Li Lang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate stress wave propagation in metal foams under high-speed impact loading. Three-dimensional Voronoi model is established to represent real closed-cell foam. Based on the one-dimensional stress wave theory and Voronoi model, a numerical model is developed to calculate the velocity of elastic wave and shock wave in metal foam. The effects of impact velocity and relative density of metal foam on the stress wave propagation in metal foams are explored respectively. The results show that both elastic wave and shock wave propagate faster in metal foams with larger relative density; with increasing the impact velocity, the shock wave propagation velocity increase, but the elastic wave propagation is not sensitive to the impact velocity.
An optimal design problem in wave propagation
Bellido, J.C.; Donoso, Alberto
2007-01-01
We consider an optimal design problem in wave propagation proposed in Sigmund and Jensen (Roy. Soc. Lond. Philos. Trans. Ser. A 361:1001-1019, 2003) in the one-dimensional situation: Given two materials at our disposal with different elastic Young modulus and different density, the problem consists...... of finding the best distributions of the two initial materials in a rod in order to minimize the vibration energy in the structure under periodic loading of driving frequency Omega. We comment on relaxation and optimality conditions, and perform numerical simulations of the optimal configurations. We prove...
Stationary Rossby wave propagation through easterly layers
Schneider, E. K.; Watterson, I. G.
1984-01-01
The zonal mean basic state sensitivity of the steady response to midlatitude mountain forcing is examined through the numerical solution of linearized shallow water equations on a sphere. The zonal mean basic state consists of meridionally varying zonal winds and meridional winds. Attention is given to cases in which the former are westerly everywhere, except within a tropical region in which they are easterly. A zonal wavenumber three mountain confined to the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes provides the forcing. It is concluded that critical latitude effects on wave propagation are sensitive to mean meridional circulation structure in the critical latitude region of the model.
Seismic wave propagation in granular media
Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion
2016-10-01
Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in
Wave propagation in random granular chains.
Manjunath, Mohith; Awasthi, Amnaya P; Geubelle, Philippe H
2012-03-01
The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation.
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction
Beltman, Willem Martinus
1998-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two mos
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
Effect of an imperfect interface on the SH wave propagating in a cylindrical piezoelectric sensor.
Li, Yong-Dong; Yong Lee, Kang
2010-04-01
Under harsh in situ conditions, the interface in piezoelectric sensors may be damaged mechanically and/or electrically. The damaged interface would in turn affect the electromechanical behaviors of the sensors. The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of the imperfect interface on SH wave propagating in a cylindrical piezoelectric sensor. The dispersion relations of SH wave are derived analytically and the phase velocity are obtained numerically. Parametric studies on the phase velocity indicate that the mechanical imperfection may reduce the phase velocity under certain circumstances; however, the electrical imperfection has no obvious effect on the phase velocity in any cases; with the thickness of the piezoelectric layer increasing, the phase velocity may increase, decrease or keep unchanged, depending on the combination of the values of the wave number and the mechanical imperfection parameter.
Wave propagation in predator-prey systems
Fu, Sheng-Chen; Tsai, Je-Chiang
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study a class of predator-prey systems of reaction-diffusion type. Specifically, we are interested in the dynamical behaviour for the solution with the initial distribution where the prey species is at the level of the carrying capacity, and the density of the predator species has compact support, or exponentially small tails near x=+/- ∞ . Numerical evidence suggests that this will lead to the formation of a pair of diverging waves propagating outwards from the initial zone. Motivated by this phenomenon, we establish the existence of a family of travelling waves with the minimum speed. Unlike the previous studies, we do not use the shooting argument to show this. Instead, we apply an iteration process based on Berestycki et al 2005 (Math Comput. Modelling 50 1385-93) to construct a set of super/sub-solutions. Since the underlying system does not enjoy the comparison principle, such a set of super/sub-solutions is not based on travelling waves, and in fact the super/sub-solutions depend on each other. With the aid of the set of super/sub-solutions, we can construct the solution of the truncated problem on the finite interval, which, via the limiting argument, can in turn generate the wave solution. There are several advantages to this approach. First, it can remove the technical assumptions on the diffusivities of the species in the existing literature. Second, this approach is of PDE type, and hence it can shed some light on the spreading phenomenon indicated by numerical simulation. In fact, we can compute the spreading speed of the predator species for a class of biologically acceptable initial distributions. Third, this approach might be applied to the study of waves in non-cooperative systems (i.e. a system without a comparison principle).
Analysis of Blast Wave Propagation Inside Tunnel
LIU Jingbo; YAN Qiushi; WU Jun
2008-01-01
The explosion inside tunnel would generate blast wave which transmits through the longi tudinal tunnel.Because of the close-in effects of the tunnel and the reflection by the confining tunnel structure,blast wave propagation inside tunnel is distinguished from that in air.When the explosion happens inside tunnel,the overpressure peak is higher than that of explosion happening in air.The continuance time of the biast wave also becomes longer.With the help of the numerical simu lation finite element software LS-DYNA.a three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic simulation analysis for an explosion experiment inside tunnel was carried out.LS-DYNA is a fully integrated analysis program specifically designed for nonlinear dynamics and large strain problems.Compared with the experimental results.the simulation results have made the material parameters of numerical simulation model available.By using the model and the same material parameters,many results were adopted by calculating the model under different TNT explosion dynamites.Then the method of dimensional analysis was Used for the Simulation resufts.AS Overpressures of the explosion biast wave are the governing factor in fhe tunnel responses.a formula for the explosion biast wave overpressure at a certain distance from the detonation center point inside the tunnel was de rived by using the dimensional analysis theory.By cornparing the results computed by the fromula with experimental results which were obtained before.the formula was proved to be very applicable at some instance.The research may be helpful to estimate rapidly the effect of internal explosion of tunnel on the structure.
Nonlinear wave propagation in a rapidly-spun fiber.
McKinstrie, C J; Kogelnik, H
2006-09-04
Multiple-scale analysis is used to study linear wave propagation in a rapidly-spun fiber and its predictions are shown to be consistent with results obtained by other methods. Subsequently, multiple-scale analysis is used to derive a generalized Schroedinger equation for nonlinear wave propagation in a rapidly-spun fiber. The consequences of this equation for pulse propagation and four-wave mixing are discussed briefly.
Lamb wave propagation modeling for structure health monitoring
Xiaoyue ZHANG; Shenfang YUAN; Tong HAO
2009-01-01
This study aims to model the propagation of Lamb waves used in structure health monitoring. A number of different numerical computational techniques have been developed for wave propagation studies. The local interaction simulation approach, used for modeling sharp interfaces and discontinuities in complex media (LISA/SIM theory), has been effectively applied to numerical simulations of elastic wave interaction. This modeling is based on the local interaction simulation approach theory and is finally accomplished through the finite elements software Ansys11. In this paper, the Lamb waves propagating characteristics and the LISA/SIM theory are introduced. The finite difference equations describing wave propagation used in the LISA/SIM theory are obtained. Then, an anisotropic metallic plate model is modeled and a simulating Lamb waves signal is loaded on. Finally, the Lamb waves propagation modeling is implemented.
Son, Myung Seob; Kang, Yeon June
2011-05-01
This study analytically investigates the propagation of shear waves (SH waves) in a coupled plate consisting of a piezoelectric layer and an elastic layer with initial stress. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and perfectly bonded to an elastic layer. The mechanical displacement and electrical potential function are derived for the piezoelectric coupled plates by solving the electromechanical field equations. The effects of the thickness ratio and the initial stress on the dispersion relations and the phase and group velocities are obtained for electrically open and mechanically free situations. The numerical examples are provided to illustrate graphically the variations of the phase and group velocities versus the wave number for the different layers comparatively. It is seen that the phase velocity of SH waves decreases with the increase of the magnitude of the initial compression stress, while it increases with the increase of the magnitude of the initial tensile stress. The initial stress has a great effect on the propagation of SH waves with the decrease of the thickness ratio. This research is theoretically useful for the design of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with high performance.
Xu, Fangqian; Wang, Wen; Hou, Jiaoli; Liu, Minghua
2012-01-01
Theoretical calculations have been performed on the temperature effects on the propagation characteristics of Love waves in layered structures by solving the coupled electromechanical field equations, and the optimal design parameters were extracted for temperature stability improvement. Based on the theoretical analysis, excellent temperature coefficient of frequency (Tcf) of the fabricated Love wave devices with guide layers of SU-8/SiO(2) on ST-90°X quartz substrate is evaluated experimentally as only 2.16 ppm.
Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core.
Liu, Hao; Finnveden, Svante; Barbagallo, Mathias; Arteaga, Ines Lopez
2014-05-01
Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core, which is modeled by Biot's theory, is investigated using the waveguide finite element method. A waveguide poroelastic element is developed based on a displacement-pressure weak form. The dispersion curves of the sandwich panel are first identified as propagating or evanescent waves by varying the damping in the panel, and wave characteristics are analyzed by examining their motions. The energy distributions are calculated to identify the dominant motions. Simplified analytical models are also devised to show the main physics of the corresponding waves. This wave propagation analysis provides insight into the vibro-acoustic behavior of sandwich panels lined with elastic porous materials.
Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2015-08-01
Numerical examples for wave propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The impact related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a functionally graded piezoelectric layered system using Love waves.
Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave
Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-07-10
Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8μm), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.
Mathematical problems in wave propagation theory
1970-01-01
The papers comprising this collection are directly or indirectly related to an important branch of mathematical physics - the mathematical theory of wave propagation and diffraction. The paper by V. M. Babich is concerned with the application of the parabolic-equation method (of Academician V. A. Fok and M. A, Leontovich) to the problem of the asymptotic behavior of eigenfunc tions concentrated in a neighborhood of a closed geodesie in a Riemannian space. The techniques used in this paper have been föund useful in solving certain problems in the theory of open resonators. The topic of G. P. Astrakhantsev's paper is similar to that of the paper by V. M. Babich. Here also the parabolic-equation method is used to find the asymptotic solution of the elasticity equations which describes Love waves concentrated in a neighborhood of some surface ray. The paper of T. F. Pankratova is concerned with finding the asymptotic behavior of th~ eigenfunc tions of the Laplace operator from the exact solution for the surf...
Topology optimization for transient wave propagation problems in one dimension
Dahl, Jonas; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2008-01-01
Structures exhibiting band gap properties, i.e., having frequency ranges for which the structure attenuates propagating waves, have applications in damping of acoustic and elastic wave propagation and in optical communication. A topology optimization method for synthesis of such structures, emplo...
Zhang, Jichun; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Saikin, Anthony A.; Mello, Emily M.; Russell, Christopher T.; Torbert, Roy B.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Giles, Barbara L.;
2017-01-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (0.1-5 Hz) play an important role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. EMIC waves are preferentially excited in regions where hot anisotropic ions and cold dense plasma populations spatially overlap. While the generation region of EMIC waves is usually on or near the magnetic equatorial plane in the inner magnetosphere, EMIC waves have both equatorial and off-equator source regions on the dayside in the compressed outer magnetosphere. Using field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated local plasma conditions observed on 19 October 2015. From 0315 to 0810 UT, before crossing the magnetopause into the magnetosheath, all four MMS spacecraft detected long-lasting He(exp +)-band EMIC wave emissions around local noon (MLT = 12.7 - 14.0) at high L-shells (L = 8.8 - 15.2) and low magnetic latitudes (MLAT = -21.8deg - -30.3deg). Energetic (greater than 1 keV) and anisotropic ions were present throughout this event that was in the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm (min. Dst = -48 nT at 1000 UT on 18 October 2015). The testing of linear theory suggests that the EMIC waves were excited locally. Although the wave event is dominated by small normal angles, its polarization is mixed with right- and left-handedness and its propagation is bi-directional with regard to the background magnetic field. The short inter-spacecraft distances (as low as 15 km) of the MMS mission make it possible to accurately determine the k vector of the waves using the phase difference technique. Preliminary analysis finds that the k vector magnitude, phase speed, and wavelength of the 0.3-Hz wave packet at 0453:55 UT are 0.005 km(exp -1), 372.9 km/s, and 1242.9 km, respectively.
Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations
Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan
2013-01-01
Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...
The Green-function transform and wave propagation
Colin eSheppard
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Fourier methods well known in signal processing are applied to three-dimensional wave propagation problems. The Fourier transform of the Green function, when written explicitly in terms of a real-valued spatial frequency, consists of homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. Both parts are necessary to result in a pure out-going wave that satisfies causality. The homogeneous component consists only of propagating waves, but the inhomogeneous component contains both evanescent and propagating terms. Thus we make a distinction between inhomogeneous waves and evanescent waves. The evanescent component is completely contained in the region of the inhomogeneous component outside the k-space sphere. Further, propagating waves in the Weyl expansion contain both homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. The connection between the Whittaker and Weyl expansions is discussed. A list of relevant spherically symmetric Fourier transforms is given.
The Green-function transform and wave propagation
Sheppard, Colin J R; Lin, Jiao
2014-01-01
Fourier methods well known in signal processing are applied to three-dimensional wave propagation problems. The Fourier transform of the Green function, when written explicitly in terms of a real-valued spatial frequency, consists of homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. Both parts are necessary to result in a pure out-going wave that satisfies causality. The homogeneous component consists only of propagating waves, but the inhomogeneous component contains both evanescent and propagating terms. Thus we make a distinction between inhomogenous waves and evanescent waves. The evanescent component is completely contained in the region of the inhomogeneous component outside the k-space sphere. Further, propagating waves in the Weyl expansion contain both homogeneous and inhomogeneous components. The connection between the Whittaker and Weyl expansions is discussed. A list of relevant spherically symmetric Fourier transforms is given.
Wave propagation and radiation in gyrotropic and anisotropic media
Eroglu, Abdullah
2010-01-01
""Wave Propagation and Radiation in Gyrotropic and Anisotropic Media"" fills the gap in the area of applied electromagnetics for the design of microwave and millimeter wave devices using composite structures where gyrotropic, anisotropic materials are used. The book provides engineers with the information on theory and practical skills they need to understand wave propagation and radiation characteristics of materials and the ability to design devices at higher frequencies with optimum device performance.
Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe
Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige, E-mail: suzuki-y@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Display and Semiconductor Physics Department, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-07
The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5 nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.
Stable Propagating Waves and Wake Fields in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma
DUAN Yi-Shi; XIE Bai-Song; TIAN Miao; YIN Xin-Tao; ZHANG Xin-Hui
2008-01-01
Stable propagating waves and wake fields in relativistic electromagnetic plasma are investigated. The incident electromagnetic field has a finite initial constant amplitude meanwhile the longitudinal momentum of electrons is taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with transverse wave group velocity the stable propagating transverse electromagnetic waves and longitudinal plasma wake fields can exist in the appropriate regime of plasma.
Propagation characteristics of SH wave in an mm2 piezoelectric layer on an elastic substrate
Yanping Kong
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the propagation characteristics of shear horizontal (SH waves in a structure consisting of an elastic substrate and an mm2 piezoelectric layer with different cut orientations. The dispersion equations are derived for electrically open and shorted conditions on the free surface of the piezoelectric layer. The phase velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient are calculated for a layered structure with a KNbO3 layer perfectly bonded to a diamond substrate. The dispersion curves for the electrically shorted boundary condition indicate that for a given cut orientation, the phase velocity of the first mode approaches the B-G wave velocity of the KNbO3 layer, while the phase velocities of the higher modes tend towards the limit velocity of the KNbO3 layer. For the electrically open boundary condition, the asymptotic phase velocities of all modes are the limit velocity of the KNbO3 layer. In addition, it is found that the electromechanical coupling coefficient strongly depends on the cut orientation of the KNbO3 crystal. The obtained results are useful in device applications.
Lamb waves propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric materials by Peano-series method.
Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2015-01-01
The Peano-series expansion is used to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plate. Aluminum nitride has been retained for illustration, it is polarized along the thickness axis, and at the same time the material properties change gradually perpendicularly to the plate with an exponential variation. The effects of the gradient variation on the phase velocity and the coupling electromechanical factor are obtained. Appropriate curves are given to reflect their behavior with respect to frequency. The highest value of the electromechanical coupling factor has been observed for S0 mode, it is close to six percent, conversely for A0 mode it does not exceed 1.5%. The coupling factor maxima undergo a shift toward the high frequency area when the corresponding gradient coefficient increases. The Peano-series method computed under Matlab software, gives rapid convergence and accurate phase velocity when analysing Lamb waves in FGPM plate. The obtained numerical results can be used to design different sensors with high performance working at different frequency ranges by adjusting the extent of the gradient property.
Finite volume schemes for dispersive wave propagation and runup
Dutykh, Denys; Katsaounis, Theodoros; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios
2011-04-01
Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions, dispersive shock wave formation and the runup of breaking and non-breaking long waves.
Finite volume schemes for dispersive wave propagation and runup
Dutykh, Denys; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios
2010-01-01
Finite volume schemes are commonly used to construct approximate solutions to conservation laws. In this study we extend the framework of the finite volume methods to dispersive water wave models, in particular to Boussinesq type systems. We focus mainly on the application of the method to bidirectional nonlinear, dispersive wave propagation in one space dimension. Special emphasis is given to important nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves interactions, dispersive shock wave formation and the runup of breaking and non-breaking long waves.
Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders
Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui
2015-01-01
Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued longitudinal wavenumber $k$ at given real angular frequencies $\\omega$. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of $\\omega_{\\rm c}$, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for $\\omega$ much lower than $\\omega_{\\rm c}$. However, while able to direct their energy upwards, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping ...
Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials
Chunmin CHEN
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.
Does the Decay Wave Propagate Forwards in Dusty Plasmas?
谢柏松
2002-01-01
The decay interaction of the ion acoustic wave in a dusty plasma with variable-charge dust grains is studied.Even if strong charging relaxation for dust grains and the short wavelength regime for ion waves are included, it is found that the decay wave must be backward propagating.
Propagation of Weak Pressure Waves against Two Parallel Subsonic Streams
Makiko YONAMINE; Takanori USHIJIMA; Yoshiaki MIYAZATO; Mitsuharu MASUDA; Hiroshi KATANODA; Kazuyasu MATSUO
2006-01-01
In this paper, the characteristics of a pressure wave propagating against two parallel subsonic streams in a constant-area straight duct are investigated by one-dimensional analysis, two-dimensional numerical simulation,and experiments. Computations have been carried out by the two-dimensional Euler Equations using the Chakravarthy-Osher-type TVD scheme. Optical observations by the schlieren method as well as wall pressure measurements have been performed to clarify both the structure and the propagation velocity of pressure waves.The results show that the pressure wave propagating against the streams changes into a bifurcated pressure wave and the bifurcation occurs in the low speed streams. It is also found that the propagation velocity of the pressure wave obtained by the analysis and computation agrees well with the present experimental data.
ON THE SOURCE OF PROPAGATING SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS
Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Khomenko, Elena, E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2015-10-10
Recent high-resolution observations of sunspot oscillations using simultaneously operated ground- and space-based telescopes reveal the intrinsic connection between different layers of the solar atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether these oscillations are externally driven or generated in situ. We address this question by using observations of propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal fan loop system. In addition to the generally observed decreases in oscillation amplitudes with distance, the observed wave amplitudes are also found to be modulated with time, with similar variations observed throughout the propagation path of the wave train. Employing multi-wavelength and multi-instrument data, we study the amplitude variations with time as the waves propagate through different layers of the solar atmosphere. By comparing the amplitude modulation period in different layers, we find that slow magnetoacoustic waves observed in sunspots are externally driven by photospheric p-modes, which propagate upward into the corona before becoming dissipated.
On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica
Salem, Mohamed
2010-01-01
Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.
Studies of Gravity Wave Propagation in the Middle Atmosphere.
2014-09-26
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Analysis of guided wave propagation in a tapered composite panel
Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Moll, Jochen; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw
2015-03-01
Many studies have been published in recent years on Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and (multi-layered) anisotropic structures. In this paper, adiabatic wave propagation phenomenon in a tapered composite panel made out of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) will be considered. Such structural elements are often used e.g. in wind turbine blades and aerospace structures. Here, the wave velocity of each wave mode does not only change with frequency and the direction of wave propagation. It further changes locally due to the varying cross-section of the GFRP panel. Elastic waves were excited using a piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field measurements using scanning Laser Doppler vibrometry have been performed. This approach allows the detailed analysis of elastic wave propagation in composite specimen with linearly changing thickness. It will be demonstrated here experimentally, that the wave velocity changes significantly due to the tapered geometry of the structure. Hence, this work motivates the theoretical and experimental analysis of adiabatic mode propagation for the purpose of Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring.
Wave propagation in a magneto-electro- elastic plate
2008-01-01
The wave propagation in a magneto-electro-elastic plate was studied. Some new characteristics were discovered: the guided waves are classified in the forms of the Quasi-P, Quasi-SV and Quasi-SH waves and arranged by the standing wavenumber; there are many patterns for the physical property of the magneto-electro-elastic dielectric medium influencing the stress wave propagation. We proposed a self-adjoint method, by which the guided-wave restriction condition was derived. After the corresponding orthogonal sets were found, the analytic dispersion equa-tion was obtained. In the end, an example was presented. The dispersive spectrum, the group velocity curved face and the steady-state response curve of a mag-neto-electro-elastic plate were plotted. Then the wave propagations affected by the induced electric and magnetic fields were analyzed.
An effective absorbing boundary algorithm for acoustical wave propagator
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, Berenger's perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition for electromagnetic waves is introduced as the truncation area of the computational domain to absorb one-dimensional acoustic wave for the scheme of acoustical wave propagator (AWP). To guarantee the efficiency of the AWP algorithm, a regulated propagator matrix is derived in the PML medium.Numerical simulations of a Gaussian wave packet propagating in one-dimensional duct are carried out to illustraze the efficiency of the combination of PML and AWP. Compared with the traditional smoothing truncation windows technique of AWP, this scheme shows high computational accuracy in absorbing acoustic wave when the acoustical wave arrives at the computational edges. Optimal coefficients of the PML configurations are also discussed.
Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones
Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel
2016-04-01
Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.
Wave propagation in chiral media: composite Fresnel equations
Chern, Ruey-Lin
2013-07-01
In this paper, the author studies the features of wave propagation in chiral media. A general form of wave equations in biisotropic media is employed to derive concise formulas for the reflection and transmission coefficients. These coefficients are represented as a composite form of Fresnel equations for ordinary dielectrics, which reveal the circularly polarized nature of chiral media. The important features of negative refraction and a backward wave associated with left-handed waves are analyzed.
Acoustoelastic Lamb Wave Propagation in Biaxially Stressed Plates (Preprint)
2012-03-01
particularly as compared to most bulk wave NDE methods, Lamb wave are particularly sensitive to changes in the propagation environment, such as... Wilcox , and J. E. Michaels, “Efficient temperature compensation strategies for guided wave structural health monitoring,” Ultrasonics, 50, pp. 517...Liu, “Effects of residual stress on guided waves in layered media,” Rev. Prog. Quant. NDE , 17, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti (Eds.), Plenum Press
Wave Propagation in Fluids Models and Numerical Techniques
Guinot, Vincent
2007-01-01
This book presents the physical principles of wave propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The mathematical techniques that allow the behavior of the waves to be analyzed are presented, along with existing numerical methods for the simulation of wave propagation. Particular attention is paid to discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves, and their mathematical treatment. A number of practical examples are taken from various areas fluid mechanics and hydraulics, such as contaminant transport, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, river flow, pipe transients an
Temperature Characteristics of Surface Acoustic Waves Propagating on La3Ga5SiO4 Substrates
Guowei ZHANG; Wenkang SHI; Xiaojun JI; Tao HAN; Feng DU; Lianger LI
2004-01-01
Langasite (LGS) is a novel piezoelectric crystal. The authors numerically analyses the temperature stability of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and the relation of SAW propagation with temperature on certain optimal cuts on LGS in this paper. The results show that LGS has better temperature stability than traditional piezo crystals. The results also demonstrate that the velocity of SAW decrease with temperature, the electro-mechanical coupling constant (k2) and temperature coefficient of frequency increases parabolically and the power flow angle increases linearly on certain optimal cuts of LGS. The calculation result compared with the experimental and show good agreement.
Wave Propagation in Isotropic Media with Two Orthogonal Fracture Sets
Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2016-10-01
Orthogonal intersecting fracture sets form fracture networks that affect the hydraulic and mechanical integrity of a rock mass. Interpretation of elastic waves propagated through orthogonal fracture networks is complicated by guided modes that propagate along and between fractures, by multiple internal reflections, as well as by scattering from fracture intersections. The existence of some or all of these potentially overlapping modes depends on local stress fields that can preferentially close or open either one or both sets of fractures. In this study, an acoustic wave front imaging system was used to examine the effect of bi-axial loading conditions on acoustic wave propagation in isotropic media containing two orthogonal fracture sets. From the experimental data, orthogonal intersecting fracture sets support guided waves that depend on fracture spacing and fracture-specific stiffnesses. In addition, fracture intersections have stronger effects on propagating wave fronts than merely the superposition of the effects of two independent fractures because of energy partitioning among transmitted/reflected waves, scattered waves and guided modes. Interpretation of the properties of fractures or fracture sets from seismic measurements must consider non-uniform fracture stiffnesses within and among fracture sets, as well as considering the striking effects of fracture intersections on wave propagation.
Measuring Gravitational-Wave Propagation Speed with Multimessenger Observations
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi
2016-01-01
A measurement of gravitational wave (GW) propagation speed is one of important tests of gravity in a dynamical regime. We report a method to measure the GW propagation speed by directly comparing arrival times of GWs, neutrinos from supernovae (SN), and photons from short gamma-ray bursts (SGRB). We found that the future multimessenger observations can test the GW propagation speed with the precision of ~ 10^(-16)-10^(-15), improving the previous suggestions by 9 — 10 orders of magnitude. We ...
Topology optimization of vibration and wave propagation problems
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2007-01-01
The method of topology optimization is a versatile method to determine optimal material layouts in mechanical structures. The method relies on, in principle, unlimited design freedom that can be used to design materials, structures and devices with significantly improved performance and sometimes...... novel functionality. This paper addresses basic issues in simulation and topology design of vibration and wave propagation problems. Steady-state and transient wave propagation problems are addressed and application examples for both cases are presented....
Characteristic wave diversity in near vertical incidence skywave propagation
Witvliet, Ben A.; Maanen, van Erik; Petersen, George J.; Westenberg, Albert J.; Bentum, Mark J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roel
2015-01-01
In Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) propagation, effective diversity reception can be realized using a dual channel receiver and a dual polarization antenna with polarization matched to the (left hand and right hand) circular polarization of the characteristic waves propagating in the ionosphe
Time-domain Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media①
无
1997-01-01
The equation of time-domain wave propagation in dispersive media and the explicit beam propagation method are presented in this paper.This method is demonstrated by the short optical pulses in a directional coupler with second order dispersive effect and shows to be in full agreement with former references.This method is simple,easy and practical.
Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain
Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan
2017-06-01
A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.
Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain
Shrivastava Rohit Kumar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.
Time reversal techniques in electromagnetic wave propagation
Yi, Jiang
The time reversal method is a novel scheme utilizing the scattering components in a highly cluttered environment to achieve super-resolution focusing beyond Rayleigh criteria. In acoustics, time reversal effects are comprehensively analyzed and utilized in underwater target detection and communication. Successful demonstrations of the time reversal method using low frequency waveform in acoustics have generated wide interest in utilizing time reversal method by radio frequency electromagnetic waves. However, applications of the time reversal method in electromagnetics are considered to be emerging research topics and lack extensive analyses and studies. In this thesis, we present a systematic study in which a series of novel time reversal techniques have been developed for target detection and imaging in highly cluttered environments where higher order scattering is substantial. This thesis also contributes to insightful understanding of basic time reversal properties in electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in such environment. EM time reversal focusing and nulling effects using both single and multiple antennas are first demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Based on these properties, single antenna time reversal detection indicates significant enhancement in detection capability over traditional change detection scheme. A frequency selection scheme utilizing the frequencies with strong constructive interference between the target and background environment is developed to further improve the performance of the time reversal detector. Moreover, a novel time reversal adaptive interference cancellation (TRAIC) detection scheme developed based on TR properties can obtain null of the background through the time reversal nulling effect and achieve automatic focusing on the target through the time reversal focusing effect. Therefore, the detection ability, dynamic range and signal to noise ratio of a radar system can be significantly enhanced by the time reversal method
Propagation of high frequency waves in the quiet solar atmosphere
Andić A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20 mHz have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting for partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analyzed here. Image sequences were taken by using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis was performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observed the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10 mHz to 13 mHz. We also observed propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in the regions where magnetic structures are present.
Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere
Andić, A.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20 mHz have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting for partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences were taken by using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analysed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis was performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observed the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10 mHz to 13 mHz. We also observed propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in the regions where magnetic structures are present.
Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere
AndiÄ, Aleksandra
2008-01-01
High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20mHz) have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences are taken using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis is performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observe the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10mHz to 13mHz. We also observe propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in regions where magnetic structures are present.
Time dependent wave envelope finite difference analysis of sound propagation
Baumeister, K. J.
1984-01-01
A transient finite difference wave envelope formulation is presented for sound propagation, without steady flow. Before the finite difference equations are formulated, the governing wave equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the propagation direction. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. The derivation for the wave envelope transient wave equation and appropriate boundary conditions are presented as well as the difference equations and stability requirements. To illustrate the method, example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a straight hard wall duct and in a two dimensional straight soft wall duct. The numerical results are in good agreement with exact analytical results.
Propagation of gravitational waves in the nonperturbative spinor vacuum
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Institute for Basic Research, Astana (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Folomeev, Vladimir [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
2014-09-15
The propagation of gravitational waves on the background of a nonperturbative vacuum of a spinor field is considered. It is shown that there are several distinctive features in comparison with the propagation of plane gravitational waves through empty space: there exists a fixed phase difference between the h{sub yy,zz} and h{sub yz} components of the wave; the phase and group velocities of gravitational waves are not equal to the velocity of light; the group velocity is always less than the velocity of light; under some conditions the gravitational waves are either damped or absent; for given frequency, there exist two waves with different wave vectors. We also discuss the possibility of an experimental verification of the obtained effects as a tool to investigate nonperturbative quantum field theories. (orig.)
Computational simulation of wave propagation problems in infinite domains
无
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the computational simulation of both scalar wave and vector wave propagation problems in infinite domains. Due to its advantages in simulating complicated geometry and complex material properties, the finite element method is used to simulate the near field of a wave propagation problem involving an infinite domain. To avoid wave reflection and refraction at the common boundary between the near field and the far field of an infinite domain, we have to use some special treatments to this boundary. For a wave radiation problem, a wave absorbing boundary can be applied to the common boundary between the near field and the far field of an infinite domain, while for a wave scattering problem, the dynamic infinite element can be used to propagate the incident wave from the near field to the far field of the infinite domain. For the sake of illustrating how these two different approaches are used to simulate the effect of the far field, a mathematical expression for a wave absorbing boundary of high-order accuracy is derived from a two-dimensional scalar wave radiation problem in an infinite domain, while the detailed mathematical formulation of the dynamic infinite element is derived from a two-dimensional vector wave scattering problem in an infinite domain. Finally, the coupled method of finite elements and dynamic infinite elements is used to investigate the effects of topographical conditions on the free field motion along the surface of a canyon.
Special Course on Acoustic Wave Propagation
1979-08-01
exesiple) et cules se propagent 41 is surface du liquido . WW.JF~q W - , -- r -w w 144 Dens ce cax Von (10) 4 =/.+ Sane entrer dans le ddtail des...543-546. 57. STUFF, R., Analytic solution for the sound propagation through the atmospheric wind boundary layer. Proc. Noise Control Conf., Warszawa...between nodal surfaces of one-half wavelength. Evidently this property, like the energy conservation one, is available for use as a " control " on any
Automated classification of spatiotemporal characteristics of gastric slow wave propagation.
Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Gao, Jerry; Du, Peng; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K
2013-01-01
Gastric contractions are underpinned by an electrical event called slow wave activity. High-resolution electrical mapping has recently been adapted to study gastric slow waves at a high spatiotemporal detail. As more slow wave data becomes available, it is becoming evident that the spatial organization of slow wave plays a key role in the initiation and maintenance of gastric dsyrhythmias in major gastric motility disorders. All of the existing slow wave signal processing techniques deal with the identification and partitioning of recorded wave events, but not the analysis of the slow wave spatial organization, which is currently performed visually. This manual analysis is time consuming and is prone to observer bias and error. We present an automated approach to classify spatial slow wave propagation patterns via the use of Pearson cross correlations. Slow wave propagations were grouped into classes based on their similarity to each other. The method was applied to high-resolution gastric slow wave recordings from four pigs. There were significant changes in the velocity of the gastric slow wave wavefront and the amplitude of the slow wave event when there was a change in direction to the slow wave wavefront during dsyrhythmias, which could be detected with the automated approach.
Mathematical modelling of generation and forward propagation of dispersive waves
Lie She Liam, L.S.L.
2013-01-01
This dissertation concerns the mathematical theory of forward propagation and generation of dispersive waves. We derive the AB2-equation which describes forward traveling waves in two horizontal dimension. It is the generalization of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli (KP) equation. The derivation is based
Stress Wave Propagation in Larch Plantation Trees-Numerical Simulation
Fenglu Liu; Fang Jiang; Xiping Wang; Houjiang Zhang; Wenhua Yu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we attempted to simulate stress wave propagation in virtual tree trunks and construct two dimensional (2D) wave-front maps in the longitudinal-radial section of the trunk. A tree trunk was modeled as an orthotropic cylinder in which wood properties along the fiber and in each of the two perpendicular directions were different. We used the COMSOL...
Stress Wave Propagation in a Gradient Elastic Medium
赵亚溥; 赵涵; 胡宇群
2002-01-01
The gradient elastic constitutive equation incorporating the second gradient of the strains is used to determinethe monochromatic elastic plane wave propagation in a gradient infinite medium and thin rod. The equationof motion, together with the internal material length, has been derived. Various dispersion relations have beendetermined. We present explicit expressions for the relationship between various wave speeds, wavenumber andinternal material length.
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two...
Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.
2013-01-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.
Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng
2012-06-01
The propagation behavior of Love waves in a layered structure that includes a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate carrying a piezoelectric thin film is investigated. Analytical solutions are obtained for both constant and gradient dielectric coefficients in the FGM substrate. Numerical results show that the gradient dielectric coefficient decreases phase velocity in any mode, and the electromechanical coupling factor significantly increases in the first- and secondorder modes. In some modes, the difference in Love waves' phase velocity between these two types of structure might be more than 1%, resulting in significant differences in frequency of the surface acoustic wave devices.
In-plane propagation of electromagnetic waves in planar metamaterials
Yi, Changhyun; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Ki Won; Lee, YoungPak
2016-08-01
Some planar metamaterials (MMs) or subwavelength antenna/hole arrays have a considerable amount of in-plane propagation when certain conditions are met. In this paper, the in-plane propagation caused by a wave incident on a MM absorber was studied by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. By using a FDTD simulation, we were able to observe a nonnegligible amount of in-plane propagation after the incident wave had arrived at the surface of the planar structure and gradually decreased propagation of the electromagnetic wave in the planar direction gradually decreased. We performed the FDTD simulation carefully to reproduce valid results and to verify the existence of in-plane propagation. For verification of the in-plane propagation explicitly, Poynting vectors were calculated and visualized inside the dielectric substrate between the metallic back-plate and an array of square patches. We also investigated several different structures with resonators of various shapes and found that the amount of facing edges of adjacent metallic patches critically determined the strength of the in-plane propagation. Through this study, we could establish the basis for the existence of in-plane propagation in MMs.
Shear horizontal (SH) ultrasound wave propagation around smooth corners.
Petcher, P A; Burrows, S E; Dixon, S
2014-04-01
Shear horizontal (SH) ultrasound guided waves are being used in an increasing number of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. One advantage SH waves have over some wave types, is their ability to propagate around curved surfaces with little energy loss; to understand the geometries around which they could propagate, the wave reflection must be quantified. A 0.83mm thick aluminium sheet was placed in a bending machine, and a shallow bend was introduced. Periodically-poled magnet (PPM) electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), for emission and reception of SH waves, were placed on the same side of the bend, so that reflected waves were received. Additional bending of the sheet demonstrated a clear relationship between bend angles and the reflected signal. Models suggest that the reflection is a linear superposition of the reflections from each bend segment, such that sharp turns lead to a larger peak-to-peak amplitude, in part due to increased phase coherence.
Propagation of internal waves up continental slope and shelf
DAI Dejun; WANG Wei; QIAO Fangli; YUAN Yeli; XIANG Wenxi
2008-01-01
In a two-dimensional and linear framework, a transformation was developed to derive eigensolutions of internal waves over a subcriticai hyperbolic slope and to approximate the continental slope and shelf. The transformation converts a hyperbolic slope in physical space into a fiat bottom in transform space while the governing equations of internal waves remain hyperbolic. The eigensolutions are further used to study the evolution of linear internal waves as it propagates to subcritical continental slope and shelf. The stream function, velocity, and vertical shear of velocity induced by internal wave at the hyperbolic slope are analytically expressed by superposition of the obtained eigensolutions. The velocity and velocity shear increase as the internal wave propagates to a hyperbolic slope. They become very large especially when the slope of internal wave rays approaches the topographic slope, which is consistent with the previous studies.
Propagation of Iamb waves in adhesively bonded multilayered media
ZHANG Haiyan; XIE Yuanxia; LIU Zhenqing
2003-01-01
The effect of introducing attenuation on Lamb wave dispersion curves is studied in this paper. Attenuation is introduced to a three-layered composite plate by an adhesive bond layer with viscous behavior. No changes are required to the transfer matrix formulation for the propagation of elastic waves. By introduction of a complex wavenumber, the model can be used to the propagation of attenuative Lamb waves. Numerical examples for a three-layered aluminium-epoxy-aluminium plate show that attenuation values of each mode in plates are related not only to attenuation, but also to the thickness of the bonded layer, which is in agreement with practical situations.
Wave propagation in reconfigurable magneto-elastic kagome lattice structures
Schaeffer, Marshall; Ruzzene, Massimo
2015-05-01
The paper discusses the wave propagation characteristics of two-dimensional magneto-elastic kagome lattices. Mechanical instabilities caused by magnetic interactions are exploited in combination with particle contact to bring about changes in the topology and stiffness of the lattices. The analysis uses a lumped mass system of particles, which interact through axial and torsional elastic forces as well as magnetic forces. The propagation of in-plane waves is predicted by applying Bloch theorem to lattice unit cells with linearized interactions. Elastic wave dispersion in these lattices before and after topological changes is compared, and large differences are highlighted.
Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves
Burke, William J.; Ginet, Gregory P.; Heinemann, Michael A.; Villalon, Elena
The paper presents an analysis of the relativistic equations of motion for electrons in magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The relativistic Lorentz equation for a test electron moving under the influence of an electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma and wave propagation through the ionospheric 'radio window' are examined. It is found that at wave energy fluxes greater than 10 to the 8th mW/sq m, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Plans to test the theoretical results with rocket flights are discussed.
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
Jiménez, Noé; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J
2015-01-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band-gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g. cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be cancelled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Extremely Dense Media
Masood, Samina
2016-01-01
We study the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in extremely dense exotic systems with very unique properties. These EM waves develop a longitudinal component due to its interaction with the medium. Renormalization scheme of QED is used to understand the propagation of EM waves in both longitudinal and transverse directions. The propagation of EM waves in a quantum statistically treatable medium affects the properties of the medium itself. The electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability of the medium are modified and influence the related behavior of the medium. All the electromagnetic properties of a medium become a function of temperature and chemical potential of the medium. We study in detail the modifications of electric permittivity and magnetic permeability and other related properties of a medium in the superdense stellar objects.
Nonlinear propagation of planet-generated tidal waves
Rafikov, Roman
2001-01-01
The propagation and evolution of planet-generated density waves in protoplanetary disks is considered. The evolution of waves, leading to the shock formation and wake dissipation, is followed in the weakly nonlinear regime. The local approach of Goodman & Rafikov (2001) is extended to include the effects of surface density and temperature variations in the disk as well as the disk cylindrical geometry and nonuniform shear. Wave damping due to shocks is demonstrated to be a nonlocal process sp...
PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE IN THE THREE PHASES SOIL MEDIA
陈云敏; 边学成; 陈仁朋; 梁志刚
2003-01-01
The fundamental parameters such as dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability are required to solve the propagation of electromagnetic wave (EM Wave) in the soil. Based on Maxwell equations, the equivalent model is proposed to calculate the dielectric permittivity of mixed soil. The results of calculation fit. the test data well and will provide solid foundation for the application of EM wave in the soil moisture testing, CT analyzing of soil and the inspecting of geoenvironment.
Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang
2014-02-01
The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen.
Longitudinally propagating traveling waves of the mammalian tectorial membrane.
Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Aranyosi, Alexander J; Freeman, Dennis M
2007-10-16
Sound-evoked vibrations transmitted into the mammalian cochlea produce traveling waves that provide the mechanical tuning necessary for spectral decomposition of sound. These traveling waves of motion that have been observed to propagate longitudinally along the basilar membrane (BM) ultimately stimulate the mechano-sensory receptors. The tectorial membrane (TM) plays a key role in this process, but its mechanical function remains unclear. Here we show that the TM supports traveling waves that are an intrinsic feature of its visco-elastic structure. Radial forces applied at audio frequencies (2-20 kHz) to isolated TM segments generate longitudinally propagating waves on the TM with velocities similar to those of the BM traveling wave near its best frequency place. We compute the dynamic shear storage modulus and shear viscosity of the TM from the propagation velocity of the waves and show that segments of the TM from the basal turn are stiffer than apical segments are. Analysis of loading effects of hair bundle stiffness, the limbal attachment of the TM, and viscous damping in the subtectorial space suggests that TM traveling waves can occur in vivo. Our results show the presence of a traveling wave mechanism through the TM that can functionally couple a significant longitudinal extent of the cochlea and may interact with the BM wave to greatly enhance cochlear sensitivity and tuning.
Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development
2014-08-28
assume that no excess attenuation or obstacles are present, and the signal propagates along a clear signal path directly between the transmitter and...performed by simple trigonometry . The angle is determined by: θ sin | |, (103) where CL is the channel length, hTX is the height of the
Propagation of waves in shear flows
Fabrikant, A L
1998-01-01
The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside
Solitary wave propagation through two-dimensional treelike structures.
Falls, William J; Sen, Surajit
2014-02-01
It is well known that a velocity perturbation can travel through a mass spring chain with strongly nonlinear interactions as a solitary and antisolitary wave pair. In recent years, nonlinear wave propagation in 2D structures have also been explored. Here we first consider the propagation of such a velocity perturbation for cases where the system has a 2D "Y"-shaped structure. Here each of the three pieces that make up the "Y" are made of a small mass spring chain. In addition, we consider a case where multiple "Y"-shaped structures are used to generate a "tree." We explore the early time dynamical behavior associated with the propagation of a velocity perturbation initiated at the trunk and at the extremities for both cases. We are looking for the energy transmission properties from one branch to another of these "Y"-shaped structures. Our dynamical simulations suggest the following broad observations: (i) for strongly nonlinear interactions, mechanical energy propagation resembles pulse propagation with the energy propagation being dispersive in the linear case; (ii) for strong nonlinear interactions, the tree-like structure acts as an energy gate showing preference for large perturbations in the system while the behavior of the linear case shows no such preference, thereby suggesting that such structures can possibly act as switches that activate at sufficiently high energies. The study aspires to develop insights into the nature of nonlinear wave propagation through a network of linear chains.
Guided wave propagation in multilayered piezoelectric structures
无
2009-01-01
A general formulation of the method of the reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) based on the state space formalism and plane wave expansion technique is presented for the analysis of guided waves in multilayered piezoelectric structures. Each layer of the structure is made of an arbitrarily anisotropic piezoelectric material. Since the state equation of each layer is derived from the three-dimensional theory of linear piezoelectricity, all wave modes are included in the formulation. Within the framework of the MRRM, the phase relation is properly established by excluding exponentially growing functions, while the scattering relation is also appropriately set up by avoiding matrix inversion operation. Consequently, the present MRRM is unconditionally numerically stable and free from computational limitations to the total number of layers, the thickness of individual layers, and the frequency range. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the good performance of the proposed formulation for the analysis of the dispersion characteristic of waves in layered piezoelectric structures.
Wave propagation and energy dissipation in viscoelastic granular media
无
2001-01-01
In terms of viscoelasticity, the relevant theory of wave in granular media is analyzed in this paper.Under the conditions of slight deformation of granules, wave equation, complex number expressions of propagation vector and attenuation vector, attenuation coefficient expressions of longitudinal wave and transverse wave,etc, are analyzed and deduced. The expressions of attenuation coefficients of viscoelastic longitudinal wave and transverse wave show that the attenuation of wave is related to frequency. The higher the frequency is, the more the attenuation is, which is tested by the laboratory experiment. In addition, the energy dissipation is related to the higher frequency wave that is absorbed by granular media. The friction amongst granular media also increase the energy dissipation. During the flowing situation the expression of transmission factor of energy shows that the granular density difference is the key factor which leads to the attenuation of vibrating energy.This has been proved by the experiment results.
Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders
Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui
2015-09-01
Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.
A Wave Expansion Method for Aeroacoustic Propagation
Hammar, Johan
2016-01-01
Although it is possible to directly solve an entire flow-acoustics problem in one computation, this approach remains prohibitively large in terms of the computational resource required for most practical applications. Aeroacoustic problems are therefore usually split into two parts; one consisting of the source computation and one of the source propagation. Although both these parts entail great challenges on the computational method, in terms of accuracy and efficiency, it is still better th...
Carcione, José M
2014-01-01
Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...
Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation
Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe
2016-04-01
Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.
Long-range interaction effects on calcium-wave propagation
Kepseu, W. D.; Woafo, P.
2008-07-01
In this paper, numerical simulation of calcium waves in a network of cells coupled together by a paracrine signaling is investigated. The model takes into account the long-range interaction between cells due to the action of extracellular messengers, which provide links between first-neighbor cells, but also on cells located far away from the excited cell. When considering bidirectional coupling, the long-range interaction influences neither the frequency nor the amplitude of oscillations, contrary to one-directional coupling. The long-range interaction influences the speed of propagation of Ca2+ waves in the network and induces enlargement of the transition zone before the steady regime of propagation is attained. We also investigate the long-range effects on the colonization of a given niche by a pathogenic microorganism signal on calcium wave propagation in the network.
Propagation of Vortex Electron Wave Functions in a Magnetic Field
Gallatin, Gregg M
2012-01-01
The physics of coherent beams of photons carrying axial orbital angular momentum (OAM) is well understood and such beams, sometimes known as vortex beams, have found applications in optics and microscopy. Recently electron beams carrying very large values of axial OAM have been generated. In the absence of coupling to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of such vortex electron beams is virtually identical mathematically to that of vortex photon beams propagating in a medium with a homogeneous index of refraction. But when coupled to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of vortex electron beams is distinctly different from photons. Here we use the exact path integral solution to Schrodingers equation to examine the time evolution of an electron wave function carrying axial OAM. Interestingly we find that the nonzero OAM wave function can be obtained from the zero OAM wave function, in the case considered here, simply by multipling it by an appropriate time and position dependent pref...
Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-12-01
This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed
2011-08-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Efficient counter-propagating wave acoustic micro-particle manipulation
Grinenko, A.; Ong, C. K.; Courtney, C. R. P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Drinkwater, B. W.
2012-12-01
A simple acoustic system consisting of a pair of parallel singe layered piezoelectric transducers submerged in a fluid used to form standing waves by a superposition of two counter-propagating waves is reported. The nodal positions of the standing wave are controlled by applying a variable phase difference to the transducers. This system was used to manipulate polystyrene micro-beads trapped at the nodal positions of the standing wave. The demonstrated good manipulation capability of the system is based on a lowering of the reflection coefficient in a narrow frequency band near the through-thickness resonance of the transducer plates.
Transient Aspects of Wave Propagation Connected with Spatial Coherence
Ezzat G. Bakhoum
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents transient aspects of light wave propagation connected with spatial coherence. It is shown that reflection and refraction phenomena involve spatial patterns which are created within a certain transient time interval. After this transient time interval, these patterns act like a memory, determining the wave vector for subsequent sets of reflected/refracted waves. The validity of this model is based on intuitive aspects regarding phase conservation of energy for waves reflected/refracted by multiple centers in a certain material medium.
Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems.
Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri
2016-02-01
The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time.
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...
On the propagation of Voigt waves in energetically active materials
Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2016-11-01
If Voigt-wave propagation is possible in a dissipative anisotropic dielectric material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, then it is also possible in the analogous energetically active material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, where \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=} is the hermitian conjugate of \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}. This symmetry follows directly from a theoretical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions for Voigt-wave propagation in anisotropic materials. As a consequence of this symmetry, a porous dissipative material that exhibits Voigt-wave propagation can be used to construct a material that allows the propagation of Voigt waves with attendant linear gain in amplitude with propagation distance, by means of infiltration with an electrically or optically activated dye, for example. This phenomenon is captured by the Bruggeman formalism for homogenised composite materials based on isotropic dielectric component materials that are randomly distributed as oriented spheroidal particles.
Wave Propagation in Origami-inspired Foldable Metamaterials
Wang, Pai; Sun, Sijie; Bertoldi, Katia
2015-03-01
We study the propagation of elastic waves in foldable thin-plate structures. Both 1D systems of periodic folds and 2D Miura-Ori patterns are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated by finite element simulations on the unit cell of spatial periodicity. Experimental efforts and considerations are also discussed. The characteristic propagating bands and bandgaps are found to be very sensitive to the folding angles. The existence of highly tunable bandgap makes the system suitable for potential applications including adaptive filters in vibration-reduction devices, wave guides and acoustic imaging equipment.
Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.
Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry
2017-03-06
Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.
24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation
Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika;
2016-01-01
This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...
Propagation of shock waves in a magneto viscous medium
Anand, R K; Mishra, Manoj K
2012-01-01
Recently the authors [Phys. Scr. 83 (2011) 065402] have studied the entropy production in a viscous medium due to the propagation of shock waves. In the present paper, a theoretical model has been developed for a more realistic problem that deals with the study of entropy production due to propagation of shock waves in a viscous medium under the effect of a static magnetic field, for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical symmetry of the shock. Exact solutions for the flow variables have been discovered and their numerical estimations in the shock transition region have been analyzed with respect to static magnetic field, shock symmetry, shock strength, and specific heat ratio.
Multi-layer Study of Wave Propagation in Sunspots
Felipe, T.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.
2010-10-01
We analyze the propagation of waves in sunspots from the photosphere to the chromosphere using time series of co-spatial Ca II H intensity spectra (including its line blends) and polarimetric spectra of Si I λ10,827 and the He I λ10,830 multiplet. From the Doppler shifts of these lines we retrieve the variation of the velocity along the line of sight at several heights. Phase spectra are used to obtain the relation between the oscillatory signals. Our analysis reveals standing waves at frequencies lower than 4 mHz and a continuous propagation of waves at higher frequencies, which steepen into shocks in the chromosphere when approaching the formation height of the Ca II H core. The observed nonlinearities are weaker in Ca II H than in He I lines. Our analysis suggests that the Ca II H core forms at a lower height than the He I λ10,830 line: a time delay of about 20 s is measured between the Doppler signal detected at both wavelengths. We fit a model of linear slow magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a stratified atmosphere with radiative losses according to Newton's cooling law to the phase spectra and derive the difference in the formation height of the spectral lines. We show that the linear model describes well the wave propagation up to the formation height of Ca II H, where nonlinearities start to become very important.
Propagation of gravity wave packet near critical level
YUE Xianchang; YI Fan
2005-01-01
A couple of two-dimensional linear and fully nonlinear numerical models for compressible atmosphere are used to numerically study the propagation of the gravity wave packet into a mean wind shear. For a linear propagation wave packet, the critical level interactions are in good agreement with the linear critical level theory. The dynamically and convectively unstable regions are formed due to the critical level interaction of a finite-amplitude wave packet, but they would not break. The free exchange of potential energy with kinetic energy in the background atmosphere at rest ceases after entering the mean wind shear. However, it still goes on in the nonlinear propagation. It is shown that the nonlinear effects modify the mean flow markedly, reduce the momentum and energy propagation velocity and drop the elevation of the critical level.The gravity wave packet becomes unstable and breaks down into smaller scales in some regions. It expends much more kinetic energy than potential energy in the early phase of the breakdown. This means that the wave breakdown sets up due to the action of the shear instability rather than a convective one.
High frequency guided wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers
Pizzolato, Marco; Masserey, Bernard; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Fromme, Paul
2017-04-01
Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. The cutting process can introduce micro-cracks in the thin wafers and lead to varying thickness. High frequency guided ultrasonic waves are considered for the structural monitoring of the wafers. The anisotropy of the monocrystalline silicon leads to variations of the wave characteristics, depending on the propagation direction relative to the crystal orientation. Full three-dimensional Finite Element simulations of the guided wave propagation were conducted to visualize and quantify these effects for a line source. The phase velocity (slowness) and skew angle of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes (first anti-symmetric mode A0 and first symmetric mode S0) for varying propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation were measured experimentally. Selective mode excitation was achieved using a contact piezoelectric transducer with a custom-made wedge and holder to achieve a controlled contact pressure. The out-of-plane component of the guided wave propagation was measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement was found with the simulation results and theoretical predictions based on nominal material properties of the silicon wafer.
Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section
Richards, W. B.
1986-01-01
Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.
Propagation of elastic waves through textured polycrystals: application to ice.
Maurel, Agnès; Lund, Fernando; Montagnat, Maurine
2015-05-08
The propagation of elastic waves in polycrystals is revisited, with an emphasis on configurations relevant to the study of ice. Randomly oriented hexagonal single crystals are considered with specific, non-uniform, probability distributions for their major axis. Three typical textures or fabrics (i.e. preferred grain orientations) are studied in detail: one cluster fabric and two girdle fabrics, as found in ice recovered from deep ice cores. After computing the averaged elasticity tensor for the considered textures, wave propagation is studied using a wave equation with elastic constants c=〈c〉+δc that are equal to an average plus deviations, presumed small, from that average. This allows for the use of the Voigt average in the wave equation, and velocities are obtained solving the appropriate Christoffel equation. The velocity for vertical propagation, as appropriate to interpret sonic logging measurements, is analysed in more details. Our formulae are shown to be accurate at the 0.5% level and they provide a rationale for previous empirical fits to wave propagation velocities with a quantitative agreement at the 0.07-0.7% level. We conclude that, within the formalism presented here, it is appropriate to use, with confidence, velocity measurements to characterize ice fabrics.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF ACCIDENTAL FLOOD WAVES PROPAGATION
Lorand Catalin STOENESCU
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The study presented in this article describes a modern modeling methodology of the propagation of accidental flood waves in case a dam break; this methodology is applied in Romania for the first time for the pilot project „Breaking scenarios of Poiana Uzului dam”. The calculation programs used help us obtain a bidimensional calculation (2D of the propagation of flood waves, taking into consideration the diminishing of the flood wave on a normal direction to the main direction; this diminishing of the flood wave is important in the case of sinuous courses of water or with urban settlements very close to the minor river bed. In the case of Poiana Uzului dam, 2 scenarios were simulated with the help of Ph.D. Eng. Dan Stematiu, plausible scenarios but with very little chances of actually producing. The results were presented as animations with flooded surfaces at certain time steps successively.
Signatures of thermal hysteresis in Tamm-wave propagation
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2017-10-01
We numerically solved the boundary-value problem for Tamm waves (which may also be classified as Uller-Zenneck waves here) guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic dissipative dielectric (HIDD) material and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric material. The HIDD material was chosen to be VO${}_2$ which, at optical wavelengths, has a temperature-dependent refractive index with a hysteresis feature, i.e., the temperature-dependence of its refractive index varies depending upon whether the temperature is increasing or decreasing. A numerical code was implemented to extract solutions of the dispersion equation at a fixed wavelength for both $p$- and $s$-polarization states over the temperature range [50,80] degrees. A multitude of Tamm waves of both linear polarization states were found, demonstrating a clear demarcation of the heating and cooling phases in terms of wavenumbers and propagation distances. Thereby, the signatures of thermal hysteresis in Tamm-wave propagation were revealed.
Propagation of Acoustic Waves in Troposphere and Stratosphere
Kashyap, J M
2016-01-01
Acoustic waves are those waves which travel with the speed of sound through a medium. H. Lamb has derived a cutoff frequency for stratified and isothermal medium for the propagation of acoustic waves. In order to find the cutoff frequency many methods were introduced after Lamb's work. In this paper, we have chosen the method to determine cutoff frequencies for acoustic waves propagating in non-isothermal media. This turning point frequency method can be applied to various atmospheres like solar atmosphere, stellar atmosphere, earth's atmosphere etc. Here, we have analytically derived the cutoff frequency and have graphically analyzed and compared with the Lamb's cut-off frequencyfor earth's troposphere, lower and upper stratosphere.
Propagation of elastic waves in DNA
Sunil Mukherjee
1983-01-01
Full Text Available The mathematical analyses of longitudinal and torsional elastic waves transmitted along DNA molecule undergoing Brownian motion in solution are presented. Longitudinal vibrations in DNA are shown to be responsible for drug intercalation and breathing. The near neighbor exclusion mode of drug intercalation is explained. Torsional oscillations in DNA are shown to be responsible for conformation transitions from a right handed to a left handed form, depending on sequence specificity in high salt concentration.
Linear wave propagation in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Keppens, R
2008-01-01
The properties of linear Alfv\\'en, slow, and fast magnetoacoustic waves for uniform plasmas in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed, augmenting the well-known expressions for their phase speeds with knowledge on the group speed. A 3+1 formalism is purposely adopted to make direct comparison with the Newtonian MHD limits easier and to stress the graphical representation of their anisotropic linear wave properties using the phase and group speed diagrams. By drawing these for both the fluid rest frame and for a laboratory Lorentzian frame which sees the plasma move with a three-velocity having an arbitrary orientation with respect to the magnetic field, a graphical view of the relativistic aberration effects is obtained for all three MHD wave families. Moreover, it is confirmed that the classical Huygens construction relates the phase and group speed diagram in the usual way, even for the lab frame viewpoint. Since the group speed diagrams correspond to exact solutions for initial conditions co...
The rarefaction wave propagation in transparent windows
Glam, B.; Porat, E.; Horovitz, Y.; Yosef-Hai, A.
2017-01-01
The radial (lateral) rarefaction wave velocity of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Lithium Fluoride (LiF) windows were studied by plate impact experiments that were carried out at Soreq NRC up to a pressure of 146 kbar in the PMMA and 334 kbar in the LiF. The windows were glued to Lead targets that were impacted by a copper impactor. The VISAR measurement was done in the window interface with the target. This information was utilized to identify the radial rarefaction arrival time at the center of different diameter windows after the shock event, and served as a measurement to the radial wave velocity in the shocked material. It was found that for both windows, LiF or PMMA, the measured radial wave velocity increases with the pressure. Furthermore, this velocity is significantly higher compared to the expected longitudinal sound velocity at the same pressure, calculated by the Steinberg EOS in the PMMA and by ab initio calculation in the LiF. Here we present the experimental results and a comparison with analytical calculation of the sound velocity using the Steinberg EOS.
Analysis of wave propagation in periodic 3D waveguides
Schaal, Christoph; Bischoff, Stefan; Gaul, Lothar
2013-11-01
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a growing research field in the realm of civil engineering. SHM concepts are implemented using integrated sensors and actuators to evaluate the state of a structure. Within this work, wave-based techniques are addressed. Dispersion effects for propagating waves in waveguides of different materials are analyzed for various different cross-sections. Since analytical theory is limited, a general approach based on the Waveguide Finite Element Method is applied. Numerical results are verified experimentally.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan (Oakdale, MN); Huizinga, John S. (Dellwood, MN)
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Elastic Wave Propagation Mechanisms in Underwater Acoustic Environments
2015-09-30
excited flexural mode that propagates in the ice layer at certain acoustic frequencies in ice-covered environments.[3] • Previously implemented EPE self...and ks,3, corresponding to the water layer sound speed, bottom compressional and shear wave speed, and ice layer compressional and shear wave speed... excitation of the Scholte interface mode. Dashed curve shows spectra for a source at 1 m depth and receiver at 25 m, showing the excitation of the
Electromagnetic wave propagation in alternating material-metamaterial layered structures
Carrera-Escobedo, V H
2016-01-01
Using the transfer matrix method, we examine the parametric behavior of the transmittance of an electromagnetic plane wave propagating in the lossless regime through a periodic multilayered system as a function of the frequency and angle of incidence of the electromagnetic wave for the case in which the periodic structure comprises alternating material-metamaterial layers. A specific example of high transmittance at any angle of incidence in the visible region of the spectrum is identified
Propagation of shock waves in a viscous medium
Yadav, Harish C; Anand, R K, E-mail: harish0chandra@gmail.com, E-mail: anand.rajkumar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)
2011-06-01
A theoretical model for entropy production in a viscous medium due to the propagation of shock waves has been developed. An exact general solution is achieved for plane, cylindrical and spherical symmetries of shock waves in viscous flow, which on numerical substitutions gives variations in the entropy production, temperature ratio and particle velocity in the shock transition region with the coefficient of viscosity, specific heat ratio, shock strength, initial density and initial pressure.
Wave Propagation in Accretion Disks with Self-Gravity
LIU Xiao-Ci; YANG Lan-Tian; WU Shao-Ping; DING Shi-Xue
2001-01-01
We extend the research by Lubow and Pringle of axisymmetric waves in accretion disks to the case where self gravity of disks should be considered. We derive and analyse the dispersion relations with the effect of self-gravity. Results show that self-gravity extends the forbidden region of the wave propagation: for high frequency p-modes, self-gravity makes the wavelength shorter and the group velocity larger; for low frequency g-modes, the effect is opposite.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Love wave propagation in piezoelectric layered structure with dissipation.
Du, Jianke; Xian, Kai; Wang, Ji; Yong, Yook-Kong
2009-02-01
We investigate analytically the effect of the viscous dissipation of piezoelectric material on the dispersive and attenuated characteristics of Love wave propagation in a layered structure, which involves a thin piezoelectric layer bonded perfectly to an unbounded elastic substrate. The effects of the viscous coefficient on the phase velocity of Love waves and attenuation are presented and discussed in detail. The analytical method and the results can be useful for the design of the resonators and sensors.
Unified interpretation of superluminal behaviors in wave propagation
Ranfagni, A. [Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Viliani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ranfagni, C. [Facolta di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturali, Corso di Laurea in Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Mignani, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Edoardo Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi di Roma ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Ruggeri, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: rocco.ruggeri@isc.cnr.it; Ricci, A.M. [Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l' Elettronica della Marina Militare ' Giancarlo Vallauri' (Mariteleradar), Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy)
2007-10-29
By using two approaches, we demonstrate that superluminal behaviors in wave propagation can be attributed to mechanisms acting in the near-field limit. One approach is based on complex waves, while the other relies on a path-integral treatment of stochastic motion. The results of the two approaches are comparable, and suitable for interpreting the data obtained in microwave experiments; these experiments, over a wide range of distances, show a time advance which, in any case, is limited to nanoseconds.
Noise induced intercellular propagation of calcium waves
Nchange, A. K.; Kepseu, W. D.; Woafo, P.
2008-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a bidirectional coupled chain of cells, in which a cell is subjected to an external noise. Noisy oscillations of calcium (Ca 2+), that is, a bursting-like phenomenon induced by noise with fluctuations in the baseline values of calcium, are induced in the first cell and propagated along the chain with noise suppression. This phenomenon of noise suppression is further investigated by computing the normalized fluctuation of pulse durations. It is therefore found that the noise induced coherence resonance phenomenon occurs at the cellular level. Coherence biresonance behaviour appears in the transmission of noise induced oscillations at appropriate noise intensity or noise coupling (for low noise intensity) and the information flow in each cell can be simultaneously optimized at the optimal value of noise or coupling.
Impact of Fog on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
Morris, Jonathon; Fleisch, Daniel
2002-04-01
This experiment was designed to explore the impact of fog on electromagnetic radiation, in particular microwaves and infrared light. For years law enforcement agencies have used microwave radiation (radar guns) to measure the speed of vehicles, and the last ten years has seen increased use of LIDAR, which uses 905-nm infrared radiation rather than microwaves. To evaulate the effect of fog on the operation of these devices, we have constructed a fog chamber with microwave and optical portals to allow light from a HeNe laser and 10.6-GHz microwaves to propagate through various densities of fog. Data is acquired using Vernier Logger Pro and analyzed using MATLAB and Mathematica. Using the attenuation of the laser light to determine fog density, the impact of fog on the signal-to-noise ratio of both microwave and IR devices may be quantified, and the maximum useful range may be calculated.
Sim, Kyuho; Park, Jisu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seon-Jun [Innovation KR, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
This paper proposes a floating-type wave energy conversion system that consists of a mechanical part (yo-yo vibrating system, motion rectifying system, and power transmission system) and electrical part (power generation system). The yo-yo vibrating system, which converts translational input to rotational motion, is modeled as a single degree-of-freedom system. It can amplify the wave input via the resonance phenomenon and enhance the energy conversion efficiency. The electromechanical model is established from impedance matching of the mechanical part to the electrical system. The performance was analyzed at various wave frequencies and damping ratios for a wave input acceleration of 0.14 g. The maximum output occurred at the resonance frequency and optimal load resistance, where the power conversion efficiency and electrical output power reached 48% and 290 W, respectively. Utilizing the resonance phenomenon was found to greatly enhance the performance of the wave energy converter, and there exists a maximum power point at the optimum load resistance.
Propagation of plane waves in poroviscoelastic anisotropic media
A.K.Vashishth,M.D.Sharma
2008-01-01
This study discusses wave propagation in perhaps the most general model of a poroelastic medium.The medium is considered as a viscoelastic,anisotropic and porous solid frame such that its pores of anisotropic permeability are filled with a viscous fluid.The anisotropy considered is of general type,and the attenuating waves in the medium are treated as the inhomogeneous waves.The complex slowness vector is resolved to define the phase velocity,homogeneous attenuation,inhomogeneous attenuation,and angle of attenuation for each of the four attenuating waves in the medium.A non-dimensional parameter measures the deviation of an inhomogeneous wave from its homogeneous version.An numerical model of a North-Sea sandstone is used to analyze the effects of the propagation direction,inhomogeneity parameter,frequency regime,anisotropy symmetry,anelasticity of the frame,and viscosity of the pore-fluid on the propagation characteristics of waves in such a medium.
Numerical simulation for explosion wave propagation of combustible mixture gas
WANG Cheng; NING Jian-guo; MA Tian-bao
2008-01-01
A two-dimensional multi-material code was indigenously developed to investigate the effects of duct boundary conditions and ignition positions on the propagation law of explosion wave for hydrogen and methane-based combustible mixture gas. In the code, Young's technique was employed to track the interface between the explosion products and air, and combustible function model was adopted to simulate ignition process. The code was employed to study explosion flow field inside and outside the duct and to obtain peak pressures in different boundary conditions and ignition positions. Numerical results suggest that during the propagation in a duct, for point initiation, the curvature of spherical wave front gradually decreases and evolves into plane wave. Due to the multiple reflections on the duct wall, multi-peak values appear on pressure-time curve, and peak pressure strongly relies on the duct boundary conditions and ignition position. When explosive wave reaches the exit of the duct, explosion products expand outward and forms shock wave in air. Multiple rarefaction waves also occur and propagate upstream along the duct to decrease the pressure in the duct. The results are in agreement with one-dimensional isentropic gas flow theory of the explosion products, and indicate that the ignition model and multi-material interface treatment method are feasible.
Effect of fuel stratification on detonation wave propagation
Masselot, Damien; Fievet, Romain; Raman, Venkat
2016-11-01
Rotating detonation engines (RDEs) form a class of pressure-gain combustion systems of higher efficiency compared to conventional gas turbine engines. One of the key features of the design is the injection system, as reactants need to be continuously provided to the detonation wave to sustain its propagation speed. As inhomogeneities in the reactant mixture can perturb the detonation wave front, premixed fuel jet injectors might seem like the most stable solution. However, this introduces the risk of the detonation wave propagating through the injector, causing catastrophic failure. On the other hand, non-premixed fuel injection will tend to quench the detonation wave near the injectors, reducing the likelihood of such failure. Still, the effects of such non-premixing and flow inhomogeneities ahead of a detonation wave have yet to be fully understood and are the object of this study. A 3D channel filled with O2 diluted in an inert gas with circular H2 injectors is simulated as a detonation wave propagates through the system. The impact of key parameters such as injector spacing, injector size, mixture composition and time variations will be discussed. PhD Candidate.
Linear and nonlinear propagation of water wave groups
Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Donelan, M. A.; Hui, W. H.
1992-01-01
Results are presented from a study of the evolution of waveforms with known analytical group shapes, in the form of both transient wave groups and the cloidal (cn) and dnoidal (dn) wave trains as derived from the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The waveforms were generated in a long wind-wave tank of the Canada Centre for Inland Waters. It was found that the low-amplitude transients behaved as predicted by the linear theory and that the cn and dn wave trains of moderate steepness behaved almost as predicted by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Some of the results did not fit into any of the available theories for waves on water, but they provide important insight on how actual groups of waves propagate and on higher-order effects for a transient waveform.
Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice
Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen
2016-11-01
Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.
Acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in biaxially stressed plates.
Gandhi, Navneet; Michaels, Jennifer E; Lee, Sang Jun
2012-09-01
Acoustoelasticity, or the change in elastic wave speeds with stress, is a well-studied phenomenon for bulk waves. The effect of stress on Lamb waves is not as well understood, although it is clear that anisotropic stresses will produce anisotropy in the Lamb wave dispersion curves. Here the theory of acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation is developed for isotropic media subjected to a biaxial, homogeneous stress field. It is shown that, as expected, dispersion curves change anisotropically for most stresses, modes, and frequencies. Interestingly, for some mode-frequency combinations, changes in phase velocity are isotropic even for a biaxial stress field. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental results for several Lamb wave modes and frequencies for uniaxial loads applied to an aluminum plate, and the agreement is reasonably good.
Wave Propagation through Axially Symmetric Dielectric Shells.
1981-06-01
1-8 2..2 Sc lr .o en i.. . . . . ..........eo oe e .eoe. o. eeeeo. oo....... 2 1 1.2 Baekground: Analytical Methods Based on Flat Sheet Appr oatei...Fields Near a Radome Consist of Constituent Waves. 1-2 - -t . -__-_-_-_-_-_-_..._._._._._._. 1.2 BACKGROUND: ANALYTICAL METHODS BASED ON FLAT SHEET...2.4.2. So A2 ikR x (4 ) = (K-1) E feik Cos2 dado dz (2-100) x 2 R2 o where = (aa - ap cos - zz’) R - 1 (2-101) and -11 = [6 (a+6p)-6 (a-6p)-a 1. (2
Nonlinear wave propagation in constrained solids subjected to thermal loads
Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2014-01-01
The classical mathematical treatment governing nonlinear wave propagation in solids relies on finite strain theory. In this scenario, a system of nonlinear partial differential equations can be derived to mathematically describe nonlinear phenomena such as acoustoelasticity (wave speed dependency on quasi-static stress), wave interaction, wave distortion, and higher-harmonic generation. The present work expands the topic of nonlinear wave propagation to the case of a constrained solid subjected to thermal loads. The origin of nonlinear effects in this case is explained on the basis of the anharmonicity of interatomic potentials, and the absorption of the potential energy corresponding to the (prevented) thermal expansion. Such "residual" energy is, at least, cubic as a function of strain, hence leading to a nonlinear wave equation and higher-harmonic generation. Closed-form solutions are given for the longitudinal wave speed and the second-harmonic nonlinear parameter as a function of interatomic potential parameters and temperature increase. The model predicts a decrease in longitudinal wave speed and a corresponding increase in nonlinear parameter with increasing temperature, as a result of the thermal stresses caused by the prevented thermal expansion of the solid. Experimental measurements of the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter on a steel block under constrained thermal expansion confirm this trend. These results suggest the potential of a nonlinear ultrasonic measurement to quantify thermal stresses from prevented thermal expansion. This knowledge can be extremely useful to prevent thermal buckling of various structures, such as continuous-welded rails in hot weather.
Frozen Gaussian approximation for three-dimensional seismic wave propagation
Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu
2016-09-01
We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in three-dimensional earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a three-dimensional (3D) seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3D crust-over-mantle model.
Frozen Gaussian approximation for 3-D seismic wave propagation
Chai, Lihui; Tong, Ping; Yang, Xu
2017-01-01
We present a systematic introduction on applying frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3-D earth models. In this method, seismic wavefield is decomposed into frozen (fixed-width) Gaussian functions, which propagate along ray paths. Rather than the coherent state solution to the wave equation, this method is rigorously derived by asymptotic expansion on phase plane, with analysis of its accuracy determined by the ratio of short wavelength over large domain size. Similar to other ray-based beam methods (e.g. Gaussian beam methods), one can use relatively small number of Gaussians to get accurate approximations of high-frequency wavefield. The algorithm is embarrassingly parallel, which can drastically speed up the computation with a multicore-processor computer station. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method by comparing it to the spectral element method for a 3-D seismic wave propagation in homogeneous media, where one has the analytical solution as a benchmark. As another proof of methodology, simulations of high-frequency seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous media are performed for 3-D waveguide model and smoothed Marmousi model, respectively. The second contribution of this paper is that, we incorporate the Snell's law into the FGA formulation, and asymptotically derive reflection, transmission and free surface conditions for FGA to compute high-frequency seismic wave propagation in high contrast media. We numerically test these conditions by computing traveltime kernels of different phases in the 3-D crust-over-mantle model.
Normal Wave Propagation Velocity in a Static Web.
1986-12-01
34 " " ’ . " . " . " " . " , " " . " -" " " " . " " . " " " " . " * . - " " " , 4 . " . " . " " " . " " "." "-" "." " . . . . . " " " " -w A- INah . . . . . . - - 1 NORMAL WAVE PROPAGATION VELOCITY IN A STATIC WEB By
Chiral metamaterials characterisation using the wave propagation retrieval method
Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu
2010-01-01
In this presentation we extend the wave propagation method for the retrieval of the effective properties to the case of chiral metamaterials with circularly polarised eigenwaves. The method is unambiguous, simple and provides bulk effective parameters. Advantages and constraints are discussed...
Transient Topology Optimization of Two-Dimensional Elastic Wave Propagation
Matzen, René; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2008-01-01
A tapering device coupling two monomodal waveguides is designed with the topology optimization method based on transient wave propagation. The gradient-based optimization technique is applied to predict the material distribution in the tapering area such that the squared output displacement (a...
Seismic wave propagation in fractured media: A discontinuous Galerkin approach
De Basabe, Jonás D.
2011-01-01
We formulate and implement a discontinuous Galekin method for elastic wave propagation that allows for discontinuities in the displacement field to simulate fractures or faults using the linear- slip model. We show numerical results using a 2D model with one linear- slip discontinuity and different frequencies. The results show a good agreement with analytic solutions. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Late time tail of wave propagation on curved spacetime
Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K; Ching, E S C; Leung, P T; Suen, W M; Young, K
1994-01-01
The late time behavior of waves propagating on a general curved spacetime is studied. The late time tail is not necessarily an inverse power of time. Our work extends, places in context, and provides understanding for the known results for the Schwarzschild spacetime. Analytic and numerical results are in excellent agreement.
Chiral metamaterials characterisation using the wave propagation retrieval method
Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu
2010-01-01
In this presentation we extend the wave propagation method for the retrieval of the effective properties to the case of chiral metamaterials with circularly polarised eigenwaves. The method is unambiguous, simple and provides bulk effective parameters. Advantages and constraints are discussed...
Plane-Wave Propagation in Extreme Magnetoelectric (EME) Media
Lindell, I V; Favaro, A
2016-01-01
The extreme magnetoelectric medium (EME medium) is defined in terms of two medium dyadics, $\\alpha$, producing electric polarization by the magnetic field and $\\beta$, producing magnetic polarization by the electric field. Plane-wave propagation of time-harmonic fields of fixed finite frequency in the EME medium is studied. It is shown that (if $\\omega\
Wave propagation in turbulent media: use of convergence acceleration methods.
Baram, A; Tsadka, S; Azar, Z; Tur, M
1988-06-01
We propose the use of convergence acceleration methods for the evaluation of integral expressions of an oscillatory nature, often encountered in the study of optical wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. These techniques offer substantial savings in computation time with appreciable gain in accuracy. As an example, we apply the Levin u acceleration scheme to the problem of remote sensing of transversal wind profiles.
Statistical characterization of wave propagation in mine environments
Bakir, Onur
2012-07-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation (ME-PC) method with a novel domain-decomposition (DD) integral equation-based EM simulator to obtain statistics of electric fields due to wireless transmitters in realistic mine environments. © 2012 IEEE.
Directional bending wave propagation in periodically perforated plates
Andreassen, Erik; Manktelow, Kevin; Ruzzene, Massimo
2015-01-01
We report on the investigation of wave propagation in a periodically perforated plate. A unit cell with double-C perforations is selected as a test article suitable to investigate two-dimensional dispersion characteristics, group velocities, and internal resonances. A numerical model, formulated ...
Wave propagation and shock formation in different magnetic structures
Centeno, Rebecca; Bueno, Javier Trujillo
2008-01-01
Velocity oscillations "measured" simultaneously at the photosphere and the chromosphere -from time series of spectropolarimetric data in the 10830 A region- of different solar magnetic features allow us to study the properties of wave propagation as a function of the magnetic flux of the structure (i.e. two different-sized sunspots, a tiny pore and a facular region). While photospheric oscillations have similar characteristics everywhere, oscillations measured at chromospheric heights show different amplitudes, frequencies and stages of shock development depending on the observed magnetic feature. The analysis of the power and the phase spectra, together with simple theoretical modeling, lead to a series of results concerning wave propagation within the range of heights of this study. We find that, while the atmospheric cut-off frequency and the propagation properties of the different oscillating modes depend on the magnetic feature, in all the cases the power that reaches the high chromosphere above the atmo...
Numerical Analysis of a Blocking Mass Attenuating Wave Propagation
Xianzhong Wang; Xiongliang Yao; Qiangyong Wang; Shuai Lv
2011-01-01
Based on wave theory,blocking mass impeding propagation of flexural waves was analyzed with force excitation applied on a ship pedestal.The analysis model of a complex structure was developed by combining statistical energy analysis and the finite element method.Based on the hybrid FE-SEA method,the vibro-acoustic response of a complex structure was solved.Then,the sound radiation of a cylindrical shell model influenced by blocking mass was calculated in mid/high frequency.The result shows that blocking mass has an obvious effect on impeding propagation.The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for application of the blocking mass to structure-borne sound propagation control.
Ionization wave propagation on a micro cavity plasma array
Wollny, Alexander; Gebhardt, Markus; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Boettner, Henrik; Winter, Joerg; der Gathen, Volker Schulz-von; Mussenbrock, Thomas
2011-01-01
Microcavity plasma arrays are regular arrays of inverse pyramidal cavities created on positive doped silicon wafers. Each cavity acts as a microscopic dielectric barrier discharge. Operated at atmospheric pressure in argon and excited with high voltage at about 10 kHz frequency each cavity develops a localized microplasma. Experiments show a strong interaction of the individual cavities, leading to the propagation of wave-like emission structures along the array surface. This paper studies the ignition process of a micro cavity plasma array by means of a numerical simulation and confirms the experimental results. The propagation of an ionization wave is observed. Its propagation speed of 1 km/s matches experimental findings.
Skewon field and cosmic wave propagation
Ni, Wei-Tou
2013-01-01
For the study of the gravitational coupling of electromagnetism and the equivalence principle, we have used the spacetime constitutive tensor density {chi}ijkl, and discovered the nonmetric (axion) part (A){chi}ijkl (equal to {phi}eijkl) of {chi}ijkl worthy investigation. Since we have used Lagrangian formalism, {chi}ijkl is effectively symmetric under the interchange of index pairs, ij and kl, and has 21 independent degrees of freedom. Hehl, Obukhov and Rubilar have started from charge-flux formalism to study electromagnetism, discovered the antisymmetric part (Sk){chi}ijkl (15 degrees of freedom) of {chi}ijkl under the interchange of index pairs ij and kl worthy investigation, and called it skewon field. In this paper, we study the propagation of the Hehl-Obukhov-Rubilar skewon field in weak gravity field/dilute matter or with weak violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP), and further classify it into Type I and Type II skewons. From the dispersion relation we show that no dissipation/no amplif...
Optical wave propagation in photonic crystal metamaterials
Khan, Kaisar; Mnaymneh, Khaled; Awad, Hazem; Hasan, Imad; Hall, Trevor
2014-09-01
Metamaterials that provide negative refraction can be implemented in photonic crystals (PhCs) through careful design of the devices. Theoretically, we demonstrate that the dispersion can be altered to achieve negative refraction. This can be done through engineering the geometry of the device as well as selecting appropriate materials. The PhC also demonstrates slow light that facilitate sensing chemicals or biological agents. Using metallic materials such as gold nano-particle enables PhCs to guide optical waves in desired pathways. Also using magnetic materials such as highly doped n-GaAs, we can tune the band gap by changing magnetic field. The simulated results are consistent with some of the previously reported experimental results and give us guidance for future experiments.
Enhanced propagation of photon density waves in random amplifying media
Renthlei, Lalruatfela; Ramakrishna, S A
2013-01-01
We demonstrate enhanced wave-like character of diffuse photon density waves (DPDW) in an amplifying random medium. The amplifying nature makes it contingent to choose the wave solution that grows inside the amplifying medium, and has a propagation vector pointing opposite to the growth direction. This results in negative refraction of the DPDW at an absorbing-amplifying random medium interface as well as the possibility of supporting "anti"-surface-like modes at the interface. A slab of amplifying random medium sandwiched between two absorbing random media supports waveguide resonances that can be utilized to extend the imaging capabilities of DPDW.
Wave Propagation in Stochastic Spacetimes Localization, Amplification and Particle Creation
Hu, B L
1998-01-01
Here we study novel effects associated with electromagnetic wave propagation in a Robertson-Walker universe and the Schwarzschild spacetime with a small amount of metric stochasticity. We find that localization of electromagnetic waves occurs in a Robertson-Walker universe with time-independent metric stochasticity, while time-dependent metric stochasticity induces exponential instability in the particle production rate. For the Schwarzschild metric, time-independent randomness can decrease the total luminosity of Hawking radiation due to multiple scattering of waves outside the black hole and gives rise to event horizon fluctuations and thus fluctuations in the Hawking temperature.
Wave propagation in a chiral fluid an undergraduate study
Garel, T
2003-01-01
We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a chiral fluid, where the molecules are described by a simplified version of the Kuhn coupled oscillator model. The eigenmodes of Maxwell's equations are circularly polarized waves. The application of a static magnetic field further leads to a magnetochiral term in the index of refraction of the fluid, which is independent of the wave polarization. A similar result holds when absorption is taken into account. Interference experiments and photochemical reactions have recently demonstrated the existence of the magnetochiral term. The comparison with Faraday rotation in an achiral fluid emphasizes the different symmetry properties of the two effects.
Lightning location with variable radio wave propagation velocity
Liu, Zhongjian; Koh, Kuang Liang; Mezentsev, Andrew; Sugier, Jacqueline; Fullekrug, Martin
2016-04-01
Lightning discharges can be located by triangulation of their broadband electromagnetic pulses in long-baseline (~500 km) radio receiver networks. Here we apply the time of arrival difference (TOA) method to electric field recordings with a low frequency radio receiver array consisting of four stations in western Europe. The electromagnetic wave propagation velocity at low radio frequencies is an important input parameter for the TOA calculation and it is normally assumed to be equal to the speed of light. However, the radio wave propagation depends for example on the frequency, ground conductivity and the ionospheric height and small variations can cause location differences from hundreds to thousands of meters, as demonstrated in this study. The radio wave propagation from two VLF transmissions at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz are compared. The results show that the apparent phase velocities are 0.6% slower and 0.5% faster than the speed of light respectively. As a result, a variable velocity is implemented in the TOA method using continuously recorded data on the 8th August 2014, when a mesoscale convective system developed over central France. The lightning locations inferred with a variable wave propagation velocity are more clustered than those using a fixed velocity. The distribution of the lightning velocities in a given geographic area fits a normal distribution that is not centred at the speed of light. As a result, representative velocities can be calculated for smaller regions to generate a velocity map over a larger area of enhanced lightning activity. These results suggest a connection with the ground elevation and/or surface conductivity that might have an impact on the observed wave propagation velocities.
Surface Wave Propagation in non--ideal plasmas
Pandey, B P
2015-01-01
The properties of surface waves in a partially ionized, compressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in this work. The waves are affected by the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects which causes finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the magnetic field drift is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the fully ionized ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization as well as on the compressibility of the medium. The phase velocity of the sausage and kink waves increases marginally (by a few percent) due to the compressibility of the medium in both ideal as well as Hall diffusion dominated regimes. However, unlike ideal regime, only waves below certain cut off frequency can propagate in the medium in Hall dominated regime. This cut off for a thin slab has a weak dependence on the plasma beta whereas for thick slab no such dependence exists. More importantly, since the cut off is introduce...
Experimental and theoretical study of Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation
Rogers, Wayne P.; Datta, Subhendu K.; Ju, T. H.
1990-01-01
Many space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom, contain critical thin-walled components. The structural integrity of thin-walled plates and shells can be monitored effectively using acoustic emission and ultrasonic testing in the Rayleigh-Lamb wave frequency range. A new PVDF piezoelectric sensor has been developed that is well suited to remote, inservice nondestructive evaluation of space structures. In the present study the new sensor was used to investigate Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation in a plate. The experimental apparatus consisted of a glass plate (2.3 m x 25.4 mm x 5.6 mm) with PVDF sensor (3 mm diam.) mounted at various positions along its length. A steel ball impact served as a simulated acoustic emission source, producing surface waves, shear waves and longitudinal waves with dominant frequencies between 1 kHz and 200 kHz. The experimental time domain wave-forms were compared with theoretical predictions of the wave propagation in the plate. The model uses an analytical solution for the Green's function and the measured response at a single position to predict response at any other position in the plate. Close agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results.
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity
Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin
2016-03-01
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.
Wave propagation in coated cylinders with reference to fretting fatigue
M Ramesh; Satish V Kailas; K R Y Simha
2008-06-01
Fretting fatigue is the phenomenon of crack initiation due to dynamic contact loading, a situation which is commonly encountered in mechanical couplings subjected to vibration. The study of fretting fatigue in high frequency regime has gained importance in recent years. However the stress wave effects at high frequency y loading is scanty in the literature. The objective of present investigation is to study stress wave propagation in cylinders with reference to high frequency fretting. The case of a coated cylinder is considered since coating is often provided to improve tribological properties of the component. Rule of mixtures is proposed to understand the dispersion phenomenon in coated or layered cylinder knowing the dispersion relation for the cases of homogeneous cylinders made of coating and substrate materials separately. The possibility of stress wave propagation at the interface with a particular phase velocity without dispersion is also discussed. Results are given for two different thicknesses of coating.
Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes
Berti, E; Lemos, J P S; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose' P. S.
2004-01-01
Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the ``draining bathtub'' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Due to the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute reflection coefficients and instability timescales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a non-rotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow.
Internal solitary waves propagating through variable background hydrology and currents
Liu, Z.; Grimshaw, R.; Johnson, E.
2017-08-01
Large-amplitude, horizontally-propagating internal wave trains are commonly observed in the coastal ocean, fjords and straits. They are long nonlinear waves and hence can be modelled by equations of the Korteweg-de Vries type. However, typically they propagate through regions of variable background hydrology and currents, and over variable bottom topography. Hence a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation is needed to model these waves. Although this equation is now well-known and heavily used, a term representing non-conservative effects, arising from dissipative or forcing terms in the underlying basic state, has usually been omitted. In particular this term arises when the hydrology varies in the horizontal direction. Our purpose in this paper is to examine the possible significance of this term. This is achieved through analysis and numerical simulations, using both a two-layer fluid model and a re-examination of previous studies of some specific ocean cases.
Ben Salah, Issam; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2012-02-01
An exact approach is used to investigate Rayleigh waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi infinite homogenous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized when the six fold symmetry axis is put along the propagation direction x(1). The FGPM character imposes that the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. Contrary to the analytical approach, the adopted numerical methods, including the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and the stiffness matrix method (SMM), treat separately the electrical and mechanical gradients. The influences of graded variations applied to FGPM film coefficients on the dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves are discussed. The effects of gradient coefficients on electromechanical coupling factor, displacement fields, stress distributions and electrical potential, are reported. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. Opposite effects are observed on the coupling factor when graded variations are applied separately. A particular attention has been devoted to the maximum of the coupling factor and it dependence on the stratification rate and the gradient coefficient. This work provides with a theoretical foundation for the design and practical applications of SAW devices with high performance.
Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods
Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.
2015-07-01
Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.
Topology Optimization for Wave Propagation Problems with Experimental Validation
Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk
from acoustics, however problems for TE or TM polarized electromagnetic waves and shear waves in solids in two dimensions may be treated using the proposed methods with minor modifications. A brief introduction to wave problems and to density-based topology optimizationis included, as is a brief......This Thesis treats the development and experimental validation of density-based topology optimization methods for wave propagation problems. Problems in the frequency regime where design dimensions are between approximately one fourth and ten wavelengths are considered. All examples treat problems...... discussion of the finite element method and a hybrid ofa wave based method and the finite element method, used to discretize the modelproblems under consideration. A short discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of applying the hybrid method compared to the finite element method, used in conjunction...
WAVE PROPAGATION IN PIEZOELECTRIC/PIEZOMAGNETIC LAYERED PERIODIC COMPOSITES
Yu Pang; Jinxi Liu; Yuesheng Wang; Daining Fang
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the dynamic behaviors of wave propagation in layered periodic composites consisting of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases. The dispersion relations of Lamb waves are derived. Dispersion curves and displacement fields are calculated with different piezoelectric volume fractions. Numerical results for BaTiOa/CoFe204 composites show that the dispersion curves resemble the symmetric Lamb waves in a plate. Exchange between the longitudinal (i.e. thickness) mode and coupled mode takes place at the crossover point between dispersion curves of the first two branches. With the increase of BaTiO3 volume fraction, the crossover point appears at a lower wave number and wave velocity is higher. These findings are useful for magnetoelectric transducer applications.
Effective action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong
2016-01-01
A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we study a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well-known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasma...
Experimental study on waves propagation over a coarse-grained sloping beach
Hsu, Tai-Wen; Lai, Jian-Wu
2013-04-01
This study investigates velocity fields of wave propagation over a coarse-grained sloping beach using laboratory experiments. The experiment was conducted in a wave flume of 25 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.6 m high in which a coarse-grained sloping 1:5 beach was placed with two layers ball. The glass ball is D=7.9 cm and the center to center distance of each ball is 8.0 cm. The test section for observing wave and flow fields is located at the middle part of the flume. A piston type wave maker driven by an electromechanical hydraulic serve system is installed at the end of the flume. The intrinsic permeability Kp and turbulent drag coefficient Cf were obtained from steady flow water-head experiments. The flow velocity was measured by the particle image velocimeter (PIV) and digital image process (DIP) techniques. Eleven fields of view (FOVS) were integrated into a complete representation including the outer, surf and swash zone. Details of the definition sketch of the coarse-grained sloping beach model as well as experimental setup are referred to Lai et al. (2008). A high resolution of CCD camera was used to capture the images which was calibrated by the direct linear transform (DCT) algorithm proposed by Abed El-Aziz and Kar-Ara (1971). The water surface between the interface of air and water at each time step are calculated by Otsu' (1978) detect algorithm. The comparison shows that the water surface elevation observed by integrated image agrees well with that of Otsu' detection results. For the flow field measurement, each image pair was cross correlated with 32X32 pixel inter rogation window and a half overlap between adjacent windows. The repeatability and synchronization are the key elements for both wave motion and PIV technique. The wave profiles and flow field were compared during several wave periods to ensure that they can be reproduced by the present system. The water depth is kept as a constant of h=32 cm. The incident wave conditions are set to be wave
CHEN Zhen; LI Hong-Lang; YAN Li; CHEN Xiao-Yang; LU Da-Cheng; WANG Xiao-Hui; LIU Xiang-Lin; HAN Pei-De; YUAN Hai-Rong; WANG Du; WANG Zhan-Guo; HE Shi-Tang
2001-01-01
High-quality and high-resistivity GaN films were grown on (0001) sapphire face by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. To measure the surface acoustic wave properties accurately, we deposited metallized interdigital trans ducers on the GaN surface. The acoustic surface wave velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient were measured, respectively, to be 5667m/s and 1.9% by the pulse method.
Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay
Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.
2007-01-01
During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.
Investigation on the propagation process of rotating detonation wave
Deng, Li; Ma, Hu; Xu, Can; Zhou, Changsheng; Liu, Xiao
2017-10-01
Effects of mass flow rate and equivalence ratio on the wave speed performance and instantaneous pressure characteristics of rotating detonation wave are investigated using hydrogen and air mixtures. The interaction between air and fuel manifolds and combustion chamber is also identified. The results show that the rotating detonation waves are able to adapt themselves to the changes of equivalence ratio during the run, the rotating detonation waves decayed gradually and then quenched after the shutdown of reactants supply. The wave speed performance is closely related to the mass flow rate and the pressure ratio of the fuel to air manifolds at different equivalence ratios. The blockage ratio of the air manifold increases with the increasing of the wave speed due to high-pressure detonation products, while increasing of the equivalence ratios will reduce the blockage ratio of the hydrogen manifold. Higher equivalence ratio can enhance the stabilization of the rotating detonation wave and lower equivalence ratio will lead to the large fluctuations of the lap time and instantaneous pressure magnitude. The overpressure of rotating detonation wave is determined by the combination of mass flow rate and equivalence ratio, which increases with the increasing of mass flow rate in the equivalence ratio ranges that the rotating detonation wave propagates stably. The secondary spike in the instantaneous pressure and ionization signals indicates that a shocked mixing zone exists near the fuel injection holes and the reflection of shock in the mixing zone induces the reaction.
Surface waves propagation on a turbulent flow forced electromagnetically
Gutiérrez, Pablo
2015-01-01
We study the propagation of monochromatic surface waves on a turbulent flow. The flow is generated in a layer of liquid metal by an electromagnetic forcing. This forcing creates a quasi two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with strong vertical vorticity. The turbulent flow contains much more energy than the surface waves. In order to focus on the surface wave, the deformations induced by the turbulent flow are removed. This is done by performing a coherent phase averaging. For wavelengths smaller than the forcing lengthscale, we observe a significant increase of the wavelength of the propagating wave that has not been reported before. We suggest that it can be explained by the random deflection of the wave induced by the velocity gradient of the turbulent flow. Under this assumption, the wavelength shift is an estimate of the fluctuations of deflection angle. The local measurements of the wave frequency far from the wavemaker do not reveal such systematic behavior, although a small shift is measured. Finally we qu...
Efficient way to convert propagating waves into guided waves via gradient wire structures.
Chu, Hong Chen; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun
2016-08-01
We propose a method for the design of gradient wire structures that are capable of converting propagating waves into guided waves along the wire. The conversion process is achieved by imposing an additional wave vector to the scattered waves via the gradient wire structure, such that the wave vector of scattered waves is beyond the wave number in the background medium. Thus, the scattered waves turn into evanescent waves. We demonstrate that two types of gradient wire structures, with either a gradient permittivity and a fixed radius, or a gradient radius and a fixed permittivity, can both be designed to realize such a wave conversion effect. The principle demonstrated in our work has potential applications in various areas including nanophotonics, silicone photonics, and plasmonics.
Linear propagation of pulsatile waves in viscoelastic tubes.
Horsten, J B; Van Steenhoven, A A; Van Dongen, M E
1989-01-01
An experimental and theoretical analysis is made of pulsatile wave propagation in deformable latex tubes as a model of the propagation of pressure pulses in arteries. A quasi one-dimensional linear model is used in which, in particular, attention is paid to the viscous phenomena in fluid and tube wall. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results is satisfactory. It appeared that the viscoelastic behaviour of the tube wall dominates the damping of the pressure pulse. Several linear models are used to describe the wall behaviour. No significant differences between the results of these models were found.
Spectral-element seismic wave propagation on emerging HPC architectures
Peter, Daniel; Liu, Qiancheng; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2017-04-01
Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach to infer physical properties of Earth's internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Using seismic signals from ground-motion records, recent advances in full-waveform inversions require increasingly accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media to provide access to the complete 3D seismic wavefield. However, such numerical simulations are computationally expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, new multi- and many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. To employ a wide variety of hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here benchmark applications of seismic wave propagation on GPUs and CPUs, comparing performances on emerging hardware architectures.
Effect of spatial discretization of energy on detonation wave propagation
Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J
2016-01-01
Detonation propagation in the limit of highly spatially discretized energy sources is investigated. The model of this problem begins with a medium consisting of a calorically perfect gas with a prescribed energy release per unit mass. The energy release is collected into sheet-like sources that are now embedded in an inert gas that fills the spaces between them. The release of energy in the first sheet results in a planar blast wave that propagates to the next source, which is triggered after a prescribed delay, generating a new blast, and so forth. The resulting wave dynamics as the front passes through hundreds of such sources is computationally simulated by numerically solving the governing one-dimensional Euler equations in the lab-fixed reference frame. The average wave speed for each simulation is measured once the wave propagation has reached a quasi-periodic solution. Velocities in excess of the CJ speed are found as the sources are made increasingly discrete, with the deviation above CJ being as grea...
Multi-layer study of wave propagation in sunspots
Felipe, T; Collados, M; Beck, C
2010-01-01
We analyze the propagation of waves in sunspots from the photosphere to the chromosphere using time series of co-spatial Ca II H intensity spectra (including its line blends) and polarimetric spectra of Si I 10827 and the He I 10830 multiplet. From the Doppler shifts of these lines we retrieve the variation of the velocity along the line-of-sight at several heights. Phase spectra are used to obtain the relation between the oscillatory signals. Our analysis reveals standing waves at frequencies lower than 4 mHz and a continuous propagation of waves at higher frequencies, which steepen into shocks in the chromosphere when approaching the formation height of the Ca II H core. The observed non-linearities are weaker in Ca II H than in He I lines. Our analysis suggests that the Ca II H core forms at a lower height than the He I 10830 line: a time delay of about 20 s is measured between the Doppler signal detected at both wavelengths. We fit a model of linear slow magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a stratified at...
Supersonic Propagation of Heat Waves in Low Density Heavy Material
Jiang Shaoen; Zhang Wenhai; Yi Rongqing; Cui Yanli; Chen Jiusen; Xu Yan; Ding Yongkun; Lai Dongxian; Zheng Zhijian; Huang Yikiang; Li Jinghong; Sun Kexu; Hu Xin
2005-01-01
The propagation of a supersonic heat-wave through copper-doped foam with a density of 50 mg/cm3 was experimentally investigated. The wave is driven by 140 eV Holhraum radiations generated in a cylindrical gold cavity heated by a 2 k J, 1ns laser pulse (0.35 μm). The delayed breakout time of the radiation waves from the rear side of the foam is measured by a threechromatic streaked x-ray spectrometer (TCS) consisting of a set of three-imaging pinholes and an array of three transmission gratings coupled with an x-ray streak camera (XSC). With one shot,simultaneous measurements of the delays of the drive source and the radiation with two different energies (210 eV, 840 eV) through the foam have been made for the first time. The experimental results indicate that the time delays vary with photon energies. The radiation with an energy of 210 eV propagates at a lower velocity. The radiating heat wave propagates with a velocity that is larger than the sound speed. Using TGS, the transmitting spectrum was measured, and then lower limit of the optical depth which is more than 1, was obtained. The experimental data were in agreement with numerical simulations.
Research on Propagation Characteristics of Love Wave%乐甫波传播特性研究
张小宁; 陈智军; 宣建青; 卢旭; 陈森法
2011-01-01
The theoretical model of love wave is established on the basis of the partial wave theory. The surface effective permittivity method is introduced to analyze the love wave. Simulations of the surface effective permittivity, propagation modes, dispersion characteristics, electromechanical coupling coefficient curves show the propagation characteristics of love wave. When the ratio of the film thickness to the acoustic wavelength d/λ is relatively small, there is only one basic mode. With the increase of d/λ, more and more higher-modes appear, and they all have a minimum cut-off value of d/λ. The propagation velocities of all love wave modes decrease with the increase of d/λ, and they are between the surface wave velocity of the piezoelectric substrate and the shear wave velocity of the film, With the d/λ increasing, the electromechanical coupling coefficients of all modes are firstly increasing, then decreasing and eventually tend to zero.%以部分波理论为基础建立了乐甫波的理论模型,并引入表面有效介电常数方法对乐甫波进行仿真分析.仿真得到的表面有效介电常数、传播模态、频散特性、机电耦合系数等曲线表明了乐甫波的传播特性.当薄膜厚度d和声波波长λ的比值d/λ相对较小时,乐甫波只有一种基本模态;随着d/λ的增大,高阶模态越来越多,且各高阶模态都有一个d/λ的最低截止值;乐甫波所有模态的传播速度均随着d/λ的增大而减小,且都在压电基片的表面波速度和薄膜介质的体切变波速度之间;乐甫波所有模态的机电耦合系数都是先随d/λ的增大而增大,达到某个最大值后,再随着d/λ的增大而减小并最终趋近于零.
Opto-Electromechanical Devices for Low-Noise Detection of Radio Waves
Bagci, Tolga
, the vibrations of which are monitored as phase fluctuations via optical interferometry. At the first stage of the experiment, we have tested several bare, metal (aluminum)-coated and graphene-coated SiN (silicon nitride) membranes in terms of their capacitive interaction strength. Our findings support...... the expectation that metal and graphene coated membranes show similar performance that is significantly better than bare SiN membranes and single layer graphene does not alter the mechanical quality and mass. Later on, we have incorporated an inductor to the system in order to achieve coupling between an aluminum...... coated membrane and an LC circuit (at ≈ 0.7 MHz). We have characterized the electromechanical coupling by both optical and electrical means, along with the observation of mechanically induced transparency and normal mode splitting due to strong coupling. Finally, we have analyzed the noise performance...
Similarity solution of the shock wave propagation in water
Muller M.
2007-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of calculation of propagation of a shock wave generated during the bubble collapse in water including the dissipation effect. The used semi-empirical model is based on an assumption of similarity between the shock pressure time profiles in different shock wave positions. This assumption leads to a system of two ordinary differential equations for pressure jump and energy at the shock front. The NIST data are used for the compilation of the equation of state, which is applied to the calculation of the shock wave energy dissipation. The initial conditions for the system of equations are obtained from the modified method of characteristics in the combination with the differential equations of cavitation bubble dynamics, which considers viscous compressible liquid with the influence of surface tension. The initial energy of the shock wave is estimated from the energy between the energies of the bubble growth to the first and second maximum bubble radii.
Propagation of elastic waves in a plate with rough surfaces
DAI Shuwu; ZHANG Hailan
2003-01-01
The characteristics of Lamb wave propagating in a solid plate with rough surfacesare studied on the basis of small perturbation approximation. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequencyequation expressed with SA matrix is presented. The Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation fora rough surface plate is different from that for a smooth surface plate, resulting in a smallperturbation Ak on Lamb wave vector k. The imaginary part of Ak gives the attenuationcaused by wave scattering. An experiment is designed to test our theoretical predications.By using wedge-shape pipes, different Lamb wave modes are excited. The signals at differentpositions are received and analyzed to get the dispersion curves and attenuations of differentmodes. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predications.
2008-01-01
Three-component seismic exploration through P-wave source and three-component geophone is an effective technique used in complicated reservoir exploration. In three-component seismic exploration data processing,one of the difficulties is static correction of converted wave. This paper analyzes propagation characteristics of non-converted and converted refracted waves,and discovers a favor-able condition for the formation of converted refracted wave,i.e. the velocity of overlaying medium S wave is much lower than that of underlying medium S wave. In addition,the paper proposes the static correction method of converted wave based on PPS converted refracted wave,and processes the real three-component seismic data with better results of static correction of converted wave.
Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin
Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.
1998-01-09
The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.
Magnetic resonance imaging of shear wave propagation in excised tissue.
Bishop, J; Poole, G; Leitch, M; Plewes, D B
1998-01-01
The propagation of shear waves in ex vivo tissue samples, agar/gel phantoms, and human volunteers was investigated. A moving coil apparatus was constructed to generate low acoustic frequency shear perturbations of 50 to 400 Hz. Oscillating gradients phase-locked with the shear stimulus were used to generate a series of phase contrast images of the shear waves at different time-points throughout the wave cycle. Quantitative measurements of wave velocity and attenuation were obtained to evaluate the effects of temperature, frequency, and tissue anisotropy. Results of these experiments demonstrate significant variation in shear wave behavior with tissue type, whereas frequency and anisotropic behavior was mixed. Temperature-dependent behavior related mainly to the presence of fat. Propagation velocities ranged from 1 to 5 m/sec, and attenuation coefficients of from 1 to 3 nepers/unit wavelength, depending on tissue type. These results confirm the potential of elastic imaging attributable to the intrinsic variability of elastic properties observed in normal tissue, although some difficulty may be experienced in clinical implementation because of viscous attenuation in fat.
Enhanced propagation of photon density waves in random amplifying media
Renthlei, Lalruatfela; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha
2015-04-01
We demonstrate enhanced wavelike character of diffuse photon density waves (DPDW) in an amplifying random medium. The amplifying nature makes it necessary to choose the wave solution that grows inside the amplifying medium, and has a propagation vector pointing opposite to the growth direction. This results in negative refraction of the DPDW at an absorbing-amplifying random medium interface as well as the possibility of supporting "anti"-surface-like modes at the interface. A slab of an amplifying random medium sandwiched between two absorbing random media supports waveguide resonances that can be utilized to extend the imaging capabilities of DPDW.
Wave propagation in a moving cold magnetized plasma
Hebenstreit, H.
1980-03-01
Polarization relations and dispersion equations are derived for media that are electrically anisotropic in the comoving frame. Three-dimensional calculations for media at rest recover the known dispersion equations, i.e., Astrom's dispersion equation for magnetized cold plasmas and Fresnel's wave normal equation for uniaxial crystals. An analogous four-dimensional calculation yields the generalization to moving media. The dispersion equations so obtained for moving gyrotropic media are then discussed qualitatively for various special media and special directions of wave propagation. Finally, the polarization relations are specialized to media gyrotropic in the comoving frame.
Nonlinear evolution of parallel propagating Alfven waves: Vlasov - MHD simulation
Nariyuki, Y; Kumashiro, T; Hada, T
2009-01-01
Nonlinear evolution of circularly polarized Alfv\\'en waves are discussed by using the recently developed Vlasov-MHD code, which is a generalized Landau-fluid model. The numerical results indicate that as far as the nonlinearity in the system is not so large, the Vlasov-MHD model can validly solve time evolution of the Alfv\\'enic turbulence both in the linear and nonlinear stages. The present Vlasov-MHD model is proper to discuss the solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration by Alfve\\'n waves propagating from the photosphere.
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
Experimental evidence of Alfven wave propagation in a Gallium alloy
2011-01-01
10p.; International audience; Experiments with a liquid metal alloy, galinstan, are reported and show clear evidence of Alfvén wave propagation as well as resonance of Alfvén modes. Galinstan is liquid at room temperature, and although its electrical conductivity is not as large as that of liquid sodium or NaK, it has still been possible to study Alfvén waves, thanks to the use of intense magnetic fi elds, up to 13 teslas. The maximal values of Lundquist number, around 60, are similar to that...
Scintillation index of optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere
Rao Rui-Zhong
2009-01-01
A concise expression of the scintillation index is proposed for a plane optical wave and a spherical optical wave both propagating in a turbulent atmosphere with a zero inner scale and a finite inner scale under an arbitrary fluc- tuation condition. The expression is based on both the results in the Rytov approximation under a weak fluctuation condition and the numerical results in a strong fluctuation regime. The maximum value of the scintillation index and its corresponding Rytov index axe evaluated. These quantities are affected by the ratio of the turbulence inner scale to the Frcsnel size.
MULTIRESOLUTION SYMPLECTIC SCHEME FOR WAVE PROPAGATION IN COMPLEX MEDIA
马坚伟; 杨慧珠
2004-01-01
A fast adaptive symplectic algorithm named Multiresolution Symplectic Scheme (MSS) was first presented to solve the problem of the wave propagation (WP) in complex media, using the symplectic scheme and Daubechies' compactly supported orthogonal wavelet transform to respectively discretise the time and space dimension of wave equation. The problem was solved in multiresolution symplectic geometry space under the conservative Hamiltonian system rather than the traditional Lagrange system. Due to the fascinating properties of the wavelets and symplectic scheme, MSS is a promising method because of little computational burden, robustness and reality of long-time simulation.
Simulations of shock wave propagation in heterogeneous solids
Hertzsch, Jan-Martin; Ivanov, Boris A.; Kenkmann, Thomas
2002-11-01
Studies of shock wave propagation in heterogeneous materials are important for the interpretation of impact deformation and impact metamorphism of natural rocks. Reflection, refraction, and interference of shock waves caused by inhomogeneities lead to localised concentrations of pressure, temperature, and deformation rate, and in some cases to phase transitions. We have simulated numerically the shock compression of complex media in selected geometries with the aim of modelling shock recovery experiments and have observed reversible phase transitions in the target, shock heating alone may not be sufficient for the formation of impact melt, but localised shear at material boundaries results in considerable temperature increase which makes partial melting possible.
Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation
Velasco-Segura, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.velasco@ccadet.unam.mx; Rendón, Pablo L., E-mail: pablo.rendon@ccadet.unam.mx [Grupo de Acústica y Vibraciones, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-186, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico)
2015-10-28
The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.
Waves of DNA: Propagating Excitations in Extended Nanoconfined Polymers
Klotz, Alexander R; Reisner, Walter W
2016-01-01
We use a nanofluidic system to investigate the emergence of thermally driven collective phenomena along a single polymer chain. In our approach, a single DNA molecule is confined in a nanofluidic slit etched with arrays of embedded nanocavities; the cavity lattice is designed so that a single chain occupies multiple cavities. Fluorescent video-microscopy data shows that waves of excess fluorescence propagate across the cavity-straddling molecule, corresponding to propagating fluctuations of contour overdensity in the cavities. The waves are quantified by examining the correlation in intensity fluctuations between neighbouring cavities. Correlations grow from an anti-correlated minimum to a correlated maximum before decaying, corresponding to a transfer of contour between neighbouring cavities at a fixed transfer time-scale. The observed dynamics can be modelled using Langevin dynamics simulations and a minimal lattice model of coupled diffusion. This study shows how confinement-based sculpting of the polymer ...
Ultrasonic Guided Wave Propagation through Welded Lap Joints
Audrius Jankauskas
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of the research presented here is the investigation of ultrasonic guided wave (UGW propagation through the lap joint welded plates used in the construction of a storage tank floors. The investigations have been performed using numerical simulation by finite element method (FEM and tested by measurement of the transmission losses of the guided waves transmitted through the welded lap joints. Propagation of the symmetric S0 mode in the welded stainless steel plates in the cases of different lap joint overlap width, operation frequency, and additional plate bonding caused by corrosion were investigated. It was shown that the transmission losses of the S0 mode can vary in the range of 2 dB to 8 dB depending on the ratio between lap joint width and wavelength. It was also demonstrated that additional bonding in the overlap zone caused by corrosion can essentially reduce transmission losses.
Wave propagation in non-Gaussian random media
Franco, Mariano; Calzetta, Esteban
2015-01-01
We develop a compact perturbative series for acoustic wave propagation in a medium with a non-Gaussian stochastic speed of sound. We use Martin-Siggia and Rose auxiliary field techniques to render the classical wave propagation problem into a ‘quantum’ field theory one, and then frame this problem within the so-called Schwinger-Keldysh of closed time-path (CTP) formalism. Variation of the so-called two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action (EA), whose arguments are both the mean fields and the irreducible two point correlations, yields the Schwinger-Dyson and the Bethe-Salpeter equations. We work out the loop expansion of the 2PI CTP EA and show that, in the paradigmatic problem of overlapping spherical intrusions in an otherwise homogeneous medium, non-Gaussian corrections might be much larger than Gaussian ones at the same order of loops.
Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation by Chris Chapman
Aster, Richard
2005-03-01
The analytic characterization and modeling of seismic wave propagation using ray theory based formulations is a core aspect of seismology with a distinguished and very important history. Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation, by Chris Chapman, provides a mathematically rigorous and substantially complete summary of theory and techniques, with exercises, written at an accessible level for intermediate-to-advanced seismology graduate students and for the general research community. I was particularly pleased to see that much relevant mathematics is well summarized in a valuable ``preliminaries'' section containing mathematical and physics background material, coupled with four focused mathematical Appendices covering relevant integrals, Fourier transforms, ordinary differential equations, and saddle-point methods. This bodes well for the text as a teaching resource.
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F. W.
1974-01-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described.
Carcione, José M
2007-01-01
This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may als...
Wave propagation of coupled modes in the DNA double helix
Tabi, C B; Ekobena Fouda, H P [Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mohamadou, A [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, PO Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Kofane, T C, E-mail: contab408@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)
2011-03-15
The remarkable dynamics of waves propagating along the DNA molecule is described by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We consider both the single and the coupled nonlinear excitation modes and, under numerical simulations of the Peyrard-Bishop model, with the use of realistic values of parameters, their biological implications are studied. Furthermore, the characteristics of the coupled mode solution are discussed and we show that such a solution can describe the local opening observed within the transcription and the replication phenomena.
Design Optimization and Simulation of Wave Propagation in Metamaterials
2014-09-24
simple-cubic lattices. wave propagation, metamaterials, periodic media, band - gap optimization, semidefinite programming, photonic crystal design...Robust topology optimization of three-dimensional photonic -crystal band - gap structures,” with H. Men, K. Y. K. Lee, J. Peraire, and S. G...crystal structures in order to find optimal omnidirectional band gaps for various symmetry groups, including fcc (including diamond), bcc, and
Wave propagation in fluids models and numerical techniques
Guinot, Vincent
2012-01-01
This second edition with four additional chapters presents the physical principles and solution techniques for transient propagation in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. The application domains vary including contaminant transport with or without sorption, the motion of immiscible hydrocarbons in aquifers, pipe transients, open channel and shallow water flow, and compressible gas dynamics. The mathematical formulation is covered from the angle of conservation laws, with an emphasis on multidimensional problems and discontinuous flows, such as steep fronts and shock waves. Finite
Monograph on propagation of sound waves in curved ducts
Rostafinski, Wojciech
1991-01-01
After reviewing and evaluating the existing material on sound propagation in curved ducts without flow, it seems strange that, except for Lord Rayleigh in 1878, no book on acoustics has treated the case of wave motion in bends. This monograph reviews the available analytical and experimental material, nearly 30 papers published on this subject so far, and concisely summarizes what has been learned about the motion of sound in hard-wall and acoustically lined cylindrical bends.
Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites
Nayfeh, AH
1995-01-01
Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.
WU; Shaoping(吴少平); YI; Fan(易帆)
2002-01-01
By using FICE scheme, a numerical simulation of nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packet in three-dimension compressible atmosphere is presented. The whole nonlinear propagation process of the gravity wave packet is shown; the basic characteristics of nonlinear propagation and the influence of the ambient winds on the propagation are analyzed. The results show that FICE scheme can be extended in three-dimension by which the calculation is steady and kept for a long time; the increase of wave amplitude is faster than the exponential increase according to the linear gravity theory; nonlinear propagation makes the horizontal perturbation velocity increase greatly which can lead to enhancement of the local ambient winds; the propagation path and the propagation velocity of energy are different from the results expected by the linear gravity waves theory, the nonlinearity causes the change in propagation characteristics of gravity wave; the ambient winds alter the propagation path and group velocity of gravity wave.
Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars
Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas
2002-01-01
This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.
Theoretical Model of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Shallow Water
Kozaczka Eugeniusz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the propagation of low frequency waves in a shallow sea. As a source of acoustic waves, underwater disturbances generated by ships were adopted. A specific feature of the propagation of acoustic waves in shallow water is the proximity of boundaries of the limiting media characterised by different impedance properties, which affects the acoustic field coming from a source situated in the water layer “deformed” by different phenomena. The acoustic field distribution in the real shallow sea is affected not only by multiple reflections, but also by stochastic changes in the free surface shape, and statistical changes in the seabed shape and impedance. The paper discusses fundamental problems of modal sound propagation in the water layer over different types of bottom sediments. The basic task in this case was to determine the acoustic pressure level as a function of distance and depth. The results of the conducted investigation can be useful in indirect determination of the type of bottom.
The effect of source's shape for seismic wave propagation
Tanaka, S.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Kasahara, J.; Kuroda, T.
2009-12-01
In conventional simulation of seismic wave propagation, the source which generates signals is usually given by a point force or by a particle velocity at a point. In practice, seismic wave is generated by signal generators with finite volume and width. Since seismic lines span a distance up to hundreds meter to several kilometers, many people conducted seismic survey and data processing with the assumption that the size of signal generator is negligible compared with survey scale. However, there are no studies that tells how the size of baseplate influences generated seismic waves. Such estimations, therefore, are meaningful to consider the scale of generator. In this sense, current seismic processing might require a theoretical background about the seismic source for further detailed analysis. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of seismic source’s shape to resultant wave properties, and then estimate how effective the consideration about the scale of signal generator is for analyzing the seismic data. To evaluate source’s scale effect, we performed finite element analysis with the 3D model including the baseplate of source and the heterogeneous ground medium. We adopted a finite element method (FEM) and chose the code named “MD Nastran” (MSC Software Ver.2008) to calculate seismic wave propagation. To verify the reliability of calculation, we compared the result of FEM and that of finite-difference method (FDM) with wave propagating simulation of isotropic and homogeneous model with a point source. The amplitude and phase of those two were nearly equal each other. We considered the calculation of FEM is accurate enough and can be performed in the following calculations. As the first step, we developed a simple point source model and a baseplate model. The point source model contains only the ground represented by an elastic medium. The force generating the signal is given at the nodal point of the surface in this case. On the other
Buerger, Stephen; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Spletzer, Barry Louis
2016-12-13
An electromechanical latch is described herein. The electromechanical latch is a dual-actuator latch, wherein a first actuator and a second actuator are driven with precise timing to move a first latch part relative to a second latch part, and vice versa. When the electromechanical latch is in a closed position, the first rotary latch part is positioned to prevent rotation of the second rotary latch part in a first direction. To transition the electromechanical latch from the closed position to an open position, the first actuator drives the first rotary latch part such that the second rotary latch part is able to rotate in the first direction. Thereafter, the second actuator drives the second rotary latch part in the first direction until the electromechanical latch is in the open position.
Three-Dimensional Propagation of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Chromosphere and Corona
李波; 郑惠南; 王水
2002-01-01
We study the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation in the solar atmosphere consisting of the chromosphere and corona. Pressure enhancement and velocity shear are implemented simultaneously at the bottom of the chromosphere. The global propagation of the incurred MHD waves, including fast-mode and slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves as well as Alfvén wave, can be identified. Wave front positions obtained numerically with respect to specific waves fit well with those calculated with local MHD wave speeds.
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
A Kinetic Approach to Propagation and Stability of Detonation Waves
Monaco, R.; Bianchi, M. Pandolfi; Soares, A. J.
2008-12-01
The problem of the steady propagation and linear stability of a detonation wave is formulated in the kinetic frame for a quaternary gas mixture in which a reversible bimolecular reaction takes place. The reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are deduced from the mesoscopic description of the process. The steady propagation problem is solved for a Zeldovich, von Neuman and Doering (ZND) wave, providing the detonation profiles and the wave thickness for different overdrive degrees. The one-dimensional stability of such detonation wave is then studied in terms of an initial value problem coupled with an acoustic radiation condition at the equilibrium final state. The stability equations and their initial data are deduced from the linearized reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions through a normal mode analysis referred to the complex disturbances of the steady state variables. Some numerical simulations for an elementary reaction of the hydrogen-oxygen chain are proposed in order to describe the time and space evolution of the instabilities induced by the shock front perturbation.
Low frequency piezoresonance defined dynamic control of terahertz wave propagation
Dutta, Moumita; Betal, Soutik; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan
2016-11-01
Phase modulators are one of the key components of many applications in electromagnetic and opto-electric wave propagations. Phase-shifters play an integral role in communications, imaging and in coherent material excitations. In order to realize the terahertz (THz) electromagnetic spectrum as a fully-functional bandwidth, the development of a family of efficient THz phase modulators is needed. Although there have been quite a few attempts to implement THz phase modulators based on quantum-well structures, liquid crystals, or meta-materials, significantly improved sensitivity and dynamic control for phase modulation, as we believe can be enabled by piezoelectric-resonance devices, is yet to be investigated. In this article we provide an experimental demonstration of phase modulation of THz beam by operating a ferroelectric single crystal LiNbO3 film device at the piezo-resonance. The piezo-resonance, excited by an external a.c. electric field, develops a coupling between electromagnetic and lattice-wave and this coupling governs the wave propagation of the incident THz beam by modulating its phase transfer function. We report the understanding developed in this work can facilitate the design and fabrication of a family of resonance-defined highly sensitive and extremely low energy sub-millimeter wave sensors and modulators.
Guided wave propagation in porous unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic
Dobmann, Nicolas; Bach, Martin
2017-02-01
Networks of piezoelectric transducers mounted on aircraft structures for Acousto Ultrasonics (AU) purposes are designed to be applied during the service life of the aircraft. The approach to integrate these sensor networks already during the manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) host structures prompts ideas to achieve an additional benefit by their application for cure monitoring, thus extending their use to the manufacturing chain. This benefit could be extended even further if guided waves generated by AU sensor networks could be used for porosity testing extensively applied for CFRP aircraft structures. In light of this, an experimental study was conducted to investigate effects of porosity on the propagation of guided waves in a basic configuration of unidirectional CFRP. Several samples were manufactured at different porosity levels by variation of the processing pressure. Wave fields were acquired using an ultrasonic scanning device. In the present work, phase velocities are chosen as best measurable and quantifiable propagation feature and the approach for the analysis of phase velocities in porosity samples is outlined. First results are presented and discussed regarding the influence of porosity on guided wave phase velocity and basic applicability for porosity testing of aircraft structures.
Characteristics of Plane Wave Propagation in Biaxially Anisotropic Gyrotropic Media
PAN Wei-Tao; LIU Song-Hua; QIU Zhi-Liang
2012-01-01
Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic regular medium and a biaxially anisotropic gyrotropic medium are investigated.The results indicate that the reflection and refract ionproperties of electromagnetic waves are closely dependent on the dispersion relation of the gyrotropic media,and that anomalous total reflection and negative refraction may occur.The existence conditions of total transmission are also considered.It is found that total transmission arises when the TE-polarized incident waves are normal to the interface and the physical parameters of the two media are chosen properly,which are quite different from the existence conditions of total transmission at the anisotropic left-handed material interface.Numerical resul tsare given to validate our theoretical analysis.
Nonlinear Propagation of Planet-Generated Tidal Waves
Rafikov, R. R.
2002-01-01
The propagation and evolution of planet-generated density waves in protoplanetary disks is considered. The evolution of waves, leading to shock formation and wake dissipation, is followed in the weakly nonlinear regime. The 2001 local approach of Goodman and Rafikov is extended to include the effects of surface density and temperature variations in the disk as well as the disk cylindrical geometry and nonuniform shear. Wave damping due to shocks is demonstrated to be a nonlocal process spanning a significant fraction of the disk. Torques induced by the planet could be significant drivers of disk evolution on timescales of approx. 10(exp 6)-10(exp 7) yr, even in the absence of strong background viscosity. A global prescription for angular momentum deposition is developed that could be incorporated into the study of gap formation in a gaseous disk around the planet.
Nonlinear propagation of planet-generated tidal waves
Rafikov, R R
2002-01-01
The propagation and evolution of planet-generated density waves in protoplanetary disks is considered. The evolution of waves, leading to the shock formation and wake dissipation, is followed in the weakly nonlinear regime. The local approach of Goodman & Rafikov (2001) is extended to include the effects of surface density and temperature variations in the disk as well as the disk cylindrical geometry and nonuniform shear. Wave damping due to shocks is demonstrated to be a nonlocal process spanning a significant fraction of the disk. Torques induced by the planet could be significant drivers of disk evolution on timescales of the order 1-10 Myr even in the absence of strong background viscosity. A global prescription for angular momentum deposition is developed which could be incorporated into the study of gap formation in a gaseous disk around the planet.
Modal decomposition of a propagating matter wave via electron ptychography
Cao, S.; Kok, P.; Li, P.; Maiden, A. M.; Rodenburg, J. M.
2016-12-01
We employ ptychography, a phase-retrieval imaging technique, to show experimentally that a partially coherent high-energy matter (electron) wave emanating from an extended source can be decomposed into a set of mutually independent modes of minimal rank. Partial coherence significantly determines the optical transfer properties of an electron microscope and so there has been much work on this subject. However, previous studies have employed forms of interferometry to determine spatial coherence between discrete points in the wave field. Here we use the density matrix to derive a formal quantum mechanical description of electron ptychography and use it to measure a full description of the spatial coherence of a propagating matter wave field, at least within the fundamental uncertainties of the measurements we can obtain.
Wave propagation in pantographic 2D lattices with internal discontinuities
Madeo, A; Neff, P
2014-01-01
In the present paper we consider a 2D pantographic structure composed by two orthogonal families of Euler beams. Pantographic rectangular 'long' waveguides are considered in which imposed boundary displacements can induce the onset of traveling (possibly non-linear) waves. We performed numerical simulations concerning a set of dynamically interesting cases. The system undergoes large rotations which may involve geometrical non-linearities, possibly opening the path to appealing phenomena such as propagation of solitary waves. Boundary conditions dramatically influence the transmission of the considered waves at discontinuity surfaces. The theoretical study of this kind of objects looks critical, as the concept of pantographic 2D sheets seems to have promising possible applications in a number of fields, e.g. acoustic filters, vascular prostheses and aeronautic/aerospace panels.
Higher order acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in stressed plates.
Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J
2016-11-01
Modeling and experiments are used to investigate Lamb wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to an applied stress. Sensitivity, in terms of changes in velocity, for both symmetrical and anti-symmetrical modes was determined. Codes were developed based on analytical expressions for waves in loaded plates and they were used to give wave dispersion curves. The experimental system used a pair of compression wave transducers on variable angle wedges, with set separation, and variable frequency tone burst excitation, on an aluminum plate 0.16 cm thick with uniaxial applied loads. The loads, which were up to 600 με, were measured using strain gages. Model results and experimental data are in good agreement. It was found that the change in Lamb wave velocity, due to the acoustoelastic effect, for the S1 mode exhibits about ten times more sensitive, in terms of velocity change, than the traditional bulk wave measurements, and those performed using the fundamental Lamb modes. The data presented demonstrate the potential for the use of higher order Lamb modes for online industrial stress measurement in plate, and that the higher sensitivity seen offers potential for improved measurement systems.
Strength and wave parameters for sound propagation in random media.
Ostashev, Vladimir E; Wilson, D Keith
2017-03-01
Line-of-sight sound propagation of plane and spherical waves in a statistically isotropic, random moving medium is considered. The variances of the phase and log-amplitude fluctuations of these waves are expressed in terms of the strength and wave parameters for arbitrary spectra of temperature and velocity fluctuations, and results are then derived specifically for the Gaussian and generalized von Kármán spectra. This representation of the variances reduces significantly the number of independent parameters of the problem and enables better understanding of sound scattering by plane and spherical waves, and due to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Using this representation, the boundary between the weak and strong scattering regimes is determined in terms of the strength and wave parameters. The results obtained are compared with the Λ - Φ diagram adopted in ocean acoustics. Other statistical moments of plane and spherical waves in a medium with arbitrary spectra of temperature and velocity fluctuations such as the mean sound field, the spatial and temporal mutual coherence functions, the coherence bandwidth, and the variance of the angle-of-arrival fluctuations are expressed in terms of the strength parameter and length scale of the fluctuations.
Propagation of Transverse Waves in Elastic-Micropolar Porous Semispaces
Hsia, Shao-Yi; Chiu, Shih-Ming; Su, Chih-Chun; Chen, Teng-Hui
2007-11-01
Porous materials are widely used in the passive noise control field as sound absorbers. Conventional models of porous materials are assumed to have a rigid frame and show finite bulk elasticity. However, in the case of acoustical waves — characterized by high frequencies and small wavelengths — the effect of microstructure becomes significant. This effect of microstructure has resulted in the development of new types of waves, not found in the classical theory of elasticity. Generalized continuum theories include the construction of the linear theory of micropolar elasticity that consists of deformation and microrotation with six degrees of freedom, and hence can be used to study the acoustical characteristics of composites with a granular structure. In this study, we investigated transverse wave propagation and its reflection and transmission from a plane interface between two different elastic-micropolar porous interfaces in perfect contact. The micropolar porous composite was constructed using hollow glass microbubbles embedded in an epoxy matrix with six material constants that can be used as the acoustical absorbers. It was found that there are different wave types in a micropolar porous material for the incident \\mathit{SV} (vertical transverse) or \\mathit{SH} (horizontal transverse) wave. It was also found that these two coupled sets of transverse waves, when traveling with different velocities, are dominated by the critical value of microinertia, showing the influence of the micropolar porous characteristics.
A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms
锁要红; 黄虎
2004-01-01
Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.
Transient processes in the parametric interaction of counter-propagating waves
Slabko, V V; Rasskazova, E V; Tkachenko, V A; Moskalev, A K [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Popov, A K [Purdue University, 1205 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Myslivets, S A [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)
2015-12-31
We present a comparative analysis of transient processes in media with a negative refractive index for the parametric interaction of co- and counter-propagating waves. The transient time for the interaction of counter-propagating waves is shown to considerably exceed that for the interaction of co-propagating waves. In the case of counter-propagating waves, we present fitting results for the generated wave amplitude as a function of time and for the transient time vs. the amplitude of the pump wave and the length of the medium. (optical metamaterials)
S.Alagoz
2012-01-01
In this study,wave propagation anisotropy in a triangular lattice crystal structure and its associated waveform shaping in a crystal structure are investigated theoretically.A directional variation in wave velocity inside a crystal structure is shown to cause bending wave envelopes.The authors report that a triangular lattice sonic crystal possesses six numbers of a high symmetry direction,which leads to a wave convergence caused by wave velocity anisotropy inside the crystal.However,two of them are utilized mostly in wave focusing by an acoustic flat lens.Based on wave velocity anisotropy,the pseudo ideal imaging effect obtained in the second band of the flat lens is discussed.
A study on compressive shock wave propagation in metallic foams
Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yifen; Ren, Huilan; Zhao, Longmao
2010-02-01
Metallic foam can dissipate a large amount of energy due to its relatively long stress plateau, which makes it widely applicable in the design of structural crashworthiness. However, in some experimental studies, stress enhancement has been observed when the specimens are subjected to intense impact loads, leading to severe damage to the objects being protected. This paper studies this phenomenon on a 2D mass-spring-bar model. With the model, a constitutive relationship of metal foam and corresponding loading and unloading criteria are presented; a nonlinear kinematics equilibrium equation is derived, where an explicit integration algorithm is used to calculate the characteristic of the compressive shock wave propagation within the metallic foam; the effect of heterogeneous distribution of foam microstructures on the shock wave features is also included. The results reveal that under low impact pulses, considerable energy is dissipated during the progressive collapse of foam cells, which then reduces the crush of objects. When the pulse is sufficiently high, on the other hand, stress enhancement may take place, especially in the heterogeneous foams, where high peak stresses usually occur. The characteristics of compressive shock wave propagation in the foam and the magnitude and location of the peak stress produced are strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the foam material, amplitude and period of the pulse, as well as the homogeneity of the microstructures. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of the metallic foams used as a protective structure.
Wave Propagation In Strongly Nonlinear Two-Mass Chains
Wang, Si Yin; Herbold, Eric B.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.
2010-05-01
We developed experimental set up that allowed the investigation of propagation of oscillating waves generated at the entrance of nonlinear and strongly nonlinear two-mass granular chains composed of steel cylinders and steel spheres. The paper represents the first experimental data related to the propagation of these waves in nonlinear and strongly nonlinear chains. The dynamic compressive forces were detected using gauges imbedded inside particles at depths equal to 4 cells and 8 cells from the entrance gauge detecting the input signal. At these relatively short distances we were able to detect practically perfect transparency at low frequencies and cut off effects at higher frequencies for nonlinear and strongly nonlinear signals. We also observed transformation of oscillatory shocks into monotonous shocks. Numerical calculations of signal transformation by non-dissipative granular chains demonstrated transparency of the system at low frequencies and cut off phenomenon at high frequencies in reasonable agreement with experiments. Systems which are able to transform nonlinear and strongly nonlinear waves at small sizes of the system are important for practical applications such as attenuation of high amplitude pulses.
Synthetic observations of wave propagation in a sunspot umbra
Felipe, T. [NorthWest Research Associates, Colorado Research Associates, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Socas-Navarro, H.; Khomenko, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2014-11-01
Spectropolarimetric temporal series from Fe I λ6301.5 Å and Ca II infrared triplet lines are obtained by applying the Stokes synthesis code NICOLE to a numerical simulation of wave propagation in a sunspot umbra from MANCHA code. The analysis of the phase difference between Doppler velocity and intensity core oscillations of the Fe I λ6301.5 Å line reveals that variations in the intensity are produced by opacity fluctuations rather than intrinsic temperature oscillations, except for frequencies between 5 and 6.5 mHz. On the other hand, the photospheric magnetic field retrieved from the weak field approximation provides the intrinsic magnetic field oscillations associated to wave propagation. Our results suggest that this is due to the low magnetic field gradient of our sunspot model. The Stokes parameters of the chromospheric Ca II infrared triplet lines show striking variations as shock waves travel through the formation height of the lines, including emission self-reversals in the line core and highly abnormal Stokes V profiles. Magnetic field oscillations inferred from the Ca II infrared lines using the weak field approximation appear to be related with the magnetic field strength variation between the photosphere and the chromosphere.
Orbital angular momentum in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-11-21
This is the second of two papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. In the companion paper, it is shown that propagation through atmospheric turbulence can create non-trivial angular momentum. Here, we extend the result and demonstrate that this momentum is, at least in part, orbital angular momentum. Specifically, we demonstrate that branch points (in the language of the adaptive optic community) indicate the presence of photons with non-zero OAM. Furthermore, the conditions required to create photons with non-zero orbital angular momentum are ubiquitous. The repercussions of this statement are wide ranging and these are cursorily enumerated.
Pressure wave model for action potential propagation in excitable cells
Rvachev, M M
2003-01-01
Speed of propagation of small-amplitude pressure waves through the cytoplasmic interior of myelinated and unmyelinated axons of different diameters is theoretically estimated and is found to generally agree with the action potential (AP) conduction velocities. This remarkable coincidence allows to surmise a model in which AP spread along axon is propelled not by straggling ionic currents as in the widely accepted local circuit theory, but by mechanoactivation of the membrane ion channels by a traveling pressure pulse. Hydraulic pulses propagating in the viscous axoplasm are calculated to decay over ~1 mm distances, and it is further hypothesized that it is the role of influxing during the AP calcium ions to activate membrane skeletal protein network attached to the membrane cytoplasmic side for a brief radial contraction amplifying the pressure pulse and preventing its decay. The model correctly predicts that the AP conduction velocity should vary as the one-half power of axon diameter for large unmyelinated ...
Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media
Jin, Ya-Qiu
I. Polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery. EM wave propagation and scattering in polarimetric SAR interferometry / S. R. Cloude. Terrain topographic inversion from single-pass polarimetric SAR image data by using polarimetric stokes parameters and morphological algorithm / Y. Q. Jin, L. Luo. Road detection in forested area using polarimetric SAR / G. W. Dong ... [et al.]. Research on some problems about SAR radiometric resolution / G. Dong ... [et al.]. A fast image matching algorithm for remote sensing applications / Z. Q. Hou ... [et al.]. A new algorithm of noised remote sensing image fusion based on steerable filters / X. Kang ... [et al.]. Adaptive noise reduction of InSAR data based on anisotropic diffusion models and their applications to phase unwrapping / C. Wang, X. Gao, H. Zhang -- II. Scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Modeling tools for backscattering from rough surfaces / A. K. Fung, K. S. Chen. Pseudo-nondiffracting beams from rough surface scattering / E. R. Méndez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin. Surface roughness clutter effects in GPR modeling and detection / C. Rappaport. Scattering from rough surfaces with small slopes / M. Saillard, G. Soriano. Polarization and spectral characteristics of radar signals reflected by sea-surface / V. A. Butko, V. A. Khlusov, L. I. Sharygina. Simulation of microwave scattering from wind-driven ocean surfaces / M. Y. Xia ... [et al.]. HF surface wave radar tests at the Eastern China Sea / X. B. Wu ... [et al.] -- III. Electromagnetics of complex materials. Wave propagation in plane-parallel metamaterial and constitutive relations / A. Ishimaru ... [et al.]. Two dimensional periodic approach for the study of left-handed metamaterials / T. M. Grzegorczyk ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of the effective constitutive parameters of a random medium containing small chiral spheres / Y. Nanbu, T. Matsuoka, M. Tateiba. Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media: from the Helmholtz to the Ginzburg -Landau equation / M
Micromechanics of Seismic Wave Propagation in Granular Rocks
Nihei, Kurt Toshimi
1992-09-01
This thesis investigates the details of seismic wave propagation in granular rocks by examining the micromechanical processes which take place at the grain level. Grain contacts are identified as the primary sites of attenuation in dry and fluid-saturated rocks. In many sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones, the process of diagenesis leaves the grains only partially cemented together. When viewed at the micron scale, grain contacts are non-welded interfaces similar in nature to large scale joints and faults. Using a lumped properties approximation, the macroscopic properties of partially cemented grain contacts are modeled using a displacement-discontinuity boundary condition. This model is used to estimate the magnitude and the frequency dependence of the grain contact scattering attenuation for an idealized grain packing geometry. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave group velocity and attenuation measurements on sintered glass beads, alundum, and Berea sandstones were performed to determine the effects of stress, frequency, and pore fluid properties in granular materials with sintered and partially sintered grain contacts. P - and S-wave attenuation displayed the same overall trends for tests with n-decane, water, silicone oil, and glycerol. The magnitudes of the attenuation coefficients were, in general, higher for S-waves. The experimental measurements reveal that viscosity-dependent attenuation dominates in material with sintered grain contacts. Viscosity-dependent attenuation is also observed in Berea sandstone but only at hydrostatic stresses in excess of 15 MPa where the grain contacts are highly stiffened. Fluid surface chemistry-related attenuation was observed in Berea sandstone loaded uniaxially. These measurements suggest that attenuation in fluid-saturated rocks with partially cemented grain contacts is dependent on both the fluid properties and the state of stress at the grain contacts. A numerical method for simulating seismic wave propagation in
Wang, Wenbo; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; He, Xingli; Gillinger, Manuel; Ye, Zhi; Wang, Xiaozhi; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich; Luo, J. K.
2014-09-01
AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K2, in the range of 2.0% ˜ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.
2011-01-01
International audience; We study theoretically, numerically and experimentally the nonlinear propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in single mode optical fibers. We revisit the traditional treatment of the wave turbulence theory to provide a statistical kinetic description of the integrable scalar NLS equation. In spite of the formal reversibility and of the integrability of the NLS equation, the weakly nonlinear dynamics reveals the existence of an irreversible evolution toward a...
Light wave propagation through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall
Morris, J R
2015-01-01
We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall of the type introduced by Gibbons and Wells [G.W. Gibbons and C.G. Wells, Class. Quant. Grav. 11, 2499-2506 (1994)]. It is found that if such a wall exists within our observable universe, it would be absurdly thick, or else have a magnetic field in its core which is much stronger than observed intergalactic fields. We conclude that it is highly improbable that any such wall is physically realized.
ON FREE WAVE PROPAGATION IN ANISOTROPIC LAYERED MEDIA
Yongqiang Guo; Weiqiu Chen
2008-01-01
The method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM) is extended and modified for the analysis of free wave propagation in anisotropic layered elastic media. A general, numerically stable formulation is established within the state space framework. The compatibility of physical variables in local dual coordinates gives the phase relation, from which exponentially growing functions are excluded. The interface and boundary conditions lead to the scattering relation,which avoids matrix inversion operation. Numerical examples are given to show the high accuracy of the present MRRM.
Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium
Lindell, Ismo V
2015-01-01
Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.
Propagating speed of primordial gravitational waves and inflation
Cai, Yong; Piao, Yun-Song
2016-01-01
We show that if the propagating speed of gravitational waves (GWs) gradually diminishes during inflation, the power spectrum of primordial GWs will be strongly blue, while that of the primordial scalar perturbation may be unaffected. We also illustrate that such a scenario is actually a disformal dual to the superinflation, but has no the ghost instability. The blue tilt obtained is $0
Particle velocity non-uniformity and steady-wave propagation
Meshcheryakov, Yu. I.
2017-03-01
A constitutive equation grounded in dislocation dynamics is shown to be incapable of describing the propagation of shock fronts in solids. Shock wave experiments and theoretical investigations motivate an additional collective mechanism of stress relaxation that should be incorporated into the model through the standard deviation of the particle velocity, which is found to be proportional to the strain rate. In this case, the governing equation system results in a second-order differential equation of square non-linearity. Solution to this equation and calculations for D16 aluminum alloy show a more precise coincidence of the theoretical and experimental velocity profiles.
Propagation of linear waves in relativistic anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics.
Gebretsadkan, W B; Kalra, G L
2002-11-01
Gedalin [Phys. Rev. E 47, 4354 (1993)] derived a dispersion relation for linear waves in relativistic anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This dispersion relation is used to point out the regions where the relativistic anisotropic MHD leads to new results that cannot be obtained using usual collisional relativistic MHD. This is highlighted by plotting a Fresnal ray surface. Conditions for the onset of firehose and mirror instabilities are also indicated. Such a study can be applied to astrophysical features such as pulsar winds, propagation of cosmic rays, etc.
Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S. [NDE Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2014-02-18
The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.
Discretizing singular point sources in hyperbolic wave propagation problems
Petersson, N. Anders; O'Reilly, Ossian; Sjögreen, Björn; Bydlon, Samuel
2016-09-01
We develop high order accurate source discretizations for hyperbolic wave propagation problems in first order formulation that are discretized by finite difference schemes. By studying the Fourier series expansions of the source discretization and the finite difference operator, we derive sufficient conditions for achieving design accuracy in the numerical solution. Only half of the conditions in Fourier space can be satisfied through moment conditions on the source discretization, and we develop smoothness conditions for satisfying the remaining accuracy conditions. The resulting source discretization has compact support in physical space, and is spread over as many grid points as the number of moment and smoothness conditions. In numerical experiments we demonstrate high order of accuracy in the numerical solution of the 1-D advection equation (both in the interior and near a boundary), the 3-D elastic wave equation, and the 3-D linearized Euler equations.
Acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system.
Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Habán, Vladimír
2006-12-22
Recently, substantial attention is paid to the development of methods of generation of pulsations in high-pressure systems to produce pulsating high-speed water jets. The reason is that the introduction of pulsations into the water jets enables to increase their cutting efficiency due to the fact that the impact pressure (so-called water-hammer pressure) generated by an impact of slug of water on the target material is considerably higher than the stagnation pressure generated by corresponding continuous jet. Special method of pulsating jet generation was developed and tested extensively under the laboratory conditions at the Institute of Geonics in Ostrava. The method is based on the action of acoustic transducer on the pressure liquid and transmission of generated acoustic waves via pressure system to the nozzle. The purpose of the paper is to present results obtained during the research oriented at the determination of acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system. The final objective of the research is to solve the problem of transmission of acoustic waves through high-pressure water to generate pulsating jet effectively even at larger distances from the acoustic source. In order to be able to simulate numerically acoustic wave propagation in the system, it is necessary among others to determine dependence of the sound speed and second kinematical viscosity on operating pressure. Method of determination of the second kinematical viscosity and speed of sound in liquid using modal analysis of response of the tube filled with liquid to the impact was developed. The response was measured by pressure sensors placed at both ends of the tube. Results obtained and presented in the paper indicate good agreement between experimental data and values of speed of sound calculated from so-called "UNESCO equation". They also show that the value of the second kinematical viscosity of water depends on the pressure.
Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in continuously welded rail
Yao, Wenqing; Sheng, Fuwei; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yuan
2017-07-01
Rail defects cause numerous railway accidents. Trains are derailed and serious consequences often occur. Compared to traditional bulk wave testing, ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) can provide larger monitoring ranges and complete coverage of the waveguide cross-section. These advantages are of significant importance for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of the continuously welded rail, and the technique is therefore widely used in high-speed railways. UGWs in continuous welded rail (CWR) and their propagation characteristics have been discussed in this paper. Finite element methods (FEMs) were used to accomplish a vibration modal analysis, which is extended by a subsequent dispersion analysis. Wave structure features were illustrated by displacement profiles. It was concluded that guided waves have the ability to detect defects in the rail via choice of proper mode and frequency. Additionally, thermal conduction that is caused by temperature variation in the rail is added into modeling and simulation. The results indicated that unbalanced thermal distribution may lead to the attenuation of UGWs in the rail.
Wave propagation across sea-ice thickness changes
Squire, V. A.; Williams, T. D.
Williams and Squire (Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., in press. The effect of submergence on wave scattering across a transition between two floating flexible plates. Wave Motion) present a mathematical theory that properly incorporates freeboard and draft, i.e. submergence, in a description of how ocean surface waves propagate across an abrupt change of properties in a continuous sea-ice cover. Typically the abrupt feature is an ice floe of different thickness from the surrounding plate, a trapped iceberg, a pressure ridge, or an open or refrozen lead. Here, we investigate how the assimilation of this floe submergence into theory alters the transmission of the wave trains, allowing the approximation and consequent limitations inherent in the majority of previous models that apply the under-ice boundary conditions at the mean open water surface to be assessed. This is done for isolated features and, using the wide-spacing approximation, for heterogeneous ice sheets made up of many such irregularities drawn from appropriate probability density distributions. It is found that the contribution associated with the underwater draft of ice floes is modest and can invariably be neglected, aside from at short periods and in heavily deformed sea-ice. While its amassed effect across the many irregular features that habitually characterize sea-ice will be significant, it is offset because of the tendency of ice covers to discourage the passage of short wavelengths preferentially by creating a background wave spectrum composed only of long period wave energy in the ice interior. More general geophysical implications are discussed, particularly in relation to global climate change and the value of ice-covered regions as a proxy for observing a warmer Earth.
Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya
2016-07-01
This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.
Electromagnetic wave propagation of wireless capsule endoscopy in human body
LIM; Eng-Gee; 王炤; 陈瑾慧; TILLO; Tammam; MAN; Ka-lok
2013-01-01
Wireless capsule endoscopy(WCE) is a promising technique which has overcome some limitations of traditional diagnosing tools, such as the comfortlessness of the cables and the inability of examining small intestine section. However, this technique is still far from mature and asks for the feasible improvements. For example, the relatively low transmission data rate and the absence of the real-time localization information of the capsule are all important issues. The studies of them rely on the understanding of the electromagnetic wave propagation in human body. Investigation of performance of WCE communication system was carried out by studying electromagnetic(EM) wave propagation of the wireless capsule endoscopy transmission channel. Starting with a pair of antennas working in a human body mimic environment, the signal transmissions and attenuations were examined. The relationship between the signal attenuation and the capsule(transmitter) position, and direction was also evaluated. These results provide important information for real-time localization of the capsule. Moreover, the pair of antennas and the human body were treated as a transmission channel, on which the binary amplitude shift keying(BASK) modulation scheme was used. The relationship between the modulation scheme, data rate and bit error rate was also determined in the case of BASK. With the obtained studies, it make possible to provide valuable information for further studies on the selection of the modulation scheme and the real-time localization of the capsules.
Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation
Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla
2014-07-01
Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.
Regional wave propagation using the discontinuous Galerkin method
S. Wenk
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present an application of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG method to regional wave propagation. The method makes use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes, combined with a time integration scheme solving the arbitrary high-order derivative (ADER Riemann problem. This ADER-DG method is high-order accurate in space and time, beneficial for reliable simulations of high-frequency wavefields over long propagation distances. Due to the ease with which tetrahedral grids can be adapted to complex geometries, undulating topography of the Earth's surface and interior interfaces can be readily implemented in the computational domain. The ADER-DG method is benchmarked for the accurate radiation of elastic waves excited by an explosive and a shear dislocation source. We compare real data measurements with synthetics of the 2009 L'Aquila event (central Italy. We take advantage of the geometrical flexibility of the approach to generate a European model composed of the 3-D EPcrust model, combined with the depth-dependent ak135 velocity model in the upper mantle. The results confirm the applicability of the ADER-DG method for regional scale earthquake simulations, which provides an alternative to existing methodologies.
Regional wave propagation using the discontinuous Galerkin method
S. Wenk
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We present an application of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG method to regional wave propagation. The method makes use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes, combined with a time integration scheme solving the arbitrary high-order derivative (ADER Riemann problem. The ADER-DG method is high-order accurate in space and time, beneficial for reliable simulations of high-frequency wavefields over long propagation distances. Due to the ease with which tetrahedral grids can be adapted to complex geometries, undulating topography of the Earth's surface and interior interfaces can be readily implemented in the computational domain. The ADER-DG method is benchmarked for the accurate radiation of elastic waves excited by an explosive and a shear dislocation source. We compare real data measurements with synthetics of the 2009 L'Aquila event (central Italy. We take advantage of the geometrical flexibility of the approach to generate a European model composed of the 3-D EPcrust model, combined with the depth-dependent ak135 velocity model in the upper-mantle. The results confirm the applicability of the ADER-DG method for regional scale earthquake simulations, which provides an alternative to existing methodologies.
Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas
F. Verheest
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.
Asymptotic Speed of Wave Propagation for A Discrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation
Xiu-xiang Liu; Pei-xuan Weng
2006-01-01
We deal with asymptotic speed of wave propagation for a discrete reaction-diffusion equation. We find the minimal wave speed c* from the characteristic equation and show that c* is just the asymptotic speed of wave propagation. The isotropic property and the existence of solution of the initial value problem for the given equation are also discussed.
Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria; Tarantino, Giovanni
2008-01-01
The present paper reports the design process and the experimentation of a teaching-learning sequence about the concept of mechanical wave propagation and the role played by media where waves are propagating. The sequence focuses on the central issue of the relationships between observable phenomena, like macroscopic behaviours of waves, and their…
Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong
2011-07-04
This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.
Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction, Part I: Theory
Beltman, W.M.
1999-01-01
This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two mos
Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India
Nethery, D.; Shankar, D.
A linear, continuously stratified ocean model is used to investigate vertical propagation of remotely forced, baroclinic Kelvin waves along the Indian west coast. The extent of vertical propagation over the length of the coast is found...
Lohmeyer, Manfred; Honsa, R.; Richter, L.
2003-01-01
Superpositions of two perpendicularly oriented bidirectional eigenmode propagation (BEP) fields, composed of basis modes that satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions, can establish rigorous semianalytical solutions for problems of 2-D fixed-frequency wave propagation on unbounded, cross-shaped domains
Opto-Electromechanical Devices for Low-Noise Detection of Radio Waves
Bagci, Tolga
, the vibrations of which are monitored as phase fluctuations via optical interferometry. At the first stage of the experiment, we have tested several bare, metal (aluminum)-coated and graphene-coated SiN (silicon nitride) membranes in terms of their capacitive interaction strength. Our findings support...... of our device for optical detection of radio waves. We demonstrate an actual Johnson noise-limited voltage sensitivity of ≈ 800 pV/√Hz and beyond that, we infer a sensitivity of 60 pV/√Hz both for the thermal noise of the membrane and shot noise (quantum) of the optical readout, at the optimal...
A study on compressive shock wave propagation in metallic foams
无
2010-01-01
Metallic foam can dissipate a large amount of energy due to its relatively long stress plateau,which makes it widely applicable in the design of structural crashworthiness. However,in some experimental studies,stress enhancement has been observed when the specimens are subjected to intense impact loads,leading to severe damage to the objects being protected. This paper studies this phenomenon on a 2D mass-spring-bar model. With the model,a constitutive relationship of metal foam and corresponding loading and unloading criteria are presented; a nonlinear kinematics equilibrium equation is derived,where an explicit integra-tion algorithm is used to calculate the characteristic of the compressive shock wave propagation within the metallic foam; the effect of heterogeneous distribution of foam microstructures on the shock wave features is also included. The results reveal that under low impact pulses,considerable energy is dissipated during the progressive collapse of foam cells,which then reduces the crush of objects. When the pulse is sufficiently high,on the other hand,stress enhancement may take place,especially in the heterogeneous foams,where high peak stresses usually occur. The characteristics of compressive shock wave propagation in the foam and the magnitude and location of the peak stress produced are strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the foam material,amplitude and period of the pulse,as well as the homogeneity of the microstructures. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of the metallic foams used as a protective structure.
Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles
von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2015-01-01
This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...
Study Of Three Dimensional Propagation Of Waves In Hollow Poroelastic Circular Cylinders
Shah S. A.
2015-01-01
Employing Biot’s theory of wave propagation in liquid saturated porous media, waves propagating in a hollow poroelastic circular cylinder of infinite extent are investigated. General frequency equations for propagation of waves are obtained each for a pervious and an impervious surface. Degenerate cases of the general frequency equations of pervious and impervious surfaces, when the longitudinal wavenumber k and angular wavenumber n are zero, are considered. When k=0, the plane-strain vibrati...
WAVE PROPAGATION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED PIEZOELECTRIC PHONONIC CRYSTALS
Jinqiang Li; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto
2008-01-01
The wave propagation is studied in two-dimensional disordered piezoelectric phononie crystals using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For different eases of disorder,the transmission coefficients are calculated. The influences of disorders on band gaps are investigated. The results show that the disorder in the piezoelectric phononic crystals has more significant influences on the band gap in the low frequency regions than in the high frequency ones. The relation between the width of band gap and the direction of position disorder is also discussed. When the position disorder is along the direction perpendicular to the wave transmission, the piezoelectric phononic crystals have wider band gaps at low frequency regions than the case of position disorder being along the wave transmission direction. It can also be found that the effect of. size disorder on band gaps is analogous to that of location disorder. When the perturbation coefficient is big, it has more pronounced effects on the pass bands in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with both size and location disorders than in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with single disorder.In higher frequency regions the piezoelectric effect reduces the transmission coefficients. But for larger disorder degree, the effects of the piezoelectricity will be reduced.
Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave
Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.
2017-03-01
The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Theoretical Study of Wave Breaking for Nonlinear Water Waves Propagating on a Sloping Bottom
Chen, Y. Y.; Hsu, H. C.; Li, M. S.
2012-04-01
In this paper, a third-order asymptotic solution in a Lagrangian framework describing nonlinear water wave propagation on the surface of a uniform sloping bottom is presented. A two-parameter perturbation method is used to develop a new mathematical derivation. The particle trajectories, wave pressure and Lagrangian velocity potential are obtained as a function of the nonlinear wave steepness and the bottom slope perturbed to third order. This theoretical solution in Lagrangian form satisfies state of the normal pressure at the free surface. The condition of the conservation of mass flux is examined in detail for the first time. The two important properties in Lagrangian coordinates, Lagrangian wave frequency and Lagrangian mean level, are included in the third-order solution. The solution can also be used to estimate the mean return current for waves progressing over the sloping bottom. The Lagrangian solution untangle the description of the features of wave shoaling in the direction of wave propagation from deep to shallow water, as well as the process of successive deformation of a wave profile and water particle trajectories leading to wave breaking. A series of experiment was conducted to validate the obtained theoretical solution. The proposed solution will be used to determine the wave shoaling and breaking process and the comparisons between the experimental and theoretical results are excellent. For example, the variations of phase velocity on sloping bottom are obtained by 7 set of two close wave gauges and the theoretical result could accurately predict the measured phase velocity. The theoretical wave breaking index can be derived by use of the kinematic stability parameter (K.P.S). The comparisons between the theory, experiment (present study, Iwagali et al.(1974), Deo et al.(2003) and Tsai et al.(2005)) and empirical formula of Goda (2004) for the breaking index(u/C) versus the relative water depth(d/L) under two different bottom slopes shows that the
Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media
Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan
2016-04-01
The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric
Zhang, Sun, E-mail: szhang@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology (J-CPNPC), PMO-NJU, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2014-02-05
In this Letter, we have studied the shock wave and discontinuity propagation for relativistic superfluid with spontaneous U(1) symmetry breaking in the framework of hydrodynamics. General features of shock waves are provided, the propagation of discontinuity and the sound modes of shock waves are also presented. The first sound and the second sound are identified as the propagation of discontinuity, and the results are in agreement with earlier theoretical studies. Moreover, a differential equation, called the growth equation, is obtained to describe the decay and growth of the discontinuity propagating along its normal trajectory. The solution is in an integral form and special cases of diverging waves are also discussed.
Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pascoe, D. J., E-mail: iarregui@iac.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2013-06-01
We present a Bayesian seismology inversion technique for propagating magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves observed in coronal waveguides. The technique uses theoretical predictions for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves in transversely inhomogeneous coronal waveguides. It combines wave amplitude damping length scales along the waveguide with theoretical results for resonantly damped propagating kink waves to infer the plasma density variation across the oscillating structures. Provided that the spatial dependence of the velocity amplitude along the propagation direction is measured and the existence of two different damping regimes is identified, the technique would enable us to fully constrain the transverse density structuring, providing estimates for the density contrast and its transverse inhomogeneity length scale.
Determination of Transverse Density Structuring from Propagating MHD Waves in the Solar Atmosphere
Arregui, I; Pascoe, D J
2013-01-01
We present a Bayesian seismology inversion technique for propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) transverse waves observed in coronal waveguides. The technique uses theoretical predictions for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves in transversely inhomogeneous coronal waveguides. It combines wave amplitude damping length scales along the waveguide with theoretical results for resonantly damped propagating kink waves to infer the plasma density variation across the oscillating structures. Provided the spatial dependence of the velocity amplitude along the propagation direction is measured and the existence of two different damping regimes is identified, the technique would enable us to fully constrain the transverse density structuring, providing estimates for the density contrast and its transverse inhomogeneity length scale.
Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams
Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.
1990-01-01
Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.
Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy
PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D
2016-07-01
Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed
Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2014-09-16
We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.
Converging spherical wave propagation in a hemispherical solid lens
Zhang, Yaoju; Ye, Xuehua; Chen, Junfeng
2006-06-01
The propagation of converging spherical waves through a hemispherical solid lens (HSL) is studied, and the multiple reflections inside the HSL are considered. It is found that the reflectivity and transmissivity have an oscillatory behaviour related to the optical radius of the HSL. When the refractive index of the HSL is smaller than that of the sample, the small mismatch in refractive indices is preferable for transmission-mode microscopy. But when the refractive index of the HSL is larger than that of the sample, the reflectivity increases rapidly as the mismatch in refractive indices and the converging angle of incident light increase, the larger mismatch and converging angle are useful for reflection-mode microscopy. The magnitude of the whole reflectivity and its modulation depth are strongly sensitive to the incident polarization, which is also discussed.
A nonlinear RDF model for waves propagating in shallow water
王厚杰; 杨作升; 李瑞杰; 张军
2001-01-01
In this paper, a composite explicit nonlinear dispersion relation is presented with reference to Stokes 2nd order dispersion relation and the empirical relation of Hedges. The explicit dispersion relation has such advantages that it can smoothly match the Stokes relation in deep and intermediate water and Hedgs’s relation in shallow water. As an explicit formula, it separates the nonlinear term from the linear dispersion relation. Therefore it is convenient to obtain the numerical solution of nonlinear dispersion relation. The present formula is combined with the modified mild-slope equation including nonlinear effect to make a Refraction-Diffraction (RDF) model for wave propagating in shallow water. This nonlinear model is verified over a complicated topography with two submerged elliptical shoals resting on a slope beach. The computation results compared with those obtained from linear model show that at present the nonlinear RDF model can predict the nonlinear characteristics and the combined refracti
Electromagnetic wave propagation through a slab of a dispersive medium
Ismail, Mohamed
2016-01-01
A method is proposed for the analysis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a homogeneous slab of a medium with Drude-Lorentz dispersion behavior, and excited by a causal sinusoidal source. An expression of the time dependent field, free from branch-cuts in the plane of complex frequencies, is established. This method provides the complete temporal response in both the steady-state and transient regimes in terms of discrete poles contributions. The Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are retrieved and the corresponding set of poles are identified. In addition, the contribution in the transient field of the resonance frequency in the Drude-Lorentz model is exhybited, and the effect of reflections resulting from the refractive index mismatch at the interfaces of the slab are analyzed.
Annual report 1992/93, FOA 38. Radio systems and wave propagation
Mildh, I. M.
1994-01-01
The main objective of the division of Radio Systems and Wave Propagation is to carry out research and development in the field of secure and robust radio communications for Sweden's national defense. This is the Annual Report for fiscal year 1992/93 of the Division of Radio Systems and Wave Propagation. The division is responsible for research and development of secure radio communication for information transmission. We are also responsible for wave propagation research within a frequency range from LF to SHF. We carry out applied research in fields like antijamming systems, modulation, error correcting codes, wave propagation and digital signal processing. The wave propagation research is carried out by basic research so the demands from new techniques and new radio systems for accurate propagation models can be achieved.
Acoustic waves: should they be propagated forward in time, or forward in space?
Kinsler, Paul
2012-01-01
The evolution of acoustic waves can be evaluated in two ways: either as a temporal, or a spatial propagation. Propagating in space provides the considerable advantage of being able to handle dispersion and propagation across interfaces with remarkable efficiency; but propagating in time is more physical and gives correctly behaved reflections and scattering without effort. Which should be chosen in a given situation, and what compromises might have to be made? Here the natural behaviors of each choice of propagation are compared and contrasted for an ordinary second order wave equation, the time-dependent diffusion wave equation, an elastic rod wave equation, and the Stokes'/ van Wijngaarden's equations, each case illuminating a characteristic feature of the technique. Either choice of propagation axis enables a partitioning the wave equation that gives rise to a directional factorization based on a natural "reference" dispersion relation. The resulting exact coupled bidirectional equations then reduce to a s...
Semiclassical methods for high frequency wave propagation in periodic media
Delgadillo, Ricardo A.
We will study high-frequency wave propagation in periodic media. A typical example is given by the Schrodinger equation in the semiclassical regime with a highly oscillatory periodic potential and external smooth potential. This problem presents a numerical challenge when in the semiclassical regime. For example, conventional methods such as finite differences and spectral methods leads to high numerical cost, especially in higher dimensions. For this reason, asymptotic methods like the frozen Gaussian approximation (FGA) was developed to provide an efficient computational tool. Prior to the development of the FGA, the geometric optics and Gaussian beam methods provided an alternative asymptotic approach to solving the Schrodinger equation efficiently. Unlike the geometric optics and Gaussian beam methods, the FGA does not lose accuracy due to caustics or beam spreading. In this thesis, we will briefly review the geometric optics, Gaussian beam, and FGA methods. The mathematical techniques used by these methods will aid us in formulating the Bloch-decomposition based FGA. The Bloch-decomposition FGA generalizes the FGA to wave propagation in periodic media. We will establish the convergence of the Bloch-decomposition based FGA to the true solution for Schrodinger equation and develop a gauge-invariant algorithm for the Bloch-decomposition based FGA. This algorithm will avoid the numerical difficulty of computing the gauge-dependent Berry phase. We will show the numerical performance of our algorithm by several one-dimensional examples. Lastly, we will propose a time-splitting FGA-based artificial boundary conditions for solving the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) on an unbounded domain. The NLS will be split into two parts, the linear and nonlinear parts. For the linear part we will use the following absorbing boundary strategy: eliminate Gaussian functions whose centers are too distant to a fixed domain.
Two models of anisotropic propagation of a cardiac excitation wave
Erofeev, I. S.; Agladze, K. I.
2014-11-01
Propagation of the action potential in the real heart is direction-dependent (anisotropic). We propose two general physical models explaining this anisotropy on the cellular level. The first, "delay" model takes into account the frequency of the cell-cell transitions in different directions of propagation, assuming each transition requires some small time interval. The second model relies on the assumption that the action potential transmits to the next cell only from the area at the pole of the previous cell. We estimated parameters of both models by doing optical mapping and fluorescent staining of cardiac cell samples grown on polymer fiber substrate. Both models gave reasonable estimations, but predicted different behaviors of the anisotropy ratio (ratio of the highest and lowest wave velocities) after addition of the suppressor of sodium channels such as lidocaine. The results of the experiment on lidocaine effect on anisotropy ratio were in favor of the first, "delay" model. Estimated average cell-cell transition delay was 240 ± 80 μs, which is close to the characteristic values of synaptic delay.
Optimised prefactored compact schemes for linear wave propagation phenomena
Rona, A.; Spisso, I.; Hall, E.; Bernardini, M.; Pirozzoli, S.
2017-01-01
A family of space- and time-optimised prefactored compact schemes are developed that minimise the computational cost for given levels of numerical error in wave propagation phenomena, with special reference to aerodynamic sound. This work extends the approach of Pirozzoli [1] to the MacCormack type prefactored compact high-order schemes developed by Hixon [2], in which their shorter Padé stencil from the prefactorisation leads to a simpler enforcement of numerical boundary conditions. An explicit low-storage multi-step Runge-Kutta integration advances the states in time. Theoretical predictions for spatial and temporal error bounds are derived for the cost-optimised schemes and compared against benchmark schemes of current use in computational aeroacoustic applications in terms of computational cost for a given relative numerical error value. One- and two-dimensional test cases are presented to examine the effectiveness of the cost-optimised schemes for practical flow computations. An effectiveness up to about 50% higher than the standard schemes is verified for the linear one-dimensional advection solver, which is a popular baseline solver kernel for computational physics problems. A substantial error reduction for a given cost is also obtained in the more complex case of a two-dimensional acoustic pulse propagation, provided the optimised schemes are made to operate close to their nominal design points.
The analysis of optical wave beams propagation in lens systems
Kazakov, I.; Mosentsov, S.; Moskaletz, O.
2016-08-01
In this paper some aspects of the formation and propagation of optical wave beams in lens systems were considered. As an example, the two-lens optical information processing system was considered. Analysis of the two-lens optical circuit has been made with a systems approach perspective. As part of the radio-optical analogies had been applied certain provisions of the theory of dynamical systems to the spatial optical system. The lens system is represented as a simple series-connected optical elements with known spatial impulse response. General impulse response of such a system has been received, as well as consider some special cases of the impulse response. The question of the relationship between the parameters and the size of the input aperture lenses for undistorted transmission of the optical signal has been considered. Analysis of the energy loss resulting from the finite aperture of the lens. It's based on an assessment of the fraction of radiation that propagates beyond the lens. Analysis showed that the energy losses depend explicitly on the following parameters: radiation wavelength, distance between input aperture and lens, and ratio of the input aperture and lens aperture. With the computer help simulation the dependence of losses was shown on the above parameters
Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems
Ippolito, L. J.
1981-01-01
The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.
SHU Wei-Xing; LUO Hai-Lu; LI Fei; REN Zhong-Zhou
2006-01-01
@@ We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic material and the anisotropic medium with a unique dispersion relation. We show that the refraction behaviour of E-polarized waves is opposite to that of H-polarized waves, though the dispersion relations for E- and H-polarized waves are the same. It is found that waves exhibit different propagation properties in anisotropic media with different sign combinations of the permittivity and permeability tensors. Some interesting properties of propagation are also found in the special anisotropic media, leading to potential applications.
Bin Xu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wave propagation along a closely spaced folded cylindrical helix (FCH array is investigated for the purpose of designing compact array for energy transport and antenna radiation. It is found that the height of this surface wave guiding structure can be decreased from 0.24λ0 to 0.06λ0 by replacing the monopole element with the FCH. Both the propagation constant and the mode distribution of the dominant wave mechanism are extracted by ESPRIT algorithm, which indicates that a backward propagating surface wave is supported by the array structure. A compact backfire FCH antenna array is designed and measured based on the identified dominant wave mechanism.
CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN
Lopin, Igor [Ussuriisk Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ussuriisk (Russian Federation); Nagorny, Ivan, E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)
2013-09-10
The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.
Surface wave propagation in a ﬂuid-saturated incompressible porous medium
Rajneesh Kumar; B S Hundal
2007-06-01
A study of surface wave propagation in a ﬂuid-saturated incompressible porous half-space lying under a uniform layer of liquid is presented. The dispersion relation connecting the phase velocity with wave number is derived. The variation of phase velocity and attenuation coefﬁcients with wave number is presented graphically and discussed. As a particular case, the propagation of Rayleigh type surface waves at the free surface of an incompressible porous half-space is also deduced and discussed.
Neufeld, Kenneth W.
1996-01-01
An electromechanical cryocooler is disclosed for substantially reducing vibrations caused by the cooler. The direction of the force of the vibrations is measured and a counterforce sufficient to substantially reduce this vibration is calculated and generated. The counterforce is 180.degree. out of phase with the direction of the force of the vibrations.
Puckett, Anthony D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
2000-09-01
The ability to model wave propagation in circular cylindrical bars of finite length numerically or analytically has many applications. In this thesis the capability of an explicit finite element method to model longitudinal waves in cylindrical rods with circular cross-sections is explored. Dispersion curves for the first four modes are compared to the analytical solution to determine the accuracy of various element sizes and time steps. Values for the time step and element size are determined that retain accuracy while minimizing computational time. The modeling parameters are validated by calculating a signal propagated with a broadband input force. Limitations on the applicability are considered along with modeling parameters that should be applicable to more general geometries.
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
Fangqian Xu
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Theoretical calculations have been performed on the temperature effects on the propagation characteristics of Love waves in layered structures by solving the coupled electromechanical field equations, and the optimal design parameters were extracted for temperature stability improvement. Based on the theoretical analysis, excellent temperature coefficient of frequency (Tcf of the fabricated Love wave devices with guide layers of SU-8/SiO_{2} on ST-90°X quartz substrate is evaluated experimentally as only 2.16 ppm.
Wave dispersion and propagation in state-based peridynamics
Butt, Sahir N.; Timothy, Jithender J.; Meschke, Günther
2017-07-01
Peridynamics is a nonlocal continuum model which offers benefits over classical continuum models in cases, where discontinuities, such as cracks, are present in the deformation field. However, the nonlocal characteristics of peridynamics leads to a dispersive dynamic response of the medium. In this study we focus on the dispersion properties of a state-based linear peridynamic solid model and specifically investigate the role of the peridynamic horizon. We derive the dispersion relation for one, two and three dimensional cases and investigate the effect of horizon size, mesh size (lattice spacing) and the influence function on the dispersion properties. We show how the influence function can be used to minimize wave dispersion at a fixed lattice spacing and demonstrate it qualitatively by wave propagation analysis in one- and two-dimensional models of elastic solids. As a main contribution of this paper, we propose to associate peridynamic non-locality expressed by the horizon with a characteristic length scale related to the material microstructure. To this end, the dispersion curves obtained from peridynamics are compared with experimental data for two kinds of sandstone.
Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves
Burke, W.J.; Ginet, G.P.; Heinemann, M.A.; Villalon, E.
1988-01-01
The relativistic equations of motion have been analyzed for electrons in magnetized plasmas and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The electron energy is obtained from a set of non-linear differential equations as functions of time, initial conditions and cyclotron harmonic numbers. For a given cyclotron resonance the energy oscillates in time within the limits of a potential well. Stochastic acceleration occurs if the widths of hamiltonian potentials overlap. Numerical analyses suggest that, at wave energy fluxes in excess of 10/sup 8/ mW/m/sup 2/, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Practical attempts to validate the theory with a series of planned rocket flights over the HIPAS facility in Alaska are discussed. The HIPAS antennas will be used to irradiate the magnetic mirror points of 10 - 40 keV electrons emitted from the ECHO 7 rocket in the early winter of 1988. Follow-on rocket experiments to exploit the wave amplification properties of the ionospheric 'radio window' are described.
Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media
Lesniak, A.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-05-01
Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines
Peixin Shi
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.
Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wardaya, Pongga Dikdya; Adler, John; Siahaan, Kisko R.
2012-06-01
Seismic wave parameter plays very important role to characterize reservoir properties whereas pore parameter is one of the most important parameter of reservoir. Therefore, wave propagation phenomena in pore media is important to be studied. By referring this study, in-direct pore measurement method based on seismic wave propagation can be developed. Porosity play important role in reservoir, because the porosity can be as compartment of fluid. Many type of porosity like primary as well as secondary porosity. Carbonate rock consist many type of porosity, i.e.: inter granular porosity, moldic porosity and also fracture porosity. The complexity of pore type in carbonate rocks make the wave propagation in these rocks is more complex than sand reservoir. We have studied numerically wave propagation in carbonate rock by finite difference modeling in time-space domain. The medium of wave propagation was modeled by base on the result of pattern recognition using artificial neural network. The image of thin slice of carbonate rock is then translated into the velocity matrix. Each mineral contents including pore of thin slice image are translated to velocity since mineral has unique velocity. After matrix velocity model has been developed, the seismic wave is propagated numerically in this model. The phenomena diffraction is clearly shown while wave propagates in this complex carbonate medium. The seismic wave is modeled in various frequencies. The result shows dispersive phenomena where high frequency wave tends to propagate in matrix instead pores. In the other hand, the low frequency waves tend to propagate through pore space even though the velocity of pore is very low. Therefore, this dispersive phenomena of seismic wave propagation can be the future indirect measurement technology for predicting the existence or intensity of pore space in reservoir rock. It will be very useful for the future reservoir characterization.
Seismic wave propagation on heterogeneous systems with CHAPEL
Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas
2014-05-01
Simulations of seismic wave propagation play a key role in the exploration of the Earth's internal structure, the prediction of earthquake-induced ground motion, and numerous other applications. In order to harness modern heterogeneous HPC systems, we implement a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation using the emerging parallel programming language Chapel. High-performance massively parallel computing systems are widely used for solving seismological problems. A recent trend in the evolution of such systems is a transition from homogeneous architectures based on the conventional CPU to faster and more energy-efficient heterogeneous architectures that combine CPU with the special purpose GPU accelerators. These new heterogeneous architectures have much higher hardware complexity and are thus more difficult to program. Therefore transition to heterogeneous computing systems widens the well known gap between the performance of the new hardware and the programmers' productivity. In particular, programming heterogeneous systems typically involves a mix of various programming technologies like MPI, CUDA, or OpenACC. This conventional approach increases complexity of application code, limits its portability and reduces the programmers' productivity. We are approaching this problem by introducing a unified high-level programming model suitable for both conventional and hybrid architectures. Our model is based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) paradigm used by several modern parallel programming languages. We implemented this model by extending Chapel, the emerging parallel programming language created at Cray Inc. In particular, we introduced the language abstractions for GPU-based domain mapping and extended the open source Chapel compiler (version 1.8.0) with facilities designed to translate Chapel high-level parallel programming constructs into CUDA kernels. We used this extended Chapel implementation to re-program the package for the
Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate
Xiang Yan-Xun; Deng Ming-Xi
2008-01-01
The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface.In general,the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur.However,the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied.Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation,the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined.Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.
Shock Wave Propagation in Cementitious Materials at Micro/Meso Scales
2015-08-31
ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Shock wave response of heterogeneous materials like cement and concrete is greatly influenced by the...2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shock Wave Propagation in Cementitious Materials at Micro/Meso Scales The views...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 shock propagation, micro and macro scales, finite element modeling REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11
Investigation on Radio Wave Propagation in Shallow Seawater: Simulations and Measurements
Jimenez, Eugenio; Mena, Pablo; Dorta, Pablo; Perez-Alvarez, Ivan; Zazo, Santiago; Perez, Marina; Quevedo, Eduardo
2016-01-01
The authors present full wave simulations and experimental results of propagation of electromagnetic waves in shallow seawaters. Transmitter and receiver antennas are ten-turns loops placed on the seabed. Some propagation frameworks are presented and simulated. Finally, simulation results are compared with experimental ones.
Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-04-13
This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density n_{e}(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rn_{e}(r).
Berreman approach to electromagnetic wave and beam propagation in anisotropic metamaterials
Gnawali, Rudra; Banerjee, Partha
2016-09-01
The Berreman matrix method is used to analyze the polarization and propagation of electromagnetic waves and beams in anisotropic metamaterials. The metamaterial, comprising a multilayer structure of alternating metal and dielectric layers, is modeled as an effective anisotropic medium. The Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic propagation are then represented as a set of coupled differential equations using the Berreman matrix. These coupled equations are then solved analytically and cross checked numerically using MATLAB® for plane wave propagation. The analysis can be extended to Gaussian beam propagation through such anisotropic metamaterials using the angular plane wave spectral approach.
Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Bovith, Thomas
2008-01-01
for prediction of this type of weather radar clutter is presented. The method uses a wave propagator to identify areas of potential non-standard propagation. The wave propagator uses a three dimensional refractivity field derived from the geophysical parameters: temperature, humidity, and pressure obtained from...... a high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. The wave propagator is based on the parabolic equation approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation. The parabolic equation is solved using the well-known Fourier split-step method. Finally, the radar clutter prediction technique is used......Weather radars are essential sensors for observation of precipitation in the troposphere and play a major part in weather forecasting and hydrological modelling. Clutter caused by non-standard wave propagation is a common problem in weather radar applications, and in this paper a method...
Influence of rarefaction wave on premixed flame structure and propagation behavior
CHEN Xianfeng; SUN Jinhua; LU Shouxiang; CHU Guanquan; YAO Liyin; LIU Yi
2007-01-01
To explore the influence of rarefaction wave on the structure and propagation behavior of the premixed propane/air flame in a rectangle combustion pipe, the techniques of high speed Schlieren photograph method, pressure measurement and so on are used to study the interaction processes between rarefaction wave and flame. Two cases of rarefaction wave-flame interaction were performed in the experiment. The experimental result shows that both the rarefaction waves can cause the flame transition from laminar to turbulent combustion quickly. The cowflow rarefaction wave decreases the flame speed, while the counterflow rarefaction wave leads the flame propagation speed to increasing on the whole, accompanied with sharp vibration.
On the propagation of sound waves in a stellar wind traversed by periodic strong shocks
Pijpers, F. P.
1994-01-01
It has been claimed that in stellar winds traversed by strong shocks the mechanism for driving the wind by sound wave pressure cannot operate because sound waves cannot propagate past the shocks. It is shown here that sound waves can propagate through shocks in one direction and that this is a sufficient condition for the sound wave pressure mechanism to work. A strong shock amplifies a sound wave passing through it and can drag the sound wave away from the star. It is immaterial for the soun...
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Bessel-X waves: superluminal propagation and the Minkowski space-time
Mugnai, D.
2006-01-01
Superluminal behavior has been extensively studied in recent years, especially with regard to the topic of superluminality in the propagation of a signal. Particular interest has been devoted to Bessel-X waves propagation, since some experimental results showed that these waves have both phase and group velocities greater that light velocity c. However, because of the lack of an exact definition of signal velocity, no definite answer about the signal propagation (or velocity of information) h...
Jing Chen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The surface acoustic wave (SAW propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO3 (LN film on SiO2/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K2 owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K2 achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.
Seismic wave propagation through an extrusive basalt sequence
Sanford, Oliver; Hobbs, Richard; Brown, Richard; Schofield, Nick
2016-04-01
Layers of basalt flows within sedimentary successions (e.g. in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin) cause complex scattering and attenuation of seismic waves during seismic exploration surveys. Extrusive basaltic sequences are highly heterogeneous and contain strong impedance contrasts between higher velocity crystalline flow cores (˜6 km s-1) and the lower velocity fragmented and weathered flow crusts (3-4 km s-1). Typically, the refracted wave from the basaltic layer is used to build a velocity model by tomography. This velocity model is then used to aid processing of the reflection data where direct determination of velocity is ambiguous, or as a starting point for full waveform inversion, for example. The model may also be used as part of assessing drilling risk of potential wells, as it is believed to constrain the total thickness of the sequence. In heterogeneous media, where the scatter size is of the order of the seismic wavelength or larger, scattering preferentially traps the seismic energy in the low velocity regions. This causes a build-up of energy that is guided along the low velocity layers. This has implications for the interpretation of the observed first arrival of the seismic wave, which may be a biased towards the low velocity regions. This will then lead to an underestimate of the velocity structure and hence the thickness of the basalt, with implications for the drilling of wells hoping to penetrate through the base of the basalts in search of hydrocarbons. Using 2-D acoustic finite difference modelling of the guided wave through a simple layered basalt sequence, we consider the relative importance of different parameters of the basalt on the seismic energy propagating through the layers. These include the proportion of high to low velocity material, the number of layers, their thickness and the roughness of the interfaces between the layers. We observe a non-linear relationship between the ratio of high to low velocity layers and the apparent velocity
Numerical study of the propagation of small-amplitude atmospheric gravity wave
YUE Xianchang; YI Fan; LIU Yingjie; LI Fang
2005-01-01
By using a two-dimensional fully nonlinear compressible atmospheric dynamic numerical model, the propagation of a small amplitude gravity wave packet is simulated. A corresponding linear model is also developed for comparison. In an isothermal atmosphere, the simulations show that the nonlinear effects impacting on the propagation of a small amplitude gravity wave are negligible. In the nonisothermal atmosphere, however, the nonlinear effects are remarkable. They act to slow markedly down the propagation velocity of wave energy and therefore reduce the growth ratio of the wave amplitude with time. But the energy is still conserved. A proof of this is provided by the observations in the middle atmosphere.
Rouze, Ned C; Wang, Michael H; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathy R
2013-11-15
Elastic properties of materials can be measured by observing shear wave propagation following localized, impulsive excitations and relating the propagation velocity to a model of the material. However, characterization of anisotropic materials is difficult because of the number of elasticity constants in the material model and the complex dependence of propagation velocity relative to the excitation axis, material symmetries, and propagation directions. In this study, we develop a model of wave propagation following impulsive excitation in an incompressible, transversely isotropic (TI) material such as muscle. Wave motion is described in terms of three propagation modes identified by their polarization relative to the material symmetry axis and propagation direction. Phase velocities for these propagation modes are expressed in terms of five elasticity constants needed to describe a general TI material, and also in terms of three constants after the application of two constraints that hold in the limit of an incompressible material. Group propagation velocities are derived from the phase velocities to describe the propagation of wave packets away from the excitation region following localized excitation. The theoretical model is compared to the results of finite element (FE) simulations performed using a nearly incompressible material model with the five elasticity constants chosen to preserve the essential properties of the material in the incompressible limit. Propagation velocities calculated from the FE displacement data show complex structure that agrees quantitatively with the theoretical model and demonstrates the possibility of measuring all three elasticity constants needed to characterize an incompressible, TI material.
Horne, Richard B.; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi
2016-10-01
Magnetosonic waves and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are important for electron acceleration and loss from the radiation belts. It is generally understood that these waves are generated by unstable ion distributions that form during geomagnetically disturbed times. Here we show that magnetosonic waves could be a source of EMIC waves as a result of propagation and a process of linear mode conversion. The converse is also possible. We present ray tracing to show how magnetosonic (EMIC) waves launched with large (small) wave normal angles can reach a location where the wave normal angle is zero and the wave frequency equals the so-called crossover frequency whereupon energy can be converted from one mode to another without attenuation. While EMIC waves could be a source of magnetosonic waves below the crossover frequency, magnetosonic waves could be a source of hydrogen band waves but not helium band waves.
Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub; Zorica, Du?an
2014-01-01
The books Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Vibrations and Diffusion Processes and Fractional Calculus with Applications in Mechanics: Wave Propagation, Impact and Variational Principles contain various applications of fractional calculus to the fields of classical mechanics. Namely, the books study problems in fields such as viscoelasticity of fractional order, lateral vibrations of a rod of fractional order type, lateral vibrations of a rod positioned on fractional order viscoelastic foundations, diffusion-wave phenomena, heat conduction, wave propagation, forced oscillati
Noureen, S.; Abbas, G.; Farooq, H.
2017-09-01
Using Vlasov-Maxwell's equations, the spectra of the perpendicular propagating Bernstein wave and Extraordinary wave in ultra-relativistic fully degenerate electron plasma are studied. The equilibrium particle distribution function is assumed to be isotropic Fermian. The analysis of high frequency spectra of the waves is carried out in the weak propagation limit Ω≫k .v and in the weak magnetic field limit |ω-k .v | ≫Ω and graphically observed.
Parametric decay of a parallel propagating monochromatic whistler wave: Particle-in-cell simulations
Ke, Yangguang; Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Wang, Shui
2017-01-01
In this paper, by using one-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the parametric decay of a parallel propagating monochromatic whistler wave with various wave frequencies and amplitudes. The pump whistler wave can decay into a backscattered daughter whistler wave and an ion acoustic wave, and the decay instability grows more rapidly with the increase of the frequency or amplitude. When the frequency or amplitude is sufficiently large, a multiple decay process may occur, where the daughter whistler wave undergoes a secondary decay into an ion acoustic wave and a forward propagating whistler wave. We also find that during the parametric decay a considerable part of protons can be accelerated along the background magnetic field by the enhanced ion acoustic wave through the Landau resonance. The implication of the parametric decay to the evolution of whistler waves in Earth's magnetosphere is also discussed in the paper.
Wave propagation in gravitational systems late time behavior
Ching, E S C; Suen, W M; Young, K
1995-01-01
It is well-known that the dominant late time behavior of waves propagating on a Schwarzschild spacetime is a power-law tail; tails for other spacetimes have also been studied. This paper presents a systematic treatment of the tail phenomenon for a broad class of models via a Green's function formalism and establishes the following. (i) The tail is governed by a cut of the frequency Green's function \\tilde G(\\omega) along the -~Im~\\omega axis, generalizing the Schwarzschild result. (ii) The \\omega dependence of the cut is determined by the asymptotic but not the local structure of space. In particular it is independent of the presence of a horizon, and has the same form for the case of a star as well. (iii) Depending on the spatial asymptotics, the late time decay is not necessarily a power law in time. The Schwarzschild case with a power-law tail is exceptional among the class of the potentials having a logarithmic spatial dependence. (iv) Both the amplitude and the time dependence of the tail for a broad cla...
A propagating heat wave model of skin electroporation.
Pliquett, Uwe; Gusbeth, Ch; Nuccitelli, Richard
2008-03-21
The main barrier to transdermal drug delivery in human skin is the stratum corneum. Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) of sufficient amplitude can create new aqueous pathways across this barrier and enhance drug delivery through the skin. Here, we describe a model of pore formation between adjacent corneocytes that predicts the following sequence of events: (1) the PEF rapidly charges the stratum corneum near the electrode until the transepidermal potential difference is large enough to drive water into a small region of the stratum corneum, creating new aqueous pathways. (2) PEFs then drive a high current density through this newly created electropore to generate Joule heating that warms the pore perimeter. (3) This temperature rise at the perimeter increases the probability of further electroporation there as the local sphingolipids reach their phase transition temperature. (4) This heat-generated wave of further electroporation propagates outward until the surface area of the pore becomes so large that the reduced current density no longer generates sufficient heat to reach the phase transition temperature of the sphingolipids. (5) Cooling and partial recovery occurs after the field pulse. This process yields large, high permeability regions in the stratum corneum at which molecules can more readily cross this skin barrier. We present a model for this process that predicts that the initial radius of the first aqueous pathway is approximately 5nm for a transdermal voltage of 60V at room temperature.
Wave Propagation and Quasinormal Mode Excitation on Schwarzschild Spacetime
Dolan, Sam R
2011-01-01
To seek a deeper understanding of wave propagation on the Schwarzschild spacetime, we investigate the relationship between (i) the lightcone of an event and its caustics (self-intersections), (ii) the large-$l$ asymptotics of quasinormal (QN) modes, and (iii) the singular structure of the retarded Green function (GF) for the scalar field. First, we recall that the GF has a (partial) representation as a sum over QN modes. Next, we extend a recently-developed expansion method to obtain asymptotic expressions for QN wavefunctions and their residues. We employ these asymptotics to show (approximately) that the QN mode sum is singular on the lightcone, and to obtain approximations for the GF which are valid close to the lightcone. These approximations confirm a little-known prediction: the singular part of the GF undergoes a transition each time the lightcone passes through a caustic, following a repeating four-fold sequence. We conclude with a discussion of implications and extensions of this work.
Bble Size Distribution for Waves Propagating over A Submerged Breakwater
无
2008-01-01
Experiments are carried out to study the characteristics of active bubbles entrained by breaking waves as these propagate over an abruptly topographical change or a submerged breakwater. Underwater sounds generated by the entrained air bubbles are detected by a hydrophone connected to a charge amplifier and a data acquisition system. The size distribution of the bubbles is then determined inversely from the received sound frequencies. The sound signals are converted from time domain to time-frequency domain by applying Gabor transform. The number of bubbles with different sizes are counted from the signal peaks in the time-frequency domain. The characteristics of the bubbles are in terms of bubble size spectra, which account for the variation in bubble probability density related to the bubble radius r. The experimental data demonstrate that the bubble probability density function shows a-2.39 power-law scaling with radius for r＞0.8 mm, and a-1.11 power law for r＜0.8 mm.
Propagation and localization of acoustic waves in Fibonacci phononic circuits
Aynaou, H [Laboratoire de Dynamique et d' Optique des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed Premier, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Boudouti, E H El [Laboratoire de Dynamique et d' Optique des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed Premier, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Djafari-Rouhani, B [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Akjouj, A [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Velasco, V R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2005-07-13
A theoretical investigation is made of acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic bandgap structures made of slender tube loops pasted together with slender tubes of finite length according to a Fibonacci sequence. The band structure and transmission spectrum is studied for two particular cases. (i) Symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to diameter-modulated slender tubes. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear in the transmission spectra inside the gaps as defect modes. The spatial localization of the modes lying in the middle of the bands and at their edges is examined by means of the local density of states. The dependence of the bandgap structure on the slender tube diameters is presented. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the speed of sound. (ii) Asymmetric tube loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence new gaps unnoticed in the case of simple diameter-modulated slender tubes. The Fibonacci scaling property has been checked for both cases (i) and (ii), and it holds for a periodicity of three or six depending on the nature of the substrates surrounding the structure.
Propagation and localization of acoustic waves in Fibonacci phononic circuits
Aynaou, H.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Akjouj, A.; Velasco, V. R.
2005-07-01
A theoretical investigation is made of acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic bandgap structures made of slender tube loops pasted together with slender tubes of finite length according to a Fibonacci sequence. The band structure and transmission spectrum is studied for two particular cases. (i) Symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to diameter-modulated slender tubes. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear in the transmission spectra inside the gaps as defect modes. The spatial localization of the modes lying in the middle of the bands and at their edges is examined by means of the local density of states. The dependence of the bandgap structure on the slender tube diameters is presented. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the speed of sound. (ii) Asymmetric tube loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence new gaps unnoticed in the case of simple diameter-modulated slender tubes. The Fibonacci scaling property has been checked for both cases (i) and (ii), and it holds for a periodicity of three or six depending on the nature of the substrates surrounding the structure.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-02-01
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates
Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves: 2-D PIC simulation
Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Hada, Tohru
2008-01-01
We discuss the parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves using the 2-D PIC simulation code. First, we confirmed the results in the past study [Sakai et al, 2005] that the electrons are heated due to the modified two stream instability and that the ions are heated by the parallel propagating ion acoustic waves. However, although the past study argued that such parallel propagating longitudinal waves are excited by transverse modulation of parent Alfven wave, we consider these waves are more likely to be generated by the usual, parallel decay instability. Further, we performed other simulation runs with different polarization of the parent Alfven waves or the different ion thermal velocity. Numerical results suggest that the electron heating by the modified two stream instability due to the large amplitude Alfven waves is unimportant with most parameter sets.
Propagation and dispersion of sausage wave trains in magnetic flux tubes
Oliver, R; Terradas, J
2015-01-01
A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces a pair of wave trains that propagate in opposite directions along the tube. These wave packets disperse as they propagate, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. (2014) we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. Previous studies on wave propagation in magnetic wave guides have emphasized that the wave train dispersion is influenced by the particular dependence of the group velocity on the longitudinal wavenumber. Here we also find that long initial perturbations result in low amplitude wave packets and that large values of the magnetic tube to environment density ratio yield longer wave trains. To test the detectability ...
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-09-01
Ultrasonic wave propagation in thermoviscous fluid with pipeline shear mean flow in the presence of a temperature gradient is investigated. On the assumption of irrotational and axisymmetric wave propagation, a mathematical formulation of the convected wave equation is proposed without simplification in the manner of Zwikker and Kosten. A method based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to convert the wave equations into homogeneous algebraic equations. Then numerical calculation of the axial wavenumber is presented. In the end, wave attenuation in laminar and turbulent flow is numerically studied. Meanwhile measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter is parametrically analyzed.
A wave-envelope technique for wave propagation in non-uniform ducts
Kaiser, J. E.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1976-01-01
The method of variation of parameters is used to analyze wave propagation in variable area, plane ducts with no mean flow. The method has an explicit representation of the fast axial variation of the acoustic modes, and numerical integration is required only for the slower axial variations of the mode amplitudes and phases. Results are presented which demonstrate the numerical advantages of the method. Comparison of the results with those of a small perturbation theory are given. The relationship between this method and the method of weighted residuals is discussed.
THE USE OF PLANE WAVES TO APPROXIMATE WAVE PROPAGATION IN ANISOTROPIC MEDIA
Tomi Huttunen; Peter Monk
2007-01-01
In this paper we extend the standard Ultra Weak Variational Formulation (UWVF) of Maxwell's equations in an isotropic medium to the case of an anisotropic medium. We verify that the underlying theoretical framework carries over to anisotropic media (however error estimates are not yet available) and completely describe the new scheme. We then consider TM mode scattering, show how this results in a Helmholtz equation in two dimensions with an anisotropic coefficient and demonstrate how to formulate the UWVF for it. In one special case, convergence can be proved. We then show some numerical results that suggest that the UWVF can successfully simulate wave propagation in anisotropic media.
Q. Li
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The probability density on a height-meridional plane of negative refractive index squared f(nk2<0 is introduced as a new analysis tool to investigate the climatology of the propagation conditions of stationary planetary waves based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for 44 Northern Hemisphere boreal winters (1958–2002. This analysis addresses the control of the atmospheric state on planetary wave propagation. It is found that not only the variability of atmospheric stability with altitudes, but also the variability with latitudes has significant influence on planetary wave propagation. Eliassen-Palm flux and divergence are also analyzed to investigate the eddy activities and forcing on zonal mean flow. Only the ultra-long planetary waves with zonal wave number 1, 2 and 3 are investigated. In Northern Hemisphere winter the atmosphere shows a large possibility for stationary planetary waves to propagate from the troposphere to the stratosphere. On the other hand, waves induce eddy momentum flux in the subtropical troposphere and eddy heat flux in the subpolar stratosphere. Waves also exert eddy momentum forcing on the mean flow in the troposphere and stratosphere at middle and high latitudes. A similar analysis is also performed for stratospheric strong and weak polar vortex regimes, respectively. Anomalies of stratospheric circulation affect planetary wave propagation and waves also play an important role in constructing and maintaining of interannual variations of stratospheric circulation.
Zhang, Zhenggang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Mingxi; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi
2014-07-01
The experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of fundamental Lamb waves in long bones is reported. Based on the modal expansion approach to waveguide excitation and the dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves in long bones, the mechanism underlying the generation and accumulation of second harmonics by propagation of the fundamental Lamb waves was investigated. An experimental setup was established to detect the second-harmonic signals of Lamb wave propagation in long bones in vitro. Through analysis of the group velocities of the received signals, the appropriate fundamental Lamb wave modes and the duration of the second-harmonic signals could be identified. The integrated amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic signal was introduced and used to characterize the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by fundamental Lamb wave propagation. The results indicate that the second-harmonic signal generated by fundamental Lamb waves propagating in long bones can be observed clearly, and the effect was cumulative with propagation distance when the fundamental Lamb wave mode and the double-frequency Lamb wave mode had the same phase velocities. The present results may be important in the development of a new method to evaluate the status of long bones using the cumulative second harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves.
L. Sun
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In order to study the filter effect of the background winds on the propagation of gravity waves, a three-dimensional transfer function model is developed on the basis of the complex dispersion relation of internal gravity waves in a stratified dissipative atmosphere with background winds. Our model has successfully represented the main results of the ray tracing method, e.g. the trend of the gravity waves to travel in the anti-windward direction. Furthermore, some interesting characteristics are manifest as follows: (1 The method provides the distribution characteristic of whole wave fields which propagate in the way of the distorted concentric circles at the same altitude under the control of the winds. (2 Through analyzing the frequency and wave number response curve of the transfer function, we find that the gravity waves in a wave band of about 15–30 min periods and of about 200–400 km horizontal wave lengths are most likely to propagate to the 300-km ionospheric height. Furthermore, there is an obvious frequency deviation for gravity waves propagating with winds in the frequency domain. The maximum power of the transfer function with background winds is smaller than that without background winds. (3 The atmospheric winds may act as a directional filter that will permit gravity wave packets propagating against the winds to reach the ionospheric height with minimum energy loss.
GUO Bin
2009-01-01
Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method,the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied.The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves,depending on the plasma density,plasma thickness and period,are discussed.
Laboratory measurements of the effect of internal waves on sound propagation
Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L.; Lin, Ying-Tsong
2016-11-01
The fidelity of acoustic signals used in communication and imaging in the oceans is limited by density fluctuations arising from many sources, particularly from internal waves. We present results from laboratory experiments on sound propagation through an internal wave field produced by a wave generator consisting of multiple oscillating plates. The fluid density as a function of height is measured and used to determine the sound speed as a function of the height. Sound pulses from a transducer propagate through the fluctuating stratified density field and are detected to determine sound refraction, pulse arrival time, and sound signal distortion. The results are compared with sound ray model and numerical models of underwater sound propagation. The laboratory experiments can explore the parameter dependence by varying the fluid density profile, the sound pulse signal, and the internal wave amplitude and frequency. The results lead to a better understanding of sound propagation through and scattered by internal waves.
Li, Xiuming; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Naixing; Lü, Tianquan; Cao, Wenwu
2009-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation properties in relaxor-based 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) ferroelectric single crystals poled along [111]c has been analyzed theoretically. We found that the X-cut PMN-33%PT has lower phase velocity and higher electromechanical coupling coefficient compared to traditional piezoelectric materials. The power flow angle (PFA) can be zero in specific directions, which could drastically improve the performance of SAW devices. Our theoretical results indicate that the direction about 5° canted from [111]c is the optimum direction for the X-cut [111]c poled crystals in SAW device applications. Characteristic curves were also obtained for the phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and PFA in Z-cut single-domain PMN-33%PT single crystals. PMID:20069133
The stimulus-evoked population response in visual cortex of awake monkey is a propagating wave.
Muller, Lyle; Reynaud, Alexandre; Chavane, Frédéric; Destexhe, Alain
2014-04-28
Propagating waves occur in many excitable media and were recently found in neural systems from retina to neocortex. While propagating waves are clearly present under anaesthesia, whether they also appear during awake and conscious states remains unclear. One possibility is that these waves are systematically missed in trial-averaged data, due to variability. Here we present a method for detecting propagating waves in noisy multichannel recordings. Applying this method to single-trial voltage-sensitive dye imaging data, we show that the stimulus-evoked population response in primary visual cortex of the awake monkey propagates as a travelling wave, with consistent dynamics across trials. A network model suggests that this reliability is the hallmark of the horizontal fibre network of superficial cortical layers. Propagating waves with similar properties occur independently in secondary visual cortex, but maintain precise phase relations with the waves in primary visual cortex. These results show that, in response to a visual stimulus, propagating waves are systematically evoked in several visual areas, generating a consistent spatiotemporal frame for further neuronal interactions.
Experimental study on interference effect of rarefaction wave on laminar propagating flame
SUN Jinhua; LIU Yi; WANG Qingsong; CHEN Peng
2005-01-01
In order to study the interference effect of rarefaction wave on the laminar flame propagating structure and pressure characteristics of methane-air mixture, a small scale combustion chamber has been built. The techniques of high speed Schlieren photograph, pressure measurement and so on, are used to study the influence of rarefaction wave on the laminar flame propagating through methane-air mixture. The results show that, after the rarefaction wave acts on the propagation laminar flame, the laminar combustion is fully transformed into turbulent combustion just during several milliseconds, which leads to a sharp increase in the burning surface area and the pressure rise rate.
Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface
Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang, E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bi, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chatelon, Jean Pierre [Univerisité de Saint-Etienne, Université de Lyon, LT2C, 25 rue du Docteur Rémy Annino, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Ross, C. A., E-mail: mingqiangbao@gmail.com, E-mail: caross@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2014-12-08
An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of −H{sup →}×n{sup →}, where n{sup →} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.
Stress wave propagation in a composite beam subjected to transverse impact.
Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Jin, Huiqing
2010-08-01
Composite materials, particularly fiber reinforced plastic composites, have been extensively utilized in many military and industrial applications. As an important structural component in these applications, the composites are often subjected to external impact loading. It is desirable to understand the mechanical response of the composites under impact loading for performance evaluation in the applications. Even though many material models for the composites have been developed, experimental investigation is still needed to validate and verify the models. It is essential to investigate the intrinsic material response. However, it becomes more applicable to determine the structural response of composites, such as a composite beam. The composites are usually subjected to out-of-plane loading in applications. When a composite beam is subjected to a sudden transverse impact, two different kinds of stress waves, longitudinal and transverse waves, are generated and propagate in the beam. The longitudinal stress wave propagates through the thickness direction; whereas, the propagation of the transverse stress wave is in-plane directions. The longitudinal stress wave speed is usually considered as a material constant determined by the material density and Young's modulus, regardless of the loading rate. By contrast, the transverse wave speed is related to structural parameters. In ballistic mechanics, the transverse wave plays a key role to absorb external impact energy [1]. The faster the transverse wave speed, the more impact energy dissipated. Since the transverse wave speed is not a material constant, it is not possible to be calculated from stress-wave theory. One can place several transducers to track the transverse wave propagation. An alternative but more efficient method is to apply digital image correlation (DIC) to visualize the transverse wave propagation. In this study, we applied three-pointbending (TPB) technique to Kolsky compression bar to facilitate
Ciliary beating plane and wave propagation in the bovine oviduct.
Schätz, G; Schneiter, M; Rička, J; Kühni-Boghenbor, K; Tschanz, S A; Doherr, M G; Frenz, M; Stoffel, M H
2013-01-01
The uterine tube is an essential conduit for the gametes and zygote during reproduction. The necessary bidirectional conveyance occurs through peristalsis and ciliary activity, but unlike in respiratory tract, little is known about mucociliary transport in the uterine tube, and the direction of transport and the alignment of oviductal cilia have not been conclusively characterized. This study aimed to determine the uniformity in the axonemal orientation of motile cilia in the bovine uterine tube, to identify the direction of mucociliary transport and to relate the presumptive beating plane and the mucociliary transport direction to the long axis of the uterine tube. The angular spread of oviductal motile cilia was determined by electron microscopy, and by maintaining the accurate alignment of the samples throughout the processing steps, axonemal orientation was determined relative to the long axis of the oviduct. The direction of the effective mucociliary transport was determined by the analysis of video microscopic data recorded on explants. Vector-based analysis of electron micrographs yielded the mean angle of deviation between the 'effective ciliary stroke', as derived from axonemal orientation, and the tubal longitudinal axis pointing towards the uterus to be 0.8°, with a standard deviation of 35.2°. The corresponding angular deviation of the short-wave propagation was -6.8° (SD 34.6°). These results show that oviductal motile cilia are rigorously aligned, that the beating plane of the cilia is parallel to the long axis of the uterine tube and that the 'effective stroke' and mucociliary transport are directed towards the uterus. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nonlinear Wave Propagation and Solitary Wave Formation in Two-Dimensional Heterogeneous Media
Luna, Manuel
2011-05-01
Solitary wave formation is a well studied nonlinear phenomenon arising in propagation of dispersive nonlinear waves under suitable conditions. In non-homogeneous materials, dispersion may happen due to effective reflections between the material interfaces. This dispersion has been used along with nonlinearities to find solitary wave formation using the one-dimensional p-system. These solitary waves are called stegotons. The main goal in this work is to find two-dimensional stegoton formation. To do so we consider the nonlinear two-dimensional p-system with variable coefficients and solve it using finite volume methods. The second goal is to obtain effective equations that describe the macroscopic behavior of the variable coefficient system by a constant coefficient one. This is done through a homogenization process based on multiple-scale asymptotic expansions. We compare the solution of the effective equations with the finite volume results and find a good agreement. Finally, we study some stability properties of the homogenized equations and find they and one-dimensional versions of them are unstable in general.
SONG Yan; MIAO Jinhai; JU Jianhua
2007-01-01
On the basis of studying wave package propagation, this paper investigated the relationship between high frequency wave package propagation and transient waves' evolvement or the subtropical high's latitudinal movement. The results showed that during winter the lifetime of wave package was longer and usually persisted for 7-10 days with a propagating speed of 2-10 m s-1. Usually they propagated southeastward at the beginning, then turned to northeast. During summer the lifetime and intensity of wave package became shorter and weaker. It availed development (attenuation) of troughs when the strong wave package center was intensified (weakened) which overlapped with trough. If strong wave package center kept overlapping with ridge, the ridge would abate later in a few days. Obvious jumping northward (retreating southward) processes of Western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) were (not) usually related to strong wave package centers located at South China Sea area (South Asia area and Temperate Zone) for 5 days or longer. After two seasonal jumping processes, there were persisting strong wave package centers for 5 days or longer.WPSH retreating processes were also related to activities of strong wave package centers over South Asia narea and temperate area as well as the strong wave package centers of typhoon, and all these centers persisted for 5 days or longer.
Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Song, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Sosnin, Eduard A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Liu, Dongping
2017-08-01
A 2D computational study of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels at atmospheric pressure was performed, with emphasis on the effect of voltage polarity and the curvature of the bend. The discharge was ignited by a HV needle electrode inside the channel, and power was applied in the form of a trapezoidal pulse lasting 2 µs. We have shown that behavior of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels was quite different with that in straight tubes. For positive polarity of applied voltage, the ionization waves tended to propagate along one side of walls rather than filling the channel. The propagation velocity of ionization waves predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment results; the velocity was first increasing rapidly in the vicinity of the needle tip and then decreasing with the increment of propagation distance. Then we have studied the influence of voltage polarity on discharge characteristics. For negative polarity, the ionization waves tended to propagate along the opposite side of the wall, while the discharge was more diffusive and volume-filling compared with the positive case. It was found that the propagation velocity for the negative ionization wave was higher than that for the positive one. Meanwhile, the propagation of the negative ionization wave depended less on the pre-ionization level than the positive ionization wave. Finally, the effect of the radius of curvature was studied. Simulations have shown that the propagation speeds were sensitive to the radii of the curvature of the channels for both polarities. Higher radii of curvature tended to have higher speed and longer length of plasma. The simulation results were supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.
Kim, Seulong
2016-01-01
Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...
Pijush Pal Roy
1987-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation of edge waves in a thinly layered laminated medium with stress couples under initial stresses is examined. Based upon an approximate representation of a laminated medium by an equivalent anisotropic continuum with average initial and couple stresses, an explicit form of frequency equation is obtained to derive the phase velocity of edge waves. Edge waves exist under certain conditions. The inclusion of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation. For a specific compression, the presence of couple stresses increases the velocity of wave propagation with the increase of wave number, whereas the reverse is the case when there is no couple stress. Numerical computation is performed with graphical representations. Several special cases are also examined.
Spatial Damping of Propagating Kink Waves Due to Resonant Absorption: Effect of Background Flow
Soler, Roberto; Goossens, Marcel
2011-01-01
Observations show the ubiquitous presence of propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in the solar atmosphere. Waves and flows are often observed simultaneously. Due to plasma inhomogeneity in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field, kink waves are spatially damped by resonant absorption. The presence of flow may affect the wave spatial damping. Here, we investigate the effect of longitudinal background flow on the propagation and spatial damping of resonant kink waves in transversely nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. We combine approximate analytical theory with numerical investigation. The analytical theory uses the thin tube (TT) and thin boundary (TB) approximations to obtain expressions for the wavelength and the damping length. Numerically, we verify the previously obtained analytical expressions by means of the full solution of the resistive MHD eigenvalue problem beyond the TT and TB approximations. We find that the backward and forward propagating waves have different wavelengths and ...
Effect of material parameters on stress wave propagation during fast upsetting
WANG Zhong-jin; CHENG Li-dong
2008-01-01
Based'on a dynamic analysis method and an explicit algorithm, a dynamic explicit finite element code was developed for modeling the fast upsetting process of block under drop hammer impact, in which the hammer velocity during the deformation was calculated by energy conservation law according to the operating principle of hammer equipment. The stress wave propagation and its effect on the deformation were analyzed by the stress and strain distributions. Industrial pure lead, oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper and 7039 aluminum alloy were chosen to investigate the effect of material parameters on the stress wave propagation. The results show that the stress wave propagates from top to bottom of block, and then reflects back when it reaches the bottom surface. After that, stress wave propagates and reflects repeatedly between the upper surface and bottom surface. The stress wave propagation has a significant effect on the deformation at the initial stage, and then becomes weak at the middle-final stage. When the ratio of elastic modulus or the slope of stress-strain curve to mass density becomes larger, the velocity of stress wave propagation increases, and the influence of stress wave on the deformation becomes small.
Farhad Kiyaei, Forough; Dorranian, Davoud
2017-01-01
Effects of the obliqueness and the strength of external magnetic field on the ion acoustic (IA) cnoidal wave in a nonextensive plasma are investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the corresponding KdV equation for the IA wave. Sagdeev potential is extracted, and the condition of generation of IA waves in the form of cnoidal waves or solitons is discussed in detail. In this work, the domain of allowable values of nonextensivity parameter q for generation of the IA cnoidal wave in the plasma medium is considered. The results show that only the compressive IA wave may generate and propagate in the plasma medium. Increasing the strength of external magnetic field will increase the frequency of the wave and decrease its amplitude, while increasing the angle of propagation will decrease the frequency of the wave and increase its amplitude.
Erik M. Salomons; Lohman, Walter J. A.; Han Zhou
2016-01-01
Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equation...
Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya
2017-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the impact of the coupling with shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic wave (SAW) on the propagation of Rayleigh SAW in periodic grating structures on 128°YX-LiNbO3. First, the frequency dispersion behavior with longitudinal and lateral wavenumbers of Rayleigh SAW is calculated using the finite element method (FEM) software COMSOL. It is shown that the coupling causes (1) the satellite stopband and (2) variation of the anisotropy factor. It is also shown these phenomena remain even when the electromechanical coupling factor of SH SAW is zero. Then, the extended thin plate model which can take coupling between two SAWs into account, is applied to simulate the result of FEM. Good agreement between these results indicated that the mechanical coupling is responsible for these two phenomena. Finally, including electrical excitation and detection, the model is applied to the infinitely long interdigital transducer (IDT) structure and the calculated result is compared with that obtained by the three-dimensional FEM. The excellent agreement of both results confirms the effectiveness of the extended thin plate model.
An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling
A. Iqbal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.
Full wave simulations of fast wave mode conversion and lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks
Wright, J.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Brambilla, M.;
2004-01-01
Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k(perpendi......Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k......). Two full wave codes, a massively-parallel-processor (MPP) version of the TORIC-2D finite Larmor radius code [M. Brambilla, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 41, 1 (1999)] and also an all orders spectral code AORSA2D [E. F. Jaeger , Phys. Plasmas 9, 1873 (2002)], have been developed which for the first......)] to gain new understanding into the nature of FWMC in tokamaks. The massively-parallel-processor version of TORIC is also now capable of running with sufficient resolution to model planned lower hybrid range of frequencies experiments in the Alcator C-Mod. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....
1988-10-18
Mantle Boundary Inferred from Short-Period Scattered PKP Waves Recorded at the Global Digital Seismograph Network KLAUS BATAILLE AND STANILY M. F...Geophys. Res., 78, Osemov, L A., Wave Propagation in a Random Medium, Mc Graw - 6009--6020, 1973. Hill, New York, 1960. Morelli, A., and A. M
Upward-propagating capillary waves on the surface of short Taylor bubbles
Liberzon, Dan; Shemer, Lev; Barnea, Dvora
2006-04-01
Upward-propagating capillary waves are observed on the surface of short Taylor air bubbles rising in vertical pipes. The wave length distribution along the bubble surface is measured for bubbles rising in pipes of different diameters in stagnant and up-flowing water by digital image processing. It is shown that the waves are generated by bubble bottom oscillations, and their length is determined by wave-current interaction along the liquid film.
Hussein Rappel; Aghil Yousefi-Koma; Jalil Jamali; Ako Bahari
2014-01-01
This paper presents a numerical model of lamb wave propagation in a homogenous steel plate using elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) as well as its validation with analytical results. Lamb wave method is a long range inspection technique which is considered to have unique future in the field of structural health monitoring. One of the main problems facing the lamb wave method is how to choose the most appropriate frequency to generate the waves for adequate transmission capab...
Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes
Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.
2016-05-01
The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.
Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators
Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.
2006-01-01
Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for
Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators
Karssenberg, J.G.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Volokhine, I.V.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Boller, K.J.
2006-01-01
Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for exam
Shatalov, MY
2010-01-01
Full Text Available for PZT-4 and PZT-7A piezoelectric ceramics for circumferential wave numbers m = 1, 2, and 3. It is observed that the dispersion curves are sensitive to the type of the imposed boundary conditions as well as to the measure of the electromechanical coupling...
Shatalov, MY
2009-01-01
Full Text Available for PZT-4 and PZT-7A piezoelectric ceramics for circumferential wave numbers m = 1, 2, and 3. It is observed that the dispersion curves are sensitive to the type of the imposed boundary conditions as well as to the measure of the electromechanical coupling...
Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I
2015-06-01
Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations.
Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands
Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.
Numerical and experimental study of Lamb wave propagation in a two-dimensional acoustic black hole
Yan, Shiling; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Shen, Zhonghua
2016-06-01
The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves in a two-dimensional acoustic black-hole structure was studied numerically and experimentally. The geometrical acoustic theory has been applied to calculate the beam trajectories in the region of the acoustic black hole. The finite element method was also used to study the time evolution of propagating waves. An optical system based on the laser-Doppler vibration method was assembled. The effect of the focusing wave and the reduction in wave speed of the acoustic black hole has been validated.
The study of volume ultrasonic waves propagation in the gas-containing iron ore pulp.
Morkun, V; Morkun, N; Pikilnyak, A
2015-02-01
The results of research of the volume ultrasonic waves propagation in the gas-containing iron ore slurry using ultrasonic phased array technology is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lohmeyer, Manfred
2004-01-01
The propagation of guided and nonconfined optical waves at fixed frequency through dielectric structures with piecewise constant, rectangular permittivity is considered in two spatial dimensions. Bidirectional versions of eigenmodes, computed for sequences of multilayer slab waveguides, constitute t
3DEC modeling on effect of joints and interlayer on wave propagation
WANG Wei-hua; LI Xi-bing; ZUO Yu-jun; ZHOU Zi-long; ZHANG Yi-ping
2006-01-01
Firstly, studies on propagation of one-dimensional normally incident wave in rock mass containing no joint, a single joint and two parallel joints were conducted by Three Dimensional Distinct Element Codes(3DEC). By comparison of the modeling results with the theoretical solutions, it has been found that a good agreement between them has been achieved. It is verified that the 3DEC is capable of modeling wave propagation in rock masses. Secondly, propagation of normally incident P-wave across two parallel joints was studied. The modeling results show that transmission coefficient increases with the increasing ratio of joint spacing to wavelength at first, then decreases with the increasing ratio of joint spacing to wavelength, lastly keeps constant. Finally,effect of interlayer on wave propagation is investigated. It is shown that interlayer results in marked attenuation and leading phase,and that attenuation increases with the increasing frequency and the increasing thickness of interlayer.
Conical wave propagation and diffraction in two-dimensional hexagonally packed granular lattices.
Chong, C; Kevrekidis, P G; Ablowitz, M J; Ma, Yi-Ping
2016-01-01
Linear and nonlinear mechanisms for conical wave propagation in two-dimensional lattices are explored in the realm of phononic crystals. As a prototypical example, a statically compressed granular lattice of spherical particles arranged in a hexagonal packing configuration is analyzed. Upon identifying the dispersion relation of the underlying linear problem, the resulting diffraction properties are considered. Analysis both via a heuristic argument for the linear propagation of a wave packet and via asymptotic analysis leading to the derivation of a Dirac system suggests the occurrence of conical diffraction. This analysis is valid for strong precompression, i.e., near the linear regime. For weak precompression, conical wave propagation is still possible, but the resulting expanding circular wave front is of a nonoscillatory nature, resulting from the complex interplay among the discreteness, nonlinearity, and geometry of the packing. The transition between these two types of propagation is explored.
Viola, Cristina N A; Grifoll, Manel; Palalane, Jaime; Oliveira, Tiago C A
2014-01-01
This study aims to characterize the wave climate near the coastal region of Maputo (Mozambique), and to provide a first assessment of the sediment transport load in this area. A time-series of 13 years' worth of offshore wave data, obtained from reanalysis products, was propagated to the coast. Wave propagation was performed using Linear Wave theory and the numerical model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Propagations with SWAN were carried out considering different scenarios in order to evaluate the influence of parameters such as wind, tidal level, frequency spectrum and numerical mesh resolution on wave characteristics along the coast. The prevalent waves propagated came from between east and southwest directions. Results from linear propagation were used to estimate the potential longshore sediment transport. The Coastal Engineering Research Center formula was applied for a stretch of beach in the Machangulo Peninsula. A net potential rate of longitudinal sediment transport (of the order of 10(5) m(3)/year, along an extension of the coast of 21 km) was directed northwards, and was consistent with the frequent wave directions.
Vojkan M. Radonjić
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Crawford, F. W.
1975-01-01
A ten year summary was given of university research on the nature and characteristics of space related plasma resonance phenomena, whistler propagation in laboratory plasmas, and theoretical and experimental studies of plasma wave propagation. Data are also given on long delayed echoes, low frequency instabilities, ionospheric heating, and backscatter, and pulse propagation. A list is included of all conference papers, publications, and reports resulting from the study.
Effect of fluid viscosity on wave propagation in a cylindrical bore in micropolar elastic medium
Sunita Deswal; Sushil K Tomar; Rajneesh Kumar
2000-10-01
Wave propagation in a cylindrical bore filled with viscous liquid and situated in a micropolar elastic medium of infinite extent is studied. Frequency equation for surface wave propagation near the surface of the cylindrical bore is obtained and the effect of viscosity and micropolarity on dispersion curves is observed. The earlier problems of Biot and of Banerji and Sengupta have been reduced as a special case of our problem.
Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) for Transient Wave Propagation in a Moving Frame of Reference
Madsen, Stine Skov; Krenk, Steen; Hededal, Ole
2013-01-01
In relation to the development of a Rolling Wheel Deflectometer (RWD), which is a non-destructive testing device for measuring pavement deflections, a finite element model for obtaining the soil/pavement response is developed. Absorbing boundary conditions are necessary in order to prevent reflections of the waves propagating through the soil due to the dynamic loading. The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) has proven to be highly efficient when solving transient wave propagation problems in a fi...
Refined Study of ECR Wave Propagation and Absorption in the Weakly Relativistic Plasma
SHIBingren; LONGYongxin
2001-01-01
The ECR wave heating is now a routine method for plasma heating and profile control in fusion devices and also in plasma applications. Theoretical study of ECR wave propagation and absorption began very early in 1950's. Basic theoretical work had accomplished in 1970～1980. For toroidal devices like the tokamak, the fundamental O-mode and X-mode with nearly perpendicular propagation were used very often. For pure O-mode and X-mode with kx=O,
Waves in a Uniform Medium: Arbitrary Angle of Propagation
Schnack, Dalton D.
In Lecture 23, we showed that in an infinite, uniform medium, the solutions of the ideal MHD wave equation could be decomposed into plane wave solutions ξ _{{k}} e^{i(k \\cdot r + ω _k t)} that satisfy.
Alippi, A.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; D'Orazio, A.; Germano, M.; Passeri, D.
2010-01-01
Evanescent waves are characterized by the exponential decay of the amplitude along the propagation direction, such that no phase velocity could be properly defined and the concept of propagation itself has to be properly redefined. However, evanescent waves can carry energy beyond a tunneling region where they are produced, and their effect in the forbidden region may be properly inferred by the outgoing wave. In the present paper, evidence of evanescent Lamb waves on a plate is given, as they are produced within a forbidden region where thickness is properly reduced and the acoustic modes are above threshold of propagation. However, the coupling of modes at each line boundary between different regions makes it difficult to single out the tunneling mode alone, since all modes share the same frequency. Therefore, we resort to the propagation of the backward S1 mode, that can be properly isolated from all the others. That makes the problem of refraction/reflection of backward propagating modes at a boundary, a problem by itself to be investigated and makes it worth to perform experiments on it. This is done in the present paper, as well, by detecting the acoustic field of a backward propagating Lamb mode reflected from the end boundary of a steel plate and the focusing effect from such a boundary is put in evidence in the case that a forward propagating mode is reflected as a backward propagating one.
Coherence theory of electromagnetic wave propagation through stratified N-layer media
Hoenders, B.J.; Bertolotti, M.
The theory of second-order coherence in connection with wave propagation through a stratified N-layer (SNL) medium is developed. Especially, the influence of the SNL medium on the propagation of the coherence generated by a given state of coherence at the entrance plane of the medium is considered.
Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave in Coaxial Conical Transverse Electromagnetic Wave Cell
LIU Xingxun; ZHANG Tao; QI Wangquan
2015-01-01
In order to solve the problem of broadband field probes calibration with only selected discrete frequencies above 1 GHz, a sweep-frequency calibration technology based on a coaxial conical(co-conical) cell is researched. Existing research is only qualitative because of the complexity of theoretical calculations. For designing a high performance cell, a mathematic model of high-order modes transmission is built according to the geometrical construction of co-conical. The associated Legendre control functions of high-order modes are calculated by using recursion methodology and the numerical calculation roots are presented with different half angles of inner and outer conductor. Relationship between roots and high-order modes transmission is analyzed, when the half angles of inner conductor and outer conductor areθ1=1.5136° andθ2=8° respectively, the co-conical cell has better performance for fewer transmitting high-order modes. The propagation process of the first three transmitting modes wave is simulated in CST-MWS software from the same structured co-conical. The simulation plots show that transmission of high-order modes appears with electromagnetic wave reflection, then different high-order mode transmission has different cut-off region and each cut-off region is determined by its cut-off wavelength. This paper presents numerical calculation data and theoretical analysis to design key structural parameters for the co-conical transverse electromagnetic wave cell(co-conical TEM cell).
Propagation of electromagnetic wave in coaxial conical transverse electromagnetic wave cell
Liu, Xingxun; Zhang, Tao; Qi, Wangquan
2015-11-01
In order to solve the problem of broadband field probes calibration with only selected discrete frequencies above 1 GHz, a sweep-frequency calibration technology based on a coaxial conical(co-conical) cell is researched. Existing research is only qualitative because of the complexity of theoretical calculations. For designing a high performance cell, a mathematic model of high-order modes transmission is built according to the geometrical construction of co-conical. The associated Legendre control functions of high-order modes are calculated by using recursion methodology and the numerical calculation roots are presented with different half angles of inner and outer conductor. Relationship between roots and high-order modes transmission is analyzed, when the half angles of inner conductor and outer conductor are θ 1=1.5136° and θ 2=8° respectively, the co-conical cell has better performance for fewer transmitting high-order modes. The propagation process of the first three transmitting modes wave is simulated in CST-MWS software from the same structured co-conical. The simulation plots show that transmission of high-order modes appears with electromagnetic wave reflection, then different high-order mode transmission has different cut-off region and each cut-off region is determined by its cut-off wavelength. This paper presents numerical calculation data and theoretical analysis to design key structural parameters for the co-conical transverse electromagnetic wave cell(co-conical TEM cell).
Effects of pore fluids in the subsurface on ultrasonic wave propagation
Seifert, Patricia Katharina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1998-05-01
This thesis investigates ultrasonic wave propagation in unconsolidated sands in the presence of different pore fluids. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in the sub-MHz range using quartz sand fully saturated with one or two liquids. Elastic wave propagation in unconsolidated granular material is computed with different numerical models: in one-dimension a scattering model based on an analytical propagator solution, in two dimensions a numerical approach using the boundary integral equation method, in three dimensions the local flow model (LFM), the combined Biot and squirt flow theory (BISQ) and the dynamic composite elastic medium theory (DYCEM). The combination of theoretical and experimental analysis yields a better understanding of how wave propagation in unconsolidated sand is affected by (a) homogeneous phase distribution; (b) inhomogeneous phase distribution, (fingering, gas inclusions); (c) pore fluids of different viscosity; (d) wettabilities of a porous medium. The first study reveals that the main ultrasonic P-wave signatures, as a function of the fraction on nonaqueous-phase liquids in initially water-saturated sand samples, can be explained by a 1-D scattering model. The next study investigates effects of pore fluid viscosity on elastic wave propagation, in laboratory experiments conducted with sand samples saturated with fluids of different viscosities. The last study concentrates on the wettability of the grains and its effect on elastic wave propagation and electrical resistivity.
M D Sharma
2007-08-01
Anisotropic wave propagation is studied in a fluid-saturated porous medium, using two different approaches. One is the dynamic approach of Biot’s theories. The other approach known as homogenisation theory, is based on the averaging process to derive macroscopic equations from the microscopic equations of motion. The medium considered is a general anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid with a viscous fluid saturating its pores of anisotropic permeability. The wave propagation phenomenon in a saturated porous medium is explained through two relations. One defines modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in the medium. The other defines a matrix to relate the relative displacement of fluid particles to the displacement of solid particles. The modified Christoffel equations are solved further to get a quartic equation whose roots represent complex velocities of the four attenuating quasi-waves in the medium. These complex velocities define the phase velocities of propagation and quality factors for attenuation of all the quasi-waves propagating along a given phase direction in three-dimensional space. The derivations in the mathematical models from different theories are compared in order to work out the equivalence between them. The variations of phase velocities and attenuation factors with the direction of phase propagation are computed, for a realistic numerical model. Differences between the velocities and attenuations of quasi-waves from the two approaches are exhibited numerically.
Propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro.
Lee, Kang Il; Yoon, Suk Wang
2015-01-01
The present study aims to investigate the propagation of time-reversed Lamb waves in bovine cortical bone in vitro. The time-reversed Lamb waves were successfully launched at 200 kHz in 18 bovine tibiae through a time reversal process of Lamb waves. The group velocities of the time-reversed Lamb waves in the bovine tibiae were measured using the axial transmission technique. They showed a significant correlation with the cortical thickness and tended to follow the theoretical group velocity of the lowest order antisymmetrical Lamb wave fairly well, consistent with the behavior of the slow guided wave in long cortical bones.
He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi S; Bale, Stuart D
2015-01-01
Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating the laboratorial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. Different from the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves, anti-sunward Alfv\\'en waves (AWs) are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond respectively to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Els\\"asser variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orth...
The influence of physical properties on propagation velocity of seismic waves of the rocks
Radoslav Schügerl
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic load are very important for determination physical properties of the rocks. Dynamic load propagates in the rocks by seismic waves (subsurface waves – longitudinal and transverse, and surface – Rayleigh´s waves. Laboratory (ultrasound machine and hydraulic jack and field methods (cross – hole, down – hole and up – hole on the determination to propagation velocity of seismic waves of the rocks can be used. This article presents selected problems of the research of the influence of physical properties (bulk density, porosity, change of temperature, stage of saturation on propagation velocity of seismic waves of the rocks and compares the values of dynamic modulus of elasticity Edyn obtain by means of ultrasound machine and by hydraulic jack. These parameters were obtained by laboratory testing of sandstone samples from locality of Jánovce – Jablonov (Šibenik tunnel.
Time domain numerical modeling of wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous porous media
Chiavassa, Guillaume
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical modeling of wave propagation in porous media described by Biot's theory. The viscous efforts between the fluid and the elastic skeleton are assumed to be a linear function of the relative velocity, which is valid in the low-frequency range. The coexistence of propagating fast compressional wave and shear wave, and of a diffusive slow compressional wave, makes numerical modeling tricky. To avoid restrictions on the time step, the Biot's system is splitted into two parts: the propagative part is discretized by a fourth-order ADER scheme, while the diffusive part is solved analytically. Near the material interfaces, a space-time mesh refinement is implemented to capture the small spatial scales related to the slow compressional wave. The jump conditions along the interfaces are discretized by an immersed interface method. Numerical experiments and comparisons with exact solutions confirm the accuracy of the numerical modeling. The efficiency of the approach is illustrated by s...
Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.
Pal, Barnana
2017-01-01
The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values.
李保忠; 蔡袁强
2003-01-01
Biot's two-phase theory for fluid-saturated porous media was applied in a study carried out to investigate the influence of water saturation on propagation of elastic wave in transversely isotropic nearly saturated soil. The characteristic equations for wave propagation were derived and solved analytically. The results showed that there are four waves: the first and second quasi-longitudinal waves (QP1 and QP2), the quasi-transverse wave (QSV) and the anti-plane transverse wave (SH). Numerical results are given to illustrate the influence of saturation on the velocity, dispersion and attenuation of the four body waves. Some typical numerical results are discussed and plotted. The results can be meaningful for soil dynamics and earthquake engineering.
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.
ZHAO Tong-bin; LI Jian-gong; XIAO Ya-xun; CHENG Guo-qiang
2007-01-01
The energy caused by the dynamic impact in mining engineering forth release and spread by the way of seismic waves, monitoring is an effective way for forecasting mine dynamical disasters, such as rockburst and coal and gas outburst. Three-dimensional dynamic model was built to simulate the propagating progress of seismic waves in the elastoplastic tunnel rock and analyzed the propagating law of perturbation acceleration around tunnel, based on the finite element dynamic analysis software ANSYS/LS-DYNA.The simulation results indicate that: (1) The propagation attenuation of seismic wave is a negative index relationship; (2) The acceleration amplitude of seismic wave decays rapidly in near-field and decays slowly in far-field; (3) When the perturbation is generated in the dead ahead of tunnel, the acceleration of seismic wave become smaller and smaller away from the roadway-rib;(4) The elastic and plastic stress state of tunnel rock is also an important factor for propagation process of wave, the energy of seismic wave is mainly consumed for geometric spreading and plastic deformation in propagation in the elastoplastic medium model.
APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS
Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: kaneko@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-20
In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.
Wave beam propagation in a weakly inhomogeneous isotropic medium: paraxial approximation and beyond
Bornatici, M [INFM, Physics Department ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Maj, O [INFM, Physics Department, University of Milan, I-20133 Milan (Italy)
2003-05-01
The various methods put forward for the description of paraxial wave beams propagating in weakly inhomogeneous media are shown to be equivalent to each other. This issue is discussed in terms of a comparative analysis with respect to the complex eikonal-based solution relevant to the propagation of a Gaussian wave beam in a lens-like isotropic medium (such a solution being readily extendible to the propagation in a plasma slab). The accuracy of the paraxial solution thus considered is assessed numerically in comparison with the corresponding exact solution of the Helmholtz equation.
Vertical elliptic operator for efficient wave propagation in TTI media
Waheed, Umair bin
2015-08-19
Elliptic wave extrapolation operators require significantly less computational cost than the ones for transversely isotropic (TI) media. However, it does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for the prevalent TI media. We propose a new vertical elliptically anisotropic (VEA) wave equation by decomposing the acoustic TI pseudo-differential wave equation. The decomposition results in a vertical elliptic differential equation and a scalar operator. The new VEA-like wave equation shares the same dispersion relation as that of the original acoustic TI wave equation. Therefore, the kinematic contents are correctly matched to the original equation. Moreover, the proposed decomposition yields better amplitude properties than the isotropic decomposition without increasing the computational load. Therefore, it exhibits better cost versus accuracy tradeoff compared to the isotropic or the tilted elliptic decompositions. We demonstrate with numerical examples that the proposed methodology is numerically stable for complex models and is free from shear-wave artifacts.
Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?
Asenjo, Felipe A
2016-01-01
We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non--rotating, as well as in G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non--rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic plane waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic plane waves on G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior.
Reverse cochlear propagation in the intact cochlea of the gerbil: Evidence for slow traveling waves
S.W.F. Meenderink; M. van der Heijden (Marcel)
2010-01-01
textabstractThe inner ear can produce sounds, but how these otoacoustic emissions back-propagate through the cochlea is currently debated. Two opposing views exist: fast pressure waves in the cochlear fluids and slow traveling waves involving the basilar membrane. Resolving this issue requires measu
Nonlinear propagation of a wave packet in a hard-walled circular duct
Nayfeh, A. H.
1975-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to derive a nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the temporal and spatial modulation of the amplitudes and the phases of waves propagating in a hard-walled circular duct. This equation is used to show that monochromatic waves are stable and to determine the amplitude dependance of the cutoff frequencies.
Propagation of Rayleigh surface waves with small wavelengths in nonlocal visco-elastic solids
D P Acharya; Asit Mondal
2002-12-01
This paper investigates Rayleigh waves, propagating on the surface of a visco-elastic solid under the linear theory of nonlocal elasticity. Dispersion relations are obtained. It is observed that the waves are dispersive in nature for small wavelengths. Numerical calculations and discussions presented in this paper lead us to some important conclusions.
DeWall, Ryan J; Varghese, Tomy
2012-01-01
Thermal ablation procedures are commonly used to treat hepatic cancers and accurate ablation representation on shear wave velocity images is crucial to ensure complete treatment of the malignant target. Electrode vibration elastography is a shear wave imaging technique recently developed to monitor thermal ablation extent during treatment procedures. Previous work has shown good lateral boundary delineation of ablated volumes, but axial delineation was more ambiguous, which may have resulted from the assumption of lateral shear wave propagation. In this work, we assume both lateral and axial wave propagation and compare wave velocity images to those assuming only lateral shear wave propagation in finite element simulations, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and bovine liver tissue. Our results show that assuming bidirectional wave propagation minimizes artifacts above and below ablated volumes, yielding a more accurate representation of the ablated region on shear wave velocity images. Area overestimation was reduced from 13.4% to 3.6% in a stiff-inclusion tissue-mimicking phantom and from 9.1% to 0.8% in a radio-frequency ablation in bovine liver tissue. More accurate ablation representation during ablation procedures increases the likelihood of complete treatment of the malignant target, decreasing tumor recurrence. © 2012 IEEE
Wave Generation, Propagation and Absorption in CFD Simulations of Free Surface Flows
Duz, B.
2015-01-01
The PhD study focused on two topics. The first topic was energy dissipation in wave propagation. The wave dissipation can be caused by physical and/or numerical phenomena, such as the free surface treatment, physical viscosity and artificial viscosity due to discretization of the momentum equations.
Transverse wave propagation in [ab0] direction of silicon single crystal
Yun, Sang Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Se Ho; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan(Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
The speed and oscillation directions of elastic waves propagating in the [ab0] direction of a silicon single crystal were obtained by solving Christoffel's equation. It was found that the quasi waves propagate in the off-principal axis, and hence, the directions of the phase and group velocities are not the same. The maximum deviation of the two directions was 7.2 degree angle. Two modes of the pure transverse waves propagate in the [110] direction with different speeds, and hence, two peaks were observed in the pulse echo signal. The amplitude ratio of the two peaks was dependent on the initial oscillating direction of the incident wave. The pure and quasi-transverse waves propagate in the [210] direction, and the oscillation directions of these waves are perpendicular to each other. The skewing angle of the quasi wave was calculated as 7.14 degree angle, and it was measured as 9.76 degree angle. The amplitude decomposition in the [210] direction was similar to that in the [110] direction, since the oscillation directions of these waves are perpendicular to each other. These results offer useful information in measuring the crystal orientation of the silicon single crystal.
Discrete Element Simulation of Elastoplastic Shock Wave Propagation in Spherical Particles
M. Shoaib
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Elastoplastic shock wave propagation in a one-dimensional assembly of spherical metal particles is presented by extending well-established quasistatic compaction models. The compaction process is modeled by a discrete element method while using elastic and plastic loading, elastic unloading, and adhesion at contacts with typical dynamic loading parameters. Of particular interest is to study the development of the elastoplastic shock wave, its propagation, and reflection during entire loading process. Simulation results yield information on contact behavior, velocity, and deformation of particles during dynamic loading. Effects of shock wave propagation on loading parameters are also discussed. The elastoplastic shock propagation in granular material has many practical applications including the high-velocity compaction of particulate material.
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2014-12-01
Low-frequency events such as tsunamis generate acoustic and gravity waves which quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Since the atmospheric density decreases exponentially as the altitude increases and from the conservation of the kinetic energy, those waves see their amplitude raise (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), allowing their detection in the upper atmosphere. Various tools have been developed through years to model this propagation, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but none offer a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling.A modeling tool is worthy interest since there are many different phenomena, from quakes to atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool.Starting from the SPECFEM program that already propagate waves in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, this work offers a tool with the ability to model acoustic and gravity waves propagation in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source.Atmospheric attenuation is required in a proper modeling framework since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented due to its ability to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's surface (that vibrates when a surface wave go through it) but also huge atmospheric events.
Inter-hemispheric Comparison of Mesospheric Short-period Gravity Wave Propagation
Nielsen, K.; Taylor, M. J.; Collins, R. L.; Irving, B. K.; Negale, M.; Siskind, D. E.; Eckermann, S. D.; Hoppel, K.; Harvey, V.; Russell, J. M.
2011-12-01
Mesospheric short-period (≤1-hr) gravity waves are of great importance for dynamics in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region, and are typically measured by instruments capable of high temporal and/or spatial resolutions such as lidars and airglow imagers. These waves have been studied extensively at low- and mid-latitudes where known wave sources are well established. The results show strong dependence on the background wind and temperature fields, which can act as a barrier prohibiting vertical propagation of the waves, as well as providing a ducted environment in which the waves can travel large horizontal distances. In fact, results show that up to 75% of these waves may exhibit ducted wave motion. Recent airglow imaging measurements over Antarctica have revealed a large number of short-period gravity waves in absence of the prominent wave sources present at lower latitudes. In contrast to results at lower latitudes, very few waves (˜5%) observed over Halley (76°S) exhibited Doppler ducted motion. In this work, we utilize airglow imagery, SABER temperature measurements, together with the Navy's high-altitude numerical weather prediction system, NOGAPS-ALPHA, to investigate propagation conditions (particularly, the role of thermal ducting) over Rothera (68°S). Data acquired from a newly installed airglow imager operating at Poker Flat, Alaska (65°N) and the co-located lidar provide an opportunity to perform an inter-hemispheric comparison of propagation conditions over two polar sites at similar latitudes.
One-Directional Fluidic Flow Induced by Chemical Wave Propagation in a Microchannel.
Arai, Miyu; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Mika; Hasegawa, Takahiko; Sato, Mami; Unoura, Kei; Nabika, Hideki
2016-05-26
A one-directional flow induced by chemical wave propagation was investigated to understand the origin of its dynamic flow. A cylindrical injection port was connected with a straight propagation channel; the chemical wave was initiated at the injection port. Chemical waves propagated with a constant velocity irrespective of the channel width, indicating that the dynamics of the chemical waves were governed by a geometry-independent interplay between the chemical reaction and diffusion. In contrast, the velocity of the one-directional flow was dependent on the channel width. Furthermore, enlargement of the injection port volume increased the flow velocity and volume flux. These results imply that the one-directional flow in the microchannel is due to a hydrodynamic effect induced in the injection port. Spectroscopic analysis of a pH indicator revealed the simultaneous behavior between the pH increase near the injection port and the one-directional flow. Hence, we can conclude that the one-directional flow in the microchannel with chemical wave propagation was caused by a proton consumption reaction in the injection port, probably through liquid volume expansion by the reaction products and the reaction heat. It is a characteristic feature of the present system that the hydrodynamic flow started from the chemical wave initiation point and not the propagation wavefront, as observed for previous systems.
A P Misra; A Roy Chowdhury; S N Paul
2004-09-01
Characteristic features of low frequency transverse wave propagating in a magnetised dusty plasma have been analysed considering the effect of dust-charge fluctuation. The distinctive behaviours of both the left circularly polarised and right circularly polarised waves have been exhibited through the analysis of linear and non-linear dispersion relations. The phase velocity, group velocity, and group travel time for the waves have been obtained and their propagation characteristics have been shown graphically with the variations of wave frequency, dust density and amplitude of the wave. The change in non-linear wave number shift and Faraday rotation angle have also been exhibited with respect to the plasma parameters. It is observed that the effects of dust particles are significant only when the higher order contributions are considered. This may be referred to as the `dust regime' in plasma.
Plasma Instability and Wave Propagation in Gate-Controlled GaN Conduction Channels
Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg
2013-08-01
The plasma wave in the conduction channel of a semiconductor heterostructure high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be excited at frequencies significantly higher than the cut-off frequency in a short channel device. The hydrodynamic model predicts a resonance response to applied harmonic signal at the plasma oscillation frequency. When either the ac voltage induced in the channel by the signal at the gate or the current applied at the drain or source contact are not very small, the plasma waves in the semiconductor channel will propagate as a shock wave. The device can be used either as a detector or a tunable source of terahertz range radiation. Using the parameters appropriate for the GaN channel we show that in both configurations the charge flow develops shock waves due to hydrodynamic nonlinearities. In a sufficiently wide channel the wave propagation separates into two or more different bands giving a two-dimensional structure to the waves.
Numerical and experimental investigation on broadband wave propagation features in perforated plates
Zhou, C. W.; Lainé, J. P.; Ichchou, M. N.; Zine, A. M.
2016-06-01
Perforated plates are widely used in various engineering applications. Their mechanical and dynamical behaviours need to be investigated for the design and optimization purpose. In this work, the wave propagation features on broadband in perforated plates are predicted by a Condensed Wave Finite Element Method (CWFEM). Based on the wave dispersion relation identified by CWFEM, wave-based homogenization methods are proposed to define equivalent solid plates. Three perforated plates with different penetration patterns and hole shapes are considered and the accuracy of the equivalent homogenized model is illustrated by comparing it with finite element method. Experimental validation of the computed wave propagation characteristics on the two models is provided as well. A good correlation is observed not only at low frequency where homogenized model can be found, but also at mid and high frequency, where the wave beaming effect phenomenon occurs.
Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses.
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2016-01-01
We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank.
A Study of the Weak Shock Wave Propagating over a Porous Wall/Cavity System
H.D.KIM; S.J.JUNG; T.AOKI; T.SETOGUCHI
2005-01-01
The present computational study addresses the attenuation of the shock wave propagating in a duct, using a porous wall/cavity system. In the present study, a weak shock wave propagating over the porous wall/cavity system is investigated with computational fluid dynamics. A total variation diminishing scheme is employed to solve the unsteady, two-dimensional, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations. The Mach number of an initial shock wave is changed in the range from 1.02 to 1.12. Several different types of porous wall/cavity systems are tested to investigate the passive control effects. The results show that wall pressure strongly fluctuates due to diffraction and reflection processes of the shock waves behind the incident shock wave. From the results, it is understood that for effective alleviation of tunnel impulse waves, the length of the perforated region should be sufficiently long.
Impact of the Collisional Plasma on the Propagation of Millimeter Waves
袁忠才; 时家明; 汪家春; 许波
2004-01-01
The plasma generated in the low-altitude atmosphere is of high collision frequencies.In this paper, the transmission coefficients of millimeter(MM) waves normally incident upon the plasma with high collision frequencies are calculated and analyzed. The experimental results of reflection and attenuation are presented for the eight-millimeter waves propagating through the plasma. Both the calculated experimental results indicate that the MM-waves concerned are attenuated significantly and reflected weakly, when propagating through the plasma of high collision frequencies.
Hou, Wei; Qu, Zhi-ming; Pian, Long-jiang [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China). School of Civil Engineering and Environment
2009-04-15
On the basis of a hypothesis, a physical and mathematical model of the propagation of shock waves in turn roadway was set up. The results of numerical simulation show that the pressure, velocity and temperature of shock wave will be attenuated during propagation. At the beginning of gas explosion, the quantity of parameters of shock wave front is increased gradually because of methane reaction. However, the pressure, velocity and temperature will be attenuated to a small extent after the chemical reaction. By comparison of the experiment, simulation and practice, the highly identical data shows that the numerical model is practicable. 9 refs., 7 figs.
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Nonlinear wave propagation through a ferromagnet with damping in (2+1) dimensions
S G Bindu; V C Kuriakose
2000-02-01
We investigate how dissipation and nonlinearity can affect the electromagnetic wave propagating through a saturated ferromagnet in the presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld in (2+1) dimensions. The propagation of electromagnetic waves through a ferromagnet under an external magnetic ﬁeld in the presence of dissipative effect has been studied using reductive perturbation method. It is found that to the lowest order of perturbation the system of equations for the electromagnetic waves in a ferromagnet can be reduced to an integro-differential equation.
Propagation of waves in the layer of a thermo-viscoelastic transversely isotropic medium
Gupta R.R.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article is presented to enhance our knowledge about the propagation of Lamb waves in the layer of a viscoelastic transversely isotropic medium in the context of thermoelasticity with GN theory of type-II and III. Secular equations for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes of wave propagation in completely separate terms are derived. The amplitudes of displacements and temperature distribution were also obtained. Finally, the numerical solution was carried out for cobalt and the dispersion curves, amplitudes of displacements and temperature distribution for symmetric and skew-symmetric wave modes are presented to evince the effect of anisotropy. Some particular cases are also deduced.
Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an under-dense, laser-produced plasma
Constantin, C; Back, C A; Fournier, K B; Gregori, G; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Dewald, E L; Miller, M C
2004-10-22
We observe a laser-driven supersonic ionization wave heating a mm-scale plasma of sub-critical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures. Propagation velocities initially 10 times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat wave propagation.
Nonreciprocal propagation of surface acoustic wave in Ni/LiNbO 3
Sasaki, R.; Nii, Y.; Iguchi, Y.; Onose, Y.
2017-01-01
We investigated surface acoustic wave propagation in a Ni/LiNbO3 hybrid device. We found that the absorption and phase velocity are dependent on the sign of the wave vector, which indicates that the surface acoustic wave propagation has nonreciprocal characteristics induced by simultaneous breaking of time-reversal and spatial inversion symmetries. The nonreciprocity was reversed by 180∘ rotation of the magnetic field. The origin of the nonreciprocity is ascribed to interference of shear-type and longitudinal-type magnetoelastic couplings.
U.GÜVEN
2015-01-01
In this paper, the propagation of longitudinal stress waves under a longitu-dinal magnetic field is addressed using a unified nonlocal elasticity model with two scale coeﬃcients. The analysis of wave motion is mainly based on the Love rod model. The effect of shear is also taken into account in the framework of Bishop’s correction. This analysis shows that the classical theory is not suﬃcient for this subject. However, this unified nonlocal elasticity model solely used in the present study reflects in a manner fairly realistic for the effect of the longitudinal magnetic field on the longitudinal wave propagation.
Mironov, A. K.; Krasheninnikov, S. Yu.; Maslov, V. P.; Zakharov, D. E.
2016-07-01
An experimental study was conducted on the specific features of instability wave propagation in the mixing layer of a turbulent jet when the jet is excited by an external acoustic wave. We used the technique of conditional phase averaging of data obtained by particle image velocimetry using the reference signal of a microphone placed near the jet. The influence of the excitation frequency on the characteristics of large-scale structures in the mixing layer was investigated. It is shown that the propagation patterns of the instability waves agree well with previously obtained data on the localization of acoustic sources in turbulent jets.
Spherical Wave Propagation in a Poroelastic Medium with Infinite Permeability: Time Domain Solution
Mehmet Ozyazicioglu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Exact time domain solutions for displacement and porepressure are derived for waves emanating from a pressurized spherical cavity, in an infinitely permeable poroelastic medium with a permeable boundary. Cases for blast and exponentially decaying step pulse loadings are considered; letter case, in the limit as decay constant goes to zero, also covers the step (uniform pressure. Solutions clearly show the propagation of the second (slow p-wave. Furthermore, Biot modulus Q is shown to have a pronounced influence on wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic media. Results are compared with solutions in classical elasticity theory.