WorldWideScience

Sample records for electromagnetic shower contents

  1. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  2. Monte-Carlo simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.

    1984-01-01

    The universal ELSS-1 program for Monte Carlo simulation of high energy electromagnetic showers in homogeneous absorbers of arbitrary geometry is written. The major processes and effects of electron and photon interaction with matter, particularly the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, are taken into account in the simulation procedures. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Some characteristics of shower detectors and electromagnetic showers for energies up 1 TeV are calculated

  3. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  4. The parametrized simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.

    1992-09-01

    The simulation of electromagnetic showers in calorimeters by detailed tracking of all secondary particles is extremely computer time consuming. Without loosing considerably in precision, the use of parametrizations for global shower properties may reduce the computing time by factors of 10 1 to 10 4 , depending on the energy, the degree of parametrization, and the complexity in the material description and the cut off energies in the detailed simulation. To arrive at a high degree of universality, parametrizations of individual electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media are developed, taking the dependence of the shower development on the material into account. In sampling calorimeters, the inhomogeneous material distribution leads to additional effects which can be taken into account by geometry dependent terms in the parametrization of the longitudinal and radial energy density distributions. Comparisons with detailed simulations of homogeneous and sampling calorimeters show very good agreement in the fluctuations, correlations, and signal averages of spatial energy distributions. Verifications of the algorithms for the simulation of the H1 detector are performed using calorimeter test data for different moduls of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. Special attention has been paid to electron pion separation, which is of great importance for physics analysis. (orig.) [de

  5. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  6. Frozen-shower simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ATLAS forward calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulation of calorimeter response for high energy electromagnetic particles is essential for the LHC experiments. Detailed simulation of the electromagnetic showers using Geant4 is however very CPU intensive and various fast simulation methods were proposed instead. The frozen shower simulation substitutes the full propagation of the showers for energies below 1~GeV by showers taken from a pre-simulated library. The method is used for production of the main ATLAS Monte Carlo samples, greatly improving the production time. The frozen showers describe shower shapes, sampling fraction, sampling and noise-related fluctuations very well, while description of the constant term, related to calorimeter non-uniformity, requires a careful choice of the shower library binning. A new method is proposed to tune the binning variables, using multivariate techniques. The method is tested and optimized for the description of the ATLAS forward calorimeter.

  7. The Geant4-Based ATLAS Fast Electromagnetic Shower Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glasow, A; Hughes, E; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to fast electromagnetic shower simulation in ATLAS. Parameterisation is used for high-energy, shower libraries for medium-energy, and an averaged energy deposition for very low-energy particles. We present a comparison between the fast simulation and full simulation in an ATLAS Monte Carlo production.

  8. Fast simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peso, J. del; Ros, E.

    1991-02-01

    We present a fast Monte Carlo algorithm for the generation of electromagnetic showers in the uranium-scintillator sampling calorimeter of the ZEUS experiment. This algorithm includes a simulation of longitudinal and transverse profiles, their fluctuations and the correlation between these fluctuations as well. The tuning of this fast Monte Carlo with data generated with EGS is described and its performance together with some applications is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Radiation dose distributions close to the shower axis calculated for high energy electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.; Gsponer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses produced by 500, 1,000 and 10,000 MeV electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air have been calculated using a Monte Carlo program. The radial distributions of the absorbed dose near to the shower axis are found to be significantly narrower than predicted by simple analytical shower theory. For a 500 MeV, 10 kA, 100 ns electron beam pulse, the region in which the total dose is in excess of 1 krad and the dose rate in excess of 10 10 rad/s is a cigar-shaped envelope of radius 1 m and length 200 m. (orig.) [de

  10. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  11. Air shower detection and the energy flow in electromagnetic cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor (Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (United States)); Vankov, H.P. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika)

    1992-02-01

    We study the longitudinal behaviour of the energy carried by the shower particles E{sub c} and its lateral distribution, give simple parametrizations of the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the advantages of shower detectors that measure directly E{sub c}. (author).

  12. Electromagnetic-shower development in concrete and the punchthrough effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.

    1987-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo calculations of the cascade curves in a concrete absorber for showers initiated by photons with energies from 10 MeV to 100 GeV. As an application of these curves, we estimate the punchthrough effect of photons and electrons in extensive-air-shower arrays which use a concrete absorber to identify muons. The results indicate that this effect is negligible

  13. The electromagnetic shower library for the Stockholm AMANDA Monte Carlo program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qin.

    1996-05-01

    The Shower Library has been applied in the simulation for the AMANDA experiment which measures up-going muons induced by high energy neutrinos at the South Pole. With a detector measuring Cherenkov radiation in mind, only the information of the Cherenkov photons from the showers were stored in the library in the version of the program described here. The library contains 1000 electromagnetic showers with energies from 0.1 GeV to 100 GeV in steps according to a flat logarithmic distribution. 11 refs, 18 figs

  14. High performance interactive graphics for shower reconstruction in HPC, the DELPHI barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, C.

    1990-01-01

    Complex software for shower reconstruction in DELPHI barrel electromagnetic calorimeter which deals, for each event, with great amounts of information, due to the high spatial resolution of this detector, needs powerful verification tools. An interactive graphics program, running on high performance graphics display system Whizzard 7555 from Megatek, was developed to display the logical steps in showers and their axes reconstruction. The program allows both operations on the image in real-time (rotation, translation and zoom) and the use of non-geometrical criteria to modify it (as the use of energy) thresholds for the representation of the elements that compound the showers (or of the associated lego plots). For this purpose graphics objects associated to user parameters were defined. Instancing and modelling features of the native graphics library were extensively used

  15. Test of a proportional tube modulus used to localize the electromagnetic showers in a calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are given results of a test in an electron-hadron beam (5-92 GeV) of the prototype of a position detector. This position detector consists of proportional tubes with charge division readout; it will be used in the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter ('bouchon') of the UA1 experiment at CERN (pantip collisions at a center of mass energy of 540 GeV). This detector gives the position of the showers, and also a coarse value of their energy. Results about properties of the tubes (saturation phenomena, position and energy accuracies) and, then, results about the development of high energy electromagnetic showers in lead-plastic sandwich are given here [fr

  16. Electromagnetic shower development and applications to sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1984-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic theory to particle interactions is an old subject which represented one of the early successes in the study of particle interactions and fundamental forces. The ability to describe properties of electron, positron, and photon interactions has led to applications in numerous experimental devices used in high energy experiments. The subject is now considered to be relatively mature, but applications continue to evolve as new ideas are tried and new techniques become available. This report is a review of the underlying processes, a discussion of the application to electromagnetic calorimetry, discussions of some scaling laws and approximations that serve to guide designs of experimental devices, and examples where these principles are put to work. 13 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  17. Electromagnetic shower development and applications to sampling calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1984-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic theory to particle interactions is an old subject which represented one of the early successes in the study of particle interactions and fundamental forces. The ability to describe properties of electron, positron, and photon interactions has led to applications in numerous experimental devices used in high energy experiments. The subject is now considered to be relatively mature, but applications continue to evolve as new ideas are tried and new techniques become available. This report is a review of the underlying processes, a discussion of the application to electromagnetic calorimetry, discussions of some scaling laws and approximations that serve to guide designs of experimental devices, and examples where these principles are put to work. 13 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Space-Time Development of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Showers and Perspectives for Novel Calorimetric Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, Andrea; Lecoq, Paul; Wenzel, Hans; Para, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The performance of hadronic calorimeters will be a key parameter at the next generation of High Energy Physics accelerators. A detector combining fine granularity with excellent timing information would prove beneficial for the reconstruction of both jets and electromagnetic particles with high energy resolution. In this work, the space and time structure of high energy showers is studied by means of a Geant4-based simulation toolkit. In particular, the relevant time scales of the different physics phenomena contributing to the energy loss are investigated. A correlation between the fluctuations of the energy deposition of high energy hadrons and the time development of the showers is observed, which allows for an event-by-event correction to be computed to improve the energy resolution of the calorimeter. These studies are intended to set the basic requirements for the development of a new-concept, total absorption time-imaging calorimeter, which seems now within reach thanks to major technological advanceme...

  19. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers-Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC)-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. C/ Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia (Spain); Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2012-05-21

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  20. Measurement of the Muon Content of Air Showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, JG; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has measured the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.6 PeV and 1.3 EeV. IceTop can also be used to measure the average density of GeV muons in the shower front at large radial distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. Wei present the measurement of the muon lateral distribution function for primary cosmic rays with energies between 1.6 PeV and about 0.1 EeV, and compare it to proton and iron simulations. We also discuss how this information can be exploited in the reconstruction of single air shower events. By combining the information on the muon component with that of the electromagnetic component of the air shower, we expect to reduce systematic uncertainties in the inferred mass composition of cosmic rays arising from theoretical uncertainties in hadronic interaction models.

  1. Measurement of muon content in inclined air showers above 4 x 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans; Roth, Markus [IKP, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarguee, Argentina, is sensitive to air showers up to almost horizontal angles of incidence. Air showers with zenith angles between 60 and 80 degrees are suited to measure the muon component of the shower with the Auger Surface Detector since the primary electromagnetic component gets absorbed in the atmosphere before the shower reaches ground. Some of those events are also observed by the Fluorescence Detector which allows us to determine the total energy of the shower independent of the Surface Detector. Based on these hybrids events the size of muon component for a given cosmic ray energy is determined, which can then be compared to model predictions. We present an update of this analysis.

  2. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  3. A liquid argon ionisation calorimeter for detection of electromagnetic and hadronic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1975-02-01

    The performance of a liquid argon ionization chamber, consisting of a set of eighty 2 mm thick iron plates, is described. Measurements with muons, and electron and proton showers were performed; from these measurements a ratio of 1.2 for the electron to proton response was derived. For hadron showers a good detection efficiency of nuclear spallation products could be established. (orig.) [de

  4. Separation of the overlapping electromagnetic showers in the cellular GAMS-type calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of gamma reconstruction program for the GAMS spectrometer is described. Reconstruction efficiencies of two and three space-overlapping showers for detectors with different cell sizes are presented. 3 refs., 17 figs

  5. Solution of the electromagnetic cascade shower problem by analog Monte Carlo methods-EGS

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, W R

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Electron-Gamma shower code system (EGS) is outlined and in its current form the author considers that there is now available a means of simulating almost any electron-photon transport problem. (20 refs).

  6. CaloGAN: Simulating 3D high energy particle showers in multilayer electromagnetic calorimeters with generative adversarial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Michela; de Oliveira, Luke; Nachman, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The precise modeling of subatomic particle interactions and propagation through matter is paramount for the advancement of nuclear and particle physics searches and precision measurements. The most computationally expensive step in the simulation pipeline of a typical experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the detailed modeling of the full complexity of physics processes that govern the motion and evolution of particle showers inside calorimeters. We introduce CaloGAN, a new fast simulation technique based on generative adversarial networks (GANs). We apply these neural networks to the modeling of electromagnetic showers in a longitudinally segmented calorimeter and achieve speedup factors comparable to or better than existing full simulation techniques on CPU (100 ×-1000 × ) and even faster on GPU (up to ˜105× ). There are still challenges for achieving precision across the entire phase space, but our solution can reproduce a variety of geometric shower shape properties of photons, positrons, and charged pions. This represents a significant stepping stone toward a full neural network-based detector simulation that could save significant computing time and enable many analyses now and in the future.

  7. EGS code system: computer programs for the Monte Carlo simulation of electromagnetic cascade showers. Version 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, R.L.; Nelson, W.R.

    1978-06-01

    A code to simulate almost any electron--photon transport problem conceivable is described. The report begins with a lengthy historical introduction and a description of the shower generation process. Then the detailed physics of the shower processes and the methods used to simulate them are presented. Ideas of sampling theory, transport techniques, particle interactions in general, and programing details are discussed. Next, EGS calculations and various experiments and other Monte Carlo results are compared. The remainder of the report consists of user manuals for EGS, PEGS, and TESTSR codes; options, input specifications, and typical output are included. 38 figures, 12 tables

  8. Study of electromagnetic and hadronic showers with liquid-argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschnabel, K.

    1978-05-01

    High energy electrons, pions and protons have been detected by two liquid-argon calorimeters. Measurements of the linearity and energy resolution of the detectors have been performed. As one of the detectors consisted of 80 sections, the spatial development of hadronic cascades could be studied. The results are in reasonable agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. The spatial and angular resolutions of the detector have been evaluated. Using their different longitudinal shower development, electrons and hadrons could be separated. (orig.) [de

  9. A neural method for determining electromagnetic shower positions in laterally segmented calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Ray, A.; Mitra, T.; Roy, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method based on a neural network technique is proposed to calculate the coordinates of an incident photon striking a laterally segmented calorimeter and depositing shower energies in different segments. The technique uses a multilayer perceptron trained by back-propagation implemented through standard gradient descent followed by conjugate gradient algorithms and has been demonstrated with GEANT simulations of a BAF2 detector array. The position resolution results obtained by using this method are found to be substantially better than the first moment method with logarithmic weighting. (orig.)

  10. A method for reconstruction of electromagnetic shower parameters in a calorimeter with a rectangular cellular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, N.I.; Ososkov, G.A.; Russakovich, N.A.; Velev, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Shower Hodoscopic Detector (SHD) is an important part of the HYPERON detector, as well as many other up-to-date detectors. It is a calorimeter with rectangular cells. In the present paper we consider a model of the distribution of energy release in the SHD cells and propose analytical solution of the problem of fitting the model distribution to experimental data. The corresponding programme is included in the HYPERON software and allows one to raise the rate of the data processing 8-9 times with about 10% reliability increase. 8 refs.; 8 figs

  11. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Trojand, D.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Meyer, N.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Haller, J.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Bartsch, V.; Salvatore, F.; Laktineh, I.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Marcisovsky, M.; Sicho, P.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of faked signals is smaller than 1x10^{-5} for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

  12. GEAN T4 Simulations of Electromagnetic Showers Initiated by 30MeV y-Rays Entering the Atmosphere at Different Altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopov, N.; Grigoryan, A.; Karyan, G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the GEANT4 simulation for electromagnetic showers initiated by 30 MeV photons entering into the atmosphere at different altitudes (h). Charged and neutral components of the shower have been studied in various radial slices (R) with the detecting level corresponding to the altitude of Aragats mount, where the experimental setups of Cosmic Ray Division (CRD) of Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) are operating. Qualitative observations of the energy spectra, as well as the tabulated parameters describing the fluxes at different values of h and R are used to make a comparison with those from the experimental data. The experimental data on particle fluxes are considered to be correlated with the atmospheric conditions such as pressure, temperature, presence of the charged clouds initiating the lightnings etc. (author)

  13. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  14. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier G.

    2015-08-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  15. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  16. Effects of massive photons from the dark sector on the muon content in extensive air showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 725, 4-5 (2013), s. 185-189 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dark matter * bremsstrahlung * extensive air shower * muon production Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2013

  17. A profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averichev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Matyushevskij, E.

    1997-01-01

    The results of testing the full-scale prototype of a profile-based shower maximum detector with external pick-up pads for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. It is shown that the plastic streamer tubes with coverless profile operating in the proportional mode with low gain are a suitable basic unit for the shower maximum detector

  18. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: analysis of extensive air showers and their associated electromagnetic signal in the MHz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenu, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes a review of the present results in the field of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. After a presentation of some results about the Fermi mechanism to accelerate cosmic rays, the author more particularly addresses the reconstruction of air showers, and the search for sources. He also addresses the radio signal emitted by air shower secondary positrons and electrons. He proposes an overview of the present knowledge on the basis of present experiments. Data show that the electric field is mainly due to the influence of the Earth magnetic field which acts on electrons and positrons, but more recently, the contribution due to electrons in excess seems to appear in data. The author reports the last advances in the field of simulation of the electric field, with notably the prediction of new signal produced by the disappearance of the air shower during its absorption by the soil [fr

  19. A method to measure the γ-ray content in VHE cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Menzione, A.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Bartoli, B.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Luksys, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine the effectiveness of methods to tag photon initiated air showers and reject hadron initiated ones. The technique is based on the rate reduction in the Moon direction. With a photon energy threshold below or equal to 1 TeV, with an angular resolution of a few mrad and being insensitive to visible light, the proposed CLUE detector allows a wide and original physics program. In particular the direct measurement of the fraction of primary photons in the continuum of the cosmic ray flux is feasible with adequate statistics in a few months of data taking. (orig.)

  20. The CASTOR shower library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim Filho, Luiz Martins; Carvalho, Wagner de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: CASTOR (Centaur And Strange Object Research) is an electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic (HAD) calorimeter, based on tungsten and quartz plates, operating in the CMS Detector (Compact Muon Solenoid) at LHC. The calorimeter detects Cerenkov radiation and is positioned around the beam pipe in the very forward region of CMS (at 14.38 m from the interaction point), covering the pseudo-rapidity range between -6.6 ≤ η≤-5.1 . It is longitudinally segmented into 14 sections, 2 for the EM and 12 for the HAD parts and is 16-fold azimuthally symmetric around the beam pipe. A Shower Library is needed for CASTOR Monte Carlo simulation, as the full simulation of showers takes a long time and the high multiplicity of particles in the forward region makes this simulation very time consuming. The Shower Library is used as a look-up table in the form of a ROOT file, so that when a simulated particle enters the detector with a certain energy and direction, characterized by the azimuthal angle φ and the pseudo-rapidity η, instead of making the full simulation of the shower in CASTOR, it is substituted by one already stored in the Shower Library. Showers corresponding to two types of particles are included in the Shower Library: electrons (or photons) and charged pions. The software implemented to make the Shower Library is described, as well as the validation of this library and timing studies. This package has been developed in the context of the official software of the CMS Collaboration, CMSSW. (author)

  1. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, E; Boudreau, J; Mueller, J; Tsulaia, V; Butler, B; Young, C C; Cheung, S L; Savard, P; Dell'Acqua, A; Simone, A D; Gallas, M V; Ehrenfeld, W; Glazov, A; Placakyte, R; Marshall, Z; Rimoldi, A; Waugh, A

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterisation is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to ∼ 1GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper

  2. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glazov, A; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime.

  3. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.; Duma, M.; Badea, A. F.; Aiftimiei, C.; Rebel, M. H.; Oehlschlaeger, J.

    2001-01-01

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinized for three energy ranges, (1-1.7783) 10 15 eV, (1.-1.78) 10 16 eV and (1.78-3.16) 10 16 eV, by use of non-parametric statistical inference method applied to multidimensional distributions, correlating the EAS time quantities with different other EAS observables. The correlations of local muon arrival times with the local muon density and the shower age indicate a good mass separation quality at larger shower distances. The best discrimination was obtained by adding the correlation with N μ tr quantity. The comparison between 'local times', with reference to the first registered muon and 'global times' with reference to the arrival time of the shower core, indicates a slightly better mass discrimination in the case of muon 'global' time distributions. (authors)

  4. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  5. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1984-09-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower.

  6. Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results

  7. Time structure of cascade showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Takao

    1984-01-01

    Interesting results have been reported on the time structure of the electromagnetic components of air showers which have been obtained by using recent fast electronic circuit technology. However, these analyses and explanations seem not very persuasive. One of the reasons is that there is not satisfactory theoretical calculation yet to explain the delay of electromagnetic components in cascade processes which are the object of direct observation. Therefore, Monte Carlo calculation was attempted for examining the relationship between the altitude at which high energy γ-ray is generated up in the air and the time structure of cascade showers at the level of observation. The investigation of a dominant factor over the delay of electromagnetic components indicated that the delay due to the multiple scattering of electrons was essential. The author used the analytical solution found by himself of C. N. Yang's equation for the study on the delay due to multiple scattering. The results were as follows: The average delay time and the spread of distribution of electromagnetic cascades were approximately in linear relationship with the mass of a material having passed in a thin uniform medium; the rise time of arrival time distribution for electromagnetic cascade showers was very steep under the condition that they were generated up in the air and observed on the ground; the subpeaks delayed by tens of ns in arrival time may sometimes appear due to the perturbation in electromagnetic cascade processes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  9. Fractal Dimension of Particle Showers Measured in a Highly Granular Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Manqi; Bourdy, Vincent; Brients, Jean-Claude; Videau, Henri

    2014-01-01

    fractal dimension of showers measured in a high granularity calorimeter designed for a future lepton collider. The shower fractal dimension reveals detailed information of the spatial configuration of the shower. It is found to be characteristic of the type of interaction and highly sensitive to the nature of the incident particle. Using the shower fractal dimension, we demonstrate a particle identification algorithm that can efficiently separate electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers and non-showering tracks. We also find a logarithmic dependence of the shower fractal dimension on the particle energy.

  10. EGS code system: computer programs for the Monte Carlo simulation of electromagnetic cascade showers. Version 3. [EGS, PEGS, TESTSR, in MORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, R.L.; Nelson, W.R.

    1978-06-01

    A code to simulate almost any electron--photon transport problem conceivable is described. The report begins with a lengthy historical introduction and a description of the shower generation process. Then the detailed physics of the shower processes and the methods used to simulate them are presented. Ideas of sampling theory, transport techniques, particle interactions in general, and programing details are discussed. Next, EGS calculations and various experiments and other Monte Carlo results are compared. The remainder of the report consists of user manuals for EGS, PEGS, and TESTSR codes; options, input specifications, and typical output are included. 38 figures, 12 tables. (RWR)

  11. Studies on muon showers underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Castagnoli, C; Dardo, M; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Sitte, K [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1976-08-21

    The 4 m/sup 2/ spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, and to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm/sup 2/ of rock.

  12. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.

    1976-01-01

    The 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm 2 of rock

  13. The cosmic ray primary composition between $10^{15}$ and $10^{16}$ ev from Extensive Air Showers electromagnetic and TeV muon data

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Ambrosio, M; Antolini, R; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bergamasco, L; Bernardini, P; Bertaina, M; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Castagnoli, C; Castellina, A; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiavassa, A; Choudhary, B C; Cini, G; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Di Sciascio, G; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fulgione, W; Fusco, P; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iacovacci, M; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Mannocchi, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Morello, C; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Navarra, G; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Saavedra, O; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Stamerra, A; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Trinchero, G C; Vakili, M; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2003.10.004

    2004-01-01

    The cosmic ray primary composition in the energy range between 10/sup 15/ and 10/sup 16/ eV, i.e., around the "knee" of the primary spectrum, has been studied through the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP air shower array (2005 m a.s.l., 10/sup 5/ m/sup 2/ collecting area) and the MACRO underground detector (963 m a.s.l., 3100 m w.e. of minimum rock overburden, 920 m/sup 2/ effective area) at the National Gran Sasso Laboratories. The used observables are the air shower size (N/sub e/) measured by EAS-TOP and the muon number (N /sub mu /) recorded by MACRO, The two detectors are separated on average by 1200 m of rock, and located at a respective zenith angle of about 30 degrees . The energy threshold at the surface for muons reaching the MACRO depth is approximately 1.3 TeV. Such muons are produced in the early stages of the shower development and in a kinematic region quite different from the one relevant for the usual N/sub mu /-N/sub e/ studies. The measurement leads to a primary composition becoming hea...

  14. Content-Based Image Retrieval Based on Electromagnetism-Like Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers in the field of automatic content-based image retrieval have devoted a remarkable amount of research looking for methods to retrieve the best relevant images to the query image. This paper presents a novel algorithm for increasing the precision in content-based image retrieval based on electromagnetism optimization technique. The electromagnetism optimization is a nature-inspired technique that follows the collective attraction-repulsion mechanism by considering each image as an electrical charge. The algorithm is composed of two phases: fitness function measurement and electromagnetism optimization technique. It is implemented on a database with 8,000 images spread across 80 classes with 100 images in each class. Eight thousand queries are fired on the database, and the overall average precision is computed. Experimental results of the proposed approach have shown significant improvement in the retrieval performance in regard to precision.

  15. The angular distributions of charged secondaries in electromagnetic and hadronic extensive air showers at 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzupek, A.; Mikocki, S.; Gress, J.; Kochocki, J.; Poirier, J.

    1991-01-01

    The angular distributions of secondary electrons and muons in extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV gamma rays and protons are obtained with the aid of a new, hybrid Monte Carlo simulation method. In this method, a three-dimensional program is constructed out of two existing software codes: SHOWERSIM and EGS4. This procedure allows for fast, yet precise, calculations down to low secondary particle energies. The dependence of the angular distributions for different threshold energies is presented for 1000 TeV primary gamma ray and proton energy. (author)

  16. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  17. Reweighting Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.

  18. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Marčišovský, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 97-109 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042; GA MŠk LA08032 Grant - others:EC(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : lepton collider * electromagnetic calorimeter * embedded electronics * fake hits Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:1102.3454v2

  19. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter {\\em SplitCal} for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named {\\it SplitCal}, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200~MeV to 1~GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  20. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter SplitCal for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Walter M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named SplitCal, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200 MeV to 1 GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  1. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  2. Effects of Presowing Pulsed Electromagnetic Treatment of Tomato Seed on Growth, Yield, and Lycopene Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia Efthimiadou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnetic field as a presowing treatment has been adopted by researchers as a new environmental friendly technique. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnetic field exposure on tomato seeds covering a range of parameters such as transplanting percentage, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh weight, dry weight, number of flowers, yield, and lycopene content. Pulsed electromagnetic field was used for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes as a presowing treatment of tomato seeds in a field experiment for two years. Papimi device (amplitude on the order of 12.5 mT has been used. The use of pulsed electromagnetic field as a presowing treatment was found to enhance plant growth in tomato plants at certain duration of exposure. Magnetic field treatments and especially the exposure of 10 and 15 minutes gave the best results in all measurements, except plant height and lycopene content. Yield per plant was higher in magnetic field treatments, compared to control. MF-15 treatment yield was 80.93% higher than control treatment. Lycopene content was higher in magnetic field treatments, although values showed no statistically significant differences.

  3. Aspects of perturbative QCD in Monte Carlo shower models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The perturbative QCD content of Monte Carlo models for high energy hadron-hadron scattering is examined. Particular attention is given to the recently developed backwards evolution formalism for initial state parton showers, and the merging of parton shower evolution with hard scattering cross sections. Shower estimates of K-factors are discussed, and a simple scheme is presented for incorporating 2 → QCD cross sections into shower model calculations without double counting. Additional issues in the development of hard scattering Monte Carlo models are summarized. 69 references, 20 figures

  4. Cosmic ray radio emission as air shower detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curutiu, Alexandru; Rusu, Mircea; Isar, Gina; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (within the 10 to 100 MHz range) are discussed. Currently, air showers are detected by various methods, mainly based on particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger) or optical detection (Cerenkov radiation). Recently,to detect radio emission from cosmic ray air showers a method using electromagnetic radiation in low frequency domain (LOFAR) was proposed. We are investigating this possibility, using simulation codes created to investigate electromagnetic radiation of intricate antennae structure, for example fractal antennas. Some of the preliminary results will be communicated in this session. (authors)

  5. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the media - a qualitative content analysis of Norwegian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiberts, Ashild; Hjørnevik, Mari; Mykletun, Arnstein; Skogen, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a condition characterized by experiencing symptoms after perceived exposure to weak electromagnetic fields (EMFs). There is substantial debate concerning the aetiology of EHS, but experimental data indicate no association between EHS and actual presence of EMFs. Newspapers play a key role in shaping peoples' understanding of health-related issues. The aim of this study was to describe the content of newspaper articles concerning aetiology and treatment of EHS. Qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles. Norwegian newspaper articles were identified using a comprehensive electronic media archive. Norwegian newspaper articles published between 1 February 2006 and 11 August 2010. Statements coded according to source of information, whether it was pro or con scientific evidence on EHS aetiology, and type of intervention presented as treatment option for EHS. Of the statements concerning EHS aetiology (n = 196), 35% (n = 69) were categorized as pro evidence, 65% (n = 127) as con evidence. Of the statements about EHS interventions assessed, 78% (n = 99) were categorized as 'radiance reduction', 4% (n = 5) as 'complementary medicine', and 18% (n = 23) as 'other'. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychotropic drugs were never presented as possible treatment options for EHS. The newspaper media discourse of EHS aetiology and recommended treatment interventions is much in conflict with the current evidence in the field. The majority of statements concerning aetiology convey that EHS is related to the presence of weak EMFs, and radiance reduction as the most frequently conveyed measure to reduce EHS-related symptoms.

  6. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    identify the position of the first hard interaction in hadron showers is developed in this work. It is applied to measure hadron shower profiles without the fluctuations in the position of the first hard interaction and to estimate and correct for longitudinal leakage. Finally, different hadron simulation models are confronted with the measured data. The Geant4 based simulation of the test-beam is explained; the detector modelling and the systematic error assumptions are verified with electromagnetic showers. The studies comprise thirteen different Geant4 physics lists and six different hadron shower models. Both the description of the spatial shower development and the modelling of the detector response and the resolution are tested. (orig.)

  7. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    identify the position of the first hard interaction in hadron showers is developed in this work. It is applied to measure hadron shower profiles without the fluctuations in the position of the first hard interaction and to estimate and correct for longitudinal leakage. Finally, different hadron simulation models are confronted with the measured data. The Geant4 based simulation of the test-beam is explained; the detector modelling and the systematic error assumptions are verified with electromagnetic showers. The studies comprise thirteen different Geant4 physics lists and six different hadron shower models. Both the description of the spatial shower development and the modelling of the detector response and the resolution are tested. (orig.)

  8. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF VOLUMETRIC ICE CONTENT IN FROZEN GROUND BY DIPOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROFILING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Neradovskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric estimation of the ice content in frozen soils is known as one of the main problems in the engineering geocryology and the permafrost geophysics. A new way to use the known method of dipole electromagnetic profiling for the quantitative estimation of the volumetric ice content in frozen soils is discussed. Investigations of foundation of the railroad in Yakutia (i.e. in the permafrost zone were used as an example for this new approach. Unlike the conventional way, in which the permafrost is investigated by its resistivity and constructing of geo-electrical cross-sections, the new approach is aimed at the study of the dynamics of the process of attenuation in the layer of annual heat cycle in the field of high-frequency vertical magnetic dipole. This task is simplified if not all the characteristics of the polarization ellipse are measured but the only one which is the vertical component of the dipole field and can be the most easily measured. Collected data of the measurements were used to analyze the computational errors of the average values of the volumetric ice content from the amplitude attenuation of the vertical component of the dipole field. Note that the volumetric ice content is very important for construction. It is shown that usually the relative error of computation of this characteristic of a frozen soil does not exceed 20% if the works are performed by the above procedure using the key-site methodology. This level of accuracy meets requirements of the design-and-survey works for quick, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly zoning of built-up remote and sparsely populated territories of the Russian permafrost zone according to a category of a degree of the ice content in frozen foundations of engineering constructions.

  9. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  11. Shower Counters for SLAC experiments E142/E143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, H; Grenier, P; Le Meur, J; Lombard, R; Lugol, J C; Marroncle, J; Morgenstern, J; Mouly, J P; Paul, B; Staley, F; Terrien, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee; Breton, V; Comptour, C; Crouau, M; Fonvieille, H; Roblin, Y; Savinel, G [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France); Gearhart, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The two electromagnetic calorimeters each made of 200 lead glass blocks used at SLAC to discriminate between electrons and pions and to measure electron energies are described. Procedures to reconstruct electron showers and to calibrate calorimeters are treated as well as the calorimeter performance. (author). 6 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazon L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  13. What is a parton shower?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2017-05-01

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α k s for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α k s parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  14. Some dipole shower studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabouat, Baptiste; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2018-03-01

    Parton showers have become a standard component in the description of high-energy collisions. Nowadays most final-state ones are of the dipole character, wherein a pair of partons branches into three, with energy and momentum preserved inside this subsystem. For initial-state showers a dipole picture is also possible and commonly used, but the older global-recoil strategy remains a valid alternative, wherein larger groups of partons share the energy-momentum preservation task. In this article we introduce and implement a dipole picture also for initial-state radiation in Pythia, and compare with the existing global-recoil one, and with data. For the case of Deeply Inelastic Scattering we can directly compare with matrix element expressions and show that the dipole picture gives a very good description over the whole phase space, at least for the first branching.

  15. Sensitivity of Pigment Content of Banana and Orchid Tissue Culture Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fiel

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini, Riry; Saleh, Norihan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan) corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothsc...

  16. Effect of electromagnetic fields and antioxidants on the trace element content of rat teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan MS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Sinan Dogan,1 Mehmet Cihan Yavas,2 Yasemin Yavuz,3 Sait Erdogan,4 İsmail Yener,4 İbrahim Simsek,1 Zeki Akkus,5 Veysel Eratilla,6 Abdulsamet Tanik,7 Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag2 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Harran University, Şanliurfa, 2Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 5Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, 6Department of Prosthodontics, 7Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs, from a high-voltage source, on rat teeth in terms of changes in trace elements (TEs and the effect of antioxidants (melatonin [MLT] and Ganoderma lucidum [GL] in counteracting these effects. We used adult male Wistar albino rats with a mean weight of 250–300 g and divided the rats into eight groups. The groups were subjected to an ELF-EMF that was applied with a high-voltage line for 8 hours/day for 26 days (Groups I, II, and III or 52 days (Groups V, VI, and VII. Groups IV and VIII were the 26- and 52-day control/sham groups, respectively. Groups II and VI were treated with GL, and Groups III and VII were treated with MLT. MLT and GL were administered daily based on the weight of the animals and appropriate standards. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized, and their anterior teeth were extracted. The teeth were preserved in pure water before evaluating the major TEs. At the end of the study, TE concentrations (in mg/kg were assessed in the control and test groups. Compared with Group V, statistically significant differences in the concentrations of zinc (Zn and strontium (Sr were found for Group VII (ELF-EMF + MLT (P<0.05. Therefore, ELF-EMF exposure can change the content of certain TEs in teeth and, after

  17. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  18. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Bore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  19. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Delepine Lesoille, Sylvie; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  20. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-04-18

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  1. A swimming pool array for ultra high energy showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.; Shoup, Anthony; Barwick, Steve; Goodman, Jordan A.

    1992-11-01

    A very preliminary design concept for an array using water Cherenkov counters, built out of commercially available backyard swimming pools, to sample the electromagnetic and muonic components of ultra high energy showers at large lateral distances is presented. The expected performance of the pools is estimated using the observed lateral distributions by scintillator and water Cherenkov arrays at energies above 1019 eV and simulations.

  2. What is a parton shower?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2017-05-15

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α{sup k}{sub s} for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α{sup k}{sub s} parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  3. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  4. Sunshine and light showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Sunshine and light showers are forecast for the Oscar winning actor Cate Blanchett as she increasingly greens her lifestyle. She is installing solar panels to power her Sydney home and has cut her showers back to a maximum of four minutes to help save water in drought-stricken Australia. And that is only a beginning, for she is also greening her main place of work, is campaigning on solar power and climate change, and has committed to other changes in her life to save energy and water. Blanchett - who sprang to fame in the title role of the film Elisabeth ten years ago - learned conservation when growing up in Melbourne in the 1970s from her grandmother who had lived through the Great Depression and, as a result, insisted in recycling and on letting nothing go to waste. She grew up to win an Oscar for her role in Martin Scorsese's The Aviator, amid a host of other top awards, and was spurred into environmental activism by reading about her country's growing water crisis. She says: 'As I see it, there is no greater challenge we face as a species than dealing with climate change and its effects. I care about it because of my children. I want to safeguard their future. It is an inescapable problem, but also provides us with an opportunity to change for the better. To change the way we consume, the way we think, and the way we behave. By assuming responsibility, we protect and respect the generations behind us.' Together with her husband, playwright Andrew Upton, she has started by setting out to 'greenovate' their home: powering it with solar energy, using natural air flows rather than air conditioning to cool it, and recycling grey water. The couple also plan to extend the improvements to the Sydney Theatre Company, where they are joint artistic directors, with the aim of running off-grid for a whole season. 'I really love a refreshing shower,' she says, but has installed a timer to stop them after four minutes. Indeed she tries to make them even shorter

  5. New meteor showers – yes or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The development of meteor astronomy associated with the development of CCD technology is reflected in a huge increase in databases of meteor orbits. It has never been possible before in the history of meteor astronomy to examine properties of meteors or meteor showers. Existing methods for detecting new meteor showers seem to be inadequate in these circumstances. The spontaneous discovery of new meteor showers leads to ambiguous specifications of new meteor showers. There is a duplication of already discovered meteor showers and a division of existing meteor showers based on their own criteria. The analysis in this article considers some new meteor showers in the IAU MDC database.

  6. Parameterized Shower Simulation in Lelaps: a Comparison with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The detector simulation toolkit Lelaps[1] simulates electromagnetic and hadronic showers in calorimetric detector elements of high-energy particle detectors using a parameterization based on the algorithms originally developed by Grindhammer and Peters[2] and Bock et al.[3]. The primary motivations of the present paper are to verify the implementation of the parameterization, to explore regions of energy where the parameterization is valid and to serve as a basis for further improvement of the algorithm. To this end, we compared the Lelaps simulation to a detailed simulation provided by Geant4[4]. A number of different calorimeters, both electromagnetic and hadronic, were implemented in both programs. Longitudinal and radial shower profiles and their fluctuations were obtained from Geant4 over a wide energy range and compared with those obtained from Lelaps. Generally the longitudinal shower profiles are found to be in good agreement in a large part of the energy range, with poorer results at energies below about 300 MeV. Radial profiles agree well in homogeneous detectors, but are somewhat deficient in segmented ones. These deficiencies are discussed

  7. Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km 2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p T ) spectrum of high p T muons can be determined. The production of the semuons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays

  8. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Electromagnetic characterization of white spruce at different moisture contents using synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Detection and quantification of moisture content inside wood (timber) is key to ensuring safety and reliability of timber structures. Moisture inside wood attracts insects and fosters the development of fungi to attack the timber, causing significant damages and reducing the load bearing capacity during their design life. The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (e.g., microwave/radar, ultrasonic, stress wave, and X-ray) for condition assessment of timber structures is a good choice. NDE techniques provide information about the level of deterioration and material properties of timber structures without obstructing their functionality. In this study, microwave/radar NDE technique was selected for the characterization of wood at different moisture contents. A 12 in-by-3.5 in-by-1.5 in. white spruce specimen (picea glauca) was imaged at different moisture contents using a 10 GHz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor inside an anechoic chamber. The presence of moisture was found to increase the SAR image amplitude as expected. Additionally, integrated SAR amplitude was found beneficial in modeling the moisture content inside the wood specimen.

  10. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z.

    2016-06-28

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  11. SENSITIVITY OF PIGMENT CONTENT OF BANANA AND ORCHID TISSUE CULTURE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Prihatini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum cultures were exposed to 6 and 12 mT ELF-EMF generated by controllable ELF-EMF built up machine for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours. After exposure, the banana and orchid cultures were incubated at 25° C for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the ELF-EMF exposure had different effects on banana and slipper orchid cultures though both plant species belong to monocotyledon. The highest increase in chlorophyll content on banana was resulted by the high intensity and long duration of ELF-EMF exposure (12 mT for 4 hours, whereas on slipper orchid the modest and short duration of ELF-EMF exposure produced the most excessive chlorophyll content. Different ELF-EMF exposures (12 mT for 4 hours and 6 mT for 30 minutes had potential to be applied on each plant to improve in vitro plant (banana and slipper orchid, respectively growth. The increased chlorophyll and carotene/xanthophyll content on banana indicated that the banana was more tolerant to ELF-EMF exposure compared to slipper orchid. 

  12. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive electromagnetic methods in soil water content estimation of a dike model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preko, Kwasi; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wilhelm, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Water infiltration through a dike model under controlled flooding and drainage conditions was investigated using the gravimetric soil water sampling technique and electromagnetic techniques, in particular ground penetrating radar (GPR) applied in different forms, time domain reflectometry with intelligent microelements (TRIME-TDR) and spatial-time domain reflectometry (S-TDR). The experiments were conducted on the model in two phases. In the first phase, the model was flooded with varying water levels between 0 and 1.25 m above the waterproof base of the model. In the second phase, the characteristics of the temporal water content changes were investigated over a period of 65 days as the flood water drained off from the 1.25 m level. The dike model was constructed with soil of the texture class loamy sand. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether GPR-based invasive and non-invasive methods were able to quantitatively observe and correctly monitor temporal changes in the volumetric water content (VWC) within embankment dams. The VWC values from the various techniques corresponded very well, especially with low VWC values. A comparison with the VWC of gravimetric soil water sampling showed a satisfactory reproducibility. Characteristic discrepancies were recorded with higher values of the VWC. Under saturated conditions only the invasive methods were able to produce reasonable values of the VWC. After the release of the highest flood level, the drainage phase could be characterized by two invasive methods based on the TDR and GPR techniques

  13. Electron shower transverse profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method to measure the shower transverse profile is described. Calibration data of the lead-glass spectrometer GAMS collected in a wide electron beam without any additional coordinate detector are used. The method may be used for the measurements in both cellular- and projective-type spectrometers. The results of measuring the 10 GeV electron shower profile in the GAMS spectrometer, without optical grease between the lead-glass radiators and photomultipliers, are approximated with an analytical function. The estimate of the coordinate accuracy is obtained. 5 refs., 8 figs

  14. Evaluation of water content in rock mass by electromagnetic and resistivity tomography. Denjiha, hiteiko tomography ni yoru ganban no gansui jotai hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T; Inoue, M; Matsumoto, K [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-31

    As a method to evaluate the rock mass, electromagnetic tomography and resistivity tomography were tested on the original site. The electromagnetic tomography can tomographically analyze the propagation velocity and initial amplitude damping. The resistivity tomography uses a finite element method from the initial resistivity distribution model and finally gives a model which is nearly equal to the actual resistivity distribution. Both the above tomographic analyses can detect the crushed spot as a low velocity, high damping and low resistivity spot. However, the electromagnetic tomography could detect finer structure than the resistivity tomography. The water content of rock mass was evaluated from the damping coefficient which was given by the amplitude damping tomography of electromagnetic wave. If it is compared with the water content which is given by the dielectric constant of velocity tomography, there partially exists discrepancy between both, because the damping coefficient contains information on cracks which disperse and reflect the electromagnetic wave. Between the resistivity and porosity, there exists a known experimental formula, which was satisfied by the presently given resistivity. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Air shower measurements with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneffer, A.; Bähren, L.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Nigl, A.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Air showers from cosmic rays emit short, intense radio pulses. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a new radio telescope, that is being built in the Netherlands and Europe. Designed primarily as a radio interferometer, the core of LOFAR will have a high density of radio antennas, which will be

  16. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  17. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Physik; Reuter, J.; Schmidt, S.; Wiesler, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  18. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  19. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  20. On Micro VAX farms and shower libraries: Monte Carlo techniques developed for the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to predict correctly the effects of cracks and dead material in a nearly hermetic calorimeter, hadronic and electromagnetic showers need to be simulated accurately on a particle by particle basis. Tracking all the particles of all showers in the calorimeter leads to very large CPU times (typically 5 hours on a VAX780) for events at √(s) = 2TeV. Parametrizing the energy deposition of electromagnetic particles in showers with energy below 200 MeV results in event times of the order of 1 hour on a VAX780. This is still unacceptably large. The D0 collaboration then employed a farm of 16 MicroVax II's to get acceptable throughputs. The calorimeter hit patterns of each individual track was output, to be summed up by a later job. These individual hit patterns were entered into a random access shower library file, which was then used for subsequent Monte Carlo simulations. This shower library technique results in further speed-ups of a factor of 60 without degrading the quality of simulation significantly

  1. Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Parsons, J.A.; Sciulli, F.; Sippach, W.; Wai, L.

    1992-11-01

    We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and the hadronic energy resolution were measured as a function of integration time, giving a value of e/π=1.02±0.01 for a gate width of 100 ns. The possibilities for electron-hadron separation based on the time structure of the shower were studied, with pion rejection factors in excess of 100 being achieved for electron efficiencies greater than 60%. The custom electronics used to perform these measurements samples the calorimeter signal at close to 60 MHz, stores all samples for a period of over 4 μs using analog switched capacitor pipelines, and digitizes the samples for triggered events with 12-bit ADC's. (orig.)

  2. EGS4, Electron Photon Shower Simulation by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The EGS code system is one of a chain of three codes designed to solve the electromagnetic shower problem by Monte Carlo simulation. This chain makes possible simulation of almost any electron-photon transport problem conceivable. The structure of the system, with its global features, modular form, and structured programming, is readily adaptable to virtually any interfacing scheme that is desired on the part of the user. EGS4 is a package of subroutines plus block data with a flexible user interface. This allows for greater flexibility without requiring the user to be overly familiar with the internal details of the code. Combining this with the macro facility capabilities of the Mortran3 language, this reduces the likelihood that user edits will introduce bugs into the code. EGS4 uses material cross section and branching ratio data created and fit by the companion code, PEGS4. EGS4 allows for the implementation of importance sampling and other variance reduction techniques such as leading particle biasing, splitting, path length biasing, Russian roulette, etc. 2 - Method of solution: EGS employs the Monte Carlo method of solution. It allows all of the fundamental processes to be included and arbitrary geometries can be treated, also. Other minor processes, such as photoneutron production, can be added as a further generalization. Since showers develop randomly according to the quantum laws of probability, each shower is different. We again are led to the Monte Carlo method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  3. Tuning of the Shower Library for the LHCb calorimeter fast simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rabemananjara, Tanjona Radonirina

    2016-01-01

    The standard simulation of the LHCb detector uses the Geant4 simulation toolkit, which provides very accurate results but is CPU-expensive. A number of faster simulation options are available or under development. Among the latter, the replacement of the electromagnetic and hadronic showers simulation in the calorimeter with pre-simulated hit libraries is ongoing. My work has focused on the characterization of the particles reaching the calorimeter in simulated minimum bias events and on the study of how the cell hit distributions change as a function of some particle parameters. The results will contribute to understanding how to optimize the information stored in the shower library under development.

  4. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  5. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  6. Ordering variable for parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  7. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  8. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Some energy and angular characteristics of electrons in electromagnetic cascades in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, C.; Petrov, S.; Elbert, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the angular distribution of the electrons with threshold energy 20 MeV in electromagnetic showers. Our electrons are at much smaller angles to the shower axis compared with these of Messel and Crawford. This fact will have a serious impact on the angular distribution of the Cerenkov light in air. We also present approximations for the shower profiles of electrons with the same threshold and the lateral distribution of the electron energy flux

  10. Parton showers with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations.

  11. Parton showers with quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations

  12. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  13. Shower library technique for fast simulation of showers in calorimeters of the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raičević, N.; Glazov, A.; Zhokin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fast simulation of showers in calorimeters is very important for particle physics analysis since shower simulation typically takes significant amount of the simulation time. At the same time, a simulation must reproduce experimental data in the best possible way. In this paper, a fast simulation of showers in two calorimeters of the H1 experiment is presented. High speed and good quality of shower simulation is achieved by using a shower library technique in which the detector response is simulated using a collection of stored showers for different particle types and topologies. The library is created using the GEANT programme. The fast simulation based on shower library is compared to the data collected by the H1 experiment

  14. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  15. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  16. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  17. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans

    2017-06-01

    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  18. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  19. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude......; the observed scaling exponents vary from shower to shower. Half of the analyzed showers show a single scaling region while the orther half show multiple scaling regimes. Such an analysis can provide knowledge about the fragmentation process and about the original meteoroid. We also suggest to compare...... the observed scaling exponents to exponents observed in laboratory experiments and discuss the possibility that one can derive insight into the original shapes of the meteoroids....

  20. 50Hz Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Enhance Protein Carbonyl Groups Content in Cancer Cells: Effects on Proteasomal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eleuteri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are an assessed cause of prolonging free radicals lifespan. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on protein oxidation and on the 20S proteasome functionality, the complex responsible for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Caco 2 cells were exposed, for 24–72 hours, to 1 mT, 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. The treatment induced a time-dependent increase both in cell growth and in protein oxidation, more evident in the presence of TPA, while no changes in cell viability were detected. Exposing the cells to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields caused a global activation of the 20S proteasome catalytic components, particularly evident at 72 hours exposure and in the presence of TPA. The finding that EGCG, a natural antioxidant compound, counteracted the field-related pro-oxidant effects demonstrates that the increased proteasome activity was due to an enhancement in intracellular free radicals.

  1. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  2. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  3. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beche, J.-F.; Haguenauer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Millaud, J.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Riot, V.; Schmickler, H.; Speziali, V.; Turner, W.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the LHC. The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and zero degree neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity IRs and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in an SPS external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic shower produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentations to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated

  4. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10–80 GeV/ c . Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP-BERT and FTFP-BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h / e , are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  5. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G.; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Doren, B.van; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; der Kolk, N.van; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cizel, J.B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Taille, Ch.de la; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-23

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  6. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  7. Clan properties in parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugoccioni, R.; Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.

    1994-01-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  8. Clan properties in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Giovannini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Lupia, S. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy))

    1994-11-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  9. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  11. Comet showers and Nemesis, the death star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed

  12. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.

    2011-01-01

    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  13. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2012-01-11

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  14. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d’Orfeuil, B.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20 ° ×10 ° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  15. Measurement of shower development and its Moliere radius with a four-plane LumiCal test set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Benhammou, Y.; Borysov, O.; Borysova, M.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Rosenblat, O. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abusleme, A. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Afanaciev, K.; Ignatenko, A. [Belarusian State University, NC PHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Bortko, L.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Karacheban, O.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Schuwalow, S. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Lukic, S.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Chelkov, G.; Gostkin, M.; Kotov, S.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Zhemchugov, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Daniluk, W.; Krupa, B.; Lesiak, T.; Moszczynski, A.; Pawlik, B.; Wojton, T.; Zawiejski, L. [IFJ PAN, Krakow (Poland); Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Klempt, W.; Kotula, J.; Kulis, S.; Nuiry, F.X.; Sailer, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Firu, E.; Ghenescu, V.; Neagu, A.T.; Preda, T.; Zgura, I.S. [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Ishikawa, A.; Yamamoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schumm, B. [University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Uggerhoj, U.I.; Wistisen, T.N. [Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2018-02-15

    A prototype of a luminometer, designed for a future e{sup +}e{sup -} collider detector, and consisting at present of a four-plane module, was tested in the CERN PS accelerator T9 beam. The objective of this beam test was to demonstrate a multi-plane tungsten/silicon operation, to study the development of the electromagnetic shower and to compare it with MC simulations. The Moliere radius has been determined to be 24.0 ± 0.6 (stat.) ± 1.5 (syst.) mm using a parametrization of the shower shape. Very good agreement was found between data and a detailed Geant4 simulation. (orig.)

  16. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers : A tool to extract shower parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the

  17. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers: A tool to extract shower parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the plasma cloud, the longitudinal shower structure, is determined by interesting physics which one would like to extract, such as the location and multiplicity of the primary cosmic-ray collision or the values of electric fields in the atmosphere during thunderstorms. To extract the structure of a shower from its footprint requires solving a complicated inverse problem. For this purpose we have developed a code that semianalytically calculates the radio footprint of an extensive air shower given an arbitrary longitudinal structure. This code can be used in an optimization procedure to extract the optimal longitudinal shower structure given a radio footprint. On the basis of air-shower universality we propose a simple parametrization of the structure of the plasma cloud. This parametrization is based on the results of Monte Carlo shower simulations. Deriving the parametrization also teaches which aspects of the plasma cloud are important for understanding the features seen in the radio-emission footprint. The calculated radio footprints are compared with microscopic CoREAS simulations.

  18. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  19. Modifying effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on content and composition of fatty acids in thymus of mice exposed to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Aripovsky, Alexander V; Kulagina, Tatiana P

    2015-03-01

    The effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) on thymus weight and its fatty acids (FA) content and FA composition in X-irradiated mice were studied to test the involvement of FA in possible protective effects of EHF EMR against ionizing radiation. Mice were exposed to low-intensity pulse-modulated EHF EMR (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm(2), 20 min exposure, 1 Hz modulation) and/or X-rays at a dose of 4 Gy with different sequences of the treatments. In 4-5 hours, 10, 30, and 40 days after the last exposure, the thymuses were weighed; total FA content and FA composition of the thymuses were determined on days 1, 10, and 30 using a gas chromatography. It was shown that after X-irradiation of mice the total FA content per mg of thymic tissue was significantly increased in 4-5 h and decreased in 10 and 30 days after the treatment. On days 30 and 40 after X-irradiation, the thymus weight remained significantly reduced. The first and tenth days after X-rays injury independently of the presence and sequence of EHF EMR exposure were characterized by an increased content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and a decreased content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) with unchanged content of saturated FA (SFA). Exposure of mice to EHF EMR before or after X-irradiation prevented changes in the total FA content in thymic tissue, returned the summary content of PUFA and MUFA to the control level and decreased the summary content of SFA on the 30th day after the treatments, and promoted the restoration of the thymus weight of X-irradiated mice to the 40th day of the observations. Changes in the content and composition of PUFA in the early period after treatments as well as at the restoration of the thymus weight under the combined action of EHF EMR and X-rays indicate to an active participation of FA in the acceleration of post-radiation recovery of the thymus by EHF EMR exposure.

  20. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  1. QGSJET-II: physics, recent improvements, and results for air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions by the QGSJET-II generator is discussed. Recent updates related to the treatment of nonlinear effects inthe interaction dynamics and to the model calibration with new LHC data are described. A special attention is devoted to the predictions of the new model version forcharacteristics of extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays. In particular, an improved description of charge exchange processes in pion collisionsis discussed and the respective enhancement of the shower muon content is analyzed.

  2. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  3. Use of a neutrino detector for muon identification by the CYGNUS air-shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; DeLay, R.S.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sena, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Potter, M.E.; Thompson, T.N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers observed by the CYGNUS experiment are measured by a well-shielded apparatus originally used for accelerator neutrino detection. Primary identification and counting of muons relies on a 44 m{sup 2} array of multiwire proportional counters that has operated continously since the experiment's inception to the present time. During the experiment's first 20 months, the central detector, consisting of flash-tube chambers, was used for high-resolution reconstruction of muon trajectories for a limited subsample of air showers. The ability to distinguish individual muons in the tracking device enabled verification and calibration of the muon counting by the proportional-counter system. The tracking capability was also used to verify the systematic pointing accuracy of the extensive air-shower arrival direction, as determined, as determined by the CYGNUS array, to better than 0.5{sup 0}. (orig.).

  4. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2012-02-01

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N c 2 , where N c =3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  5. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Smillie, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss in detail the arising description of the soft, collinear and hard regions by examples in pure QCD jet-production.

  6. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2012-02-15

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N{sub c}{sup 2}, where N{sub c}=3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  7. Modeling of the Atmospheric Response to the Leonid Meteor Showers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNeil, William

    1998-01-01

    ... showers of recent years. The model allows for ablation, deposition, diffusion and chemical dynamics, thereby permitting the computation of the modifications in the layers due to the showers in a self-consistent manner, based...

  8. Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  9. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C. E-mail: bigongiari@pd.infn.it; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N

    2001-04-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E{>=}2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown.

  10. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E≥2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown

  11. Implementing NLO DGLAP evolution in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Prestel, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    We present a parton shower which implements the DGLAP evolution of parton densities and fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order precision up to effects stemming from local four-momentum conservation. The Monte-Carlo simulation is based on including next-to-leading order collinear splitting functions in an existing parton shower and combining their soft enhanced contributions with the corresponding terms at leading order. Soft double counting is avoided by matching to the soft eikonal. Example results from two independent realizations of the algorithm, implemented in the two event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa, illustrate the improved precision of the new formalism.

  12. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  13. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Histology and DNA Content of the Brain Cortex and Hypothalamus of Young and Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.I.; Othman, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential adverse effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) arising from mobile phone. The present study investigates the effect of the daily exposure of adult and young rats to EMR for 1 hour (at a frequency of 900 MHz, a power density of 0.02 mW/cm 2 and an average specific absorption rate of 1.165 W/kg) on the DNA content and tissue architecture of the cortex and hypothalamus of the rat brain. Both young and adult rats were sacrificed at two intervals, after 4 months of daily EMR exposure and after 1 month of stopping the exposure. The present results showed a significant increase in the DNA intensity of young and adult rats in both areas after 4 months of daily EMR exposure. However, decreased DNA content around the normal level was observed after one month of stopping the exposure. Light microscopic examination of irradiated rats revealed edema, vacuolation, necrosis and proliferated glial cells. Stopping EMR exposure showed mild amelioration in the structural damage of the cerebral cortex of young animals, however, most drastic changes still persisted in the other animals. In conclusion, these data may confirm the neurotoxic risks arising from the extensive use of mobile phones that may alter the brain histology and impair its function

  14. On electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic electrons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgoretskij, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is considered caused by ultrarelativistic channeling electrons moving inside cylindrical regions formed with nuclear heat oscillations of a crystal lattice. An energy asymmetry is predicted for electrons and positrons, generated by γ-quanta falling to a crystal along the crystallographic axes. A possible connection of the above mentioned radiation with the anomalous multiphoton Schein showers is discussed

  15. An air shower array for LOFAR: LORA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Aar, G. V.; Akker, M. V. D.; Bähren, L.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; James, C.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Ter Veen, S.

    2011-01-01

    LOFAR is a new form of radio telescope which can detect radio emission from air showers induced by very high-energy cosmic rays. It can also look for radio emission from particle cascades on the Moon induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays or neutrinos. To complement the radio detection, we are

  16. Modelling of an RF plasma shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasova, M.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Mihailova, D.B.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A capacitive radiofrequency (RF) discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow guided through two perforated electrodes, hence resembling a shower. The inner electrode, the electrode facing

  17. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2016-05-01

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  18. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  19. The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Delay, R.S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Gupta, S.; Krakauer, D.A.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.; Cady, R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sinnis, C.; Stanislaus, S.; Thompson, T.N.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Zhang, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment is described. The design criteria, construction and operation details, and performance characteristics are presented. A discussion of the data analysis techniques is given. Finally, several enhancements and improvements in the apparatus are described. (orig.).

  20. Systematic improvement of QCD parton showers

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Jan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank; Zapp, Korinna

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we will give a brief overview of the progress that has been achieved in the field of combining matrix elements and parton showers. We exemplify this by focusing on the case of electron--positron collisions and by reporting on recent developments as accomplished within the Sherpa event generation framework.

  1. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)

  2. A simple method of shower localization and identification in laterally segmented calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Obenshain, F.E.; Plasil, F.; Saini, S.; Young, G.R.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A method is proposed to calculate the first and second moments of the spatial distribution of the energy of electromagnetic and hadronic showers measured in laterally segmented colorimeters. The technique uses a logarithmic weighting of energy fraction observed in the individual detector cells. It is fast and simple requiring no fitting or complicated corrections for the position or angle of incidence. The method is demonstrated with GEANT simulations of a BGO detector array. The position resolution results and the e/π separation results are found to be equal or superior to those obtained with more complicated techniques. (orig.)

  3. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  4. Novel method for detecting the hadronic component of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromushkin, D. M.; Volchenko, V. I.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Stenkin, Yu. V.; Stepanov, V. I.; Shchegolev, O. B.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for studying the hadronic component of extensive air showers (EAS) is proposed. The method is based on recording thermal neutrons accompanying EAS with en-detectors that are sensitive to two EAS components: an electromagnetic (e) component and a hadron component in the form of neutrons (n). In contrast to hadron calorimeters used in some arrays, the proposed method makes it possible to record the hadronic component over the whole area of the array. The efficiency of a prototype array that consists of 32 en-detectors was tested for a long time, and some parameters of the neutron EAS component were determined

  5. Limits for the fluxes of non-conventional particles in muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.

    1975-01-01

    A search for non-conventional massive particles was carried out with the Mt. Cappuccini spark chamber array, by a study of the interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Neither an excess of large electro-magnetic cascades, nor an excess of large-angle scattering events was found. Likewise no difference was seen between the interaction features of prompt and of delayed shower particles. The estimated upper limits of the underground fluxes are not or barely consistent with the assumptions of the mandela or passive X-particle hypotheses; zero fluxes appear most likely. (orig./BJ) [de

  6. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine; Skands, Peter [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Lifson, Andrew [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2 → 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2 → 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226. (orig.)

  7. Helicity antenna showers for hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Lifson, Andrew; Skands, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We present a complete set of helicity-dependent 2→ 3 antenna functions for QCD initial- and final-state radiation. The functions are implemented in the Vincia shower Monte Carlo framework and are used to generate showers for hadron-collider processes in which helicities are explicitly sampled (and conserved) at each step of the evolution. Although not capturing the full effects of spin correlations, the explicit helicity sampling does permit a significantly faster evaluation of fixed-order matrix-element corrections. A further speed increase is achieved via the implementation of a new fast library of analytical MHV amplitudes, while matrix elements from Madgraph are used for non-MHV configurations. A few examples of applications to QCD 2→ 2 processes are given, comparing the newly released Vincia 2.200 to Pythia 8.226.

  8. Triple collinear emissions in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    A framework to include triple collinear splitting functions into parton showers is presented, and the implementation of flavor-changing NLO splitting kernels is discussed as a first application. The correspondence between the Monte-Carlo integration and the analytic computation of NLO DGLAP evolution kernels is made explicit for both timelike and spacelike parton evolution. Numerical simulation results are obtained with two independent implementations of the new algorithm, using the two independent event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa.

  9. An ionization chamber shower detector for the LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Re, V; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Turner, W C

    2000-01-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction (~235 W at design luminosity 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The system design choices have been strongly influenced by optimization of signal to noise ratio and by the very high radiation environment. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. Data on each bunch are to be separately accumulated over multiple bunch crossings until the desire...

  10. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  11. Final state dipole showers and the DGLAP equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2009-01-01

    We study a parton shower description, based on a dipole picture, of the final state in electron-positron annihilation. In such a shower, the distribution function describing the inclusive probability to find a quark with a given energy depends on the shower evolution time. Starting from the exclusive evolution equation for the shower, we derive an equation for the evolution of the inclusive quark energy distribution in the limit of strong ordering in shower evolution time of the successive parton splittings. We find that, as expected, this is the DGLAP equation. This paper is a response to a recent paper of Dokshitzer and Marchesini that raised troubling issues about whether a dipole based shower could give the DGLAP equation for the quark energy distribution.

  12. Parton distribution functions in the context of parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    When the initial state evolution of a parton shower is organized according to the standard “backward evolution” prescription, ratios of parton distribution functions appear in the splitting probabilities. The shower thus organized evolves from a hard scale to a soft cutoff scale. At the end of the shower, one expects that only the parton distributions at the soft scale should affect the results. The other effects of the parton distributions should have cancelled. This means that the kernels for parton evolution should be related to the shower splitting functions. If the initial state partons can have non-zero masses, this requires that the evolution kernels cannot be the usual (MS)-bar kernels. We work out what the parton evolution kernels should be to match the shower evolution contained in the parton shower event generator DEDUCTOR, in which the b and c quarks have non-zero masses.

  13. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  14. Parton Shower Uncertainties with Herwig 7: Benchmarks at Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Plätzer, Simon; Schichtel, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sources of perturbative uncertainty in parton shower predictions within the Herwig 7 event generator. We benchmark two rather different parton shower algorithms, based on angular-ordered and dipole-type evolution, against each other. We deliberately choose leading order plus parton shower as the benchmark setting to identify a controllable set of uncertainties. This will enable us to reliably assess improvements by higher-order contributions in a follow-up work.

  15. Spatial structure of extensive air showers near the axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, E N; Gal' perin, M D; Glemba, P Ya [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica)

    1978-07-01

    The spatial structure of the extensive air showers has been investigated. The tests have been staged on the 400 scintillation counter installation. It has been shown, that spatial distribution of the extensive air showers in the vicinity of the axis does not vary in case of the Nsub(e) electron number showers in the 10/sup 5/-10/sup 6/ range. The share of the showers having a clear-cut multicore structure is approximately 3% with Nsub(e) >= 2x10/sup 5/.

  16. Performance of a dual readout calorimeter with a BGO electromagnetic section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    The dual readout technique has been tested on a hybrid calorimeter. The electromagnetic section of this instrument consists of 100 BGO crystals and the hadronic section is made out scintillating and Cherenkov fibers embedded in a copper matrix (DREAM). The electromagnetic fraction of hadronic showers is evaluated on an event-by-event basis from the relative amounts of Cherenkov and scintillation lights produced in the shower development. The performance of such a calorimeter in terms of energy resolution is presented. Effects of side leakage on detector performance are also studied.

  17. Studies of Muons in Extensive Air Showers from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Surface Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, R.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takeda, M.; Nonaka, T.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Sakurai, N.; Okuda, T.; Ogio, S.; Matthews, J. N.; Stokes, B.

    The number of muons in the air shower induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been measured with surface detector (SD) arrays of various experiments. Monte Carlo (MC) prediction of the number of muons in air showers depends on hadronic interaction models and the primary cosmic ray composition. By comparing the measured number of muons with the MC prediction, hadronic interaction models can be tested. The Pierre Auger Observatory reported that the number of muons measured by water Cherenkov type SD is about 1.8 times larger than the MC prediction for proton with QGSJET II-03 model. The number of muons in the Auger data is also larger than the MC prediction for iron. The Telescope Array experiment adopts plastic scintillator type SD, which is sensitive to the electromagnetic component that is the major part of secondary particles in the air shower. To search for the high muon purity condition in air showers observed by the TA, we divided air shower events into subsets by the zenith angle θ, the azimuth angle ϕ relative to the shower arrival direction projected onto the ground, and the distance R from shower axis. As a result, we found subsets with the high muon purity 65%, and compared the charge density between observed data and MC. The typical ratios of the charge density of the data to that of the MC are 1.71 ± 0.10 at 1870 m muon purity. These results imply that the excess of the charge density in the data is partly explained by the muon excess.

  18. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  19. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidei, D.; Burkett, K.; Gerdes, D.; Miao, C.; Wolinski, D.

    1994-01-01

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photo trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube spikes

  20. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, D.

    1994-08-01

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photon trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube discharge

  1. JASA: A prototype water-Cerenkov air-shower detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Dion, C.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Kwok, P.W.; Stark, M.J.; Svoboda, R.C.; Ferguson, H.; Hoffman, C.M.; Horch, E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Delay, R.S.; Lu, X.; Yodh, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    A small pilot experiment to examine the use of the water-Cerenkov technique for air shower detection was installed near the center of the CYGNUS air shower array. Preliminary results showing general agreement with simulations are presented. Thus, the technique promises to offer significant advances for VHE-UHE γ-ray astronomy

  2. Testing the Effectiveness of Therapeutic Showering in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann

    : Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.

  3. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  4. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  5. Measurement of Pion and Proton Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles up to 20 Nuclear Interaction Lengths with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A; Batkova, L; Batusov, V; Beck, H P; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, J; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Caprini, M; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carli, T; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Clement, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Costanzo, D; Corso-Radu, A; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Djobava, T; Dobson, M; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eriksson, D; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Febbraro, R; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Francis, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garde, V; Gellerstedt, K; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giokaris, N; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gonzalez, V; Gorini, B; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Gruwe, M; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Higon, E; Holmgren, S; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; Isaev, A; Jen-La Plante, I; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A; Kazarov, A; Khandanyan, H; Khramov, J; Khubua, J; Kolos, S; Korolkov, I; Krivkova, P; Kulchitsky, Y; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; LeCompte, T; Lefevre, R; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Lesser, J; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajicek, M; Lomakin, Y; Lupi, A; Maidanchik, C; Maio, A; Makouski, M; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F; Miagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I; Miralles, L; Montarou, G; Mosidze, M; Myagkov, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Nordkvist, B; Norniella, O; Novakova, J; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Petersen, J; Pilcher, J; Pina, J; Pinhao, J; Podlyski, F; Portell Bueso, X; Poveda, J; Pribyl, L; Price, L E; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Rumiantsev, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevitch, I; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Seixas, J M; Sellden, B; Shalanda, N; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Silva, J; Da Silva, P; Simaitis, V; Simonyan, M; Sissakian, A; Sjolin, J; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Soloviev, I; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spano, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Starovoitov, P; Stavina, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tremblet, L; Tsiareshka, P; Tylmad, M; Underwood, D; Unel, G; Usai, G; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2010-01-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20 to 180 GeV produced at CERN's SPS H8 test beam line in the ATLAS iron-scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter has been measured. The test-beam configuration allowed to measure the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It is found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are wider laterally to the direction of the impinging particle. Including the measured total energy response, the pion to proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion induced showers. The data are compared with GEANT4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parameterization within an accuracy of 5-10%. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parameterised as a function of the b...

  6. Measurement of pion and proton response and longitudinal shower profiles up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths with the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batkova, L [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bergeaas Kuutmann, E [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanchot, G [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bogush, A [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boldea, V [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Budagov, J [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Burckhart-Chromek, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprini, M [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Caloba, L [COPPE/EE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-04-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20-180 GeV, produced at CERN's SPS H8 test-beam line in the ATLAS iron-scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter, has been measured. The test-beam configuration allowed the measurement of the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It was found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are wider laterally to the direction of the impinging particle. Including the measured total energy response, the pion-to-proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion-induced showers. The data are compared with GEANT4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parametrization within an accuracy of 5-10%. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parametrized as a function of the beam energy and the calorimeter depth. This allows for a leakage correction of test-beam results in the standard projective geometry.

  7. Measurement of pion and proton response and longitudinal shower profiles up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths with the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.; Caloba, L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20-180 GeV, produced at CERN's SPS H8 test-beam line in the ATLAS iron-scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter, has been measured. The test-beam configuration allowed the measurement of the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It was found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are wider laterally to the direction of the impinging particle. Including the measured total energy response, the pion-to-proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion-induced showers. The data are compared with GEANT4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parametrization within an accuracy of 5-10%. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parametrized as a function of the beam energy and the calorimeter depth. This allows for a leakage correction of test-beam results in the standard projective geometry.

  8. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  9. Hadron shower profile and direction measurements in a segmented calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchincloss, P.; Blair, R.; Haber, C.

    1982-01-01

    Recently a test measurement was made to see how well the direction of the shower induced by neutrino interactions could be determined in the lab-E detector at Fermilab. While the calorimeter in lab-E has very coarse sampling compared to the detectors described at this workshop, the method used to sample the shower could be employed in other more finely segmented detectors. The shower angle resolution obtained (36 mr.FWHM) is largely constrained by the sampling. In this test pulse heights in 2mm. steps across the hadron shower at five points along the shower were recorded. This was done with 20 wires and 20 fast ADC's. A standard MWPC system intended to accomplish the same task would have required about 250 wires and 250 ADC channels. This considerable saving in system complexity should be possible for any system where finely segmented pulse height measurements are required

  10. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  11. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  12. COMET SHOWERS ARE NOT INDUCED BY INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    Encounters with interstellar clouds (IC) have been proposed by Rampino and Stothers as a cause of quasi-periodic intense comet showers leading to earth impacts, in order to explain the periodicity in marine mass extinctions found by Raup and Sepkoski. The model was described further, criticized and defended. The debate has centered on the question of whether the scale height of the clouds is small enough (in comparison to the amplitude of the oscillation of the solar system about the plane of the Galaxy) to produce a modulation in the rate of encounters. We wish to point out another serious, we believe fatal, defect in this model - the tidal fields of ICs are not strong enough to produce intense comet showers leading to earth impacts by bringing comets of the postulated inner Oort cloud into earth crossing orbits, except possibly during very rare encounters with very dense clouds. We will show that encounters with abundant clouds of low density cannot produce comet showers; cloud density N > 10{sup 3} atoms cm{sup -3} is needed to produce an intense comet shower leading to earth impacts. Furthermore, the tidal field of a dense cloud during a distant encounter is too weak to produce such showers. As a consequence, comet showers induced by ICs will be far less frequent than showers caused by passing stars. This conclusion is independent of assumptions about the radial distribution of comets in the inner Oort cloud.

  13. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  14. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  15. Parton showers in a phenomenological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, M.

    1987-08-01

    Models for generating multiple parton final states, based on the Altarelli-Parisi equations, are presented. Algorithms are described for applications in e + e - physics, leptoproduction and hadron physics. The two latter cases are somewhat special since composite objects are present in the initial state. Constraints from structure function evolution are properly taken into account. The scheme in leptoproduction is made selfconsistent in the sense that parton shower evolution does not affect the measurable structure functions. The scheme developed in e + e - allows for a number of different features which are not given directly in this approach, i.e. matching onto matrix elements, coherence effects, argument in α s , implementation of kinematics etc. These options are systematically studied, using Lund string fragmentation for hadronization, and compared with experimental data. A note on α s determinations in hadron-hadron collisions is also included. (author)

  16. Shower reconstruction in TUNKA-HiSCORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porelli, Andrea; Wischnewski, Ralf [DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-HiSCORE detector is a non-imaging wide-angle EAS cherenkov array designed as an alternative technology for gamma-ray physics above 10 TeV and to study spectrum and composition of cosmic rays above 100 TeV. An engineering array with nine stations (HiS-9) has been deployed in October 2013 on the site of the Tunka experiment in Russia. In November 2014, 20 more HiSCORE stations have been installed, covering a total array area of 0.24 square-km. We describe the detector setup, the role of precision time measurement, and give results from the innovative WhiteRabbit time synchronization technology. Results of air shower reconstruction are presented and compared with MC simulations, for both the HiS-9 and the HiS-29 detector arrays.

  17. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  18. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  19. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  20. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-01

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  1. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-15

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  2. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  3. Statistical modeling in phenomenological description of electromagnetic cascade processes produced by high-energy gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a simple phenomenological model of electromagnetic cascade process (ECP) initiated by high-energy gamma quanta in heavy absorbents is given. Within this model spatial structure and fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons and positrons are described. Concrete formulae have been obtained as a result of statistical analysis of experimental data from the xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow)

  4. Lightning induced inappropriate ICD shock: an unusual case of electromagnetic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Torrey, Jeffrey W; Koneru, Jayanthi N

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of electromagnetic interference is presented. As a result of a lightning shock to a Shower House, our patient received two shocks. An elucidation of the different mechanisms for the two shocks is presented. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The CDF Central Electromagnetic Calorimeter for Proton - Anti-proton Collision Experiment at Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Teruki [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1986-06-01

    The CDF central electromagnetic calorimeter modules were calibrated with test beam and cosmic ray muons. It is found that (a) the modules are identical to each other by 1 % on the response map and (b) the uncertaity on the measurement of the energy of showering particle is better than 1.1 % in the 85 % of whole area.

  6. Study of position resolution and electron-hadron separation of electromagnetic calorimeter with a silicon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, V.B.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Rykali, V.V.; Solovianov, V.L.; Ukhalov, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    The maximum shower silicon strip detectors embedded in a module of sandwich-type electromagnetic calorimeter have been tested. The position resolution at different depths of the silicon structure has been measured. The results on electron-hadron separation obtained as a byproduct in this study are presented, and possibility of their improvement is discussed. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  7. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  8. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Awes, T.; Badala, A.; Baumgart, S.; Bellwied, R.; Benhabib, L.; Bernard, C.; Bianchi, N.; Blanco, F.; Bortoli, Y.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Bruna, E.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D.; Capitani, G.P.; Carcagno, Y.; Casanova Diaz, A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A 4x4 array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11%/√(E(GeV))+1.7% with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5mm+5.3mm/√(E(GeV)). For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of >600 was obtained.

  9. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Klaus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution of the electrons in the shower core. This complements the information obtained from surface, fluorescence, and muon detectors and is very useful in getting a comprehensive picture of an air shower.

  10. The implication of charged particle lateral distribution function for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kempa, J.; Kulikov, G.V.; Sulakov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of charged particle lateral distribution function (LDF) is of prime importance in extensive air shower (EAS) investigations. This function is necessary for the determination of the total number of particles as well as some other classification parameters. The Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) function is being actively employed by many researchers in spite of the fact that it was derived under rather crude assumptions (in so-called B Approximation of the electromagnetic cascade theory). Our paper discusses the dependence of the EAS size spectrum on the LDF form adopted and compares two LDFs: the traditional NKG-function and the scaling function suggested recently. Prominence is given to the EAS MSU data but the results of other EAS arrays (AGASA, Yakutsk and KASCADE) are also considered

  11. What do we learn about hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies from extensive air shower observations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    2002-01-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower (EAS) observations needs a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the interactions driving the cascade development in the atmosphere. While the electromagnetic and weak interaction parts do not provide principal problems, the hadronic interaction is a subject of uncertainties and debates, especially in the ultrahigh energy region extending the energy limits of man made accelerators and experimental knowledge from collider experiments. Since the EAS development is dominantly governed by soft processes, which are presently not accessible to a perturbative QCD treatment, one has to rely on QCD inspired phenomenological interaction models, in particular on string-models based on the Gribov-Regge theory like QGSJET, VENUS and SYBILL. Recent results of the EAS experiments KASCADE are scrutinized in terms of such models used as generators in the Monte Carlo EAS simulation code CORSIKA. (author)

  12. Influence of diffractive interactions on cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.; Zepeda, A.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sciutto, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commonly used hadronic collision simulation packages is presented. The characteristics of the products of hadron-nucleus collisions are analyzed from a general perspective, but focusing on their correlation with diffractive processes. One of the purposes of our work is to give quantitative estimations of the impact that different characteristics of the hadronic models have on air shower observables. Several sets of shower simulations using different settings for the parameters controlling the diffractive processes are used to analyze the correlations between diffractivity and shower observables. We find that the relative probability of diffractive processes during the shower development have a non-negligible influence over the longitudinal profile as well as the distribution of muons at ground level. The implications on experimental data analysis are discussed

  13. Expected Increase of Activity of Eta Aquariids Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N. V.; Chepurova, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of the results of modeling disintegration of Comet 1P/Halley after its flare in 1991 has allowed us to predict an increase of the activity of the associated Eta Aquariids meteor shower in April-May 2018.

  14. Systematic improvement of parton showers with effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Marcantonini, Claudio; Stewart, Iain W.

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a systematic classification and computation of next-to-leading order kinematic power corrections to the fully differential cross section in the parton shower. To do this we devise a map between ingredients in a parton shower and operators in a traditional effective field theory framework using a chain of soft-collinear effective theories. Our approach overcomes several difficulties including avoiding double counting and distinguishing approximations that are coordinate choices from true power corrections. Branching corrections can be classified as hard-scattering, that occur near the top of the shower, and jet-structure, that can occur at any point inside it. Hard-scattering corrections include matrix elements with additional hard partons, as well as power suppressed contributions to the branching for the leading jet. Jet-structure corrections require simultaneous consideration of potential 1→2 and 1→3 branchings. The interference structure induced by collinear terms with subleading powers remains localized in the shower.

  15. Lethal carbon monoxide toxicity in a concrete shower unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2018-05-23

    A 47-year-old previously-well woman was found dead on the floor of a shower cubicle on a property in rural South Australia. The impression of the attending doctor and police was of collapse due to natural disease. Although there was significant stenosing coronary artery atherosclerosis found at autopsy, cherry pink discoloration of tissues prompted measurement of the blood carboxyhemoglobin level which was found to be 55%. The source of the gas was a poorly-maintained hot water heater that was mounted on the inside wall of the shower. Construction of the shower using an impermeable concrete rain water tank had caused gas accumulation when the water heater malfunctioned. Had lethal carbon monoxide exposure not been identified others using the same shower unit would also have been at risk.

  16. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  17. Reweighting QCD matrix-element and parton-shower calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothmann, Enrico; Schumann, Steffen [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Schoenherr, Marek [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    We present the implementation and validation of the techniques used to efficiently evaluate parametric and perturbative theoretical uncertainties in matrix-element plus parton-shower simulations within the Sherpa event-generator framework. By tracing the full α{sub s} and PDF dependences, including the parton-shower component, as well as the fixed-order scale uncertainties, we compute variational event weights on-the-fly, thereby greatly reducing the computational costs to obtain theoretical-uncertainty estimates. (orig.)

  18. A Bayesian statistical method for particle identification in shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashimizu, N.; Kimura, A.; Shibata, A.; Sasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt on identifying particles using a Bayesian statistical method. We have developed the mathematical model and software for this purpose. We tried to identify electrons and charged pions in shower counters using this method. We designed an ideal shower counter and studied the efficiency of identification using Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. Without having any other information, e.g. charges of particles which are given by tracking detectors, we have achieved 95% identifications of both particles

  19. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L.C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  20. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  1. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  2. An analytic parton shower. Algorithms, implementation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2012-06-15

    The realistic simulation of particle collisions is an indispensable tool to interpret the data measured at high-energy colliders, for example the now running Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These collisions at these colliders are usually simulated in the form of exclusive events. This thesis focuses on the perturbative QCD part involved in the simulation of these events, particularly parton showers and the consistent combination of parton showers and matrix elements. We present an existing parton shower algorithm for emissions off final state partons along with some major improvements. Moreover, we present a new parton shower algorithm for emissions off incoming partons. The aim of these particular algorithms, called analytic parton shower algorithms, is to be able to calculate the probabilities for branchings and for whole events after the event has been generated. This allows a reweighting procedure to be applied after the events have been simulated. We show a detailed description of the algorithms, their implementation and the interfaces to the event generator WHIZARD. Moreover we discuss the implementation of a MLM-type matching procedure and an interface to the shower and hadronization routines from PYTHIA. Finally, we compare several predictions by our implementation to experimental measurements at LEP, Tevatron and LHC, as well as to predictions obtained using PYTHIA. (orig.)

  3. An analytic parton shower. Algorithms, implementation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    The realistic simulation of particle collisions is an indispensable tool to interpret the data measured at high-energy colliders, for example the now running Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These collisions at these colliders are usually simulated in the form of exclusive events. This thesis focuses on the perturbative QCD part involved in the simulation of these events, particularly parton showers and the consistent combination of parton showers and matrix elements. We present an existing parton shower algorithm for emissions off final state partons along with some major improvements. Moreover, we present a new parton shower algorithm for emissions off incoming partons. The aim of these particular algorithms, called analytic parton shower algorithms, is to be able to calculate the probabilities for branchings and for whole events after the event has been generated. This allows a reweighting procedure to be applied after the events have been simulated. We show a detailed description of the algorithms, their implementation and the interfaces to the event generator WHIZARD. Moreover we discuss the implementation of a MLM-type matching procedure and an interface to the shower and hadronization routines from PYTHIA. Finally, we compare several predictions by our implementation to experimental measurements at LEP, Tevatron and LHC, as well as to predictions obtained using PYTHIA. (orig.)

  4. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  5. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan; Li Dandan

    2007-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In contrast to conventional cooling towers, the cooling tower analyzed in this study is void of fill. By means of efficient atomization nozzles, a shower cooling tower (SCT) is possible to be applied in industry, which, in terms of water cooling, energy saving and equipment investing, is better than conventional packed cooling towers. However, no systematic thermodynamic numerical method could be found in the literature up to now. Based on the kinetic model and mass and heat transfer model, this paper has developed a one dimensional model for studying the motional process and evaporative cooling process occurring at the water droplet level in the SCT. The finite difference approach is used for three motional processes to obtain relative parameters in each different stage, and the possibility of the droplets being entrained outside the tower is fully analyzed. The accuracy of this model is checked by practical operational results from a full scale prototype in real conditions, and some exclusive factors that affect the cooling characteristics for the SCT are analyzed in detail. This study provides the theoretical foundation for practical application of the SCT in industry

  6. Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the source of drinking water used in hospitals is commonly, biofilms on water pipelines are refuge to bacteria that survive different disinfection strategies. Drinking water (DW) biofilms are well known to harbor opportunistic pathogens, however, these biofilm communities remain poorly characterized by culture-independent approaches that circumvent the limitations of conventional monitoring efforts. Hence, the frequency of pathogens in DW biofilms and how biofilm members withstand high doses of disinfectants and/or chlorine residuals in the water supply remain speculative, but directly impact public health. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of microbial communities growing on five hospital shower hoses using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Two different sequence-based methods were used to characterize the bacterial fractions: 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial cultures and next generation sequencing of metagenomes. Based on the metagenomic data, we found that Mycobacterium-like species was the abundant bacterial taxa that overlapped among the five samples. We also recovered the draft genome of a novel Mycobacterium species, closely related to opportunistic pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. rhodesiae and M. tusciae, in addition to other, less abundant species. In contrast, the cultured fraction was mostly affiliated to Proteobacteria, such as members of the Sphingomonas, Blastomonas and Porph

  7. Extensive Air Showers with unusual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23500 Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼ 1016 eV have been detected during the ∼3500 hours of the Horizon-T (HT detectors system operations before Aug. 2016. Among these EAS, more than a thousand had an unusual spatial and temporary structure that showed pulses with several maxima (modals or modes from several detection points of the HT at the same time. These modes are separated in time from each other starting from tens to thousands of ns. These EAS have been called multi-modal. Analysis shows that the multi-modal EAS that have been detected by Horizon-T have the following properties: 1. Multi-modal EAS have energy above ∼1017 eV. 2. Pulses with several modes are located at large distances from the EAS axis. An overview of the collected data will be provided. General comments about the unusual structure of the multi-modal EAS will be presented.

  8. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  9. Electromagnetic cascades produced by gamma-quanta with the energy Eγ=100-3500 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fluctuations of the electron ionization loss (IL) in electromagnetic showers produced by gamma-quanta of energy E γ between 100 and 3500 MeV have been studied using pictures of the 180 l xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow). The distribution of the standard deviation σ A of the part A of the IL released along the shower axis and in its lateral direction was obtained and found to be approximately independent of Eγ at Eγ≥500 MeV when expressed as a fuction of A and normalized to maximum value of the σ A in the case of the lateral shower development. The relative spread of the average longitudinal and lateral e.m. shower dimensions are discussed too. 18 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Observation and analysis of cosmic electromagnetic cascades detected in lead photoemulsion chamber of the Brazil-Japan cooperation, exposed in Monte Chacaltaya, Bolivia (altitude 5200m, air pressure 550 gr.cm-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.A.

    1971-04-01

    The cosmic gamma radiations in the photoemulsion chamber for Brazil-Japan Cooperation are studied. These radiations reproduces the electromagnetic component of extensive air showers at the begining of its development through the atmosphere. The gamma radiations, which is 0 Π meson decay products emitted in nuclear interaction, are detected by electromagnetic cascades which are developed when they reach the photoemulsion chamber. Cosmic gamma radiations is a set of parallel electromagnetic cascades proceeding from nuclear interactions. The information about high energy nuclear interactions making possible to study the structure of extensive air showers at the beginning of its development and multiple meson production are obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  11. Catalogue of Meteor Showers and Storms in Korean History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a more complete and accurate catalogue of astronomical records for meteor showers and meteor storms appeared in primary official Korean history books, such as Samguk-sagi, Koryo-sa, Seungjeongwon-ilgi, and Choson-Wangjo-Sillok. So far the catalogue made by Imoto and Hasegawa in 1958 has been widely used in the international astronomical society. The catalogue is based on a report by Sekiguchi in 1917 that is mainly based on secondary history books. We observed that the catalogue has a number of errors in either dates or sources of the records. We have thoroughly checked the primary official history books, instead of the secondary ones, in order to make a corrected and extended catalogue. The catalogue contains 25 records of meteor storms, four records of intense meteor-showers, and five records of usual showers in Korean history. We also find that some of those records seem to correspond to some presently active meteor showers such as the Leonids, the Perseids, and the ¥ç-Aquarids-Orionids pair. However, a large number of those records do not correspond to such present showers. This catalogue we obtained can be useful for various astrophysical studies in the future.

  12. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  13. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  14. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  15. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  16. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  17. Effects of subleading color in a parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-12-01

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color (LC) approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N c 2 , where N c =3 is the number of colors. In the parton shower event generator DEDUCTOR, we have introduced a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. In this paper, we explore the differences in results between the LC approximation and the LC+ approximation. Numerical comparisons suggest that, for simple observables, the LC approximation is quite accurate. We also find evidence that for gap-between-jets cross sections neither the LC approximation nor the LC+ approximation is adequate.

  18. Personnel protective equipment total-encapsulating suit decontamination study using shower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkhaus, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents an experimental evaluation, conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, of a shower-based decontamination station for personnel wearing a Level A, total- encapsulating, chemical-protective suit. The decontamination station is used by personnel when egressing a dry, dusty environment contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. This system has the potential to minimize the risk of spreading the contaminants to clean areas. Two types of shower systems were evaluated, a drench shower and a multi-nozzle shower. A total-encapsulating suit, worn by personnel. was contaminated with soil containing 239 Pu. Pre- shower and post-shower contamination samples were collected and visual observations were made to evaluate the ability of the shower system to remove the contaminated dust and to obtain baseline data useful in designing a shower-based personnel decontamination system. 12 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Delayed hadrons in air showers observed in Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Bolivian Air Shower Joint Experiment group has studied high energy interaction by measuring the aspect of vertical growth of air showers of 10 16 eV or more at Mt. Chacaltaya Space Physics Observatory at 5200 m above sea level and atmospheric depth of 550 g/cm 2 . The aspect of vertical growth of electrons from about 100 g/cm 2 to about 400 g/cm 2 of atmospheric depth obtained by the measured results of the time of arrival distribution of air Cherenkov radiation at Mt. Chacaltaya agreed with the one predicted from the enhanced 1/2 power of E model. Since the vertical growth of electrons and muons in about 10 17 eV air showers from the atmospheric apex was difficult to give the unified explanation with known interaction models, the University of Tokyo group has proposed a two-component model for air shower growth. If this second component is formed from heavy particles or heavy quantum state as parents, it should be observed as the component which arrives later in air shower. Thus, the measurement and experiment on the delayed hadrons in air showers have been started. In this paper, the experiment, analysis and results are reported. It is clear that the parent particles which caused such a phenomenon were not pions which were multiply generated by the interaction generally known. Therefore, an exact simulating calculation must be performed and compared with the experimental results to obtain the final conclusion from the measured results of this time. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Heat recovery from shower water; Warmteterugwinning uit douchewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidemans, J. [Hei-Tech, Emmen (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    With a payback period of several years, heat recovery from shower water in swimming pools but also in, for example, apartment buildings are an attractive form of energy saving. Possible are savings from 30 to 50% on energy, which is tested and proved by measurements in the heat exchanger of showers in a swimming pool in Denmark. [Dutch] Met een terugverdientijd van enkele jaren is warmteterugwinning uit douchewater in zwembaden maar ook in bijvoorbeeld sporthallen en appartementengebouwen een aantrekkelijke vorm van energiebesparing. Er kan een besparing worden gerealiseerd van 30 tot 50% op het energiegebruik van het douchewater. Metingen aan een douchewarmtewisselaar in een zwembad in Denemarken tonen dit aan.

  1. Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

  2. Shower fractal dimension analysis in a highly-granular calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the self-similar structure of particle showers recorded at a highly-granular calorimeter. On both simulated and experimental data, a strong correlation between the number of hits and the spatial scale of the readout channels is observed, from which we define the shower fractal dimension. The measured fractal dimension turns out to be strongly dependent on particle type, which enables new approaches for particle identification. A logarithmic dependence of the particle energy on the fractal dimension is also observed.

  3. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  4. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  5. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution

  6. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  7. Comparison of methods for determining the centers of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Funk, E.; Mikocki, S.; Rohrer, N.

    1987-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate extensive air shower data. Two methods of determining the core location of the shower have been investigated: the method of least squares and the method of maximizing the likelihood function. The likelihood function method gives a precision of shower center location two times better than the χ 2 method for small numbers of detected particles. (orig.)

  8. Hadronic shower development in iron-scintillator tile calorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 443, - (2000), s. 51-70 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS Iron-Scintillator * hadron calorimeter * shower parametrisation * calorimetry * computer data analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  9. Simple ADC unit for cosmic ray air shower experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, G C; Ghosh, B; Ghoshdastidar, M R; Sengupta, S K; Chaudhuri, N [North Bengal Univ., Darjeeling (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-02-01

    The design of a new low cost analog-to-digital converter system is described. It is based upon the method of linearising the charging process of a storage condenser and is controlled by logic gates. Its tested characteristics have been found to be reliable for application in cosmic ray air shower experiments.

  10. Meteoroid Environment Modeling: the Meteoroid Engineering Model and Shower Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    The meteoroid environment is often divided conceptually into meteor showers plus a sporadic background component. The sporadic complex poses the bulk of the risk to spacecraft, but showers can produce significant short-term enhancements of the meteoroid flux. The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has produced two environment models to handle these cases: the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and an annual meteor shower forecast. Both MEM and the forecast are used by multiple manned spaceflight projects in their meteoroid risk evaluation, and both tools are being revised to incorporate recent meteor velocity, density, and timing measurements. MEM describes the sporadic meteoroid complex and calculates the flux, speed, and directionality of the meteoroid environment relative to a user-supplied spacecraft trajectory, taking the spacecraft's motion into account. MEM is valid in the inner solar system and offers near-Earth and cis-lunar environments. While the current version of MEM offers a nominal meteoroid environment corresponding to a single meteoroid bulk density, the next version of MEMR3 will offer both flux uncertainties and a density distribution in addition to a revised near-Earth environment. We have updated the near-Earth meteor speed distribution and have made the first determination of uncertainty in this distribution. We have also derived a meteor density distribution from the work of Kikwaya et al. (2011). The annual meteor shower forecast takes the form of a report and data tables that can be used in conjunction with an existing MEM assessment. Fluxes are typically quoted to a constant limiting kinetic energy in order to comport with commonly used ballistic limit equations. For the 2017 annual forecast, the MEO substantially revised the list of showers and their characteristics using 14 years of meteor flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Defunct or insignificant showers were removed and the temporal profiles of many showers

  11. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning? : A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow,

  12. New measurements and analysis of high-energy muons in cosmic ray extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Ghose, B.; Murkherjee, N.; Sanyal, S.; Chaudhuri, N.; Chhetri, R.; Basak, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cosmic ray air shower structure measurements and measurement of density and energy of air shower muons of a wide energy range simultaneously in individual air showers by two magnet spectrographs are presented. The measured muon densities have been used to compare with some of the previous measurements on muon densities in air showers of nearly the same size. The measured muon densities have also been applied for distinguishing between various interaction models and between light and heavier air shower primaries. In the air shower size range 10 4 -10 6 particles the present measurements do not provide evidence for iron primaries and the different interaction models seem not to be distinguishable by air shower observations. (Author)

  13. A liquid-xenon calorimeter for the detection of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.; Baskakov, V.; Bondarenko, G.; Dolgoshein, B.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Tcherniatin, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Kozodaeva, O.; Konovalov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Shmeleva, A.; Vassiliev, P.

    1990-01-01

    The energy and spatial resolution of a 40 l liquid-xenon calorimeter was measured. For electrons in the energy region 1-6 GeV the resolutions are σ E /E=3.4/√E (%), σ x =4.6/√E (mm). The details of construction and running of such a device are discussed. (orig.)

  14. A liquid-xenon calorimeter for the detection of electromagnetic showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, A.; Baskakov, V.; Bondarenko, G.; Dolgoshein, B.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Tcherniatin, V. (Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)); Gavrilenko, I.; Kozodaeva, O.; Konovalov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Shmeleva, A.; Vassiliev, P. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1990-09-15

    The energy and spatial resolution of a 40 l liquid-xenon calorimeter was measured. For electrons in the energy region 1-6 GeV the resolutions are {sigma}{sub E}/E=3.4/{radical}E (%), {sigma}{sub x}=4.6/{radical}E (mm). The details of construction and running of such a device are discussed. (orig.).

  15. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  16. Electromagnetic calorimetry with lead fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.D.; Korbel, V.; Meier, K.; Valkar, S.

    1993-10-01

    The properties of four PbF 2 crystals of size 21.21.175 mm 3 were studied with electron and pion beams in the energy range from 1 to 6 GeV. An energy resolution for electrons of 6.3%/√(E/GeV) was achieved with a 2x2 matrix of four PbF 2 crystals, which corresponds to 5.6%/√(E/GeV) when corrected for lateral leakage by Monte Carlo simulations. The deviation from linearity was smaller than 0.5%. The time resolution was found to be better than 0.6 ns. We studied also optical properties, radiation hardness, position resolution and spatial homogeneity. An efficient separation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers was achieved. (orig.)

  17. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  18. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  19. Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton1, D; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Costantini, Silvia; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Debraine, Alain; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl1, J; Gras1, P; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel-de-Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; AHill, J; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, Akli; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman26, H B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Poilleux, Patrick; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; ATriantis, F; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals.

  20. Electromagnetic launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1980-09-01

    Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.

  1. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  2. On the theory of electromagnetic cascades in thin targets and photon multiplicity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokonov, M.Kh.

    2015-02-01

    The partial probabilities of different scenarios of electromagnetic shower processes are calculated in analytical form. It has been shown that these results are important for measurements of the photon multiplicities which occur during above 100 GeV electron radiation in oriented crystals or in the case of interaction of relativistic electrons with powerful Petawatt laser beams. Quantitative analysis of optimal experimental conditions has been performed. The results are applicable for above few GeV electrons and gamma quanta.

  3. The Effect of New Shower Facilities on Physical Activity Behaviors of Employees: A Quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-02-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of new workplace showers on physical activity behaviors in a sample of downtown employees in Austin, TX. The study design was quasi-experimental with 2 comparison groups. Data were collected via internet-based surveys before and 4 months after shower installation at 1 worksite. Differences across study groups in the ranks of change in past-week minutes of physical activity from baseline to follow-up were assessed. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reporting an increase of ≥10 min past-week physical activity and workday physical activity among those with new showers and existing showers relative to those with no showers were also assessed. No significant differences in changes in physical activity from baseline to follow-up across study groups were found. One-quarter of participants with new workplace showers and 46.9% of those with existing workplace showers at baseline reported ever using the showers. This prospective study did not find significant changes in employee physical activity 4 months after installation of worksite showers. Worksite shower users were highly active at baseline, suggesting a possible early adopter effect, with potential for diffusion. Future studies may benefit from longer exposure times and larger samples.

  4. Matching fully differential NNLO calculations and parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We present a general method to match fully differential next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculations to parton shower programs. We discuss in detail the perturbative accuracy criteria a complete NNLO+PS matching has to satisfy. Our method is based on consistently improving a given NNLO calculation with the leading-logarithmic (LL) resummation in a chosen jet resolution variable. The resulting NNLO+LL calculation is cast in the form of an event generator for physical events that can be directly interfaced with a parton shower routine, and we give an explicit construction of the input ''Monte Carlo cross sections'' satisfying all required criteria. We also show how other proposed approaches naturally arise as special cases in our method.

  5. Combining states without scale hierarchies with ordered parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Prestel, Stefan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We present a parameter-free scheme to combine fixed-order multi-jet results with parton-shower evolution. The scheme produces jet cross sections with leading-order accuracy in the complete phase space of multiple emissions, resumming large logarithms when appropriate, while not arbitrarily enforcing ordering on momentum configurations beyond the reach of the parton-shower evolution equation. This requires the development of a matrix-element correction scheme for complex phase-spaces including ordering conditions as well as a systematic scale-setting procedure for unordered phase-space points. The resulting algorithm does not require a merging-scale parameter. We implement the new method in the Vincia framework and compare to LHC data. (orig.)

  6. Matching fully differential NNLO calculations and parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba

    2013-11-01

    We present a general method to match fully differential next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculations to parton shower programs. We discuss in detail the perturbative accuracy criteria a complete NNLO+PS matching has to satisfy. Our method is based on consistently improving a given NNLO calculation with the leading-logarithmic (LL) resummation in a chosen jet resolution variable. The resulting NNLO+LL calculation is cast in the form of an event generator for physical events that can be directly interfaced with a parton shower routine, and we give an explicit construction of the input ''Monte Carlo cross sections'' satisfying all required criteria. We also show how other proposed approaches naturally arise as special cases in our method.

  7. A silicon pad shower maximum detector for a Shashlik calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The new luminosity monitor of the DELPHI detector, STIC (Small angle TIle Calorimeter), was built using a Shashlik technique. This technique does not provide longitudinal sampling of the showers, which limits the measurement of the direction of the incident particles and the e-π separation. For these reasons STIC was equipped with a Silicon Pad Shower Maximum Detector (SPSMD). In order to match the silicon detectors to the Shashlick read out by wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers, the silicon wafers had to be drilled with a precision better than 10μm without damaging the active area of the detectors. This paper describes the SPSMD with emphasis on the fabrication techniques and on the components used. Some preliminary results of the detector performance from data taken with a 45GeV electron beam at CERN are presented. (orig.)

  8. On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.

  9. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Muñiz J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  10. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  11. On the formation of meteor showers of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadzhanov, P.B.; Obrubov, J.V.; Pushkarev, A.N.; Hajduk, A.

    1987-01-01

    The orbits of test particles ejected from the nucleus of Halley comet at its perihelion passage in 1910 with different velocities are studied for the next three passages of the comet up to 2134 taking into consideration perturbations from all planets. Some characteristics of the stream formation are presented. The calculations show that the return of the comet to its perihelion cannot produce an immediate influence on the activity of its meteor showers. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  12. Accelerating Science with Generative Adversarial Networks: An Application to 3D Particle Showers in Multilayer Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Michela; de Oliveira, Luke; Nachman, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Physicists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) rely on detailed simulations of particle collisions to build expectations of what experimental data may look like under different theoretical modeling assumptions. Petabytes of simulated data are needed to develop analysis techniques, though they are expensive to generate using existing algorithms and computing resources. The modeling of detectors and the precise description of particle cascades as they interact with the material in the calorimeter are the most computationally demanding steps in the simulation pipeline. We therefore introduce a deep neural network-based generative model to enable high-fidelity, fast, electromagnetic calorimeter simulation. There are still challenges for achieving precision across the entire phase space, but our current solution can reproduce a variety of particle shower properties while achieving speedup factors of up to 100 000 × . This opens the door to a new era of fast simulation that could save significant computing time and disk space, while extending the reach of physics searches and precision measurements at the LHC and beyond.

  13. Mesospheric sodium over Gadanki during Geminid meteor shower 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanadham, B.; Rakesh Chandra, N.; Bhaskara Rao, S. Vijaya; Raghunath, K.; Yellaiah, G.

    Resonance LIDAR system at Gadanki has been used for observing the mesospheric sodium during the night of 12-13 Dec 2007 when the peak activity of Geminid meteor shower occurred. Geminid meteor shower is observed along with the co-located MST radar in the altitude range 80-110 km. Sodium density profiles have been obtained with a vertical resolution of 300 m and a temporal resolution of 120 s with sodium resonance scattering LIDAR system. The sodium layers were found to exist in the altitude range 90-100 km. The enhanced Geminid meteor rates were recorded with the co-located MST radar in the same altitude range. The sodium concentration in the atmospheric altitude of ~93 km is estimated to be 2000 per cc where the meteoric concentration of Geminid is maximum and reduced to around 800 on the non activity of Geminid. These observations showed that the sodium levels in the E-region are found to be increasing during meteor shower nights at least by a factor of two.

  14. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs

  15. Liquid metal degassing in electromagnetic mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakhomov, A I; EHL' -FAVAKHRI, KAMAL' -ABD-RABU MOKHAMED [LENINGRADSKIJ POLITEKHNICHESKIJ INST. (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results for laboratory and industrial conditions are presented showing the favourable effect of electromagnetic mixing on hot metal degassing process. It has been found that the intensity and duration of the mixing process increase with the degree of iron and steel degassing. Initiation of cavitation phenomena during hot metal electromagnetic mixing is intensified because of the presence of alien inclusions in the metal reducing the tensile strength of the liquid metal. This is the most substantial factor contributing to the gas content in the process of electromagnetic mixing.

  16. Results from a combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Alifanov, A; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K J; Astvatsaturov, A R; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Autiero, D; Azuelos, Georges; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bee, C P; Bellettini, Giorgio; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blaj, C; Blanchot, G; Blucher, E; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Brossard, M; Budagov, Yu A; Buono, S; Calôba, L P; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Casado, M P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chase, Robert L; Chekhtman, A; Chevaleyre, J C; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Cozzi, L; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; de La Taille, C; Del Prete, T; Depommier, P; de Saintignon, P; De Santo, A; Dinkespiler, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fouchez, D; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Gingrich, D M; Glagolev, V V; Golubev, V B; Gómez, A; González, J; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hellman, S; Henriques, A; Holmgren, S O; Honoré, P F; Hostachy, J Y; Huston, J; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karapetian, G V; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Klioukhine, V I; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Laborie, G; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Lebedev, A; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liba, I; Linossier, O; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; Lund-Jensen, B; Mahout, G; Maio, A; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miotto, A; Miralles, L; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicoleau, S; Noppe, J M; Olivetto, C; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Parrour, G; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Pétroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Polesello, G; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Riu, I; Romanov, V; Ronceux, B; Rumyantsev, V; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanders, H; Sauvage, G; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Scheel, C V; Schwemling, P; Schindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shchelchkov, A S; Shevtsov, V P; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stephani, D; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Tisserant, S; Tokár, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcot, A S; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Wagner, D; White, Alan R; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zdrazil, M; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    1996-01-01

    The first combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 20 to 300~GeV at an incident angle $\\theta$ of about 11$^\\circ$ is well-described by the expression $\\sigma/E = ((46.5 \\pm 6.0)\\%/\\sqrt{E} +(1.2 \\pm 0.3)\\%) \\oplus (3.2 \\pm 0.4)~\\mbox{GeV}/E$. Shower profiles, shower leakage, and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied.

  17. Results from a new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter with a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmadaliev, S Z; Amaral, P; Ambrosini, G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrieux, M L; Aubert, Bernard; Augé, E; Badaud, F; Baisin, L; Barreiro, F; Battistoni, G; Bazan, A; Bazizi, K; Bee, C P; Belorgey, J; Belymam, A; Benchekroun, D; Berglund, S R; Berset, J C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bonivento, W; Borgeaud, P; Borisov, O N; Bosman, M; Bouhemaid, N; Breton, D; Brette, P; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Burdin, S V; Calôba, L P; Camarena, F; Camin, D V; Canton, B; Caprini, M; Carvalho, J; Casado, M P; Cases, R; Castillo, M V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Chadelas, R; Chalifour, M; Chekhtman, A; Chevalley, J L; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chollet, J C; Citterio, M; Cleland, W E; Clément, C; Cobal, M; Cogswell, F; Colas, Jacques; Collot, J; Cologna, S; Constantinescu, S; Costa, G; Costanzo, D; Coulon, J P; Crouau, M; Dargent, P; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; Dawson, J; De, K; Delagnes, E; de La Taille, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; de Saintignon, P; Di Girolamo, B; Dinkespiler, B; Dita, S; Djama, F; Dodd, J; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Downing, R; Dugne, J J; Duval, P Y; Dzahini, D; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Etienne, F; Evans, H; Eynard, G; Farida, F; Fassnacht, P; Fedyakin, N N; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fournier, D; Fumagalli, G; Gallas, E J; García, G; Gaspar, M; Gianotti, F; Gildemeister, O; Glagolev, V; Glebov, V Yu; Gómez, A; González, V; González de la Hoz, S; Gordeev, A; Gordon, H A; Grabskii, V; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Hakopian, H H; Haney, M; Hébrard, C; Henriques, A; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hervás, L; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hostachy, J Y; Hoummada, A; Huet, M; Huston, J; Imbault, D; Ivanyushenkov, Yu M; Jacquier, Y; Jézéquel, S; Johansson, E K; Jon-And, K; Jones, R; Juste, A; Kakurin, S; Karst, P; Karyukhin, A N; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Klioukhine, V I; Kolachev, G M; Kolomoets, V; Kopikov, S V; Kostrikov, M E; Kovtun, V E; Kozlov, V; Krivkova, P; Kukhtin, V V; Kulagin, M; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kuzmin, M V; Labarga, L; Laborie, G; Lacour, D; Lami, S; Lapin, V; Le Dortz, O; Lefebvre, M; Le Flour, T; Leitner, R; Leltchouk, M; Le Van-Suu, A; Li, J; Liapis, C; Linossier, O; Lissauer, D; Lobkowicz, F; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Yu F; Lomakina, O V; López-Amengual, J M; Lottin, J P; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundqvist, J M; Maio, A; Makowiecki, D S; Malyukov, S N; Mandelli, L; Mansoulié, B; Mapelli, Livio P; Marin, C P; Marrocchesi, P S; Marroquin, F; Martin, L; Martin, O; Martin, P; Maslennikov, A M; Massol, N; Mazzanti, M; Mazzoni, E; Merritt, F S; Michel, B; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Mirea, A; Mnatzakanian, E A; Monnier, E; Montarou, G; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Mosidze, M D; Moynot, M; Muanza, G S; Nagy, E; Nayman, P; Némécek, S; Nessi, Marzio; Nicod, D; Nicoleau, S; Niculescu, M; Noppe, J M; Onofre, A; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paoletti, R; Park, I C; Parrour, G; Parsons, J; Pascual, J I; Pereira, A; Perini, L; Perlas, J A; Perrodo, P; Petroff, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinhão, J; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Poggioli, Luc; Poirot, S; Price, L; Protopopov, Yu; Proudfoot, J; Pukhov, O; Puzo, P; Radeka, V; Rahm, David Charles; Reinmuth, G; Renardy, J F; Renzoni, G; Rescia, S; Resconi, S; Richards, R; Richer, J P; Riu, I; Roda, C; Roldán, J; Romance, J B; Romanov, V; Romero, P; Rusakovitch, N A; Sala, P R; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Sauvage, D; Sauvage, G; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, L; Says, L P; Schaffer, A C; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Seidl, W; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Seman, M; Semenov, A A; Senchyshyn, V G; Serin, L; Shaldaev, E; Shchelchkov, A S; Shochet, M J; Sidorov, V; Silva, J; Simaitis, V J; Simion, S; Sissakian, A N; Soloviev, I V; Snopkov, R; Söderqvist, J; Solodkov, A A; Sonderegger, P; Soustruznik, K; Spanó, F; Spiwoks, R; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Stavina, P; Stephens, R; Studenov, S; Suk, M; Surkov, A; Sykora, I; Taguet, J P; Takai, H; Tang, F; Tardell, S; Tas, P; Teiger, J; Teubert, F; Thaler, J J; Thion, J; Tikhonov, Yu A; Tisserand, V; Tisserant, S; Tokar, S; Topilin, N D; Trka, Z; Turcotte, M; Valkár, S; Varanda, M J; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vincent, P; Vinogradov, V; Vorozhtsov, S B; Vuillemin, V; Walter, C; White, A; Wielers, M; Wingerter-Seez, I; Wolters, H; Yamdagni, N; Yarygin, G; Yosef, C; Zaitsev, A; Zitoun, R; Zolnierowski, Y

    2000-01-01

    A new combined test of an electromagnetic liquid argon accordion calorimeter and a hadronic scintillating-tile calorimeter was carried out at the CERN SPS. These devices are prototypes of the barrel calorimeter of the future ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The energy resolution of pions in the energy range from 10 to 300 GeV at an incident angle theta of about 12 degrees is well described by the expression sigma /E=((41.9+or-1.6)%/ square root E+(1.8+or-0.1)%)(+) (1.8+or-0.1)/E, where E is in GeV. The response to electrons and muons was evaluated. Shower profiles, shower leakage and the angular resolution of hadronic showers were also studied. Results are compared with those from the previous beam test. (22 refs).

  18. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.

    1976-08-01

    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin

  19. Parton-shower uncertainties with Herwig 7: benchmarks at leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Johannes; Schichtel, Peter [Durham University, Department of Physics, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); Nail, Graeme [University of Manchester, Particle Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Plaetzer, Simon [Durham University, Department of Physics, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Particle Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [CERN, TH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    We perform a detailed study of the sources of perturbative uncertainty in parton-shower predictions within the Herwig 7 event generator. We benchmark two rather different parton-shower algorithms, based on angular-ordered and dipole-type evolution, against each other. We deliberately choose leading order plus parton shower as the benchmark setting to identify a controllable set of uncertainties. This will enable us to reliably assess improvements by higher-order contributions in a follow-up work. (orig.)

  20. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 3: The ANI prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.; Mamidjanyan, E.A.; Sanossyan, Kh.N.

    1992-01-01

    Hadronic showers initiated by 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 22 and 30 eV incident protons in the ANI prototype calorimeter are simulated. The energy deposition (longitudinal and lateral) for these showers are calculated. Lateral shower profiles for 0.5, 5 and 20 TeV primary energies are presented and parametrized. The leakage from the calorimeter is estimated. 19 refs

  1. Pion and proton showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Lucaci-Timoce, A. -I.; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Tran, H.L.; Buhmann, P.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wing, M.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J. Berenguer; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chistov, R.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Weber, S.

    2015-04-28

    Showers produced by positive hadrons in the highly granular CALICE scintillatorsteel analogue hadronic calorimeter were studied. The experimental data were collected at CERN and FNAL for single particles with initial momenta from 10 to 80 GeV/c. The calorimeter response and resolution and spatial characteristics of shower development for proton- and pion-induced showers for test beam data and simulations using GEANT4 version 9.6 are compared.

  2. Three-dimensional parametrization of photon-initiated high energy showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, A.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional parametrization of photon-initiated showers in a homogeneous absorber is presented. The form, suggested by a model assimilating the transverse shower development to a random walk process, displays a simple scaling with the primary energy, and is very suitable for numerical integration. The parameters are explicitly calculated for the case of showers in SF5 lead glass, and the results are compared with the explicit simulation by GEANT3.11. Fields of application are investigated. (orig.)

  3. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 3: The ANI prototype calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatuni, Ts A; Mamidjanyan, E A; Sanossyan, Kh N

    1993-12-31

    Hadronic showers initiated by 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 22 and 30 eV incident protons in the ANI prototype calorimeter are simulated. The energy deposition (longitudinal and lateral) for these showers are calculated. Lateral shower profiles for 0.5, 5 and 20 TeV primary energies are presented and parametrized. The leakage from the calorimeter is estimated. 19 refs.

  4. Performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J; Badala, A; Baumgart, S; Bellwied, R; Benhabib, L; Bernard, C; Bianchi, N; Blanco, F; Bortoli, Y; Bourdaud, G; Bourrion, O; Boyer, B; Bruna, E; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D; Capitani, G P; Carcagno, Y; Casanova Diaz, A; Cherney, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Cormier, T M; Cunqueiro Mendez, L; Delagrange, H; Del Franco, M; Dialinas, M; Di Nezza, P; Donoghue, A; Elnimr, M; Enokizono, A; Estienne, M; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fichera, F; Foglio, B; Fresneau, S; Fujita, J; Furget, C; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Germain, M; Giudice, N; Gorbunov, Y; Grimaldi, A; Guardone, N; Guernane, R; Hadjidakis, C; Hamblen, J; Harris, J W; Hasch, D; Heinz, M; Hille, P T; Hornback, D; Ichou, R; Jacobs, P; Jangal, S; Jayananda, K; Klay, J L; Knospe, A G; Kox, S; Kral, J; Laloux, P; LaPointe, S; La Rocca, P; Lewis, S; Li, Q; Librizzi, F; Madagodahettige Don, D; Martashvili, I; Mayes, B; Milletto, T; Muccifora, V; Muller, H; Muraz, J F; Nattrass, C; Noto, F; Novitzky, N; Odyniec, G; Orlandi, A; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pavlinov, A; Pesci, W; Petrov, V; Petta, C; Pichot, P; Pinsky, L; Ploskon, M; Pompei, F; Pulvirenti, A; Putschke, J; Pruneau, C A; Rak, J; Rasson, J; Read, K F; Real, J S; Reolon, A R; Riggi, F; Riso, J; Ronchetti, F; Roy, C; Roy, D; Salemi, M; Salur, S; Sharma, M; Silvermyr, D; Smirnov, N; Soltz, R; Sparti, V; Stutzmann, J.-S; Symons, T J.M; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tarini, L; Thomen, R; Timmins, A; van Leeuwen, M; Vieira, R; Viticchie, A; Voloshin, S; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Ward, R M

    2010-01-01

    The performance of prototypes for the ALICE electromagnetic sampling calorimeter has been studied in test beam measurements at FNAL and CERN. A $4\\times4$ array of final design modules showed an energy resolution of about 11% /$\\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ $\\oplus$ 1.7 % with a uniformity of the response to electrons of 1% and a good linearity in the energy range from 10 to 100 GeV. The electromagnetic shower position resolution was found to be described by 1.5 mm $\\oplus$ 5.3 mm /$\\sqrt{E \\mathrm{(GeV)}}$. For an electron identification efficiency of 90% a hadron rejection factor of $>600$ was obtained.

  5. Matching the Nagy-Soper parton shower at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Manfred [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We give a short review of the shower concept, first introduced by Nagy and Soper, that includes full quantum correlations in the shower evolution. We also state the current status of implementation of the publicly available shower program Deductor. However, the main focus of the talk is the matching of the shower at next-to-leading order within the MC rate at NLO formalism. Matching is necessary in order to increase the accuracy of theoretical predictions and to employ a hadronization model. We show first results using Deductor in conjunction with the Helac-NLO framework for top quark pair production in association with one hard jet.

  6. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  7. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  8. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  9. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  10. Association between meteor showers and asteroids using multivariate criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, B. A.; Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Meteoroid streams are fragments of matter produced by comets or asteroids which intersects the orbit of Earth. Meteor showers are produced when Earth intersects these streams of matter. The discoveries of active asteroids and extinct comets open a new view of the relation between these objects as possible parent bodies at the origin of meteor showers. Aims: The aim of this work is to identify the asteroids that can produce or re-populate meteoroid streams by determining the similarity of their orbits and orbital evolution over 10 000 yr. Methods: The identification was carried out by evaluating several well known D-criteria metrics, the orbits being taken from the IAU Meteor Data Center database and from IAU Minor Planet Center. Finally, we analyzed the physical properties and the orbital stability (in the Lyapunov time sense) of the candidates as well as their possible relationship with meteorites. Results: 206 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were associated as possible parent bodies with 28 meteor showers, according to at least two of the criterion used. 50 of them satisfied all the criteria. Notable finds are: binary asteroid 2000UG11 associated with Andromedids (AND), while the tumbling asteroid (4179)Toutatis could be associated with October Capricornids (OCC). Other possible good candidates are 2004TG10, 2008EY5, 2010CF55, 2010TU149 and 2014OY1. These objects have low albedo, therefore can be primitive objects. Asteroid 2007LW19 which is a fast rotator and most probably has monolithic structure and so its physical characteristic does not support the association found based on the dynamical criteria.

  11. Transition effect of extensive air showers in thick scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidvanskij, A.S.; Navarra, Dzh.; Chernyaev, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Transition effect of extensive air showers has been measured by means of the ''Kover'' facility of the Baksan neutrino laboratory. The transition effect represents the ratio of ''scintillation'' particle density detected with detectors and particle density under the facility concrete roof (21 gxcm -2 ). Measurement results are compared with data obtained by means of the program of electron-photon cascade gaming. Good agreement of experimental and calculational data has been obtained. It follows from the data in the paper that the transition effect for one scintillator in the absence of roof can be produced by the gaming rather reliably

  12. Dipole showers and automated NLO matching in Herwig++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon; Gieseke, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    We report on the implementation of a coherent dipole shower algorithm along with an automated implementation for dipole subtraction and for performing POWHEG- and MC rate at NLO-type matching to next-to-leading order (NLO) calculations. Both programs are implemented as add-on modules to the event generator HERWIG++. A preliminary tune of parameters to data acquired at LEP, HERA and Drell-Yan pair production at the Tevatron has been performed, and we find an overall very good description which is slightly improved by the NLO matching. (orig.)

  13. Dipole showers and automated NLO matching in Herwig++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gieseke, Stefan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2011-09-15

    We report on the implementation of a coherent dipole shower algorithm along with an automated implementation for dipole subtraction and for performing POWHEG- and MC rate at NLO-type matching to next-to-leading order (NLO) calculations. Both programs are implemented as add-on modules to the event generator HERWIG++. A preliminary tune of parameters to data acquired at LEP, HERA and Drell-Yan pair production at the Tevatron has been performed, and we find an overall very good description which is slightly improved by the NLO matching. (orig.)

  14. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  15. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Buitink, Stijn; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered.

  16. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Enriquez, Emilio; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Nelles, Anna; Schellart, Pim; Rachen, Joerg; Rutjes, Casper; ter Veen, Sander; Rossetto, Laura; Thoudam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays impinging on the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. In the leading plasma of this shower electric currents are induced that generate coherent radio wave emission that has been detected with LOFAR, a large and dense array of simple radio

  17. An in-premise model for Legionella exposure during showering events

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exposure model was constructed to predict the critical Legionella densities in an engineered water system that might result in infection from inhalation of aerosols containing the pathogen while showering. The model predicted the Legionella densities in the shower air, water ...

  18. Parton-shower matching systematics in vector-boson-fusion WW production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Michael [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Plaetzer, Simon [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of next-to-leading order plus parton-shower matching in vector-boson-fusion WW production including leptonic decays. The study is performed in the Herwig 7 framework interfaced to VBFNLO 3, using the angular-ordered and dipole-based parton-shower algorithms combined with the subtractive and multiplicative-matching algorithms. (orig.)

  19. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 1: Comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.; Mamidjanyan, E.A.; Sanossyan, Kh.N.

    1992-01-01

    Hadronic showers are simulated by the MARS 10 code and compared with various experimental results obtained at high-energy accelerators. Good agreement between the experiment and the simulations is observed. MARS 10 is a fast and reliable instrument for numerical studies of the average characteristics of hadronic showers. 16 refs

  20. The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van der Heijden, Bas C. J. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were

  1. Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; Corstanje, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; ter Veen, S.; de Vries, K. D.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a

  2. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving

  3. Further investigation on the performance of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan

    2008-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In the previous model we presented [Qi Xiaoni, Liu Zhenyan, Li Dandan. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48(1):193-203.], three critical assumptions were made to reduce the complexity and computational time, which can also reduce the models' accuracy. Accurate modelling of the operating process is a determining factor both for designing the shower cooling tower (SCT) and for optimising its operation. In this paper, we derive a new model without applying the three assumptions. According to the condition of the outlet air, the governing equations consider two cases, including the supersaturated and unsaturated states. This model is used to predict the performance of a full scale SCT located in China with different conditions for validation. The differences in the heat and mass transfer analyses of the two models are described at different atmospheric conditions

  4. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  5. The arrival time distribution of muons in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was done to investigate the lateral dependence of the muon arrival time distribution in extensive air showers at small core distances. In the present experiment the muon arrival time distribution was investigated by measuring the relative arrival times between single muons in five fast Cerenkov detectors beneath 500g/cm 2 of concrete and at an atmospheric depth of 880g/cm 2 . It is shown that, although it is not possible to determine the arrival time distribution as such, it is possible to interpret the relative arrival times between muons in terms of the differences between the order statistics of a sample drawn from the arrival time distribution. The relationship between the arrival time distribution of muons relative to the first detected muon and the muon arrival time distribution is also derived. It was found that the dispersion of the muon arrival time distribution does not increase significantly with increasing core distance between 10m and 60m from the core. A comparison with theoretical distributions obtained from model calculations for proton initiated showers indicate that 1. the mean delay of muons with respect to the first detected muon is significantly larger than that expected from the model and 2. the observed dispersion is also significantly larger than the predicted dispersion for core distances between 10m and 60m

  6. Parton shower and NLO-matching uncertainties in Higgs boson pair production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen; Kuttimalai, Silvan

    2018-02-01

    We perform a detailed study of NLO parton shower matching uncertainties in Higgs boson pair production through gluon fusion at the LHC based on a generic and process independent implementation of NLO subtraction and parton shower matching schemes for loop-induced processes in the Sherpa event generator. We take into account the full top-quark mass dependence in the two-loop virtual corrections and compare the results to an effective theory approximation. In the full calculation, our findings suggest large parton shower matching uncertainties that are absent in the effective theory approximation. We observe large uncertainties even in regions of phase space where fixed-order calculations are theoretically well motivated and parton shower effects expected to be small. We compare our results to NLO matched parton shower simulations and analytic resummation results that are available in the literature.

  7. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  8. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  9. IAU Meteor Data Center-the shower database: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopek, Tadeusz Jan; Kaňuchová, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    Currently, the meteor shower part of Meteor Data Center database includes: 112 established showers, 563 in the working list, among them 36 have the pro tempore status. The list of shower complexes contains 25 groups, 3 have established status and 1 has the pro tempore status. In the past three years, new meteor showers submitted to the MDC database were detected amongst the meteors observed by CAMS stations (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance), those included in the EDMOND (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database), those collected by the Japanese SonotaCo Network, recorded in the IMO (International Meteor Organization) database, observed by the Croatian Meteor Network and on the Southern Hemisphere by the SAAMER radar. At the XXIX General Assembly of the IAU in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2015, the names of 18 showers were officially accepted and moved to the list of established ones. Also, one shower already officially named (3/SIA the Southern iota Aquariids) was moved back to the working list of meteor showers. At the XXIX GA IAU the basic shower nomenclature rule was modified, the new formulation predicates ;The general rule is that a meteor shower (and a meteoroid stream) should be named after the constellation that contains the nearest star to the radiant point, using the possessive Latin form;. Over the last three years the MDC database was supplemented with the earlier published original data on meteor showers, which permitted verification of the correctness of the MDC data and extension of bibliographic information. Slowly but surely new database software options are implemented, and software bugs are corrected.

  10. The LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This huge 6X7 square metre wall consists of 3300 blocks containing scintillator, fibre optics and lead, which took engineers on the LHCb experiment at CERN only one month to construct. It will measure the energy of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC when it is started in 2008. Photons, electrons and positrons will pass through the layers of material in these modules and deposit their energy in the detector through a shower of particles.

  11. Comparison of the Physical Properties of Showers that the Satisfaction of Shower Feeling among Users in Three Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Okamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to construct a scheme that makes it possible to compare the relationship between water usage, satisfaction, and physical properties in three countries. The physical properties of the shower were measured using physical properties testing apparatus of water-saving standard or scheme for showerheads issued in several water-saving countries and data for users satisfaction evaluation was acquired through bathing experiments. In this paper, we analyzed the result from Taiwanese and Vietnamese individuals to compare them to of Japanese subjects analyzed in the previous study. We compared the physical properties of showers assessed low in satisfaction by Taiwanese, Vietnamese and Japanese subjects. It was assumed that spray pattern tends to decrease satisfaction when the water volume ratio within 100 mm and 150 mm of a measuring device is located a 450 mm distance from the showerhead is low, and that, because all three countries showed the same value, it was imagined that there were no differences in the water volume ratio of high-satisfaction showerheads among three countries. On the other hand, the values of Spray Force-per-Hole, Temperature Drop, and Spray Angle were different among three countries. We speculated that these differences are affected respectively by ethnic differences in pain tolerance, thermoregulatory response and bathing habit.

  12. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  13. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  14. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  15. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  16. Review on Computational Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumithra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational electromagnetics (CEM is applied to model the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the objects like antenna, waveguides, aircraft and their environment using Maxwell equations.  In this paper the strength and weakness of various computational electromagnetic techniques are discussed. Performance of various techniques in terms accuracy, memory and computational time for application specific tasks such as modeling RCS (Radar cross section, space applications, thin wires, antenna arrays are presented in this paper.

  17. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  18. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  19. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  20. Space charge in ionization detectors and the NA48 electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestini, S.; Barr, G.D.; Biino, C.; Calafiura, P.; Ceccucci, A.; Cerri, C.; Chollet, J.C.; Cirilli, M.; Cogan, J.; Costantini, F.; Crepe, S.; Cundy, D.; Fantechi, R.; Fayard, L.; Fischer, G.; Formica, A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Funk, W.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Gonidec, A.; Gorini, B.; Govi, G.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Kekelidze, V.; Kubischta, W.; Luitz, S.; Mannelli, I.; Martini, M.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Ocariz, J.; Schinzel, D.; Sozzi, M.; Tatishvili, G.; Tkatchev, A.; Unal, G.; Velasco, M.; Vossnack, O.; Wahl, H.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of space charge due to positive ions slowly moving in parallel plate ionization chambers is considered. A model for the degradation of the detector response is developed, with particular emphasis on electromagnetic calorimeters.The topics discussed include: (a) the stationary; (b) the time dependent cases; (c) the limit of very large space charge; (d) the electric field dependence of the electron drift velocity; (e) the effect of longitudinal development of showers; (f) the behaviour of the average reductions of response; (g) the non-uniformity of response for different positions of the shower axis inside the cell defined by the electrodes. The NA48 calorimeter is used as application and for comparison of results

  1. Some energy and angular characteristics of electrons in electromagnetic cascades in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, Kh.; Petrov, S.; Elbert, J. W.

    The angular distribution of electrons with threshold energies of 20 MeV (the lowest energy at which electrons radiate Cerenkov photons in the air) are considered. The results are based on Monte Carlo calculations of the development of electromagnetic cascades. A set of showers with energy thresholds equals 20 MeV and primary photon energies equals 10, 20, 30, and 100 GeV is simulated. Information about the particle properties (energy, angle, and radial displacement) is provided at each radiation length of depth. The electrons are at much smaller angles to the shower axis than were those of Messel and Crawford (1970); this explains the discrepancy in angular distribution of Cerenkov light in air between the two.

  2. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km2. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the underground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60° zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62° to 80° will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km2 for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determination of horizontal showers in the future and the radio detection of neutrino induced showers is possible.

  3. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (η) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10 19.5 eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis

  4. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Vankov, H.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgaria Academy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-01-15

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution ({eta}) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10{sup 19.5}eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  5. Matching Matrix Elements and Parton Showers with HERWIG and PYTHIA

    CERN Document Server

    Mrenna, S; Mrenna, Stephen; Richardson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We report on our exploration of matching matrix element calculations with the parton-shower models contained in the event generators HERWIG and Pythia. We describe results for e+e- collisions and for the hadroproduction of W bosons and Drell--Yan pairs. We compare methods based on (1) a strict implementation of ideas proposed by Catani, et al., (2) a generalization based on using the internal Sudakov form factors of HERWIG and Pythia, and (3) a simpler proposal of M. Mangano. Where appropriate, we show the dependence on various choices of scales and clustering that do not affect the soft and collinear limits of the predictions, but have phenomenological implications. Finally, we comment on how to use these results to state systematic errors on the theoretical predictions.

  6. The muon trigger of the SAPHIR shower detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufeger-Hurek, H.

    1989-12-01

    The muon trigger system of the SAPHIR shower counter consists of 4 scintillation counters. The total trigger rate of cosmic muons is about 55 Hz which is reduced to about 45 Hz by the selecting algorithms. This rate of clean muon events allows a simultaneous monitoring of the whole electronics system and the calibration of the gas sandwich detector by measuring the gas gain. The dependences of the signals on the geometry have been simulated with the help of a Monte Carlo program. The comparison of simulated and measured pulse heights shows that faults in the electronics as well as defects in the detector hardware, e.g., the HV system, or temperature effects, can be recognized at the level of a few percent. In addition the muon signals are used to determine the calibration factor for each cathode channel individually. (orig.) [de

  7. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  8. The new South Pole air shower experiment - SPASE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Gaisser, T K; Gill, J R; Hart, S P; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Martello, D; Miller, T C; Ogden, P A; Patel, M; Rochester, K; Spiczak, G M; Stanev, T; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new coincidence experiment designed to improve understanding of the composition of the primary cosmic-ray beam around the knee of the spectrum. The experiment consists of an air shower array on the surface (SPASE-2), which works in coincidence with an array of air-Cherenkov detectors (VULCAN), and the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) deep in the ice. The experiment must cover the energy range from approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 to approx 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 eV to overlap with direct measurements at lower energy and encompass the regions of the knee and beyond in the cosmic ray spectrum.

  9. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, H; Villasenor, L

    2008-01-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV

  10. Higgs boson production A comparison of parton showers and resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Balázs, C; Puljak, I

    2001-01-01

    The search for the Higgs boson(s) is one of the major priorities at the upgraded Fermilab Tevatron and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Monte Carlo (MC) event generators are heavily utilized to extract and interpret the Higgs signal, which depends on the details of the soft-gluon emission from the initial state partons in hadronic collisions. Thus, it is crucial to establish the reliability of the MC event generators used by the experimentalists. In this paper, the MC based parton shower formalism is compared to that of an analytic resummation calculation. Theoretical input, predictions and, where they exist, data for the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons, Z/sup 0/ bosons, and photon pairs are compared for the Tevatron and the LHC. This comparison is useful in understanding the strengths and the weaknesses of the different theoretical approaches, and in testing their reliability. (36 refs).

  11. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  12. Electromagnetic De-Shaling of Coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Mesina, M.B.; Kuilman, W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency with which an electromagnetic sensor array is able to distinguish density and ash content of coal and shale mixtures was determined experimentally. The investigated sensor was originally designed for automatic metal detection and sorting in industrial glass recycle processing, where

  13. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  14. Magnetic reversal spurts: Rain gauges for comet showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Abrupt increases in the rate of magnetic reversals (magnetic reversal spurts) were first studied by many others. They hypothesized that spurts result from increased turbulence in the earth's core dynamo during episodes of intense bolide bombardment of the earth. Mechanisms for creating episodes of intense bombardment of the earth involve gravitational perturbation of the Oort cloud of comets, either by a hidden planet, a solar companion, or massive matter in the galactic plane. Herein, the time variation in reversal rate is analyzed using methods of statistical density estimation. A smooth, continuous estimate of reversal rate is obtained using an adaptive kernel method, in which the kernel width is adjusted as a function of reversal rate. The estimates near the ends of the data series (at 165 my ago and the present) are obtained by extending the data by reflection. The results show that the reversal spurts are not associated demonstrably with extinctions or well-dated impacts. If the spurts do record episodes of intense bombardment of the earth, then the mass extinctions do not, in general, occur at times of impacts. Furthermore, the large impact craters seen are not obviously related to the spurts, suggesting that the craters may have been caused by bolides of a different nature and with a different temporal pattern. However, the most simple explanation seems to be that the spurts do not record comet showers, either because the recording mechanism suggested by Muller and Morris is not effective or because comet showers are not triggered in the ways considered by Hut et al

  15. Experimental studies of the acoustic detection of particle showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulak, L.R.; Bowen, T.; Pifer, B.

    1977-01-01

    The scale and characteristics required of a detector that will measure ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray neutrino interactions have been studied in detail. Results obtained to date in observing acoustic signals from hadronic showers both at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Harvard University are reported. It is suggested that ultrasonic particle detection is possible, currently down to the level of 10 14 eV. This simple, inexpensive technique may be ideal for observing the secondaries produced in a massive (10 9 ton) neutrino detector. Three experimental tests were performed to determine if showers produce detectable sonic signals as recently predicted. One at the 200-MeV linac at BNL used heavily ionizing protons stopping in water (range = 30 cm) with total energy depositions between 10 19 and 20 21 eV and deposition times ranging from 3 μs to 200 μs. The diameter of the beam was fixed at 6 cm (a characteristic time of 30 μs). A similar test was done at the 160-MeV cyclotron at Harvard, where the energy deposition could be decreased to 10 15 eV. A third test was done with minimum ionizing protons from the 28-GeV fast extracted beam at BNL. As in the BNL linac test, the beam could not be tuned below energy depositions of 10 19 . Typically 3 x 10 11 protons traversed 30 cm of water during a deposition time of 2 μs with a beam diameter variable between 5 and 20 cm

  16. Atmospheric showers reconstruction and air fluorescence measurement for the study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays in the framework of EUSO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The EUSO project (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is an innovative concept to measure the UHECR (Ultra High Energy Cosmic ray) spectrum by observing from space the light (air fluorescence and Cerenkov radiation) produced in the atmosphere by EAS (Extensive Air Shower). After an overview of the scientific context and an EUSO project description, a reconstruction method of EAS seen from space is presented. This new method enable one to reconstruct the UHECR parameters (Energy, direction, X_m_a_x) using only the fluorescence signal shape (without extra information). This method is very efficient for the horizontal EAS. The second part of this thesis deals with the study and the measurement of the air fluorescence with the MACFLY experiment (Measurement of Air Cerenkov and Fluorescence Light Yield). After a state of the art on the air fluorescence knowledge, a model of FLY (Florescence Light Yield) proportional to the Energy released in air is proposed. The experiment MACFLY and the data analysis method are described in detail. The experiment is composed of two devices. The first (Macfly1) which measures the fluorescence produced by only one particle measure the FLY of electron of 1.5 MeV (radioactive source), 20 GeV and 50 GeV (CERN test beam). The second (Macfly2) which measure the fluorescence produced by an electromagnetic shower, was the first experiment to measure the shower age dependence of the FLY. The pressure dependence was also measured by the two devices. Thanks to a GEANT4 simulation program, we compare our measurements with the FLY models. The assumption of the proportionality between the FLY and the energy deposited has been checked. One finds the same result with Macfly1 and Macfly2. In the air at 950 hPa, 23 deg. C and 0% of moisture one obtains: FLY=19 ± 4 photons/MeV. (author) [fr

  17. On the transverse momentum in Z-boson production in a virtually ordered parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2009-12-15

    Cross sections for physical processes that involve very different momentum scales in the same process will involve large logarithms of the ratio of the momentum scales when calculated in perturbation theory. One goal of calculations using parton showers is to sum these large logarithms. We ask whether this goal is achieved for the transverse momentum distribution of a Z-boson produced in hadron-hadron collisions when the shower is organized with higher virtuality parton splittings coming first, followed successively by lower virtuality parton splittings. We find that the virtuality ordered shower works well in reproducing the known QCD result. (orig.)

  18. Study of the hadron shower profiles with the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, V.S.; Nessi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of the hadronic showers detected by ATLAS iron-scintillator tile hadron calorimeter with longitudinal tile configuration have been investigated. The results are based on 100 GeV pion beam data. Due to the beam scan provided many different beam impact locations with cells it is succeeded to obtain detailed picture of transverse shower behavior. The underlying radial energy densities for four depths and for overall calorimeter have been reconstructed. The three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been suggested

  19. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  20. On the transverse momentum in Z-boson production in a virtually ordered parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2009-12-01

    Cross sections for physical processes that involve very different momentum scales in the same process will involve large logarithms of the ratio of the momentum scales when calculated in perturbation theory. One goal of calculations using parton showers is to sum these large logarithms. We ask whether this goal is achieved for the transverse momentum distribution of a Z-boson produced in hadron-hadron collisions when the shower is organized with higher virtuality parton splittings coming first, followed successively by lower virtuality parton splittings. We find that the virtuality ordered shower works well in reproducing the known QCD result. (orig.)

  1. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  2. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  3. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  4. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  5. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  6. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night.

  7. Extensive Air Showers High Energy Phenomena and Astrophysical Aspects - A Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book

    CERN Document Server

    Grieder, Peter K.F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are a very unique phenomenon. In the more than six decades since their discovery by Auger et al. we have learned a great deal about these extremely energetic events and gained deep insights into high-energy phenomena, particle physics and astrophysics. In this Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book Peter K. F. Grieder provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the phenomenology and facts of the various types of interactions and cascades, theoretical background, experimental methods, data evaluation and interpretation, and air shower simulation. He discusses astrophysical aspects of the primary radiation and addresses the questions that continue to puzzle researchers. The book is divided into two parts, each in its own separate volume: Part I in Volume I deals mainly with the basic theoretical framework of the processes that determine an air shower and ends with a summary of ways to extract information on the primary radiation from air shower observations. It also presents a compi...

  8. QCD parton showers and NLO EW corrections to Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, P; Sapronov, A A; Seymour, M H; Skands, P Z

    2012-01-01

    We report on the implementation of an interface between the SANC generator framework for Drell-Yan hard processes, which includes next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections, and the Herwig++ and Pythia8 QCD parton shower Monte Carlos. A special aspect of this implementation is that the initial-state shower evolution in both shower generators has been augmented to handle the case of an incoming photon-in-a-proton, diagrams for which appear at the NLO EW level. The difference between shower algorithms leads to residual differences in the relative corrections of 2-3% in the p_T(mu) distributions at p_T(mu)>~50 GeV (where the NLO EW correction itself is of order 10%).

  9. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  10. Improving the angular resolution of existing air shower arrays by adding a thin layer of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.; Mikocki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations show that placing a thin sheet of lead above conventional extensive air shower counters yields an additional signal which is earlier in time. This will improve the array's angular resolution. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Proposed International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Merideth; Wellesley Coll.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is part of a new generation of accelerators enabling physicists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental components of the universe. The proposed ILC will accelerate positrons and electrons towards each other with two facing linear colliders, each twenty kilometers long. Designing and planning for the future accelerator has been undertaken as a global collaboration, with groups working on several possible detectors to be used at the ILC. The following research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) pertained to the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy and spatial resolution of the calorimeter was tested by using computer simulations for proposed detectors. In order to optimize this accuracy, different designs of the electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated along with various methods to analyze the data from the simulated detector. A low-cost calorimeter design was found to provide energy resolution comparable to more expensive designs, and new clustering algorithms offered better spatial resolution. Energy distribution and shape characteristics of electromagnetic showers were also identified to differentiate various showers in the calorimeter. With further research, a well-designed detector will enable the ILC to observe new realms of physics

  12. Optimizing the energy measurement of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampl, W.

    2005-12-01

    This PhD-thesis addresses the calibration of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. ATLAS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is currently under construction at CERN in Geneva. LHC and ATLAS are foreseen to start up in 2007. In summer 2004, an extensive beam-test was carried out. This means that individual detector modules are exposed to a particle beam of known energy in order to verify the detector performance. At this occasion, all ATLAS subdetectors where operated together for the first time. The thesis contains a comprehensive description of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter, the reconstruction software and the test-beam experiment that was carried out at CERN in 2004. Furthermore, the physics of the electromagnetic shower is discussed in detail. Data from the test beam as well as a detailed Monte-Carlo simulation are used to develop a novel energy-reconstruction method for the ATLAS EM calorimeter that achieves an excellent energy resolution (sampling term ∼ 11 %) as well as a very good linearity (< 0.4 %). Data taken during the beam test is also used to verify the accuracy of the simulation and to test the new energy-reconstruction method. (author)

  13. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N.K.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Jul (2016), 1-37, č. článku P06013. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14033; GA MŠk 7E12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hadron shower s * scintillator calorimeters * simulation of shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  14. Fluctuation of shower front structure: measurements, Esub(p) approximately 1018 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, M.L.; Watson, A.A.; Wild, P.; Wilson, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The work of Watson and Wilson (1974) on the introduction of a parameter of shower-front development fluctuations has been extended using a purpose-built recording system yielding results over an increased distance range from the shower axis. An exhaustive study of possible spurious sources of the observed features has been undertaken, and none of significance have been identified. The values of the fluctuation parameter now given are considered well-established. (orig.) [de

  15. The determination of parameters of shower initiated in imaging calorimeter by electrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, S.V.; Voronov, S.A.; Karelin, A.V.; Koldobskij, S.A.; Runtso, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the report on several methods of shower axis reconstruction and methods of search for the starting point of the shower are presented. They were developed for 'thin' sampling imaging calorimeters. For this purpose we used a Monte-Carlo simulation of interaction of electrons and protons with a silicon-tungsten calorimeter of PAMELA satellite-borne experiment. After some adaptation, these methods could be applied for different types of calorimeters

  16. Application of an image intensifier to the study on hadrons in air shower, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Itsuro; Kawasumi, Norio; Hashimoto, Katsumi; Machida, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    As the apparatus for observing cosmic ray air shower, the particle detection apparatus combining spark chamber, scintillator and photomultiplier tube is frequently used, but the exact detection of particle number is impossible with it when particle density is large. The authors have carried out the experiment to measure nuclear active particles in air shower and to grasp the central part of air shower as energy flow by utilizing an image intensifier tube. On the roof of building S, a laboratory was built, and a core detector of 2 m x 2 m area, 13 AS detectors of 0.25 m 2 and an AS detector of 1 m 2 were installed. The gate of the II was opened by utilizing coincidence pulses, and the position and amount of scintillation in the core detector was taken into a camera through the II. The time of observation was 289 hours, and the time of II operation was 113 hours. Total number of air shower recorded was 218 cases, and the centers of 120 cases among them were determined in the AS detectors at four corners. The centers of 39 cases were within the area of the core detector. In the coincident counting of air shower and burst carried out in the present experiment, the total delay time from the arrival of air shower to the gate pulse actuating the II was 1.6 sec. The core of air shower of about 10 6 size and 1.3 age was caught by this method. The problems for future are the determination of core position for the air shower of smaller size, and the meaning of spot images of II. (Kako, I.)

  17. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  18. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: frank.schroeder@kit.edu [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  19. A study of the air-shower response of current-limited spark chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Hodson, A.L.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of current-limited spark chambers (discharge chambers) and their relative response to shower electrons and photons are investigated. A stack of six horizontal 1m x 10 cm discharge chambers, above one another, is triggered by air showers falling on an adjacent discharge-chamber array. Particular combinations of discharges show that the efficiency of the chambers is very high and that a significant fraction of the discharges is due to incident photons

  20. A shower look-up table to trace the dynamics of meteoroid streams and their sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Petrus

    2018-04-01

    Meteor showers are caused by meteoroid streams from comets (and some primitive asteroids). They trace the comet population and its dynamical evolution, warn of dangerous long-period comets that can pass close to Earth's orbit, outline volumes of space with a higher satellite impact probability, and define how meteoroids evolve in the interplanetary medium. Ongoing meteoroid orbit surveys have mapped these showers in recent years, but the surveys are now running up against a more and more complicated scene. The IAU Working List of Meteor Showers has reached 956 entries to be investigated (per March 1, 2018). The picture is even more complicated with the discovery that radar-detected streams are often different, or differently distributed, than video-detected streams. Complicating matters even more, some meteor showers are active over many months, during which their radiant position gradually changes, which makes the use of mean orbits as a proxy for a meteoroid stream's identity meaningless. The dispersion of the stream in space and time is important to that identity and contains much information about its origin and dynamical evolution. To make sense of the meteor shower zoo, a Shower Look-Up Table was created that captures this dispersion. The Shower Look-Up Table has enabled the automated identification of showers in the ongoing CAMS video-based meteoroid orbit survey, results of which are presented now online in near-real time at http://cams.seti.org/FDL/. Visualization tools have been built that depict the streams in a planetarium setting. Examples will be presented that sample the range of meteoroid streams that this look-up table describes. Possibilities for further dynamical studies will be discussed.

  1. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  2. Electromagnetic Shielding Characteristics of Eco-Friendly Foamed Concrete Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Sil Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic shielding characteristics according to the material composition of foamed concrete, which was manufactured to reduce environmental pollution and to economically apply it in actual building walls, were researched herein. Industrial by-products such as ladle furnace slag (LFS, gypsum, and blast furnace slag (BFS were added to manufacture foamed concrete with enhanced functionalities such as lightweight, heat insulation, and sound insulation. The electrical characteristics such as permittivity and loss tangent according to the foam and BFS content were calculated and measured. Free space measurement was used to measure the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of the actually manufactured foamed concrete. It was confirmed that electromagnetic signals were better blocked when the foam content was low and the BFS content was high in the measured frequency bands (1–8 GHz and that approximately 90% of the electromagnetic signals were blocked over 4 GHz.

  3. The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, Inger N.; van der Heijden, Bas C. J. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Methods Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a (hot-to-) cold shower for 30, 60, 90 seconds or a control group during 30 consecutive days followed by 60 days of showering cold at their own discretion for the intervention groups. The primary outcome was illness days and related sickness absence from work. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, work productivity, anxiety, thermal sensation and adverse reactions. Results 79% of participants in the interventions groups completed the 30 consecutive days protocol. A negative binomial regression model showed a 29% reduction in sickness absence for (hot-to-) cold shower regimen compared to the control group (incident rate ratio: 0.71, P = 0.003). For illness days there was no significant group effect. No related serious advents events were reported. Conclusion A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5183 PMID:27631616

  4. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliescher, Stefan, E-mail: fliescher@physik.rwth-aachen.de [3. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, University (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km{sup 2} radio array.

  5. Calculations with off-shell matrix elements, TMD parton densities and TMD parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Marcin; Hameren, Andreas van; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Jung, Hannes [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Serino, Mirko [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    A new calculation using off-shell matrix elements with TMD parton densities supplemented with a newly developed initial state TMD parton shower is described. The calculation is based on the KaTie package for an automated calculation of the partonic process in high-energy factorization, making use of TMD parton densities implemented in TMDlib. The partonic events are stored in an LHE file, similar to the conventional LHE files, but now containing the transverse momenta of the initial partons. The LHE files are read in by the Cascade package for the full TMD parton shower, final state shower and hadronization from Pythia where events in HEPMC format are produced. We have determined a full set of TMD parton densities and developed an initial state TMD parton shower, including all flavors following the TMD distribution. As an example of application we have calculated the azimuthal de-correlation of high p{sub t} dijets as measured at the LHC and found very good agreement with the measurement when including initial state TMD parton showers together with conventional final state parton showers and hadronization. (orig.)

  6. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  7. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  8. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  9. Progress in Geant4 Electromagnetic Physics Modelling and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, J; Burkhardt, H; Ivanchenko, V N; Asai, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Brown, J M C; Chikuma, N; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Elles, S; Jacquemier, J; Guatelli, S; Incerti, S; Kadri, O; Maire, M; Urban, L; Pandola, L; Sawkey, D; Toshito, T; Yamashita, T

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report on recent improvements in the electromagnetic (EM) physics models of Geant4 and new validations of EM physics. Improvements have been made in models of the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, gamma conversion to electron and muon pairs, fluctuations of energy loss, multiple scattering, synchrotron radiation, and high energy positron annihilation. The results of these developments are included in the new Geant4 version 10.1 and in patches to previous versions 9.6 and 10.0 that are planned to be used for production for run-2 at LHC. The Geant4 validation suite for EM physics has been extended and new validation results are shown in this work. In particular, the effect of gamma-nuclear interactions on EM shower shape at LHC energies is discussed. (paper)

  10. Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1995-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetism is taught as a part of most contemporary electrical engineering curricula. Usually a basic course is intended to cover all the fundamental electromagnetic theory which is needed in later engineering courses. However it is often found that students fail to understand...... theoretical course contents have been reduced to a core of fundamental principles. These are combined with the study of magnetic properties of materials closely related to manufacturer's data sheets. To enhance the understanding of these fundamentals, practical topics from engineering technology are included...... and their application in technology students get a more comprehensive understanding of electromagnetism, and they are able to apply the physical principles to problems they encounter later in their careers...

  11. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  12. Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozynski, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...

  13. Fine-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter using plastic scintillator strip-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Kim, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Uchida, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Garutti, E.; Iba, S.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kallies, W.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kishimoto, S.; Miyata, H.; Mzavia, D.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, R.; Ono, H.; Samoilov, V.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tsamalaidze, Z.

    2006-01-01

    For the future linear collider calorimetry, fine-granularity is indispensable for energy measurements based on particle flow algorithm, which could achieve better energy resolution for jets than the conventional method. To explore the possibility for such a calorimeter using scintillator, an electromagnetic calorimeter test module, made of scintillator-strips and lead plates, was constructed and tested with test beams. Performance of the test module is presented in this article, in terms of the shower profile studies as well as energy and spatial measurements

  14. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  15. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  16. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  17. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  18. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  19. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  20. Initial-state parton shower kinematics for NLO event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a consistent method to combine tree-level event generators for hadron collision interactions with those including one additional QCD radiation from the initial-state partons, based on the limited leading-log (LLL) subtraction method, aiming at an application to NLO event generators. In this method, a boundary between non-radiative and radiative processes necessarily appears at the factorization scale (μ F ). The radiation effects are simulated using a parton shower (PS) in non-radiative processes. It is therefore crucial in our method to apply a PS which well reproduces the radiation activities evaluated from the matrix-element (ME) calculations for radiative processes. The PS activity depends on the applied kinematics model. In this paper we introduce two models for our simple initial-state leading-log PS: a model similar to the 'old' PYTHIA-PS and a p T -prefixed model motivated by ME calculations. PS simulations employing these models are tested using W-boson production at LHC as an example. Both simulations show a smooth matching to the LLL subtracted W+1 jet simulation in the p T distribution of W bosons, and the summed p T spectra are stable against a variation of μ F , despite that the p T -prefixed PS results in an apparently harder p T spectrum. (orig.)

  1. Treatment of shower and laundry liquid radwaste by foam flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Ha; Lee, Jeong Won; Park, Hee Seong; Lee, Chul Yong; Kang, Kwon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Shower and laundry water containing surfactant were treated by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation. In precipitate flotation, 99.8% of removal efficiency was attained at cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 9.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 30min. In adsorbing colloidal flotation using Fe(III) as a collector, 99.8% removal efficiency was attained at initial cobalt ion concentration 50ppm, pH 8.5, gas flow rate 70ml/min and flotation time 15 min. By adding Al(III) 20ppm after coprecipitating cobalt ion with Fe(III), operation pH range was more enlarged than using Fe(III) or Al(III) each. NaNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NaCl, CaCl{sub 2} were added as foreign ions. Removal efficiency by precipitate flotation and adsorbing colloidal flotation for the cobalt solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were about 90% and 72% due to the decreased Zeta potential and the interruption of precipitation. Using Al(III) as a activator at solution containing 0.1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, the removal efficiency was increased up to 99%. (author). 24 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAyeal, Douglas [University of Chicago

    2013-05-01

    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  3. Extensive air showers, lightnings and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the lightning research, we monitor the particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) initiated by the runaway electrons, and Extensive Air Showers (EASs) originated from high energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides, we monitor the near-surface electric field and the atmospheric discharges with the help of a network of electric field mills. The Aragats “electron accelerator” produced plenty of TGE and lightning events in spring 2015. Using 1-sec time series, we investigated the relation of lightnings and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; during some of TGEs the lightning would terminate the particle flux 3 times after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of TGE or on the decay phase of it; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just on a maximum of its development. We discuss the possibility that a huge EAS facilitates lightning leader to find its path to the ground. (author)

  4. The silicon shower maximum detector for the STIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The structure of a shashlik calorimeter allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the longitudinal sampling to improve the accuracy in the determination of the direction of the showering particle and the e/π separation ability. The new forward calorimeter of the DELPHI detector has been equipped with two planes of silicon pad detectors respectively after 4 and 7.4 radiation lengths. The novelty of these silicon detectors is that to cope with the shashlik readout fibers, they had to incorporate 1.4 mm holes every cm 2 . The detector consists of circular strips with a radial pitch of 1.7 mm and an angular granularity of 22.5 , read out by means of the MX4 preamplifier. The preamplifier is located at 35 cm from the silicon detector and the signal is carried by Kapton cables bonded to the detector. The matching to the MX4 input pitch of 44 μm was made by a specially developed fanin hybrid. (orig.)

  5. Detection of the Phoenicids meteor shower in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mikiya; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Tsuchiya, Chie; Moorhead, Althea V.; Moser, Danielle E.; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2017-09-01

    An appearance of the Phoenicids meteor shower was predicted in 2014 by using a dust trail simulation of an outburst of 1956. We detected Phoenicids meteors on December 2 through multiple observation methods. The NASA All Sky Fireball Network and the Southern Ontario Meteor Network detected five meteors of Phoenicids via video observation. The Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) found fourteen candidate meteors, eight of which were confirmed as Phoenicids. The observed radiant point is consistent with that of our model predictions. In addition to the above observations, a visual observation was carried out by the Japanese team near the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) of Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) in La Palma Island. The obtained zenithal hourly rate (ZHR) was 16.4±4.9. The maximum ZHR was roughly estimated to be between 20 and 30, which indicates that the cometary activity of parent object 289P/Blanpain in the early 20th century was only about one fifth or one eighth as high as its activity in the late 18th and early 19th century. Accordingly, it seems to be the case that 289P/Blanpain is gradually transforming from a comet to a dormant object.

  6. Mathematics and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Danta, M.

    2000-01-01

    Symbiosis between mathematics and electromagnetism is analyzed in a simple and concise manner by taking a historical perspective. The universal tool character of mathematical models allowed the transfer of models from several branches of physics into the realm of electromagnetism by drawing analogies. The mutual interdependence between covariant formulation and tensor calculus is marked. The paper focuses on the guiding idea of field theory and Maxwell's equations. Likewise, geometrization of interactions in connection with gauge fields is also noted. (Author)

  7. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  8. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Mr. T.P. (Tjerk) KUIPERS Senior Adviser Health Physics Military Healthcare & Occupational Health Expertise Co-ordination Centre Support...Test of Biological Integrity in Dogs Exposed to an Electromagnetic Pulse Environment”, Health Physics 36:159-165, 1979. [11] Baum, S.J., Ekstrom, M.E...Electromagnetic Radiation”, Health Physics 30:161-166, 1976. [12] Baum, S., Skidmore, W. and Ekstrom, M., “Continuous Exposure of Rodents to 108 Pulses

  9. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  10. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  11. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  12. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  13. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  14. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the lateral and temporal distributions of particles in the extensive air shower front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I. M.; Mitrica, B.; Badea, A. F.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the influence of the primary particle (mass and energy) on the development of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) a study has been performed on simulated events. A number of showers have been simulated using CORSIKA simulation program for different primary particles (p, C, Fe) and different energies (5.62x10 16 and 10 17 eV). The arrival time distributions of particles arriving at ground (detector level) have been studied for different primary energies and masses. Arrival time quartiles have been calculated and compared for different primaries. Arrival time distributions for different distances to shower core and different threshold energies have been compared. To obtain information about the influence of the primary particle on the shape of the lateral distribution of detected shower particles, the simulated lateral density distribution has been approximated with a parametric Lateral Density Function (LDF). The interaction of the shower particles with the detectors has been simulated and the energy deposited in the detectors has been evaluated. This method was used for obtaining the reconstructed (equivalent to the experimental) lateral density distribution, afterwards approximated with the same LDF. To check the quality of the fit and to investigate the sensitivity to fitting conditions, the study was done for three radial ranges, 40-200 m, 350-650 m, 0-1000 m. The total number of particles in the shower front and the truncated number of particles (in the fitting range) have been reconstructed to be compared with the real number of particles from CORSIKA simulations and to investigate the potential use of these parameters in a multiparametric study of extensive air showers. (authors)

  16. Electromagnetic field effects in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: measurements of conductivity; enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Hayes...()^1 showed a strong correlation of peak electrical conductivity with carbon content of the detonation products. Ershov.......^2 linked detailed electrical conductivity measurements with reaction kinetics and this work was extended to enhance detonation performance electrically;...^3 for this, electrical power densities of the order of 100 TW/m^2 of explosive surface normal to the detonation front were required. However, small electrical powers are required to affect the initiation and growth of reaction.......^4,5 A continuation of this work will be reported. LA-UR 09-00873 .^1 B. Hayes, Procs. of 4th Symposium (International) on Detonation (1965), p. 595. ^2 A. Ershov, P. Zubkov, and L. Luk'yanchikov, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves 10, 776-782 (1974). ^3 M. Cowperthwaite, Procs. 9th Detonation Symposium (1989), p. 388-395. ^4 M. A. Cook and T. Z. Gwyther, ``Influence of Electric Fields on Shock to Detonation Transition,'' (1965). ^5 D. Salisbury, R. Winter, and L. Biddle, Procs. of the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (2005) p. 1010-1013.

  17. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Illuminati, Ilenia; Mistrello, Gianni; Roncarolo, Daniela; Pucci, Stefano

    2012-09-25

    Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  18. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alò Simona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. Case presentation We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. Conclusion The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  19. Extensive Air Showers Detected by Aragats Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, A.; Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Grigoryan, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Manukyan, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive Air Shower (EAS) duration as registered by the surface particle detectors does not exceed a few tens of nanosecond. However, Neutron monitors containing plenty of absorbing matter can respond to EAS core traversal during 1 ∼ms by registering secondary slow neutrons born by EAS hadrons in the soil, walls of buildings and in the matter of detector itself. Thus, the time distribution of the pulses from the proportional counters of the neutron monitor after EAS propagation extends to ∼l ms, ∼5 orders of magnitude larger than the EAS passing time. The Aragats Neutron Monitor (ArNM) has a special option for the EAS core detection. In general, the dead time of NM is ∼1 ms that provides the one-to-one relation of incident hadrons and detector counts. The pulses generated by the neutrons possibly entering the proportional chamber after the first one will be neglected. In ArNM, we use several “electronic” dead times, and with the shortest one, 400 ns, the detector counts all pulses that enter the proportional chambers. If ArNM one-second time series corresponding to the shortest dead time contain much more signals (a neutron burst) than with l-ms dead time, then we conclude that the EAS core hits the detector. We assume that he distribution of registered burst multiplicities is proportional to the energy of the primary particle. The primary cosmic ray energy spectrum was obtained by the frequency analysis through the counting frequencies of the multiplicities of different magnitudes and relating them to the integral energy spectrum measured by the MAKET array at the same place several years ago. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  1. Jet Hadronization via Recombination of Parton Showers in Vacuum and in Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Han, Kyongchol; Ko, Che Ming

    2016-12-15

    We introduce a hadronization algorithm for jet parton showers based on a hybrid approach involving recombination of quarks and fragmentation of strings. The algorithm can be applied to parton showers from a shower Monte Carlo generator at the end of their perturbative evolution. The algorithm forces gluon decays and then evaluates the recombination probabilities for quark-antiquark pairs into mesons and (anti)quark triplets into (anti)baryons. We employ a Wigner phase space formulation based on the assumption of harmonic oscillator wave functions for stable hadrons and resonances. Partons too isolated in phase space to find recombination partners are connected by QCD strings to other quarks. Fragmentation of those remnant strings and the decay of all hadron resonances complete the hadronization process. We find that our model applied to parton showers from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator leads to results very similar to pure Lund string fragmentation. We suggest that our algorithm can be readily generalized to jets embedded in quark-gluon plasma by adding sampled thermal partons from the phase transition hypersurface. The recombination of thermal partons and shower partons leads to an enhancement of pions and protons at intermediate momentum at both RHIC and LHC.

  2. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  3. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  4. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  5. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  6. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  7. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  8. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  9. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Response of the CALICE Si-W Electromagnetic Calorimeter Physics Prototype to Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Hawkes, C.M.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Krim, M.; Benyamna, M.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, N.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Morisseau, F.; Blazey, G.C.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Lima, G.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Jung, T.; Karstensen, S.; Korbel, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lutz, B.; Meyer, N.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Groll, M.; Haller, J.; Heuer, R.-D.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kim, E.J.; Baek, N.I.; Kim, D-W.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.C.; Kawagoe, K.; Tamura, Y.; Bowerman, D.A.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Yilmaz, H.; Zorba, O.; Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Green, M.G.; Salvatore, F.; Bedjidian, M.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Bailey, D.S.; Barlow, R.J.; Kelly, M.; Thompson, R.J.; Danilov, M.; Tarkovsky, E.; Baranova, N.; Karmanov, D.; Korolev, M.; Merkin, M.; Voronin, A.; Frey, A.; Lu, S.; Prothmann, K.; Simon, F.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Ruan, M.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Gaycken, G.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Rouge, A.; Vanel, J-Ch.; Videau, H.; Park, K-H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belmir, M.; Nam, S.W.; Park, I.H.; Yang, J.; Chai, J.-S.; Kim, J.-T.; Kim, G.-B.; Kang, J.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype Silicon-Tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was installed and tested during summer and autumn 2006 at CERN. The detector had 6480 silicon pads of dimension 1x1 cm^2. Data were collected with electron beams in the energy range 6 to 45 GeV. The analysis described in this paper focuses on electromagnetic shower reconstruction and characterises the ECAL response to electrons in terms of energy resolution and linearity. The detector is linear to within approximately the 1% level and has a relative energy resolution of (16.6 +- 0.1)/ \\sqrt{E(GeV}) + 1.1 +- 0.1 (%). The spatial uniformity and the time stability of the ECAL are also addressed.

  11. Study of a prototype electromagnetic calorimeter in the CALICE experiment under the Linear Collider International project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyamna, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is conducted within the framework of the International Linear Collider and the international collaboration so called CALICE. This work focuses on a study of a prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This prototype has been used in various test period at CERN, DESY and FNAL. The author presents two subjects of study: The first part is about the instrumentation for the resolution of the square event discovered during the taking data in 2006 at CERN. To explain the origin and solve the problem caused by crosstalk between peripherals pixels and the guard ring that surrounds the sensor, two studies were made: a simulation study using SILVACO software and a test bench to study several kinds of sensors. The second part of this thesis is a study on the identification of photons using estimators that are related to the parameters of the electromagnetic pattern of the shower. (author)

  12. The theory of electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D S

    1964-01-01

    The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The

  13. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  14. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  15. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  16. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  17. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corstanje Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n – 1 leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  18. Hadronic top-quark pair-production with one jet and parton showering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone; Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, Peter [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2011-10-15

    We present a calculation of heavy-flavor production in hadronic collisions in association with one jet matched to parton shower Monte Carlo programs at next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD. Top-quark decays are included and spin correlations in the decay products are taken into account. The calculation builds on existing results for the radiative corrections to heavy-quark plus one jet production and uses the POWHEG BOX for the interface to the parton shower programs PYTHIA or HERWIG. A broad phenomenological study for the Large Hadron Collider and the Tevatron is presented. In particular we study - as one important sample application - the impact of the parton shower on the top-quark charge asymmetry. (orig.)

  19. Leakage current of amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes made by ion shower doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Joon; Cho, Gyuseong; Choi, Joonhoo; Jung, Kwan-Wook

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we report the leakage current of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiodes, of which the p layer is formed by ion shower doping. The ion shower doping technique has an advantage over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in the fabrication of a large-area amorphous silicon flat-panel detector. The leakage current of the ion shower diodes shows a better uniformity within a 30 cmx40 cm substrate than that of the PECVD diodes. However, it shows a higher leakage current of 2-3 pA/mm 2 at -5 V. This high current originates from the high injection current at the p-i junction

  20. The Data Acquisition System of the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofverberg, P.; Johansson, H.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Wikstrom, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA) project is deploying an array of plastic scintillator detector stations on school roofs in the Stockholm area. Signals from GPS satellites are used to time synchronise signals from the widely separated detector stations, allowing cosmic ray air showers to be identified and studied. A low-cost and highly scalable data acquisition system has been produced using embedded Linux processors which communicate station data to a central server running a MySQL database. Air shower data can be visualised in real-time using a Java-applet client. It is also possible to query the database and manage detector stations from the client. In this paper, the design and performance of the system are described

  1. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  2. Extensive air showers and diffused Cherenkov light detection: The ULTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Uv Light Transmission and Reflection in the Atmosphere (ULTRA) experiment has been designed to provide quantitative measurements of the backscattered Cherenkov signal associated to the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at the impact point on the Earth surface. The knowledge of such information will test the possibility to detect the diffused Cherenkov light spot from space within the Ultra high-energy cosmic ray observation. The Cherenkov signal is necessary to give an absolute reference for the track, allowing the measurement of the shower maximum and easing the separation between neutrino and hadronic showers. In this paper we discuss the experimental set-up with detailed information on the detection method; the in situ and laboratory calibrations; the simulation of the expected detector response and finally the preliminary results on the detector performance

  3. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a future linear e + e - collider operated at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV and with a collision rate of particle bunches of up to 2 GHz. This poses challenging requirements on the detector system. The accumulation of background events, such as γγ→hadrons resulting from Beamstrahlung, must be minimized through a precise time stamping capability in all subdetector systems. In the event reconstruction, the energy depositions within the calorimeters will be used to assign events precisely to a small set of consecutive bunch crossings. The finite time evolution of hadronic showers, on the other hand, requires an extended integration time to achieve a satisfactory energy resolution in the calorimeter. The energy resolution is also deteriorated by the leakage of shower particles. Tungsten is foreseen as dense absorber material, but the time evolution of hadron showers within such a calorimeter is not sufficiently explored yet. In the context of this thesis, the T3B experiment (short for Tungsten Timing Test Beam) was designed and constructed. It is optimized to measure the time development and the contribution of delayed energy depositions within hadronic cascades. The T3B experiment consists of 15 scintillator cells assembled in a strip. The scintillation light generated within the cells is detected by novel silicon photomultiplier whose signal is read out with fast oscilloscopes providing a sampling rate of 1.25 GHz. This strip was positioned behind two different calorimeter prototypes of the CALICE collaboration which use a tungsten and steel (for comparison) absorber structure. T3B was part of the CALICE test beam campaign 2010/2011 carried out at the PS and SPS at CERN and acquired data on hadronic showers in an energy range of 2-300 GeV. A test beam optimized data acquisition software was developed from scratch. With the development and application of a novel waveform decomposition algorithm, the time of arrival of

  4. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  5. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  6. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  7. A background-free detector for cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Resvanis, L.; Voulgaris, G.; Ypsilantis, T.; Tripp, R.; Torres, S.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Bartoli, B.; Sinnis, G.; Weekes, D.; Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Luksys, M.; Chuang, K.W.; Kerrick, A.; O'Neil, T.J.; Tumer, T.; Zych, A.D.; Bicchi, P.; Meucci, M.; Moi, L.; Paoletti, R.; Rigato, M.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Cence, R.J.; Hayes, C.; Hudson, J.; Kelley, L.; Learned, J.G.; Paluselli, D.; Stenger, V.J.

    1992-01-01

    A detector of new design is planned to detect Cherenkov light in high energy cosmic ray showers. It is based on the detection of the middle-UV radiation by TMAE photosensitive chambers, giving detailed imaging of the shower, combined with the beneficial background screening of the ozone in the upper atmosphere. This allows us to greatly improve the duty-cycle, the sensitivity and the range of observations with respect to traditional Cherenkov experiments in the visible. A further advantage is the achievable big angular aperture which makes it possible to search for new sources with an efficiency similar to extensive air shower experiments. Details of the technique and achievable physics goals are presented. (orig.)

  8. Detection of ultraviolet Cherenkov light from high energy cosmic ray atmospheric showers: A field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Sartori, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a test with a prototype apparatus aimed to detect the ultraviolet Cherenkov light in the wavelenght range 2000-2300A, emitted by high energy cosmic ray showers. The system consists of a gas proportional chamber, with TMAE vapour as the photosensitive element, placed on the focal plane of a 1.5 m diameter parabolic mirror. The test was done during the summer of 1989 with cosmic ray showers seen in coincidence with the EAS-TOP experiment, an extended atmospheric shower charged particle array now being exploited at Campo Imperatore, 1900 m above sea level, on top of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory of INFN. The results were positive and show that a full scale ultraviolet Cherenkov experiment with good sensitivity, angular resolution and virtually no background from moonlight or even daylight can be envisaged. (orig.)

  9. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic shower Part 2: The PION calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatuni, Ts A; Mamidjanyan, E A; Sanossyan, Kh N

    1993-12-31

    Hadronic showers for four energy intervals from 0,5 to 5 TeV have been simulated using the MARS 10 code and the experimental energy and angle distributions of cosmic ray hadrons incident on the PION iron-ionization calorimeter. The longitudinal energy depositions are compared with the experimental results and satisfactory agreement is observed. The average characteristics of hadronic showers initiated by 0,3, 0,5, 1, 2,5, 10 and 20 TeV incident protons, neutrons and pions are studied and parametrizations for the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles are obtained. A new formula for the lateral profile is proposed. The leakage and albedo from the PION calorimeter and the energy spectra of the leakage and albedo particles are also estimated. 29 refs.

  10. In vitro determination of skin decontamination efficacy using a water shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of a water shower to remove radioactivity from excised pig skin exposed to radiolabeled diisopropyl fluorophosphate and n-butyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide was determined. Skin samples were decontaminated 15 minutes after chemical exposures (1 mg/cm 2 ) and the distribution of radioactivity was determined 1 hour after decontamination. Compared to controls (no decontamination), shower decontamination reduced the evaporative loss of radioactivity from the skin surface after decontamination or reduced radioactive residues on the skin surface. Shower decontamination of skin at 15 minutes could not prevent penetration of radiolabel into the viable layers of skin or into fluid bathing the dermal surface of the skin, but was beneficial in reducing skin surface concentrations, which may lead to further exposure or contamination

  11. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-06-06

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operated at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV and with a collision rate of particle bunches of up to 2 GHz. This poses challenging requirements on the detector system. The accumulation of background events, such as {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hadrons resulting from Beamstrahlung, must be minimized through a precise time stamping capability in all subdetector systems. In the event reconstruction, the energy depositions within the calorimeters will be used to assign events precisely to a small set of consecutive bunch crossings. The finite time evolution of hadronic showers, on the other hand, requires an extended integration time to achieve a satisfactory energy resolution in the calorimeter. The energy resolution is also deteriorated by the leakage of shower particles. Tungsten is foreseen as dense absorber material, but the time evolution of hadron showers within such a calorimeter is not sufficiently explored yet. In the context of this thesis, the T3B experiment (short for Tungsten Timing Test Beam) was designed and constructed. It is optimized to measure the time development and the contribution of delayed energy depositions within hadronic cascades. The T3B experiment consists of 15 scintillator cells assembled in a strip. The scintillation light generated within the cells is detected by novel silicon photomultiplier whose signal is read out with fast oscilloscopes providing a sampling rate of 1.25 GHz. This strip was positioned behind two different calorimeter prototypes of the CALICE collaboration which use a tungsten and steel (for comparison) absorber structure. T3B was part of the CALICE test beam campaign 2010/2011 carried out at the PS and SPS at CERN and acquired data on hadronic showers in an energy range of 2-300 GeV. A test beam optimized data acquisition software was developed from scratch. With the development and application of a novel waveform decomposition algorithm

  12. Electromagnetic Fields in Reverberant Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonating electromagnetic (EM) fields has been commonly and successfully exploited in reverberation chambers (RC) for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, as well as modeling multipath environments. Although largely successful, the currently used statistical

  13. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  14. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  15. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  16. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic γ-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10 16 eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy γ-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  17. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegan, David J., E-mail: david.fegan@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2012-01-11

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic {gamma}-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10{sup 16} eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy {gamma}-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  18. Eco-labelling of shampoos, shower gels and foam baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula; Liebig, Markus; Knacker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues of personal care products have been met with little attention in the past. Monitoring data as well as preliminary environmental risk assessments indicate that some ingredients in personal care products might be relevant pollutants in the environment. Following the precautionary principle, eco-labelling is proposed as an effective tool for source control of one major group of personal care products, shampoos, shower gels and foam baths (SSBs). Eco-labelling is a soft, but effective market driven and product specific approach to lower discharge of environmentally detrimental substances. Products that fulfil the criteria proposed help to minimise the impact of SSBs on the environment. Available assessment tools for dangerous substances (e.g. current legislation on environmental risk assessments and classification, and labelling, eco-labelling criteria for similar products, the calculation of the critical dilution volume) were adapted and integrated into the criteria for the eco-labelling of SSBs. A short outline of the eco-labelling criteria developed for SSBs is provided. The basic criteria concern the effects of the substances discharged into the waste water during and after use. Products with an eco-label award may exclusively contain substances for which basic information about their effects on the environment is available. They may not contain persistent, bioaccumulating, toxic or ecotoxicological substances. In addition, the basic criteria include requirements for the container and consumer information. The basic criteria for eco-labelling SSBs are based on the actual state of science and are at the same time as simple and transparent as possible to ensure the best applicability. SSBs that comply with the described basic criteria can contribute to a lower chemical burden of waste water treatment plants and surface water. The proposal for basic criteria described should stimulate discussion on eco-labelling of SSBs. It should help to pass

  19. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  20. Small changes in the atmospheric electric field from extensive air showers. [E > 10/sup 16/ eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G; Dardo, M [Turin Univ. (Italy); Pavese, P; Piano, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1977-05-28

    The authors present data on small changes in the atmospheric electric field related to the passage of extensive air showers initiated by primary particles of energy >=10/sup 16/ eV. Such changes were detected by electrometric methods in conjunction with a particle shower array.

  1. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F.

    1999-01-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given

  2. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F

    1999-03-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given.

  3. Timing performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and prospects for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Bornheim, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is made of 75,848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals arranged in a barrel and two endcaps. The scintillation light is read out by avalanche photodiodes in the barrel and vacuum phototriodes in the endcaps, at which point the scintillation pulse is amplified and sampled at 40 MHz by the on-detector electronics. The fast signal from the crystal scintillation enables energy as well as timing measurements from the data collected in proton-proton collisions with high energy electrons and photons. The single-channel time resolution of ECAL measured at beam tests for high energy showers is better than 100 ps. The timing resolution achieved with the data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC is discussed. We present how precision timing is used in current physics measurements and discuss studies of subtle calorimetric effects, such as the timing response of different crystals belonging to the same electromagnetic shower. In addition, we present prospects for th...

  4. QED radiative correction for the single-W production using a parton shower method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Tobimatsu, K.; Munehisa, T.

    2001-01-01

    A parton shower method for the photonic radiative correction is applied to single W-boson production processes. The energy scale for the evolution of the parton shower is determined so that the correct soft-photon emission is reproduced. Photon spectra radiated from the partons are compared with those from the exact matrix elements, and show a good agreement. Possible errors due to an inappropriate energy-scale selection or due to the ambiguity of the energy-scale determination are also discussed, particularly for the measurements on triple gauge couplings. (orig.)

  5. QCD event generators with next-to-leading order matrix-elements and parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Kato, K.; Kawabata, S.; Munehisa, T.; Tanaka, H.

    2003-01-01

    A new method to construct event-generators based on next-to-leading order QCD matrix-elements and leading-logarithmic parton showers is proposed. Matrix elements of loop diagram as well as those of a tree level can be generated using an automatic system. A soft/collinear singularity is treated using a leading-log subtraction method. Higher order resummation of the soft/collinear correction by the parton shower method is combined with the NLO matrix-element without any double-counting in this method. An example of the event generator for Drell-Yan process is given for demonstrating a validity of this method

  6. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  7. Monte-Carlo simulation for the showers in the DELPHI (LEP) hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Tkachev, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Monte-Carlo simulation for shower formation is performed for a hadron calorimeter consisting of iron layers with inserted plastic streamer tubes. It is shown that the dead zone effect localized on anode wires in the places of streamer formation changes essentially both the calorimeter response and the effective transversal size of the shower. The response variation with the value and direction of the magnetic field corresponding to DELPHI hadron calorimeter achieves 2O%, which causes the necessity of additional calorimeter calibration in the magnetic field

  8. Deep-Inelastic Final States in a Space-Time Description of Shower Development and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Geiger, Klaus; Kowalski, Henryk

    1996-01-01

    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time and momentum space to deep-inelastic $ep$ collisions, with particular reference to experiments at HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of colour-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the space-like initial-state shower and the time-like secondary partons are treated similarly, an...

  9. A parton shower based on factorization of the quantum density matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    We present rst results from a new parton shower event generator, DEDUCTOR. Anticipating a need for an improved treatment of parton color and spin, the structure of the generator is based on the quantum density matrix in color and spin space. So far, DEDUCTOR implements only a standard spin-averaged treatment of spin in parton splittings. Although DEDUCTOR implements an improved treatment of color, in this paper we present results in the standard leading color approximation so that we can compare to the generator PYTHIA. The algorithms used incorporate a virtuality based shower ordering parameter and massive initial state bottom and charm quarks.

  10. The lateral distribution of muons in showers at 40 mwe underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.; Freiburg Univ.

    1975-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution of muon showers at 40 mwe underground was studied with a 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope. The observed frequencies deviate systematically from those calculated with the 'standard' lateral distributions of Vernov or of Greisen. Agreement can be attained if an enhancement of the muon component at small shower sizes is assumed, in accordance with the assumptions of a two-component theory of cosmic ray origin. It is improved by introducing an age dependence of the lateral structure function. (orig.) [de

  11. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  12. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  13. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  14. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  15. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  16. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  17. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  18. Pregnancy and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseriex, Ch.; Laurent, P.; Cabaret, Ph.; Bonnet, C.; Marteau, E.; Le Berre, G.; Tirlemont, S.; Castro, H.; Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Donati, M.; Ganem, Y.; Moureaux, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly indicates the status of knowledge regarding the effect of magnetic fields on biological tissues and pregnancy, outlines the lack of data on some frequencies and the weakness of studies on long term effects on child development. It evokes the issue of exposure assessment and that of identification of workstations exposed to electromagnetic fields

  19. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  20. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  1. Electromagnetic resonance waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs

  2. The differences in delay times for air showers initiated by 100 TeV gamma rays and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.; Linsley, J.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo; Wrotniak, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in the time delay distributions between showers initiated by gamma rays and by protons. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of atmospheric showers initiated by gamma rays and protons at an energy of 100 TeV show systematic differences. These differences are negligible at small distances from the core of the showers; at larger distances the effects become large. However, at large distances the particle densities are small at an energy of 100 TeV and the subsequent statistical fluctuations would make an identification of gamma-ray showers unreliable. However, these large effects should be included in corrections for the curvature of gamma-ray and proton shower fronts. (author)

  3. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  4. Using water to cool cattle: behavioral and physiological changes associated with voluntary use of cow showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, A; Schütz, K E; Tucker, C B

    2011-07-01

    Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body

  5. Efficacy of Warm Showers on Postpartum Fatigue Among Vaginal-Birth Taiwanese Women: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Lan; Chung, Feng-Fang; Lin, Su-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum fatigue is one of the most common complaints among women following childbirth. As a postpartum ritual practice, Taiwanese women refrain from taking showers while "doing the month." However, warm showers are the systemic application of moist heat, and they maintain physical hygiene, stimulate blood circulation, mitigate discomfort, and provide relaxation. As Taiwanese society becomes increasingly receptive to scientific and contemporary health care practice, more and more women choose to take warm showers after childbirth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of warm showers on postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women in Taiwan. This was a two-group quasi-experimental design. Women took showers in warm water with temperatures ranging between 40 °C and 43 °C for approximately 20 minutes. Postpartum women's fatigue is measured using the 10-item Postpartum Fatigue Scale (PFS). The intervention effect was analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. The study population consisted of 358 vaginal-birth postpartum Taiwanese women aged 20-43 years. Postpartum women who took warm showers showed improvements from their pretest to posttest mean scores of postpartum fatigue compared to postpartum women who did not take warm showers. Warm showers helped to reduce postpartum fatigue among vaginal-birth women during the study period. Nurses have the unique opportunity to provide the intervention to Taiwanese women who have vaginal birth to help them relieve postpartum fatigue with warm showers while "doing the month" without the taboo of no-showering customary practices in the early postpartum period.

  6. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  7. The air shower maximum probed by Cherenkov effects from radio emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray-induced air showers has come to a flight the last decade. Along with the experimental efforts, several theoretical models were developed. The main radio-emission mechanisms are established to be the geomagnetic emission due to deflection of electrons and positrons in

  8. Optical observations of enhanced activity of the 2005 Draconid meteor shower

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koten, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Štork, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2007), s. 729-735 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300030502; GA ČR GA205/05/0543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : meteors * meteor shower s * Draconids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007

  9. The time structure of hadronic showers in calorimeters with gas and scintillator readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goecke, Philipp [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The focus of the CALICE collaboration is R and D of highly granular calorimeters. One of the possible applications is in a future TeV-scale linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider for precision SM studies and for direct and indirect the search of new physics. For the hadronic sampling calorimeters subsystem, several absorbers and active material technologies are being investigated. In this frame, two similar experiments have been conducted to study the time structure of hadronic showers: FastRPC uses resistive plate chambers technology for the active layers whereas T3B is based on scintillating tiles coupled to SiPMs. The high sampling frequency of the readout, coupled to deep memory buffers, allows to carefully investigate the intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers with its prompt and delayed components. This study presents a detailed GEANT4 Montecarlo simulation of the FastRPC and T3B setups. It is aimed to reproduce test beam data acquired at CERN SPS where the setups were installed after 5λ of instrumented tungsten-based calorimeter prototypes. The main focus of the simulation lies on the physical processes involved in the time development of an hadronic showers, to asses the discrepancy that emerged in data for the two setups in the intermediate time range of 10 - 50 ns of shower development that can be explained with the neutron interactions in the medium.

  10. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, Paolo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Oleari, Carlo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology

    2010-02-15

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  11. Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of ...

  12. Microscopic analysis on showers recorded as single core on X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Cosmic-ray particles recorded as single dark spots on X-ray films with use of the emulsion chamber data of Brazil-Japan Collaboration are studied. Some results of microscopic analysis of such single-core-like showers on nuclear emulsion plates are reported. (Author) [pt

  13. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS)

  14. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alioli, Simone; Nason, Paolo; Oleari, Carlo; Re, Emanuele

    2010-02-01

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  15. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; Zilles, A.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's

  16. Cherenkov light based measurement of extensive air showers around the knee with the HEGRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Barrio, J.A.; Belgarian, A.S.; Bernloehr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Daum, A.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzales, J.C.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hemberger, M.; Hermann, G.; Hess, M.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Koehler, C.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Prosch, C.; Puehlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Renault, C.; Rhode, W.; Roehring, A.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schroeder, F.; Stamm, W.; Voelk, H.J.; Wiebel-Sooth, B

    1999-03-01

    Data of the wide angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air shower detector complex are combined to determine the energy spectrum and coarse composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 300 TeV to 10 PeV.

  17. Calibrating the absolute amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Erdmann, M.; Krause, R.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Link, K.; Schröder, F. G.; Norden, M. J.; Scholten, O.

    2015-01-01

    Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an absolute calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an absolute calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio emission of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The absolute calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an absolute energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an absolute scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR

  18. Lagrangian evaluation of convective shower characteristics in a convection-permitting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Brisson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Convection-permitting models (CPMs have proven their usefulness in representing precipitation on a sub-daily scale. However, investigations on sub-hourly scales are still lacking, even though these are the scales for which showers exhibit the most variability. A Lagrangian approach is implemented here to evaluate the representation of showers in a CPM, using the limited-area climate model COSMO-CLM. This approach consists of tracking 5‑min precipitation fields to retrieve different features of showers (e.g., temporal pattern, horizontal speed, lifetime. In total, 312 cases are simulated at a resolution of 0.01 ° over Central Germany, and among these cases, 78 are evaluated against a radar dataset. The model is able to represent most observed features for different types of convective cells. In addition, the CPM reproduced well the observed relationship between the precipitation characteristics and temperature indicating that the COSMO-CLM model is sophisticated enough to represent the climatological features of showers.

  19. The presence and growth of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps: an exploratory field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; P.W.J.J. van der Wielen; E. van der Blom; O.W.W. Nuijten; L. Hornstra

    2014-01-01

    Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of

  20. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2015-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence

  1. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  2. ''Anomalous'' air showers from point sources: Mass limits and light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domokos, G.; Elliott, B.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain upper limits on the mass of the primaries of air showers associated with point sources. One also obtains the UHE pulse shape of a pulsar if its period is observed in the signal. As an example, we analyze the data obtained during a recent burst of Hercules-X1

  3. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, E.; Dawson, B.; Horváth, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J.N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, P.; Schovánek, Petr; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S.B.; Trávníček, Petr; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, Feb (2016), s. 64-72 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * fluorescence detector * extensive air shower Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  4. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km 2 . Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported

  5. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berat, C., E-mail: berat@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km{sup 2}. Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported.

  6. The time structure of hadronic showers in highly granular calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.J.; Chefdeville, M.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Růžička, Pavel; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jul (2014), s. 1-24 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14033 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hadronic calorimeter s * hadronic showers * hadronic physics models * hilicon photomultiplier Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  7. Long-Term Continuous Double Station Observation of Faint Meteor Showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, S.; Páta, P.; Koten, Pavel; Fliegel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2016), 1493/1-1493/10 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : faint meteor shower * meteoroid * CCD camera Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  8. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Ramos de; Bonifazi, Carla; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Soares, Elvis do Amaral; Mello Neto, Joao Ramos Torres de; Almeida, Rogerio Menezes de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  9. New estimates of extensive-air-shower energies on the basis of signals in scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyutin, N. V.; Dedenko, L. G., E-mail: ddn@dec1.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    New formulas for estimating the energy of inclined extensive air showers (EASs) on the basis of signals in detectors by means of an original method and detailed tables of signals induced in scintillation detectors by photons, electrons, positrons, and muons and calculated with the aid of the GEANT4 code package were proposed in terms of the QGSJETII-04, EPOS LHC, and GHEISHA models. The parameters appearing in the proposed formulas were calculated by employing the CORSIKA code package. It is shown that, for showers of zenith angles in the range of 20◦–45◦, the standard constant-intensity-cut method, which is used to interpret data from the Yakutsk EAS array, overestimates the shower energy by a factor of 1.2 to 1.5. It is proposed to employ the calculated VEM (Vertical Equivalent Muon) signal units of 10.8 and 11.4 MeV for, respectively, ground-based and underground scintillation detectors and to take into account the dependence of signals on the azimuthal angle of the detector position and fluctuations in the development of showers.

  10. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  11. Measurement of photon showers in lead produced by electrons of 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, H.; Eyss, H.J. von; Schoch, B.

    1976-01-01

    The photon energy spectra induced by 150 MeV electrons in lead were measured in the energy range from 40 MeV up to the primary electron energy. The target thickness was varied between 0.1 and 2.5 radiation lengths X 0 . The photons were analyzed by use of a technique based on deuteron photodisintegration. Differential and integral shower spectra are presented and compared with Monte Carlo calculations of Nagel and Messel et al., both interpolated to our primary energy of 150 MeV. The measured spectra show good agreement with these Monte Carlo calculations for the thickest target of 2.5X 0 and with calculated bremsstrahlung spectra for the thinnest target of 0.1X 0 . Considerable discrepancies, however, are found for medium target thicknesses in the range 0 . Around the shower maxima, the shower spectra are narrower and the maxima are shifted about 0.3-0.4X 0 to lower target thicknesses, furthermore the number of photons at the shower maxima are up to 50% higher than calculated. (Auth.)

  12. Electromagnetic radiation properties of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsenin, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this book, the author examines the effects of the various regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum on foods and agricultural products. Among the regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum covered are high-energy beta and neutron particles, gamma-rays and X-rays, to lower-energy visible, near infrared, infrared, microwave and low-energy radiowaves and electric currents. Dr. Mohsenin applies these electromagnetic phenomena to food products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, dairy products, meat and processed foods. Contents: Some Basic Concepts of Electromagnetic Radiation. Basic Instruments for Measurement of Optical Properties. Applications of Radiation in the Visible Spectrum. Color and its Measurement. Sorting for Color and Appearance. Near-Infrared and Infrared Radiation Applications. Applications of High-Energy Radiation. Related Concepts of Microwaves, Radiowaves, and Electric Currents. Measurement of Electrical Properties of Foods and Agricultural Products. Applications of Electrical Properties. Appendix, Cited References. Subject Index

  13. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  14. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  15. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  16. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  18. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  19. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  20. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.