Parallel QR Decomposition for Electromagnetic Scattering Problems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boleng, Jeff
1997-01-01
This report introduces a new parallel QR decomposition algorithm. Test results are presented for several problem sizes, numbers of processors, and data from the electromagnetic scattering problem domain...
ISOGEOMETRIC SHAPE OPTIMIZATION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING PROBLEMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, D. M.; Evgrafov, Anton; Gravesen, Jens
2012-01-01
for solving this problem is based on shape optimization and isogeometric analysis. One of the major di±culties we face to make these methods work together is the need to maintain a valid parametrization of the computational domain during the optimization. Our approach to generating a domain parametrization......We consider the benchmark problem of magnetic energy density enhancement in a small spatial region by varying the shape of two symmetric conducting scatterers. We view this problem as a prototype for a wide variety of geometric design problems in electromagnetic applications. Our approach...
Robust optimization in electromagnetic scattering problems
Bertsimas, Dimitris; Nohadani, Omid; Teo, Kwong Meng
2007-04-01
In engineering design, the physical properties of a system can often only be described by numerical simulation. Optimization of such systems is usually accomplished heuristically without taking into account that there are implementation errors that lead to very suboptimal, and often, infeasible solutions. We present a robust optimization method for electromagnetic scattering problems with large degrees of freedom and report on results when this technique is applied to optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures. The spatial configuration of 50 dielectric scattering cylinders is optimized to match a desired target function such that the optimal arrangement is robust against placement and prototype errors. Our optimization method inherently improves the robustness of the optimized solution with respect to relevant errors and is suitable for real-world design of materials with unconventional electromagnetic functionalities, as relevant to nanophotonics.
Solution of electromagnetic scattering problems using time domain techniques
Britt, Charles L.
1989-01-01
New methods are developed to calculate the electromagnetic diffraction or scattering characteristics of objects of arbitrary material and shape. The methods extend the efforts of previous researchers in the use of finite-difference and pulse response techniques. Examples are given of the scattering from infinite conducting and nonconducting cylinders, open channel, sphere, cone, cone sphere, coated disk, open boxes, and open and closed finite cylinders with axially incident waves.
Parallel decomposition methods for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems
Cwik, Tom
1992-01-01
This paper contains a overview of the methods used in decomposing solutions to scattering problems onto coarse-grained parallel processors. Initially, a short summary of relevant computer architecture is presented as background to the subsequent discussion. After the introduction of a programming model for problem decomposition, specific decompositions of finite difference time domain, finite element, and integral equation solutions to Maxwell's equations are presented. The paper concludes with an outline of possible software-assisted decomposition methods and a summary.
Applied electromagnetic scattering theory
Osipov, Andrey A
2017-01-01
Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...
Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.
1979-01-01
This paper presents a brief review of some recent developments on the use of the spectral-domain approach for deriving high-frequency solutions to electromagnetics scattering and radiation problems. The spectral approach is not only useful for interpreting the well-known Keller formulas based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), it can also be employed for verifying the accuracy of GTD and other asymptotic solutions and systematically improving the results when such improvements are needed. The problem of plane wave diffraction by a finite screen or a strip is presented as an example of the application of the spectral-domain approach.
Turc, Catalin; Anand, Akash; Bruno, Oscar; Chaubell, Julian
2011-01-01
We present a computational methodology (a novel Nystrom approach based on use of a non-overlapping patch technique and Chebyshev discretizations) for efficient solution of problems of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering by open surfaces. Our integral equation formulations (1) Incorporate, as ansatz, the singular nature of open-surface integral-equation solutions, and (2) For the Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE), use analytical regularizes that effectively reduce the number of iterations required by iterative linear-algebra solution based on Krylov-subspace iterative solvers.
A Least-Squares Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Scattering Problems
Wu, Jie; Jiang, Bo-nan
1996-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is applied to electromagnetic scattering and radar cross section (RCS) calculations. In contrast to most existing numerical approaches, in which divergence-free constraints are omitted, the LSFF-M directly incorporates two divergence equations in the discretization process. The importance of including the divergence equations is demonstrated by showing that otherwise spurious solutions with large divergence occur near the scatterers. The LSFEM is based on unstructured grids and possesses full flexibility in handling complex geometry and local refinement Moreover, the LSFEM does not require any special handling, such as upwinding, staggered grids, artificial dissipation, flux-differencing, etc. Implicit time discretization is used and the scheme is unconditionally stable. By using a matrix-free iterative method, the computational cost and memory requirement for the present scheme is competitive with other approaches. The accuracy of the LSFEM is verified by several benchmark test problems.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles
Kristensson, Gerhard
2016-01-01
The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-07-01
A numerical framework that incorporates recently developed iterative shrinkage thresholding (IST) algorithms within the Born iterative method (BIM) is proposed for solving the two-dimensional inverse electromagnetic scattering problem. IST algorithms minimize a cost function weighted between measurement-data misfit and a zeroth/first-norm penalty term and therefore promote "sharpness" in the solution. Consequently, when applied to domains with sharp variations, discontinuities, or sparse content, the proposed framework is more efficient and accurate than the "classical" BIM that minimizes a cost function with a second-norm penalty term. Indeed, numerical results demonstrate the superiority of the IST-BIM over the classical BIM when they are applied to sparse domains: Permittivity and conductivity profiles recovered using the IST-BIM are sharper and more accurate and converge faster. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation
Sheffield, John
1975-01-01
Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge
Taflove, A.; Umashankar, K. R.
1987-01-01
The formulation and recent applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for the numerical modeling of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems are considered. It is shown that improvements in FD-TD modeling concepts and software implementation often make it a preferable choice for structures which cannot be easily treated by conventional integral equations and asymptotic approaches. Recent FD-TD modeling validations in research areas including coupling to wires and wire bundles in free space and cavities, scattering from surfaces in relativistic motion, inverse scattering, and radiation condition theory, are reviewed. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of FD-TD, and guidelines concerning when FD-TD should and should not be used in high-frequency electromagnetic modeling problems, are summarized.
Electromagnetic scattering theory
Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.
Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation
Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.
1980-01-01
The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.
Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-06-01
This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.
Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation
Kerker, Milton
1969-01-01
The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan
Gedney, Stephen D.; Mittra, Raj
1990-01-01
The enhancement of the computational efficiency of the body of revolution (BOR) scattering problem is discused with a view to making it practical for solving large-body problems. The problem of EM scattering by a perfectly conducting BOR is considered, although the methods can be extended to multilayered dielectric bodies as well. Typically, the generation of the elements of the moment method matrix consumes a major portion of the computational time. It is shown how this time can be significantly reduced by manipulating the expression for the matrix elements to permit efficient FFT computation. A technique for extracting the singularity of the Green function that appears within the integrands of the matrix diagonal is also presented, further enhancing the usefulness of the FFT. The computation time can thus be improved by at least an order of magnitude for large bodies in comparison to that for previous algorithms.
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.
1994-10-01
Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations
THE SIMULATION OF SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ON ANGULAR STRUCTURES.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Preobrazhensky
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the characteristics of scattering of electromagnetic waves on the angular diffraction structures. The solution of the problem is based on the method of integral equations. A comparative analysis of the scattering characteristics of structures with different shape is carried out.
Time-reversal of electromagnetic scattering for small scatterer classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J Torquil; Berryman, James G
2012-01-01
Time-reversal operators, or the alternatively labelled, but equivalent, multistatic response matrix methods, are used to show how to determine the number of scatterers present in an electromagnetic scattering scenario that might be typical of UneXploded Ordinance (UXO) detection, classification and removal applications. Because the nature of the target UXO application differs from that of many other common inversion problems, emphasis is placed here on classification and enumeration rather than on detailed imaging. The main technical issues necessarily revolve around showing that it is possible to find a sufficient number of constraints via multiple measurements (i.e. using several distinct views at the target site) to solve the enumeration problem. The main results show that five measurements with antenna pairs are generally adequate to solve the classification and enumeration problems. However, these results also demonstrate a need for decreasing noise levels in the multistatic matrix as the number n of scatterers increases for the intended practical applications of the method. (paper)
A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi
2013-09-01
In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Electromagnetic scattering from random media
Field, Timothy R
2009-01-01
- ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework
Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field
Bini, D.; Geralico, A.
2012-02-01
Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term à la Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle’s rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin (1)/(2) and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.
Solved problems in classical electromagnetism
Franklin, Jerrold
2018-01-01
This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.
Electromagnetic and gravitational scattering at Planckian energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.; Majumdar, P.
1994-11-01
The scattering of pointlike particles at very large center of mass energies and fixed low momentum transfers, occurring due to both their electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is re-examined in the particular case when one of the particles carries magnetic charge. At Planckian center-of-mass energies, when gravitational dominance is normally expected, the presence of magnetic charge is shown to produce dramatic modifications to the scattering cross section as well as to the holomorphic structure of the scattering amplitude. (author). 20 refs
On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media
Mohsen, A.
1973-01-01
Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.
Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea
2014-01-01
Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the elect...
Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects
Sukharevsky, Oleg I
2014-01-01
Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur
Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods
Eom, Hyo J
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.
Electromagnetic scattering from large steady breaking waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coakley, D.B.; Haldeman, P.M.; Morgan, D.G.; Nicolas, K.R.; Penndorf, D.R.; Wetzel, L.B.; Weller, C.S. [David Taylor Model Basin, Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States)
2001-05-01
A submerged hydrofoil generated large steady breaking waves of 0.3 m and 0.4 m height in a circulating water channel. We measured water fraction in the breakers with conductivity probes. We observed the radar cross-section of the breakers at X-band with a pulsed step-frequency instrumentation radar with high spatial resolution in the downstream direction. The normalized radar cross-section increases with increasing elevation angle of observation for both vertical and horizontal polarization. This variation is consistent with a simple interpretation of the breaking wave as a diffuse (Lambertian) surface. However, the observed sizes and shapes of fluid elements in the breakers clearly show that construction of a theory for electromagnetic scattering from first principles will be challenging. We also obtained the velocity spectrum of the scattering features within the breakers. This spectrum indicates that slower moving small liquid elements rather than the faster moving large disturbances are responsible for most of the electromagnetic scattering. (orig.)
Electromagnetic Scattering in Micro- and Nanostructured Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz
is the interaction of light with matter, in the forms of semiconductors and metals in the two cases, and fundamental understanding of the interactions is important to optimize technological designs. To address this, we in the present thesis develop a formalism for determining the electric field in a homogeneous...... and the electromagnetic Green’s tensor and uses an expansion of the field on spherical wavefunctions. Addition theorems for these are extensively used, and all parts of the formalism are expressed analytically. With the formalism, we show that the simpler approach of modeling the spherical scatterers as polarizable...
Topics in electromagnetic, acoustic, and potential scattering theory
Nuntaplook, Umaporn
the former (previously known) results. The link with time-independent quantum mechanical scattering, via morphology-dependent resonances (MDRs), is discussed in Chapter 2. This requires a generalization of the classical problem for scattering of a plane wave from a uniform spherically-symmetric inhomogeneity (in which the velocity of propagation is a function only of the radial coordinate r. i.e.. c = c(r)) to a piecewise-uniform inhomogeneity. In Chapter 3 the Jost-function formulation of potential scattering theory is used to solve the radial differential equation for scattering which can be converted into an integral equation corresponding via the Jost boundary conditions. The first two iterations for the zero angular momentum case l = 0 are provided for both two-layer and three-layer models. It is found that the iterative technique is most useful for long wavelengths and sufficiently small ratios of interior and exterior wavenumbers. Exact solutions are also provided for these cases. In Chapter 4 the time-independent quantum mechanical 'connection' is exploited further by generalizing previous work on a spherical well potential to the case where a delta 'function' potential is appended to the exterior of the well (for l ≠ 0). This corresponds to an idealization of the former approach to the case of a 'coated sphere'. The poles of the associated 'S-matrix' are important in this regard, since they correspond directly with the morphology-dependent resonances discussed in Chapter 2. These poles (for the l = 0 case, to compare with Nussenzveig's analysis) are tracked in the complex wavenumber plane as the strength of the delta function potential changes. Finally, a set of 4 Appendices is provided to clarify some of the connections between (i) the scattering of acoustic/electromagnetic waves from a penetrable/dielectric sphere and (ii) time-independent potential scattering theory in quantum mechanics. This, it is hoped, will be the subject of future work.
Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.
1996-01-01
The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed
Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory
Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED
2001-01-01
Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...
Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory
Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED
2002-01-01
Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...
Theory and approach of information retrievals from electromagnetic scattering and remote sensing
Jin, Ya-Qiu
2006-01-01
Covers several hot topics in current research of electromagnetic scattering, and radiative transfer in complex and random media, polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery technology, data validation and information retrieval from space-borne remote sensing, computational electromagnetics, etc.Including both forward modelling and inverse problems, analytic theory and numerical approachesAn overall summary of the author's works during most recent yearsAlso presents some insight for future research topics.
Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matti Pellikka
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.
Network representations of angular regions for electromagnetic scattering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vito G Daniele
Full Text Available Network modeling in electromagnetics is an effective technique in treating scattering problems by canonical and complex structures. Geometries constituted of angular regions (wedges together with planar layers can now be approached with the Generalized Wiener-Hopf Technique supported by network representation in spectral domain. Even if the network representations in spectral planes are of great importance by themselves, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical base and a general procedure for the formulation of complex scattering problems using network representation for the Generalized Wiener Hopf Technique starting basically from the wave equation. In particular while the spectral network representations are relatively well known for planar layers, the network modelling for an angular region requires a new theory that will be developed in this paper. With this theory we complete the formulation of a network methodology whose effectiveness is demonstrated by the application to a complex scattering problem with practical solutions given in terms of GTD/UTD diffraction coefficients and total far fields for engineering applications. The methodology can be applied to other physics fields.
Left-right splitting for electromagnetic scattering in 3D
Spivack, M; Sillence, C; 10.1049/ip-smt:20040945
2004-01-01
The left-right splitting method and its application to electromagnetic scattering by large 3D scatterers are described. Exact numerical solutions to the governing integral equations can be prohibitively expensive for large scatterers. Under the assumption that energy is predominantly forward-scattered, the solution is expressed as a series of terms, each of which is rapidly and efficiently evaluated. In many cases only one or two terms are needed, and the formulation provides additional physical insight.
Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism
Wiak, Sławomir
2003-01-01
From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Nasr Esfahani
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.
Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation
Apostol, M.
2017-11-01
The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.
Finite element method for eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics
Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.
1994-01-01
Finite element method (FEM) has been a very powerful tool to solve many complex problems in electromagnetics. The goal of the current research at the Langley Research Center is to develop a combined FEM/method of moments approach to three-dimensional scattering/radiation problem for objects with arbitrary shape and filled with complex materials. As a first step toward that goal, an exercise is taken to establish the power of FEM, through closed boundary problems. This paper demonstrates the developed of FEM tools for two- and three-dimensional eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics. In section 2, both the scalar and vector finite elements have been used for various waveguide problems to demonstrate the flexibility of FEM. In section 3, vector finite element method has been extended to three-dimensional eigenvalue problems.
Research in Antenna Technology, Radar Technology and Electromagnetic Scattering Phenomena
2015-04-06
Breinbjerg and A.D. Yaghjian, “Permittivity and Permeability for Floquet-Bloch Space Harmonics in Infinite 1D Magneto -Dielectric Periodic Structures...Scattering-matrix theory has seen an increased popularity in the areas of electromagnetic, acous- tic, and elastic scattering [5], [6]. In particular
On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirillov, A.A.; Savelova, E.P.
2012-01-01
We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.
On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirillov, A.A., E-mail: ka98@mail.ru [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Savelova, E.P. [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)
2012-04-20
We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.
Wigner representation in scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remler, E.A.
1975-01-01
The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger
Theory of lepton scattering: Progress and problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riska, D.O.
1995-01-01
The long sought goal of discriminating between different realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models by studying their effects on the electromagnetic and weak reaction observables of the few-nucleon systems is being reached. For 2- and 3-nucleon systems open-quotes exactclose quotes wavefunctions for both the bound- and scattering states can be constructed with realistic interaction models. Modern efficient numerical algorithms permit the goal to be reached in the case of the α particle as well. The sensitivity of the observables to the interaction model appears both through the wavefunctions and the exchange current operators that have to be constructed to be consistent with the interaction. While the electromagnetic exchange current operators are dominated by pion exchange, the charge component of the axial current is significantly affected by short range exchange currents, which contribute strongly to pion production rates near threshold. Important open questions concern the form of three-nucleon interaction, the associated exchange currents and the calculation of lepton scattering observables in a covariant way with realistic interaction models. The conceptually most important open problem is the achievement of consistency between the constituent quark model description of the baryons and the meson exchange model of the nuclear forces and currents
Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems
Velychko, Lyudmyla
2016-01-01
This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .
Ergul, Ozgur
2014-01-01
The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetic Problems provides a detailed and instructional overview of implementing MLFMA. The book: Presents a comprehensive treatment of the MLFMA algorithm, including basic linear algebra concepts, recent developments on the parallel computation, and a number of application examplesCovers solutions of electromagnetic problems involving dielectric objects and perfectly-conducting objectsDiscusses applications including scattering from airborne targets, scattering from red
Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes
Electromagnetic Field Theory A Collection of Problems
Mrozynski, Gerd
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction into the theory of electromagnetic fields and the definition of the field quantities the book teaches the analytical solution methods of Maxwell’s equations by means of several characteristic examples. The focus is on static and stationary electric and magnetic fields, quasi stationary fields, and electromagnetic waves. For a deeper understanding, the many depicted field patterns are very helpful. The book offers a collection of problems and solutions which enable the reader to understand and to apply Maxwell’s theory for a broad class of problems including classical static problems right up to waveguide eigenvalue problems. Content Maxwell’s Equations - Electrostatic Fields - Stationary Current Distributions – Magnetic Field of Stationary Currents – Quasi Stationary Fields: Eddy Currents - Electromagnetic Waves Target Groups Advanced Graduate Students in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and related Courses Engineers and Physicists Authors Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerd Mrozynski...
Electromagnetic illusion with isotropic and homogeneous materials through scattering manipulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
A new isotropic and homogeneous illusion device for electromagnetic waves is proposed. This single-shelled device can change the fingerprint of the covered object into another one by manipulating the scattering of the composite structure. We show that an electrically small sphere can be disguised as another small one with different electromagnetic parameters. The device can even make a dielectric sphere (electrically small) behave like a conducting one. Full-wave simulations confirm the performance of proposed illusion device. (paper)
Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Quankang
1998-01-01
Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)
A Discrete Scatterer Technique for Evaluating Electromagnetic Scattering from Trees
2016-09-01
stems and leaves, which are expected to far outnumber those scatterers composing the main trunks. The accuracy of the analytical solver is assessed by...which are expected to far outnumber those scatterers composing the main trunks. Furthermore, tree and scene generation for the analytical solver...primitives into cylinders of desired sizes, global translation, and scaling, etc.) is carried out before the entire model is passed on to the scattering
Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering
Morgan, MA
2013-01-01
This second volume in the Progress in Electromagnetic Research series examines recent advances in computational electromagnetics, with emphasis on scattering, as brought about by new formulations and algorithms which use finite element or finite difference techniques. Containing contributions by some of the world's leading experts, the papers thoroughly review and analyze this rapidly evolving area of computational electromagnetics. Covering topics ranging from the new finite-element based formulation for representing time-harmonic vector fields in 3-D inhomogeneous media using two coupled sca
Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Elkattan
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.
Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Chuang; Feng Feng; Li Ying-Jun
2016-01-01
As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. (paper)
Weak-electromagnetic interference in polarized eD scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prescott, C.Y.
1992-09-01
Observation of parity non-conservation in deep-inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from deuterium was reported in an experiment at SLAC in 1978. The events at SLAC and elsewhere leading to the successful search for parity non-conservation in the electromagnetic processes are described
MacKenzie, Anne I.; Rao, Sadasiva M.; Baginski, Michael E.
2007-01-01
A pair of basis functions is presented for the surface integral, method of moment solution of scattering by arbitrarily-shaped, three-dimensional dielectric bodies. Equivalent surface currents are represented by orthogonal unit pulse vectors in conjunction with triangular patch modeling. The electric field integral equation is employed with closed geometries for dielectric bodies; the method may also be applied to conductors. Radar cross section results are shown for dielectric bodies having canonical spherical, cylindrical, and cubic shapes. Pulse basis function results are compared to results by other methods.
Electromagnetic scattering by two concentric spheres buried in a stratified material.
Frezza, F; Mangini, F; Tedeschi, N
2015-02-01
In this paper, a rigorous method to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an elliptically polarized plane wave by two concentric spheres buried in a dielectric stratified medium is presented. The interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with the stratified material is taken into account by means of the transfer matrix approach, in this way we can consider the stratified medium as an effective single interface. All the electromagnetic fields are expanded in series of spherical vector harmonics. The transmitted field through the stratified medium is obtained by means of the effective transmission coefficient. This field is scattered by the two concentric spheres, and the scattered field interacts again with the stratified material. The scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields by the layered medium are computed by exploiting the plane-wave spectrum of the scattered field, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the effective interface. The boundary conditions imposition on the spheres' surfaces leads to a linear system that returns the unknown coefficients of the problem. A numerical code has been implemented to compute the field over all the space. In order to compute the scattered fields, a truncation criterion has been proposed for the numerical evaluation of the series. Finally, to validate the presented method, comparisons between the results of the proposed code and the results of simulations with a software based on the finite element method have been implemented, showing very good agreement.
Photophoresis and the scattering of electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ipser, J.R.
1985-09-01
Electron-microscope photographs of soot lend support to the picture in which a soot particle is modeled as a collection of chains of small carbon spheres. The soot particle itself is typically considerably larger than the small carbon spheres making up the chains. Thus the soot particles might have a size approx.0.1 - 1 μm while the small carbon spheres might have a size approx.0.03 μm in typical situations. Further, measurements of the density of soot yield values much less than that of normal carbon, indicating that an individual soot particle has a rather small filling factor, i.e., the fraction of the volume of the particle tht is occupied by chains. If a soot particle is taken to be a sphere partially filled with carbon chains, what are its scattering and absorption properties. Several workers have adopted the view that the net scattering and absorption properties can be determined simply by summing the cross-sections for the individual small carbon spheres. We feel that such a procedure cannot be valid in general because it neglects coherence effects among the various randomly located scatterers within the soot particle. It appears that in a first rough approximation the scattering and absorption properties of soot can be determined by estimating the effective dielectric constant of a soot sphere
Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.
1991-08-01
The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs
Depolarization and Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves. Appendices.
1986-06-30
ely th quasi-specular terme iszpoT- gb l tes o.r i4 retoroed beeoue th Lb. ’ .s1ot. Is let. 12 it is sbown that the sap - ksigbly ii~l - d eps lar...Cbeltun and Xeo~be (Plet. 61 etablished a new 4;hading is elsa of ourt. identically the model for altimeoter Os’ vs wind speed by sap - spocalar-point...and theory for scatter and produce the ame result rises rsar) through the gravity-wave diaper - s the apsoslar-peist model across the ci1n relation: k
Modeling of Electromagnetic Scattering from Ships
1985-09-06
Pierson [89] (and noise-current modeling by Rice [90]). It allows the intuitive interpretation that 71(t) is made up of an infinite number of randomly...SCATTERER. C Y =Y-COOPDINATE OF THF SCATTEBER. C PST =S!4TP ROTAT!ON ANGLE. C SCTNUF =INDEX TO THE SCATTERFPS (I). c FIRST =FTRST-PASS FlAG. C =.T PUF . FOR...Gravity Waves," in Advances in Geophysics 2, 93, H.E. Landsberg, ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1955). 90. S.O. Rice , "Mathematical Analysis of
Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic Alfven waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R.R.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, O.P.
1981-01-01
The phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic Alfven waves in a plasma is investigated by employing fluid model approach. The low frequency nonlinearity of ion acoustic wave arises through the ponderomotive force on ions and high frequency nonlinearity arises through the equation of continuity. For a typical isothermal plasma (Tsub(e)/Tsub(i)approx.=10), Alfven wave frequency ω 0 approx.=10 6 rad. sec -1 , the threshold for this instability in a uniform plasma is approx.= milliwatt cm -2 . Above the threshold, the growth rate for forward and back scatterings are approx.=10 -3 rad.sec -1 and approx.=10 -4 rad.sec. -1 , respectively. (author)
Hybrid techniques for complex aerospace electromagnetics problems
Aberle, Jim
1993-01-01
Important aerospace electromagnetics problems include the evaluation of antenna performance on aircraft and the prediction and control of the aircraft's electromagnetic signature. Due to the ever increasing complexity and expense of aircraft design, aerospace engineers have become increasingly dependent on computer solutions. Traditionally, computational electromagnetics (CEM) has relied primarily on four disparate techniques: the method of moments (MoM), the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the finite element method (FEM), and high frequency asymptotic techniques (HFAT) such as ray tracing. Each of these techniques has distinct advantages and disadvantages, and no single technique is capable of accurately solving all problems of interest on computers that are available now or will be available in the foreseeable future. As a result, new approaches that overcome the deficiencies of traditional techniques are beginning to attract a great deal of interest in the CEM community. Among these new approaches are hybrid methods which combine two or more of these techniques into a coherent model. During the ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program a hybrid FEM/MoM computer code was developed and applied to a geometry containing features found on many modern aircraft.
Application of geometric algebra to electromagnetic scattering the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac technique
Seagar, Andrew
2016-01-01
This work presents the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac (CCD) technique for solving problems involving the scattering of electromagnetic radiation from materials of all kinds. It allows anyone who is interested to master techniques that lead to simpler and more efficient solutions to problems of electromagnetic scattering than are currently in use. The technique is formulated in terms of the Cauchy kernel, single integrals, Clifford algebra and a whole-field approach. This is in contrast to many conventional techniques that are formulated in terms of Green's functions, double integrals, vector calculus and the combined field integral equation (CFIE). Whereas these conventional techniques lead to an implementation using the method of moments (MoM), the CCD technique is implemented as alternating projections onto convex sets in a Banach space. The ultimate outcome is an integral formulation that lends itself to a more direct and efficient solution than conventionally is the case, and applies without exception to all types...
Scattering and attenuation of electromagnetic waves by partly charged particles
Zhou, Jùn; Dou, X.; Xie, Li
2018-02-01
The scattering of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) by partly charged particles is investigated by Mie theory. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of EMW, the scattering properties are significantly affected by the net surface charges but are not affected by the location of charged area, and the extinction cross section and scattering cross section, as well as the signal attenuation due to charged particles, monotonously increase with the size of charged area and reach maximum when the particle is overall charged, as the surface charge densities is within several hundred μC/m2. Moreover, given the distribution of particle sizes a closer agreement between the theory and measurement of signal attenuation due to charged sand/dust storms can be achieved by taking the charges into consideration and assuming all particles have the same size of charged area and surface charge density in theory calculations.
An overview of electromagnetic interference problems in spacecraft
Bastow, J. G.
1969-01-01
Electromagnetic Interference Workshop held at JPL /Feb., 1968/ permitted an exchange of information on electromagnetic interference problems encountered in aerospace programs. The experiences related at this workshop dealt primarily with Surveyor, Lunar Orbiter, OGO, ATS, and Mariner unmanned programs.
Electromagnetic Model Reliably Predicts Radar Scattering Characteristics of Airborne Organisms
Mirkovic, Djordje; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Chilson, Phillip B.
2016-10-01
The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes. Using the method of moments implemented in the WIPL-D software package, we show for the first time that such electromagnetic modeling techniques (typically applied to man-made objects) can accurately predict organismal radio scattering characteristics from an anatomical model: here the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). The simulated scattering properties of the bat agree with controlled measurements and radar observations made during a field study of bats in flight. This numerical technique can produce the full angular set of quantitative polarimetric scattering characteristics, while eliminating many practical difficulties associated with physical measurements. Such a modeling framework can be applied for bird, bat, and insect species, and will help drive a shift in radar biology from a largely qualitative and phenomenological science toward quantitative estimation of animal densities and taxonomic identification.
Richmond, J. H.
1974-01-01
Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.
Li, Ping
2014-07-01
This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.
Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of electromagnetic scattering from lamellar grating with defects.
Watanabe, Koki; Pištora, Jaromír; Nakatake, Yoshimasa
2011-12-05
This paper proposes a spectral-domain approach to the electromagnetic scattering problem of lamellar grating with defects. The fields in imperfectly periodic structures have continuous spectra in the wavenumber space, and the main problem of the spectral-domain approach is connected to the discretization scheme on the wavenumber. The present approach introduces the pseudo-periodic Fourier transform to consider the discretization scheme in the Brillouin zone. This transformation also makes it possible to apply the conventional grating formulations to the problems of imperfectly periodic structures. The present formulation is based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis with the help of pseudo-periodic Fourier transform.
Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend
2002-01-01
The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...
Mishchenko, Michael I.
2017-10-01
The majority of previous studies of the interaction of individual particles and multi-particle groups with electromagnetic field have focused on either elastic scattering in the presence of an external field or self-emission of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper we apply semi-classical fluctuational electrodynamics to address the ubiquitous scenario wherein a fixed particle or a fixed multi-particle group is exposed to an external quasi-polychromatic electromagnetic field as well as thermally emits its own electromagnetic radiation. We summarize the main relevant axioms of fluctuational electrodynamics, formulate in maximally rigorous mathematical terms the general scattering-emission problem for a fixed object, and derive such fundamental corollaries as the scattering-emission volume integral equation, the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the dyadic transition operator, the multi-particle scattering-emission equations, and the far-field limit. We show that in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, the computation of the self-emitted component of the total field is completely separated from that of the elastically scattered field. The same is true of the computation of the emitted and elastically scattered components of quadratic/bilinear forms in the total electromagnetic field. These results pave the way to the practical computation of relevant optical observables.
Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.
1996-01-01
Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when
Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eloranta, E.H.
1998-01-01
The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: qulaser@gmail.com [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)
2017-03-26
We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.
Macke, Andreas; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2015-01-01
The 15th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XV) was held in Leipzig, Germany from 21 to 26 of June 2015. This conference built on the great success of the previous meetings held in Amsterdam (1995), Helsinki(1997) [2], New York City(1998) [3], Vigo (1999),Halifax (2000), Gainesville (2002), Bremen (2003), Salobreña (2005), St. Petersburg (2006), Bodrum (2007), Hatfield (2008), Helsinki (2010), Taormina (2011), and Lille as well as the workshops held in Bremen (1996,1998) and Moscow (1997). As usual, the main objective of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, and PhD students studying various aspects of electromagnetic scattering and to provide a relaxed atmosphere for in-depth discussion of theory, measurements, and applications. Furthermore, ELS-XV supported the United Nations "Year of Light" and celebrated the150th anniversary of Maxwell's electromagnetics. Maxwell's paper on "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" was published in1865 and has widely been acknowledged as one of the supreme achievements in the history of science. The conference was attended by136 scientists from 22 countries. The scientific program included two plenary lectures, 16 invited reviews, 88 contributed oral talks, and 70 poster presentations. The program and the abstracts of conference presentations are available at the conference website http://www.els-xv-2015.net/home.html. Following the well-established ELS practice and with Elsevier's encouragement, we solicited full-size papers for a topical issue of the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer (JQSRT). The result of this collective effort is now in the reader's hands. As always, every invited review and regular paper included in this topical issue has undergone the same rigorous peer review process as any other manuscript published in the JQSRT.
Kiani, M.; Abdolali, A.; Safari, M.
2018-03-01
In this article, an analytical approach is presented for the analysis of electromagnetic (EM) scattering from radially inhomogeneous spherical structures (RISSs) based on the duality principle. According to the spherical symmetry, similar angular dependencies in all the regions are considered using spherical harmonics. To extract the radial dependency, the system of differential equations of wave propagation toward the inhomogeneity direction is equated with the dual planar ones. A general duality between electromagnetic fields and parameters and scattering parameters of the two structures is introduced. The validity of the proposed approach is verified through a comprehensive example. The presented approach substitutes a complicated problem in spherical coordinate to an easy, well posed, and previously solved problem in planar geometry. This approach is valid for all continuously varying inhomogeneity profiles. One of the major advantages of the proposed method is the capability of studying two general and applicable types of RISSs. As an interesting application, a class of lens antenna based on the physical concept of the gradient refractive index material is introduced. The approach is used to analyze the EM scattering from the structure and validate strong performance of the lens.
Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, X; Zhong, Y
2008-01-01
Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method
Du, Kui
2011-07-01
We consider electromagnetic scattering from two-dimensional (2D) overfilled cavities embedded in an infinite ground plane. The unbounded computational domain is truncated to a bounded one by using a transparent boundary condition (TBC) proposed on a semi-ellipse. For overfilled rectangular cavities with homogeneous media, another TBC is introduced on the cavity apertures, which produces a smaller computational domain. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the variational formulations for the transverse magnetic and transverse electric polarizations are established. In the exterior domain, the 2D scattering problem is solved in the elliptic coordinate system using the Mathieu functions. In the interior domain, the problem is solved by a finite element method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency and accuracy of the new boundary conditions.
Electromagnetic scattering by underground targets using the cylindrical-wave approach
Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina; Schettini, Giuseppe
2010-05-01
The electromagnetic detection of buried cylindrical targets, as structures encountered in the inspection of archaeological sites, or pipes, conduits, and tunnels, has been recently addressed in several works. The development of techniques for investigating cylindrical inhomogeneities embedded in a dielectric medium, is a challenging topic also in several other applications, including non-destructive evaluation and testing in civil engineering, and medical imaging. Ground-penetrating radars (GPRs) are extremely useful in probing subsurface targets through electromagnetic waves. These tools solve an inverse problem, to estimate the electromagnetic properties of a target from field measurements. Different algorithms are employed to post-process the collected experimental data: most of them need a fast and accurate forward solver, to perform repeated evaluations of the scattered field due to known targets, and to be used in combination with some optimization techniques. In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-domain method that we developed for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane-wave forward scattering by a finite set of perfectly-conducting or dielectric cylinders, buried in a dielectric half-space or in a finite-thickness slab. The technique is called Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA), because the field scattered by the targets is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interfaces. Suitable reflected and transmitted cylindrical functions are defined; adaptive integration procedures of Gaussian type, together with acceleration algorithms, are employed for the numerical solution of the relevant spectral integrals. All the multiple-reflection phenomena are taken into account. The method may deal with both TM and TE polarization fields; it can be applied for arbitrary values of permittivity, radius, and depth, of the
Rothwell, Edward J
2009-01-01
Introductory concepts Notation, conventions, and symbology The field concept of electromagneticsThe sources of the electromagnetic field Problems Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism The postulate Maxwell's equations in moving frames The Maxwell-Boffi equations Large-scale form of Maxwell's equationsThe nature of the four field quantities Maxwell's equations with magnetic sources Boundary (jump) conditions Fundamental theorems The wave nature of the electromagnetic field ProblemsThe static electromagnetic field Static fields and steady currents ElectrostaticsMagnetostatics Static field theorem
Problem of interactions: electromagnetic particles interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S.S.
2001-01-01
The electromagnetic interactions between charged particles are derived on the basis of the particles dynamic theory, proposed in the work of Sannikov. The electromagnetic interactions exist only in the relativistic model of the bihamiltonian system, based on the Heisenberg algebra. Existence of this type of interactions is connected with the U e (1)-degeneration of the basic state of the relativistic bihamiltonian system, lying in the basis of the given theory [ru
Scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic radiation pulse by an atom in a broad spectral range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astapenko, V. A.
2011-01-01
The scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse by atomic particles is described using a consistent quantum-mechanical approach taking into account excitation of a target and nondipole electromagnetic interaction, which is valid in a broad spectral range. This approach is applied to the scattering of single- and few-cycle pulses by a multielectron atom and a hydrogen atom. Scattering spectra are obtained for ultrashort pulses of different durations. The relative contribution of “elastic” scattering of a single-cycle pulse by a hydrogen atom is studied in the high-frequency limit as a function of the carrier frequency and scattering angle.
Review of FD-TD numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave scattering and radar cross section
Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Korada R.
1989-01-01
Applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with structures are reviewed, concentrating on scattering and radar cross section (RCS). A number of two- and three-dimensional examples of FD-TD modeling of scattering and penetration are provided. The objects modeled range in nature from simple geometric shapes to extremely complex aerospace and biological systems. Rigorous analytical or experimental validatons are provided for the canonical shapes, and it is shown that FD-TD predictive data for near fields and RCS are in excellent agreement with the benchmark data. It is concluded that with continuing advances in FD-TD modeling theory for target features relevant to the RCS problems and in vector and concurrent supercomputer technology, it is likely that FD-TD numerical modeling will occupy an important place in RCS technology in the 1990s and beyond.
Simplified expressions of the T-matrix integrals for electromagnetic scattering.
Somerville, Walter R C; Auguié, Baptiste; Le Ru, Eric C
2011-09-01
The extended boundary condition method, also called the null-field method, provides a semianalytic solution to the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a particle by constructing a transition matrix (T-matrix) that links the scattered field to the incident field. This approach requires the computation of specific integrals over the particle surface, which are typically evaluated numerically. We introduce here a new set of simplified expressions for these integrals in the commonly studied case of axisymmetric particles. Simplifications are obtained using the differentiation properties of the radial functions (spherical Bessel) and angular functions (associated Legendre functions) and integrations by parts. The resulting simplified expressions not only lead to faster computations, but also reduce the risks of loss of precision and provide a simpler framework for further analytical work.
Electromagnetic scattering of a vector Bessel beam in the presence of an impedance cone
Salem, Mohamed
2013-07-01
The electromagnetic field scattering of a vector Bessel beam in the presence of an infinite circular cone with an impedance boundary on its surface is considered. The impinging field is normal to the tip of the cone and is expanded in terms of vector spherical wave functions; a Kontorovich-Lebedev (KL) transform is employed to expand the scattered fields. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation with a variable coefficient of the non-convolution type. The singularities of the spectral function are deduced and representations for the field at the tip of the cone as well as other regions are given together with the conditions of validity of these representations. © 2013 IEEE.
Monte Carlo solution of the volume-integral equation of electromagnetic scattering
Peltoniemi, J.; Muinonen, K.
2014-07-01
Electromagnetic scattering is often the main physical process to be understood when interpreting the observations of asteroids, comets, and meteors. Modeling the scattering faces still many problems, and one needs to assess several different cases: multiple scattering and shadowing by the rough surface, multiple scattering inside a surface element, and single scattering by a small object. Our specific goal is to extend the electromagnetic techniques to larger and more complicated objects, and derive approximations taking into account the most important effects of waves. Here we experiment with Monte Carlo techniques: can they provide something new to solving the scattering problems? The electromagnetic wave equation in the presence of a scatterer of volume V and refractive index m, with an incident wave EE_0, including boundary conditions and the scattering condition at infinity, can be presented in the form of an integral equation EE(rr)(1+suski(rr) Q(ρ))-int_{V-V_ρ}ddrr' GG(rr-rr')suski(rr')EE(rr') =EE_0, where suski(rr)=m(rr)^2-1, Q(ρ)=-1/3+{cal O}(ρ^2)+{O'}(m^2ρ^2), {O}, and {O'} are some second- and higher-order corrections for the finite-size volume V_ρ of radius ρ around the singularity and GG is the dyadic Green's function of the form GG(RR)={exp(im kR)}/{4π R}[unittensor(1+{im}/{R}-{1}/{R^2})-RRRR(1+{3im}/{R}-{3}/{R^2})]. In general, this is solved by extending the internal field in terms of some simple basis functions, e.g., plane or spherical waves or a cubic grid, approximating the integrals in a clever way, and determining the goodness of the solution somehow, e.g., moments or least square. Whatever the choice, the solution usually converges nicely towards a correct enough solution when the scatterer is small and simple, and diverges when the scatterer becomes too complicated. With certain methods, one can reach larger scatterers faster, but the memory and CPU needs can be huge. Until today, all successful solutions are based on more or less
New approaches to old scattering problems
Goldberg, Joshua David
This thesis is broken into two parts corresponding to the research done before and after the death of Roger Dashen. The first part addresses the problem of high frequency scattering from flat objects. A new formalism, developed by Dashen and Wurmser, is applied to the two dimensional problem of scattering from a soft infinite strip. It is seen that the cross section can be related to a quantity, termed the divergence coefficient, which describes the behavior of the field near the edges. A simple expression for the divergence coefficient and the scattering cross section is derived which, in contrast to traditional results, is uniformly valid in the high frequency limit. The basic procedure is to first express the divergence coefficient in a series form involving Mathieu functions, approximating the terms in this series by their uniform WKB representation, and using the Poisson sum formula to convert the WKB-based series to a more rapidly converging series of integrals which can be evaluated asymptotically. The result is a new expression for the scattering cross section which is compared with previously obtained results. The second part addresses a specific problem in the field of wave propagation in random media: computing the average field for the case of a plane wave incident on a region with a weakly fluctuating sound speed. A review of the existing mathematical methods for treating this problem in both the small and large-scale fluctuation cases is given. In the small-scale regime, previously unrecognized problems with the closure theory are discussed and numerical results are given which illustrate the role played by backscattering in this type of propagation. In the large-scale regime, a new mathematical approach, analogous to the renormalization technique, is described and used to derive a new expression for the mean field valid in this limit. This result is compared with the traditional expressions for this quantity.
Source-model technique analysis of electromagnetic scattering by surface grooves and slits.
Trotskovsky, Konstantin; Leviatan, Yehuda
2011-04-01
A computational tool, based on the source-model technique (SMT), for analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering by surface grooves and slits is presented. The idea is to use a superposition of the solution of the unperturbed problem and local corrections in the groove/slit region (the grooves and slits are treated as perturbations). In this manner, the solution is obtained in a much faster way than solving the original problem. The proposed solution is applied to problems of grooves and slits in otherwise planar or periodic surfaces. Grooves and slits of various shapes, both smooth ones as well as ones with edges, empty or filled with dielectric material, are considered. The obtained results are verified against previously published data. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method
Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.
2017-10-01
Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Many Nano-Wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander G. Ramm
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave scattering by many parallel to the z−axis, thin, impedance, parallel, infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a → 0. Let Dm be the cross-section of the m−th cylinder, a be its radius and xˆm = (xm1, xm2 be its center, 1 ≤ m ≤ M , M = M (a. It is assumed that the points, xˆm, are distributed, so that N (∆ = (1 / 2πa * ∫∆ N (xˆdxˆ[1 + o(1], where N (∆ is the number of points, xˆm, in an arbitrary open subset, ∆, of the plane, xoy. The function, N (xˆ ≥ 0, is a continuous function, which an experimentalist can choose. An equation for the self-consistent (effective field is derived as a → 0. A formula is derived for the refraction coefficient in the medium in which many thin impedance cylinders are distributed. These cylinders may model nano-wires embedded in the medium. One can produce a desired refraction coefficient of the new medium by choosing a suitable boundary impedance of the thin cylinders and their distribution law.
Model Order Reduction: Application to Electromagnetic Problems
Paquay, Yannick
2017-01-01
With the increase in computational resources, numerical modeling has grown expo- nentially these last two decades. From structural analysis to combustion modeling and electromagnetics, discretization methods–in particular the finite element method–have had a tremendous impact. Their main advantage consists in a correct representation of dynamical and nonlinear behaviors by solving equations at local scale, however the spatial discretization inherent to such approaches is also its main drawbac...
Solution accelerators for large scale 3D electromagnetic inverse problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, Gregory A.; Boggs, Paul T.
2004-01-01
We provide a framework for preconditioning nonlinear 3D electromagnetic inverse scattering problems using nonlinear conjugate gradient (NLCG) and limited memory (LM) quasi-Newton methods. Key to our approach is the use of an approximate adjoint method that allows for an economical approximation of the Hessian that is updated at each inversion iteration. Using this approximate Hessian as a preconditoner, we show that the preconditioned NLCG iteration converges significantly faster than the non-preconditioned iteration, as well as converging to a data misfit level below that observed for the non-preconditioned method. Similar conclusions are also observed for the LM iteration; preconditioned with the approximate Hessian, the LM iteration converges faster than the non-preconditioned version. At this time, however, we see little difference between the convergence performance of the preconditioned LM scheme and the preconditioned NLCG scheme. A possible reason for this outcome is the behavior of the line search within the LM iteration. It was anticipated that, near convergence, a step size of one would be approached, but what was observed, instead, were step lengths that were nowhere near one. We provide some insights into the reasons for this behavior and suggest further research that may improve the performance of the LM methods
Transmission scattering problem via a DtN map
Lee, Kuo-Ming
2017-03-01
In this paper, we consider the scattering problem of time-harmonic waves from a penetrable obstacle. A Dirichlet-to-Neumann map is defined to convert this problem into an exterior boundary value problem which mimics an impedance problem. This process reduces the size of the problem and thus enables an elegant treatment of the scattering problem.
Numerical simulations of electromagnetic scattering by Solar system objects
Dlugach, Janna M.
2016-11-01
Having been profoundly stimulated by the seminal work of Viktor V. Sobolev, I have been involved in multi-decadal research in the fields of radiative transfer, electromagnetic scattering by morphologically complex particles and particulate media, and planetary remote sensing. Much of this research has been done in close collaboration with other "descendants" of Academician Sobolev. This tutorial paper gives a representative overview of the results of extensive numerical simulations (in the vast majority carried out in collaboration with Michael Mishchenko) used to analyze remote-sensing observations of Solar system objects and based on highly accurate methods of the radiative transfer theory and direct computer solvers of the Maxwell equations. Using the atmosphere of Jupiter as a proving ground and performing T-matrix and radiative-transfer calculations helps demonstrate the strong effect of aerosol-particle shapes on the accuracy of remote-sensing retrievals. I then discuss the application of the T-matrix method, a numerically exact solution of the vector radiative transfer equation, and the theory of coherent backscattering to an analysis of polarimetric radar observations of Saturn's rings. Numerical modeling performed by using the superposition T-matrix method in application to cometary dust in the form of aggregates serves to reproduce the results of polarimetric observations of the distant comet C/2010 S1. On the basis of direct computer solutions of the Maxwell equations, it is demonstrated that all backscattering effects predicted by the low-density theories of radiative transfer and coherent backscattering can also be identified for media with volume packing densities typically encountered in natural and artificial environments. This result implies that spectacular opposition effects observed for some high-albedo atmoshereless Solar system bodies can be attributed to coherent backscattering of sunlight by regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.
Problems with an electromagnetic blood flowmeter.
Hickman, R; Crosier, J H; Smith, P; Immelman, E J; Terblanche, J
1975-02-22
Recurrent unexplained interference and day-to-day variation were encountered during preliminary studies with a sine-wave electromagnetic flowmeter. Using in vitro techniques, contributory causes were found to be defective leads to the flowmeter cuffs, inadequate contact between cuff and vessel, and failure to use an earth lead. When these faults were corrected, a study was made of the effects of haematocrit, temperature and the comparison of blood vessel or dialysis tubing in vitro. Final in vivo confirmation of the validity of the cuff was obtained by comparison with a cannula probe.
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2016-01-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell's equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell- Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations, we trace the development of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2016-01-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Bi, Lei; Cairns, Brian; Liu, Li; Panetta, R. Lee; Travis, Larry D.; Yang, Ping; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2018-01-01
A discrete random medium is an object in the form of a finite volume of a vacuum or a homogeneous material medium filled with quasi-randomly and quasi-uniformly distributed discrete macroscopic impurities called small particles. Such objects are ubiquitous in natural and artificial environments. They are often characterized by analyzing theoretically the results of laboratory, in situ, or remote-sensing measurements of the scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic scattering and absorption by particles can also affect the energy budget of a discrete random medium and hence various ambient physical and chemical processes. In either case electromagnetic scattering must be modeled in terms of appropriate optical observables, i.e., quadratic or bilinear forms in the field that quantify the reading of a relevant optical instrument or the electromagnetic energy budget. It is generally believed that time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations can accurately describe elastic electromagnetic scattering by macroscopic particulate media that change in time much more slowly than the incident electromagnetic field. However, direct solutions of these equations for discrete random media had been impracticable until quite recently. This has led to a widespread use of various phenomenological approaches in situations when their very applicability can be questioned. Recently, however, a new branch of physical optics has emerged wherein electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media is modeled directly by using analytical or numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations. Therefore, the main objective of this Report is to formulate the general theoretical framework of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media rooted in the Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetics and discuss its immediate analytical and numerical consequences. Starting from the microscopic Maxwell–Lorentz equations, we trace the development
Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.
1975-01-01
A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations
Problems in classical electromagnetism 157 exercises with solutions
Macchi, Andrea; Pegoraro, Francesco
2017-01-01
This book contains 157 problems in classical electromagnetism, most of them new and original compared to those found in other textbooks. Each problem is presented with a title in order to highlight its inspiration in different areas of physics or technology, so that the book is also a survey of historical discoveries and applications of classical electromagnetism. The solutions are complete and include detailed discussions, which take into account typical questions and mistakes by the students. Without unnecessary mathematical complexity, the problems and related discussions introduce the student to advanced concepts such as unipolar and homopolar motors, magnetic monopoles, radiation pressure, angular momentum of light, bulk and surface plasmons, radiation friction, as well as to tricky concepts and ostensible ambiguities or paradoxes related to the classical theory of the electromagnetic field. With this approach the book is both a teaching tool for undergraduates in physics, mathematics and electric engine...
Scattering engineering in continuously shaped metasurface: An approach for electromagnetic illusion
Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Shao, Liyang
2016-07-01
The control of electromagnetic waves scattering is critical in wireless communications and stealth technology. Discrete metasurfaces not only increase the design and fabrication complex but also cause difficulties in obtaining simultaneous electric and optical functionality. On the other hand, discontinuous phase profiles fostered by discrete systems inevitably introduce phase noises to the scattering fields. Here we propose the principle of a scattering-harness mechanism by utilizing continuous gradient phase stemming from the spin-orbit interaction via sinusoidal metallic strips. Furthermore, by adjusting the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal metallic strip, the scattering characteristics of the underneath object can be greatly changed and thus result in electromagnetic illusion. The proposal is validated by full-wave simulations and experiment characterization in microwave band. Our approach featured by continuous phase profile, polarization independent performance and facile implementation may find widespread applications in electromagnetic wave manipulation.
Electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic particles at scattering in excited medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malyshevskij, V.S.
1990-01-01
The interaction between relativistic particles and a gaseous or condensed medium with a high density of nondegenerate excited quantum states involves the coherent conversion of atomic or molecular excitations into electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, S.; Costillo, S.; Dalton, K.; Hensel, E.
1990-01-01
A study is conducted of the finite element solution of the partial differential equations governing two-dimensional electromagnetic field scattering problems on a SIMD computer. A nodal assembly technique is introduced which maps a single node to a single processor. The physical domain is first discretized in parallel to yield the node locations of an O-grid mesh. Next, the system of equations is assembled and then solved in parallel using a conjugate gradient algorithm for complex-valued, non-symmetric, non-positive definite systems. Using this technique and Thinking Machines Corporation's Connection Machine-2 (CM-2), problems with more than 250k nodes are solved. Results of electromagnetic scattering, governed by the 2-d scalar Hemoholtz wave equations are presented in this paper. Solutions are demonstrated for a wide range of objects. A summary of performance data is given for the set of test problems
On the quantum inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V.
2000-01-01
A general method for solving the so-called quantum inverse scattering problem (namely the reconstruction of local quantum (field) operators in term of the quantum monodromy matrix satisfying a Yang-Baxter quadratic algebra governed by an R-matrix) for a large class of lattice quantum integrable models is given. The principal requirement being the initial condition (R(0)=P, the permutation operator) for the quantum R-matrix solving the Yang-Baxter equation, it applies not only to most known integrable fundamental lattice models (such as Heisenberg spin chains) but also to lattice models with arbitrary number of impurities and to the so-called fused lattice models (including integrable higher spin generalizations of Heisenberg chains). Our method is then applied to several important examples like the sl n XXZ model, the XYZ spin-((1)/(2)) chain and also to the spin-s Heisenberg chains
TIJHUIS, Anton G.; BEURDEN, Martijn C. van; HON, Bastiaan P. de
2008-01-01
In this paper, a two-stage approach is proposed for using computational electromagnetics in antenna engineering. First, stochastic optimization techniques are used in combination with approximate models. Second, line-search techniques are combined with full-wave modeling. For the first stage, we show an illustrative example. The second stage is considered in detail; both the acceleration of the underlying field computations and the implementation of the optimization are discussed.
Problems with nonperturbative effects in deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lev, F.M.
1996-01-01
We consider restrictions imposed on the (electromagnetic and weak) current operator by its commutation relations with the representation operators of the Poincare group and show that the nonperturbative part of the current operator contributes to deep inelastic scattering even in leading order in 1/Q where Q is the magnitude of the momentum transfer. Some consequences of this result are discussed. 18 refs
Electromagnetic Scattering of Finite and Infinite 3D Lattices in Polarizable Backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallinet, Benjamin; Martin, Olivier J. F.
2009-01-01
A novel method is elaborated for the electromagnetic scattering from periodical arrays of scatterers embedded in a polarizable background. A dyadic periodic Green's function is introduced to calculate the scattered electric field in a lattice of dielectric or metallic objects. The method exhibits strong advantages: discretization and computation of the field are restricted to the volume of the scatterers in the unit cell, open and periodic boundary conditions for the electric field are included in the Green's tensor, and finally both near and far-fields physics are directly revealed, without any additional computational effort. Promising applications include the design of periodic structures such as frequency-selective surfaces, photonic crystals and metamaterials.
Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu
2016-04-01
Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.
Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques
Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John
2011-01-01
This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the
A generalized Debye source approach to electromagnetic scattering in layered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O’Neil, Michael
2014-01-01
The standard solution to time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problems in homogeneous layered media relies on the use of the electric field dyadic Green's function. However, for small values of the governing angular frequency ω, evaluation of the electric field using this Green's function exhibits numerical instability. In this short note, we provide an alternative approach which is immune from this low-frequency breakdown as ω → 0. Our approach is based on the generalized Debye source representation of Maxwell fields. Using this formulation, the electric and magnetic fields gracefully decouple in the static limit, a behavior similar to that of the classical Lorenz-Debye-Mie representation of Maxwell fields in spherical geometries. We derive extensions of both the generalized Deybe source and Lorenz-Debye-Mie representations to planar geometries, as well as provide equations for the solution of scattering from a perfectly conducting half-space and in layered media using a Sommerfeld-like approach. These formulas are stable as ω tends to zero, and offer alternatives to the electric field dyadic Green's function
Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knudson, S.K.
1975-01-01
Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering
The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski
2007-04-16
A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.
Numerical modeling of electromagnetic scattering in explosive granular media
Sundberg, Garth
Terahertz (THz) reflection and transmission spectroscopy is a promising new field with applications in imaging and illicit material detection. One particularly useful application is for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) which is a favorite weapon of global terrorists. Explosive materials have been shown to have a unique spectral signature in the THz band which can be used to identify the explosives. However, the initial measurements performed on the explosive samples do not account for the modulation of the spectral features by random scattering that will be prevalent with actual samples encountered in applications. The intent of this work is to characterize and quantify the effects of random scattering that may alter the spectral features. Specifically, the effect that a randomly rough surface and granular scattering has on the scattered THz wave (T-Rays) will be investigated and characterized using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method. The FDTD method is a natural choice for this work as it can handle complicated geometries (i.e., multiple scatterers, arbitrarily rough interfaces, etc.) arbitrary materials (i.e., dispersive media, etc.) and provides broadband frequency data with one simulation pass. First, the effect that the randomly rough surface of the sample explosive has on the extracted spectral signature will be studied using a Monte-Carlo analysis. Then the effect of the complex structure inside the explosive material (the granular scatterers) will be considered. Next, when the physics of the rough surface and granular scattering are understood, a robust method to extract the spectral signature from the reflected T-rays will be developed.
Stoja, Endri; Hoxha, Julian; Domnori, Elton; Pajewski, Lara; Frezza, Fabrizio
2017-04-01
In this study the electromagnetic field scattered by a buried object is obtained by use of a commercial full-wave frequency-domain solver which implements the Finite Element Method (FEM). The buried object is supposed to have different simple shapes and material composition such as a cylinder or cylindrical shell modelling for example a void in concrete or a poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) pipeline, respectively. Material properties available in literature are correctly modelled by data interpolation. The model is excited by a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the interface between air and soil/cement half-space. Comparison with simulation data provided by another simulator implementing the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique in the case of a simple buried perfect electric cylinder allows for FEM data validation. We further study the properties and the spatial variation of the scattered fields in different contexts by varying the geometrical and material properties of the model relative to the impinging wave characteristics. The aim is to clearly determine the conditions under which detection is possible. Moreover, by application of signal processing techniques to scattered field data, the position, shape, and object orientation recognition problems are considered. Results from different DSP algorithms are compared with the goal to find the best performing one relative to the context. Performance is evaluated in terms of detection success and resolving ability. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques in the field of Civil Engineering offers inspection capabilities in the structure with no destructive intervention. Acknowledgement This abstract is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu.
Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques
Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.
1996-01-01
This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.
Contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays to the Moessbauer conversion electron spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruskov, T.; Ruskov, R.; Paneva, D.; Lefterov, D.
1999-01-01
The contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays in a 57 Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectrum is considered using proportional counter as a detector. A simplified method for measuring this contribution is described. The experimental results show that this contribution strongly depends on the construction of the counter and the selected fraction in the pulse-height spectrum
Relativistic contributions to the electromagnetic binding and scattering of pions by atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruijgrok, Th.W.
1996-01-01
A relativistic two-particle theory is used for the calculation of the lowest order correction to the electromagnetic binding and scattering of a pion by an atom. The binding energy is found to be equal to the result obtained with the Klein-Gordon equation. The relativistic correction to the differential cross section, however, differs from the corresponding Klein-Gordon result. (author)
Scattering forces on magneto-dielectric particles and the electromagnetic momentum density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Marques
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the non-conservative forces on magneto-dielectric particles in special configurations where the scattering force is not proportional to the average value of the Poynting vector. Based on these results, we revisit the concept of electromagnetic momentum density.
Modelling Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Media: An Up-to-Date Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pasquale Imperatore
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the subject of electromagnetic wave scattering in layered media, thus covering the recent progress achieved with different approaches. Existing theories and models are analyzed, classified, and summarized on the basis of their characteristics. Emphasis is placed on both theoretical and practical application. Finally, patterns and trends in the current literature are identified and critically discussed.
Radiation protection problems by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in Austria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duftschmid, K.E.
1984-03-01
Since about one year an interdisciplinary study group has been established to investigate possible radiation protection problems caused by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in this country. The aim of this project is to identify major fields of concern, to establish appropriate techniques of measurement and control and eventually develop a sound basis for future legislation. The paper gives a summary on the present results of this study. (Author)
Some special cases of the electromagnetic inverse problem
Weston, V. H.
1972-01-01
A review of exact techniques for determining the surface of a three-dimensional perfectly conducting body is given, followed by some new results on the uniqueness question concerning the number of measurements that may be required to explicitly determine the surface of the body. It is then shown that the inhomogeneous but spherically symmetric dielectric electromagnetic case is reducible to a scalar inverse problem that can be treated by known techniques.
Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by a collection of plasma drift turbulent vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resendes, D.
1995-01-01
An application of the self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of electro-magnetic waves to drift turbulent vortices is presented. Using the known single-vortex solution, the integral equation describing the scattering from a finite density of drift turbulent vortices is obtained. Rather than solving this equation and then averaging, the averaging operation is taken first to obtain statistical moment equations, from which the coherent and incoherent scattering follow. These results are expressed in a Fourier basis, and the cross-section is evaluated. Limiting forms of the theory and straightforward generalizations are discussed. (Author)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Yurkin, Maxim A.
2017-01-01
Although the model of randomly oriented nonspherical particles has been used in a great variety of applications of far-field electromagnetic scattering, it has never been defined in strict mathematical terms. In this Letter we use the formalism of Euler rigid-body rotations to clarify the concept of statistically random particle orientations and derive its immediate corollaries in the form of most general mathematical properties of the orientation-averaged extinction and scattering matrices. Our results serve to provide a rigorous mathematical foundation for numerous publications in which the notion of randomly oriented particles and its light-scattering implications have been considered intuitively obvious.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a nonuniform cylindrical plasma in the eikonal approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S.K.; Dasgupta, B.
1987-01-01
The scattering of a uniform plane electromagnetic wave from an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma in the presence of an axial static magnetic field is treated in the eikonal approximation. A simple expression is presented for the scattering function for ordinary wave scattering. This expression is expected to be a good approximation at small angles and for refractive indices close to unity (ω 2 >> ω 2 sub(p)). In order to show the accuracy of the eikonal approximation numerical comparisons with the exact results are presented for the simple model of homogeneous plasma. Implications of the eikonal results in the plasma diagnostics are discussed. (author)
Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The importance of the laser–plasma interaction becomes an active field of research in the laser-fusion experiments, charged particle acceleration experiments, X-ray generation, propagation of EM waves in ionosphere etc. and the stimulated Bril- louin scattering (SBS) plays an important role in laser–plasma interaction as it.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kriegsmann, G.A.
1976-01-01
In this paper we apply the method of geometrical optics to study the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves off a cylindrically confined cold plasma. For simplicity, we assume two types of incident polarization. In both cases scalar second order elliptic partial differential equations describe the fields. These problems are studied in the asymptotic limit aω/c→infinity (where a is the radius of the cylinder, ω is the frequency of the incident plane wave, and c is the velocity of light in free space). We furthermore assume a quadratic plasma density. This allows us to calculate explicitly the rays, amplitudes, caustics, and other features which arise in the geometrical optics approach. The assumed density also gives rise to the interesting cutoff and resonance phenomenon. Thus the amplification of the electromagnetic fields is observed. This phenomenon may have applications in laser fusion
XUV and x-ray elastic scattering of attosecond electromagnetic pulses on atoms
Rosmej, F. B.; Astapenko, V. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.
2017-12-01
Elastic scattering of electromagnetic pulses on atoms in XUV and soft x-ray ranges is considered for ultra-short pulses. The inclusion of the retardation term, non-dipole interaction and an efficient scattering tensor approximation allowed studying the scattering probability in dependence of the pulse duration for different carrier frequencies. Numerical calculations carried out for Mg, Al and Fe atoms demonstrate that the scattering probability is a highly nonlinear function of the pulse duration and has extrema for pulse carrier frequencies in the vicinity of the resonance-like features of the polarization charge spectrum. Closed expressions for the non-dipole correction and the angular dependence of the scattered radiation are obtained.
Li, Ping
2014-05-01
A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens\\' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer\\'s shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.
Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S
2001-01-01
We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...
Finite element based inversion for time-harmonic electromagnetic problems
Schwarzbach, Christoph; Haber, Eldad
2013-05-01
In this paper we address the inverse problem and present some recent advances in numerical methods to recover the subsurface electrical conductivity from time-harmonic electromagnetic data. We rigorously formulate and discretize both the forward and the inverse problem in the finite element framework. To solve the forward problem, we derive a finite element discretization of the first-order system of Maxwell's equations in terms of the electric field and the magnetic induction. We show that our approach is equivalent to the standard discretization of the vector Helmholtz equation in terms of the electric field and that the discretization of magnetic induction of the same approximation order is hidden in the standard discretization. We implement the forward solver on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using edge elements. Unstructured meshes are not only capable of representing complex geometry. They can also reduce the overall problem size and, thus, the size of the system of linear equations arising from the forward problem such that direct methods for its solution using a sparse matrix factorization become feasible. The inverse problem is formulated as a regularized output least squares problem. We consider two regularization functions. First, we derive a smoothness regularizer using a primal-dual mixed finite element formulation which generalizes the standard Laplacian operator for a piecewise constant conductivity model on unstructured meshes. Secondly, we derive a total variation regularizer for the same class of models. For the choice of the regularization parameter we revisit the so-called dynamic regularization and compare it to a standard regularization scheme with fixed regularization parameter. The optimization problem is solved by the Gauss-Newton method which can be efficiently implemented using sparse matrix-vector operations and exploiting the sparse matrix factorization of the forward problem system matrix. A synthetic data example from marine
Light scattering under conditions of nonstationary electromagnetically induced transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larionov, N V; Sokolov, I M
2007-01-01
The propagation of probe radiation pulses in ultracold atomic ensembles is studied theoretically under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The pulse 'stopping' process is considered which takes place upon nonadiabatic switching off and subsequent switching on the control field. We analysed the formation of an inverted recovered probe radiation pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the direction opposite to the propagation direction before the pulse stopping. Based on this analysis, a scheme is proposed for lidar probing atomic or molecular clouds in which the probe pulse penetrates into a cloud over the specified depth, while information on the cloud state is obtained from the parameters of the inverted pulse. Calculations are performed for an ensemble of 87 Rb atoms. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2015-08-24
Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.
Chen, Guang-Yin
2016-02-10
The spectral density of the metal-surface electromagnetic fields will be strongly modified in the presence of a closely-spaced quantum emitter. In this work, we propose a feasible way to probe the changes of the spectral density through the scattering of the waveguide photon incident on the quantum emitter. The variances of the lineshape in the transmission spectra indicate the coherent interaction between the emitter and the pseudomode resulting from all the surface electromagnetic modes. We further investigate the quantum coherence between the emitter and the pseudomode of the metal-dielectric interface.
Fouda, Ahmed E.
Time-reversal (TR) was originated in acoustics as a technique for re-focusing waves around their source location. Under certain conditions, the wave equation is invariant under TR, therefore, waves emanated from a source or scattered from a passive target, and recorded by a transceivers array, will retrace their forward path and automatically focus at the source/target location if back propagated in a time-reversed (last-in first-out) fashion from that array. Focusing resolution of time-reversed back propagation in rich scattering environments beats that in free space, yielding what is known as 'superresolution'. Moreover, under ultrawideband (UWB) operation, TR exhibits the distinctive property of 'statistical stability', which makes it an attractive technique for imaging in disordered media whose characteristics are not known deterministically (random media). Over the past few years, TR has been exploited in a variety of electromagnetic sensing and imaging applications such as ground penetrating radar, breast cancer detection, nondestructive testing, and through-wall imaging. In addition, TR has been extensively applied in UWB wireless communication providing myriad of advantages including reduced receiver complexity, power saving, increased system capacity, and enhanced information secrecy. In this work, we introduce new TR-based signal processing techniques for imaging, tracking, and communicating with targets/users embedded in rich scattering environments. We start by demonstrating, both numerically and experimentally, the statistical stability of UWB TR imaging in inhomogeneous random media, under different combinations of random medium parameters and interrogating signal properties. We examine conditions under which frequency decorrelation in random media provides a more effective 'self-averaging' and therefore better statistical stability. Then, we devise a technique for detecting and tracking multiple moving targets in cluttered environments based on
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an non-uniform cylindrical plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faugeras, P.E.
1966-12-01
The problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a non-uniform, cylindrically symmetrical plasma is solved analytically, by a self-consistent field method, for a wave with the electric field parallel to the cylinder axis. Numerical results for the diffracted field are plotted for interesting ranges of the parameters involved: diameter, density on the axis, radial profile of the density, and collision frequencies. The case where the incident field is cylindric (waves surfaces parallel to the cylinder axis) is examined - this permits to connect theoretical calculations and experimental diffraction patterns, and also to explain the diffraction effects observed in a classical microwave interferometry experiment. These results, and the possibility of measuring exactly the diffracted field (showed by experiments with dielectric and metallic rods) lead to a new plasma diagnostic method, based on the diffraction, which has no theoretical limitations and it usable when the classical free-space wave methods are not (plasma diameter lower than 10 wave lengths). The feasibility of this method is tested with a plasma at atmospheric pressure and a 2 mm incident wavelength. The plasma is obtained by the laminar flow of a plasma torch, with a working gas (He or Ar) seeded by potassium (density continuously variable between 10 11 and 10 15 e/cm 3 . Some diffraction patterns by this plasma and for various incident waves, are also given and explained with theoretical calculations. (author) [fr
Algorithms for Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Electrically Large Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter
Accurate analysis of electrically large antennas is often done using either Physical Optics (PO) or Method of Moments (MoM), where the former typically requires fewer computational resources but has a limited application regime. This study has focused on fast variants of these two methods......, by several authors, been dismissed as being too memory intensive. In the present work, we demonstrate for the first time that by including a range of both novel and previously presented modifications to the standard MLFMM implementation, HO MLFMM can achieve both memory reduction and significant speed...... band. Accelerating PO is an entirely different matter. A few authors have discussed applying the Fast-PO technique to far fields, achieving relative errors of 0.1%−1% for moderately sized scatterers. For near-fields, the state-of-the-art implementation of Fast-PO has several difficulties, in particular...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uğur YALÇIN
2004-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.
Multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: datorma1@upvnet.upv.es, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n (Edificio 7F), ES-46022 Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-15
A multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials is presented. This approach is comprehensive and can lead to frequency-dependent effective parameters (scalar bulk modulus and tensorial mass density), as it is possible to have not only positive or negative ellipsoidal refractive index, but also positive or negative hyperbolic refractive index. The correction due to multiple scattering interactions is included in the theory and it is demonstrated that its contribution is important only for lattices with high filling fractions. Since the surface fields on the scatterers are mainly responsible for the anomalous behavior of the resulting effective medium, complex scatterers can be used to engineer the frequency response. Anisotropic effects are also discussed within this formulation and some numerical examples are reported. A homogenization theory is also extended to electromagnetic wave propagation in 2D lattices of dielectric structures, where Mie resonances are found to be responsible for the metamaterial behavior.
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2015-02-01
An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) based time domain electric field volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers with nonlinear material properties is proposed. Discretization of the unknown electric field intensity and flux density is carried out by half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, respectively. Coupled system of spatially discretized TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between the field intensity and the flux density is integrated in time to compute the samples of the unknowns. An explicit PE(CE)m scheme is used for this purpose. Explicitness allows for \\'easy\\' incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function only to be evaluated on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. A numerical example that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed MOT scheme to analyzing electromagnetic interactions on Kerr-nonlinear scatterers is presented. © 2015 IEEE.
Mischenko, Michael I.; Travis, Larry D.; Cairns, Brian; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.
2011-01-01
Following Keller(Proc Symp Appl Math 1962;13:227:46), we classify all theoretical treatments of electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object into first- principle (or "honest" in Keller s terminology) and phenomenological (or "dishonest") categories. This helps us identify, analyze, and dispel several profound misconceptions widespread in the discipline of electromagnetic scattering by solitary particles and discrete random media. Our goal is not to call for a complete renunciation of phenomenological approaches but rather to encourage a critical and careful evaluation of their actual origin, virtues, and limitations. In other words, we do not intend to deter creative thinking in terms of phenomenological short-cuts, but we do want to raise awareness when we stray (often for practical reasons) from the fundamentals. The main results and conclusions are illustrated by numerically-exact data based on direct numerical solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations.
A Center for the Analyses of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briscoe, William [George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)
2017-05-24
The GWU Institute for Nuclear Studies (GWINS) continued activities, and began new initiatives, within the context of a program of Hadronic Physics. The intense program of meson photoproduction measurements has resulted in an extensive set of observables that includes not only cross sections, but also polarization and double-polarization observables. Analysis of these new data contributes toward a resolution of a long-standing issue in baryon spectroscopy, namely, the “missing resonance" problem. The study of baryons containing two and three strange quarks (the Ξ and Ω states, respectively) has begun in order to solve this problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barash, Yu.S.; Galaktionov, A.V.
1992-01-01
A general expression is found for superconducting fluctuation contribution to transverse permittivity c tr f (Ω, Q) of a standard massive isotopic metal near T c at Ω c and Qζ 0 0 is the coherence length at zero temperature, Q is the external electromagnetic field pulse), depending on frequency and wave vector. Differential cross section of magnetic scattering of neutrons near T c in the region of comparatively small angles is considered
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by counter-rotating vortex streets in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerra, R.; Mendonca, J.T. [Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Dendy, R.O. [UKAEA Government Division, Fusion (UKAEA---Euratom Fusion Association), Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shukla, P.K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
1996-03-01
The scattering of electromagnetic waves from counter-rotating vortex streets associated with nonlinear convective cells in uniform plasmas has been considered. The vortex street solution of the Navier{endash}Stokes or the Hasegawa{endash}Mima (and of the {open_quote}{open_quote}sinh-Poisson{close_quote}{close_quote}) equation is adopted as a scatterer. Assuming arbitrary polarization and profile function for the incident electromagnetic field, a compact expression for the scattering cross section has been obtained. Specific results for the differential cross section are obtained for the case in which the incident beam has a Gaussian profile and propagates as an ordinary mode. The results show that when the characteristic wavelength of the vortex street ({lambda}{sub {ital v}}=2{pi}/{ital a}) is larger than that of the incident electromagnetic wave ({lambda}{sub {ital i}}=2{pi}/{ital k}{sub {ital i}}), the differential cross section {ital d}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega} has a very well-defined angular periodicity; in fact, it is a collection of Gaussians varying as exp[{minus}{ital f}({ital k}{sub {ital iw}}){sup 2}], where {ital w} is the waist and {ital f} is a function expressing a kind of {open_quote}{open_quote}Bragg condition.{close_quote}{close_quote} On the other hand, for {lambda}{sub {ital i}}{approx_gt}{lambda}{sub {ital v}} the incident electromagnetic beam is unable to distinguish the periodic structure of the vortex street. The effects of the vortex street as well as the incident beam parameters on the scattering cross section are examined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anlauf, H.; Manakos, P.; Ohl, T.; Dahmen, H.D.; Mannel, T.
1991-09-01
We present the Monte Carlo event generator KRONOS for deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering at HERA. KRONOS focusses on the description of electromagnetic corrections beyond the existing fixed order calculations. (orig.)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cashman, John
2001-01-01
A rotating ensemble of bodies of arbitrary shape with angular periodicity scatters an electromagnetic wave to produce a spectrum of frequency components characteristic of the structure and its rotation...
Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves and cross-B plasma diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gresillon, D.; Cabrit, B.; Truc, A.
1992-01-01
Magnetized plasmas occuring in nature as well as in fusion laboratories are oftenly irregularly shaked by magnetic field fluctuations. The so-called ''coherent scattering'' of electromagnetic wave from nonuniform, irregularly moving plasmas is investigated in the case where the scattering wavelength is large compared to the Debye length, but of the order of the irregularities correlation length. The scattered signal frequency spectrum is shown to be a transform of the plasma motion statistical characteristics. When the scattering wavelength is larger than the plasma motion correlation length, the frequency spectrum is shown to be of a lorentzian shape, with a frequency width that provides a direct measurement of the cross-B particle diffusion coefficient. This is illustrated by two series of recently obtained experimental results: radar coherent backscattering observations of the auroral plasma, and far infrared scattering from tokamak fusion plasma. Radar coherent backscattering shows the transition from Gauss to Lorentz scattered frequency spectra. In infrared Laser coherent scattering experiments from the Tore-Supra tokamak, a particular frequency line is observed to present a Lorentzian shape, that directly provides an electron cross-field diffusion coefficient. This diffusion coefficient agrees with the electron heat conductivity coefficient that is obtained from the observation of temperature profiles and energy balance. (Author)
An inverse transmission scattering problem for periodic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Bo
2011-01-01
Consider the problem of scattering of time-harmonic waves by a penetrable periodic structure. The structure separates the whole space into three regions: the medium above and below the structure is assumed to be homogeneous, and the medium inside the structure is assumed to be inhomogeneous with the refractive index q(x). Having established the well posedness of the scattering problem, we show that the scattered field measured only above the structure, corresponding to a countably infinite number of quasi-periodic waves, uniquely determine the two grating profiles. Furthermore, we prove that the refractive index q(x) can be uniquely determined from the scattered field measured above and below the structure, corresponding to a countably infinite number of quasi-periodic waves, if q depends only on one direction and if the two grating profiles are known constants. The proofs are based on a priori estimates of the solutions of the direct problem and new mixed reciprocity relations. (paper)
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.
2016-01-01
The numerically exact superposition T-matrix method is used to model far-field electromagnetic scattering by two types of particulate object. Object 1 is a fixed configuration which consists of N identical spherical particles (with N 200 or 400) quasi-randomly populating a spherical volume V having a median size parameter of 50. Object 2 is a true discrete random medium (DRM) comprising the same number N of particles randomly moving throughout V. The median particle size parameter is fixed at 4. We show that if Object 1 is illuminated by a quasi-monochromatic parallel beam then it generates a typical speckle pattern having no resemblance to the scattering pattern generated by Object 2. However, if Object 1 is illuminated by a parallel polychromatic beam with a 10 bandwidth then it generates a scattering pattern that is largely devoid of speckles and closely reproduces the quasi-monochromatic pattern generated by Object 2. This result serves to illustrate the capacity of the concept of electromagnetic scattering by a DRM to encompass fixed quasi-random particulate samples provided that they are illuminated by polychromatic light.
Litvinenko, Alexander
2016-01-06
Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by balancing the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-07
Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-05
Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.
COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA
Lécureux, Marie; Enoch, Stefan; Deumié, Carole; Tayeb, Gérard
2014-10-01
Sunscreens protect from UV radiation, a carcinogen also responsible for sunburns and age-associated dryness. In order to anticipate the transmission of light through UV protection containing scattering particles, we implement electromagnetic models, using numerical methods for solving Maxwell's equations. After having our models validated, we compare several calculation methods: differential method, scattering by a set of parallel cylinders, or Mie scattering. The field of application and benefits of each method are studied and examples using the appropriate method are described.
Fast analysis of multi-static scattering problems with compressive sensing technique
Chai, Shui-Rong; Guo, Li-Xin; Li, Ke; Meng, Xiao; Li, Long
2017-11-01
In this paper, the compressive sensing (CS) is introduced to the electromagnetic multi-static scattering problems for the purpose of reducing computation runtimes. During the simulations, the CS paradigm is worked as an incident angle reduction tool. The scattered fields generated by all excitations in one scattering angle are treated as the signal of interest, which is under sampled directly based on the CS theory. And then the measurement of the scattered fields is converted to the measurement of the induced currents and the excitations by the Huygens principle and the relationships between the induced currents and the excitations. By solving the measured matrix equation with the fast multipole method (FMM), one can get the measurement of the scattered fields. Finally, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is utilized to reconstruct the original scattered fields by solving an optimal ℓ1 norm equation. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, if the interpolation is not taken into account, the introduction of CS can save significantly while maintaining sufficient accuracy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav
2002-01-01
The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....
Scattering properties of electromagnetic waves from metal object in the lower terahertz region
Chen, Gang; Dang, H. X.; Hu, T. Y.; Su, Xiang; Lv, R. C.; Li, Hao; Tan, X. M.; Cui, T. J.
2018-01-01
An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of metal objects in the lower terahertz (THz) frequency. The metal object can be viewed as perfectly electrical conducting object with a slightly rough surface in the lower THz region. Hence the THz scattered field from metal object can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are combined to compute the coherent part; while the small perturbation method is used for the incoherent part. With the MonteCarlo method, the radar cross section of the rough metal surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the proposed hybrid algorithm, respectively. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has good accuracy to simulate the scattering properties rapidly in the lower THz region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Gang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of an infinitely thin metal plate in the lower terahertz (THz frequency region. In this region, the metal plate can be viewed as a perfect electrically conductive object with a marginally rough surface. Hence, the THz scattered field from the metal plate can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are used to compute the coherent part, whereas the small perturbation method is used to compute the incoherent part. Then, the radar cross section of the rough metal plate surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole and proposed hybrid algorithms. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has a good accuracy when rapidly simulating the scattering properties in the lower THz region.
Ohkawa, E.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.
2009-12-01
The temperature of external materials of buildings rises when they are exposed to sunlight, and the room temperature rises too if the buildings’ external wall is in the sunlight. Therefore the crisis of electric power supply is frequently caused by air conditioning in midsummer. Recently, it has been experimentally confirmed that such temperature rising of such building materials may be suppressed when they are coated with paint including fine silicic spheres whose diameters are in micron to submicron scale. So we are able to reduce the energy consumption if room temperature is controlled not with any air conditioning but with these paints, and the heat island effects would be lowered. However, the mechanism of this temperature suppression has not been investigated. Experimental consideration of this paint has been done, but the mechanism how the paint controls the temperature rise has hardly been clarified theoretically. Since the best composition of the spheres and their best size are not understood well, it is necessary to theoretically clarify the controlling mechanism for the temperature rise to develop efficient paint. In this study, we aimed to find out the mechanism of the temperature suppression. When the electromagnetic wave at a frequency near eigenfrequencies of atoms, molecules or bindings enters the atoms or the molecules, they resonate and move intensely, and finally rise the temperature. Therefore, we presume that the temperature rise could be controlled if the electromagnetic waves around the eigenfrequencies could be removed. Here, we consider electromagnetic wave of light. Then we assumed that the electromagnetic waves in a certain range of frequencies were scattered to shield the radiated heat energy in the insolation and that the transmitted light through the paint layer is weakened. For verifying the hypotheses and finding the range of effective size, we used the Mie theory of a light scattering theory to calculate the intensity of scattered
Bohmian Trajectories in the Scattering Problem
Contopoulos, G.; Delis, N.; hymiopoulos, C.
2014-12-01
The scattering of ingoing particles by a target is classically given by Rutherford's law. The orbits of particles with small impact parameter are deflected to larger angles than the orbits with larger impact parameter. On the other hand in Bohmian quantum mechanics the opposite is true. Orbits with smaller impact parameter undergo smaller deflections. We study Bohmian orbits in two cases (1) the case of a plane ingoing wave with a gaussian distribution with dispersion D perpendicular to the initial direction of propagation z, and (2) the case of a wave packet that is also gaussian beyond the z-direction with dispersion l, and we consider two subcases l > D and l < D. The ingoing wave is deflected radially outwards from the target along a line called the "separator". Close to the separator there are many "nodal points" and unstable "Xpoints". The ingoing flow is initially close to the stable manifolds of the X-points and then it goes around the nodal points and escapes close to the unstable manifolds of the X-points...
Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling
Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.
1991-01-01
The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.
The Problem of Scattering by a Mixture of Cracks and Obstacles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Guozheng
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the scattering of an electromagnetic time-harmonic plane wave by an infinite cylinder having an open crack and a bounded domain in as cross section. We assume that the crack is divided into two parts, and one of the two parts is (possibly coated on one side by a material with surface impedance . Different boundary conditions are given on and . Applying potential theory, the problem can be reformulated as a boundary integral system. We obtain the existence and uniqueness of a solution to the system by using Fredholm theory.
A dimensionality reduction technique for scattering problems in photonics
Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred
2008-01-01
Optical scattering problems in guided wave photonics are addressed. We represent the unknown optical fields as superpositions of 1D slab modes bounded by PMLs. By applying a variational principle, the problems are reduced to lower dimensional systems of differential equations for the unknown
Swanson, David J.
1990-08-01
The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.
Swanson, David J.
1990-01-01
The electromagnetic interference prediction problem is characteristically ill-defined and complicated. Severe EMI problems are prevalent throughout the U.S. Navy, causing both expected and unexpected impacts on the operational performance of electronic combat systems onboard ships. This paper focuses on applying artificial intelligence (AI) technology to the prediction of ship related electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.
On the extremum electric charge problem of steady electromagnetic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1989-01-01
The existence of steady electromagnetic equilibria has earlier been predicted in terms of an extended formulation of Maxwell's equation. In this connection of variational problem was formulated for finding extremum values of the total electric charge of such equilibria in the axisymmetric case. In this paper the variational procedure has been cast into a new form, in terms of a generating function F. This simplifies the variational procedure substantially, by incorporating the field equations of the electric and magnetic potentials into the integrals of the charge q o , the magnetic moment M o , the mass m o and the angular momentum s o of the system. As a result, the variational procedure reduces to finding extremum values of q o , by varying F under the constraints of a given asymptotic form of F at infinity, and of one quantum condition. At this stage it appears possible for a set of extremum values of q o to arise from such a procedure. (au)
A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem
Ito, Kazufumi
2012-01-10
In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
An algebraic approach to scattering and band structure problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alhassid, Y.
1984-01-01
It is shown that both bound and scattering states of a class of potentials are related to the unitary representations of certain groups. For such systems the scattering matrix can be calculated in a completely algebraic way through the use of the Euclidean group to describe asymptotic behaviour. The band structures associated with a family of periodic potentials can also be obtained from the group theory. These results suggest that an algebraic approach to scattering and band structure problems similar to that applied to bound states is possible
Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting
2017-04-01
This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.
Scattering and Diffraction of Electromagnetic Radiation: An Effective Probe to Material Structure
Xu, Yu-Lin
2016-01-01
Scattered electromagnetic waves from material bodies of different forms contain, in an intricate way, precise information on the intrinsic, geometrical and physical properties of the objects. Scattering theories, ever deepening, aim to provide dependable interpretation and prediction to the complicated interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are well-established multiple-scattering formulations based on classical electromagnetic theories. An example is the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM), which has recently been extended to a special version ? the GMM-PA approach, applicable to finite periodic arrays consisting of a huge number (e.g., >>106) of identical scattering centers [1]. The framework of the GMM-PA is nearly complete. When the size of the constituent unit scatterers becomes considerably small in comparison with incident wavelength, an appropriate array of such small element volumes may well be a satisfactory representation of a material entity having an arbitrary structure. X-ray diffraction is a powerful characterization tool used in a variety of scientific and technical fields, including material science. A diffraction pattern is nothing more than the spatial distribution of scattered intensity, determined by the distribution of scattering matter by way of its Fourier transform [1]. Since all linear dimensions entered into Maxwell's equations are normalized by wavelength, an analogy exists between optical and X-ray diffraction patterns. A large set of optical diffraction patterns experimentally obtained can be found in the literature [e.g., 2,3]. Theoretical results from the GMM-PA have been scrutinized using a large collection of publically accessible, experimentally obtained Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. As far as characteristic structures of the patterns are concerned, theoretical and experimental results are in uniform agreement; no exception has been found so far. Closely connected with the spatial distribution of
Parallel time domain solvers for electrically large transient scattering problems
Liu, Yang
2014-09-26
Marching on in time (MOT)-based integral equation solvers represent an increasingly appealing avenue for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions with large and complex structures. MOT integral equation solvers for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from perfect electrically conducting objects are obtained by enforcing electric field boundary conditions and implicitly time advance electric surface current densities by iteratively solving sparse systems of equations at all time steps. Contrary to finite difference and element competitors, these solvers apply to nonlinear and multi-scale structures comprising geometrically intricate and deep sub-wavelength features residing atop electrically large platforms. Moreover, they are high-order accurate, stable in the low- and high-frequency limits, and applicable to conducting and penetrable structures represented by highly irregular meshes. This presentation reviews some recent advances in the parallel implementations of time domain integral equation solvers, specifically those that leverage multilevel plane-wave time-domain algorithm (PWTD) on modern manycore computer architectures including graphics processing units (GPUs) and distributed memory supercomputers. The GPU-based implementation achieves at least one order of magnitude speedups compared to serial implementations while the distributed parallel implementation are highly scalable to thousands of compute-nodes. A distributed parallel PWTD kernel has been adopted to solve time domain surface/volume integral equations (TDSIE/TDVIE) for analyzing transient scattering from large and complex-shaped perfectly electrically conducting (PEC)/dielectric objects involving ten million/tens of millions of spatial unknowns.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cwik, T. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Katz, D.S. [Cray Research, El Segundo, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurately simulating scattered or radiated electromagnetic fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of an electrical wavelength. An unstructured finite element model of realistic objects leads to a large, sparse, system of equations that needs to be solved efficiently with regard to machine memory and execution time. Both factorization and iterative solvers can be used to produce solutions to these systems of equations. Factorization leads to high memory requirements that limit the electrical problem size of three-dimensional objects that can be modeled. An iterative solver can be used to efficiently solve the system without excessive memory use and in a minimal amount of time if the convergence rate is controlled.
Wang, Hao; Liu, Pu; Ke, Yanlin; Su, Yunkun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ningsheng; Deng, Shaozhi; Chen, Huanjun
2015-01-27
Steering incident light into specific directions at the nanoscale is very important for future nanophotonics applications of signal transmission and detection. A prerequisite for such a purpose is the development of nanostructures with high-efficiency unidirectional light scattering properties. Here, from both theoretical and experimental sides, we conceived and demonstrated the unidirectional visible light scattering behaviors of a heterostructure, Janus dimer composed of gold and silicon nanospheres. By carefully adjusting the sizes and spacings of the two nanospheres, the Janus dimer can support both electric and magnetic dipole modes with spectral overlaps and comparable strengths. The interference of these two modes gives rise to the narrow-band unidirectional scattering behaviors with enhanced forward scattering and suppressed backward scattering. The directionality can further be improved by arranging the dimers into one-dimensional chain structures. In addition, the dimers also show remarkable electromagnetic field enhancements. These results will be important not only for applications of light emitting devices, solar cells, optical filters, and various surface enhanced spectroscopies but also for furthering our understanding on the light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.
2011-06-01
shape of a scatterer from re ected acoustic waves, using a Banach space setting and the Lagrangian approach. The shape Hessian is then analyzed in both H...corresponding to the inverse problem of inferring the shape of a scatterer from reflected acoustic waves, using a Banach space setting and the...compact embeddings in Hölder and Sobolev spaces . These tools allow us to state the shape derivatives in a Banach space setting, and then to analyze the
Canonical quantization of gravity and a problem of scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubakov, V.A.
1980-01-01
Linearized theory of gravity is quantized both in a naive way and as a proper limit of the Dirac-Wheeler-De Witt approach to the quantization of the full theory. The equivalence between the two approaches is established. The problem of scattering in the canonically quantized theory of gravitation is investigated. The concept of the background metric naturally appears in the canonical formalism for this case. The equivalence between canonical and path-integral approaches is established for the problem of scattering. Some kinetical properties of functionals in Wheeler superspace are studied in an appendix. (author)
On the inverse problem of dissipative scattering theory. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neidhardt, H.
1988-01-01
Considering a scattering theory in the class of contractions on Hilbert spaces one solves the inverse problem in an operaor-theoretical manner. The solution is obtained underthe very general assumptions that the free evolutions are different for different time directions that not only the perturbed or full evolutions but also the free evolutions are given by contractions. It is shown that the class of contractive Hankel operators can be viewed as a set of scattering operators. This implies the possibility that the scattering operator can be compact. Moreover, the result is applied to the so-called Lax-Phillips scattering theory with losses restoring a result of B.S. Pavlov on the completion of this theory in a quite different manner. 15 refs
The Dubna-Mainz-Taipei Dynamical Model for πN Scattering and π Electromagnetic Production
Yang, Shin Nan
Some of the featured results of the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) dynamical model for πN scattering and π0 electromagnetic production are summarized. These include results for threshold π0 production, deformation of Δ(1232),and the extracted properties of higher resonances below 2 GeV. The excellent agreement of DMT model's predictions with threshold π0 production data, including the recent precision measurements from MAMI establishes results of DMT model as a benchmark for experimentalists and theorists in dealing with threshold pion production.
The hydrogen anomaly problem in neutron Compton scattering
Karlsson, Erik B.
2018-03-01
Neutron Compton scattering (also called ‘deep inelastic scattering of neutrons’, DINS) is a method used to study momentum distributions of light atoms in solids and liquids. It has been employed extensively since the start-up of intense pulsed neutron sources about 25 years ago. The information lies primarily in the width and shape of the Compton profile and not in the absolute intensity of the Compton peaks. It was therefore not immediately recognized that the relative intensities of Compton peaks arising from scattering on different isotopes did not always agree with values expected from standard neutron cross-section tables. The discrepancies were particularly large for scattering on protons, a phenomenon that became known as ‘the hydrogen anomaly problem’. The present paper is a review of the discovery, experimental tests to prove or disprove the existence of the hydrogen anomaly and discussions concerning its origin. It covers a twenty-year-long history of experimentation, theoretical treatments and discussions. The problem is of fundamental interest, since it involves quantum phenomena on the subfemtosecond time scale, which are not visible in conventional thermal neutron scattering but are important in Compton scattering where neutrons have two orders of magnitude times higher energy. Different H-containing systems show different cross-section deficiencies and when the scattering processes are followed on the femtosecond time scale the cross-section losses disappear on different characteristic time scales for each H-environment. The last section of this review reproduces results from published papers based on quantum interference in scattering on identical particles (proton or deuteron pairs or clusters), which have given a quantitative theoretical explanation both regarding the H-cross-section reduction and its time dependence. Some new explanations are added and the concluding chapter summarizes the conditions for observing the specific quantum
Lock, James A.
2017-11-01
The formulas of ray theory and Airy theory for scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a radially inhomogeneous sphere are obtained from the generalization of exact Lorenz-Mie wave scattering theory using the WKB approximation to determine the radial portion of the partial wave scalar radiation potential, carrying out a Debye series expansion of it, approximating the sum over partial waves by an integral over an associated impact parameter, and approximately evaluating the integral using either the method of stationary phase or mapping it into one of the phase integrals that describe optical caustics. Various features of the results are commented on, and the procedure is extended to the merging of two rainbows in a given Debye series channel in the context of the longitudinal cusp caustic.
Dimensionality reduction for 3D vectorial optical scattering problems
Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred
2010-01-01
The spatial dimensionality of vectorial 3D frequency domain optical scattering problems is reduced by means of a global expansion of the field in one direction in slab modes of some reference slice(s). A variational formalism yields the equations in the other two directions. These coupled partial
Approximate solutions of some problems of scattering of surface ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A class of mixed boundary value problems (bvps), occurring in the study of scattering of surface water waves by thin vertical rigid barriers placed in water of finite depth, is examined for their approximate solutions. Two different placings of vertical barriers are analyzed, namely, (i) a partially immersed barrier and(ii) a bottom ...
Uniqueness of inverse scattering problem in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br
2001-06-01
It is shown that the a Bisognano-Wichmann-Unruh inspired formulation of local quantum physics which starts from wedge-localized algebras, leads to a uniqueness proof for the scattering problem. The important mathematical tool is the thermal KMS aspect of localization and its strengthening by the requirement of crossing symmetry for generalized formfactors. (author)
Approximate solutions of some problems of scattering of surface ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Choudhary
Abstract. A class of mixed boundary value problems (bvps), occurring in the study of scattering of surface water waves by thin vertical rigid barriers placed in water of finite depth, is examined for their approximate solutions. Two different placings of vertical barriers are analyzed, namely, (i) a partially immersed barrier and.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, F.A.; Sampaio, L.C.; Martinez, A.S.
2001-01-01
We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos ω). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos ω) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significantly around the Curie-Weiss critical temperature, experiments should be done on the microwave region and the scatterers should be soft ferrites. Some aspects of such experiment are presented. (author)
Canonical transformations method in the potential scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, Yu.G.
1984-01-01
Canonical formalism of the first order is used in the present paper to solve the problem of scattering and other problems of quantum mechanics. The theory of canonical transformations (CT) being the basis of hamiltonian approach permits to develop several methods of integration being beyond the scope of the standard theory of perturbations. In this case it is essential for numerical counting that the theory permits to obtain algorithm for plotting highest approximations
Bone composition and healing: open electromagnetic and biomechanical problems.
Biggane, Peter; Jackson, Xavier; Nazarian, Ara
2016-08-01
In this paper, we present a review of some electromagnetic interactions in bone matter. Special attention is paid to pulsed electromagnetic therapy, which is potentially a promising therapeutic method for bone healing. We review and compare existing setups and their applications.
Hoenders, B.J.
1982-01-01
The scattered field generated by the interaction of an incoming twodimensional electromagnetic wave with a cylindrical perfectly conducting surface is calculated. The scattered field is obtained in closed form.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-01-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained
Deterministic mode representation of random stationary media for scattering problems.
Li, Jia; Korotkova, Olga
2017-06-01
Deterministic mode representation (DMR) is introduced for a three-dimensional random medium with a statistically stationary refractive index distribution. The DMR allows for the designing and fine tuning of novel random media by adjusting the weights of individual deterministic modes. To illustrate its usefulness, we have applied the decomposition to the problem of weak light scattering from a Gaussian Schell-model medium. In particular, we have shown how individual deterministic modes of the medium contribute to the scattered far-field spectral density distribution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mirala
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a MATLAB-based Graphical User Interface (GUI which could help electromagnetics engineers and researchers who are interested in designing layered media for various applications. The paper begins with presenting the analysis method the program employs, continues by encountering specific considerations and techniques of implementation, and ends with providing different numerical examples. These examples show good efficiency of the program for analysis of diverse problems.
Karpunin, V. V.; Margulis, V. A.
2017-06-01
We have found an analytical expression for the absorption coefficient of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel with a parabolic confinement potential. The calculation has been performed using the second-order perturbation theory taking into account the scattering of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas by ionized impurities. We have analyzed the dependences of the absorption coefficient on the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and the magnetic field. The appearance of additional resonant peaks, which are caused by scattering by impurities, has been found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorini, Sandro
2014-01-01
This thesis is concerned with modelling electromagnetic and hadronic processes in the low-energy regime, employing a manifestly lorentz-invariant chiral effective field theory with dynamical vector mesons. This effective theory serves as an approximation of the more fundamental quantum chromodynamics at low energies. Focusing on power counting and renormalization, a consistent description of different processes up to approximately 1GeV is possible. The key ingredient of the power counting is a large-N c argument, which implies an equivalent treatment of Goldstone bosons (pions) and resonances (rho and omega mesons). A suitable renormalization scheme is the complex-mass scheme (a generalization of the extended on-mass-shell scheme) which - combined with the BPHZ renormalization method (named after Bogoliubov, Parasiuk, Hepp, and Zimmermann) - yields a powerful framework for the computation of quantum corrections in chiral effective theories. All calculations contain contributions up to and including fourth chiral order at the one-loop level. Analyzed quantities are, besides others, the vector form factor of the pion in the timelike region and real Compton scattering (respectively photon fusion) in the neutral and charged channels. In addition, virtual Compton scattering off the pion, embedded into electron-positron annihilation, is discussed. Furthermore, experimental data of various observables are used to extract the values of all contributing low-energy coupling constants. The developed methods - especially the technical implementations - are of very general nature and, therefore, straightforward to adapt to additional problems in low-energy quantum chromodynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena-Rodriguez, O.; Perez, P.P.G.; Pal, U.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present MieLab, a free computational package for simulating the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by multilayered spheres or an ensemble of particles with normal size distribution. It has been designed as a virtual laboratory, including a friendly graphical user interface (GUI), an optimization algorithm (to fit the simulations to experimental results) and scripting capabilities. The paper is structured in five different sections: the introduction is a perspective on the importance of the software for the study of scattering of light scattering. In the second section, various approaches used for modeling the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by small particles are discussed. The third and fourth sections are devoted to provide an overview of MieLab and to describe the main features of its architectural model and functional behavior, respectively. Finally, several examples are provided to illustrate the main characteristics of the software
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ovidio Peña-Rodríguez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present MieLab, a free computational package for simulating the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by multilayered spheres or an ensemble of particles with normal size distribution. It has been designed as a virtual laboratory, including a friendly graphical user interface (GUI, an optimization algorithm (to fit the simulations to experimental results and scripting capabilities. The paper is structured in five different sections: the introduction is a perspective on the importance of the software for the study of scattering of light scattering. In the second section, various approaches used for modeling the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by small particles are discussed. The third and fourth sections are devoted to provide an overview of MieLab and to describe the main features of its architectural model and functional behavior, respectively. Finally, several examples are provided to illustrate the main characteristics of the software.
Saglam, Murat
2010-01-01
This study aims to explore problem-based learning (PBL) in conjunction with students' confidence in the basic ideas of electromagnetism and their motivational orientations and learning strategies. The 78 first-year geology and geophysics students followed a three-week PBL instruction in electromagnetism. The students' confidence was assessed…
Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel
2015-01-01
This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…
Comparison of four software packages applied to a scattering problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels Christian; Chesneaux, Jean-Marie; Christiansen, Søren
1999-01-01
We investigate characteristic features of four different software packages by applying them to the numerical solution of a non-trivial physical problem in computer simulation, viz., scattering of waves from a sinusoidal boundary. The numerical method used is based on boundary collocation. This le......We investigate characteristic features of four different software packages by applying them to the numerical solution of a non-trivial physical problem in computer simulation, viz., scattering of waves from a sinusoidal boundary. The numerical method used is based on boundary collocation...... stochastic and interval arithmetic, respectively) provide an effortless validation of the numerical results obtained in computer simulation, whereby we get a reliable account of the limitations of the numerical methods. (C) 1999 IMACS/Elsevier Science B.V. Ail rights reserved....
Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering
Varadan, VK
2013-01-01
This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.
Multi-frequency direct sampling method in inverse scattering problem
Kang, Sangwoo; Lambert, Marc; Park, Won-Kwang
2017-10-01
We consider the direct sampling method (DSM) for the two-dimensional inverse scattering problem. Although DSM is fast, stable, and effective, some phenomena remain unexplained by the existing results. We show that the imaging function of the direct sampling method can be expressed by a Bessel function of order zero. We also clarify the previously unexplained imaging phenomena and suggest multi-frequency DSM to overcome traditional DSM. Our method is evaluated in simulation studies using both single and multiple frequencies.
Quantum method of the inverse scattering problem. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyamin, E.K.; Takhtadzhyan, L.A.; Faddeev, L.D.
1978-12-01
In this work the authors use a formulation for the method of the inverse scattering problem for quantum-mechanical models of the field theory, that can be found in a quantization of these fully integrable systems. As the most important example serves the system (sinγ) 2 with the movement equation: γtt -γxx + m 2 /β sinβγ = 0 that is known under the specification Sine-Gordon-equation. (orig.) [de
Yu, Mei Ping; Han, Yi Ping; Cui, Zhi Wei; Chen, An Tao
2017-07-01
This study investigates the electromagnetic scattering of a high-order Bessel vortex beam by multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape based on the surface integral equation (SIE) method. In Cartesian coordinates, the mathematical formulas are given for characterizing the electromagnetic field components of an arbitrarily incident high-order Bessel vortex beam. By using the SIE, a numerical scheme is formulated to find solutions for characterizing the electromagnetic scattering by multiple homogeneous particles of arbitrary shape and a home-made FORTRAN program is written. The presented theoretical derivations as well as the home-made program are validated by comparing to the scattering results of a Zero-Order Bessel Beam by the Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory. From our simulations, the beam's order, half-cone angles, and the ways of particles' arrangement have a great influence upon the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for multiple particles. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the scattering characteristic in three dimension (3-D) space, the 3-D distribution of the DSCS for different cases is presented. It is anticipated that these results can be helpful to understand the scattering mechanisms of a high-order Bessel vortex beam on multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape.
Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.
Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A
2013-11-01
Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.
CELES: CUDA-accelerated simulation of electromagnetic scattering by large ensembles of spheres
Egel, Amos; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Mazzamuto, Giacomo; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Lemmer, Uli
2017-09-01
CELES is a freely available MATLAB toolbox to simulate light scattering by many spherical particles. Aiming at high computational performance, CELES leverages block-diagonal preconditioning, a lookup-table approach to evaluate costly functions and massively parallel execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units using the CUDA computing platform. The combination of these techniques allows to efficiently address large electrodynamic problems (>104 scatterers) on inexpensive consumer hardware. In this paper, we validate near- and far-field distributions against the well-established multi-sphere T-matrix (MSTM) code and discuss the convergence behavior for ensembles of different sizes, including an exemplary system comprising 105 particles.
Direct sampling methods for inverse elastic scattering problems
Ji, Xia; Liu, Xiaodong; Xi, Yingxia
2018-03-01
We consider the inverse elastic scattering of incident plane compressional and shear waves from the knowledge of the far field patterns. Specifically, three direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstruction are proposed using the different component of the far field patterns. Only inner products are involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling methods are very simple and fast to be implemented. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functionals for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functionals decay like the Bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functionals continuously dependent on the far field patterns, which further implies that the novel sampling methods are extremely stable with respect to data error. For the case when the observation directions are restricted into the limited aperture, we firstly introduce some data retrieval techniques to obtain those data that can not be measured directly and then use the proposed direct sampling methods for location and shape reconstructions. Finally, some numerical simulations in two dimensions are conducted with noisy data, and the results further verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed sampling methods, even for multiple multiscale cases and limited-aperture problems.
Computer techniques for electromagnetics
Mittra, R
1973-01-01
Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni
Modelling of Electromagnetic Scattering by a Hypersonic Cone-Like Body in Near Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-Wei Qian
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical procedure for analysis of electromagnetic scattering by a hypersonic cone-like body flying in the near space is presented. First, the fluid dynamics equation is numerically solved to obtain the electron density, colliding frequency, and the air temperature around the body. They are used to calculate the complex relative dielectric constants of the plasma sheath. Then the volume-surface integral equation method is adopted to analyze the scattering properties of the body plus the plasma sheath. The Backscattering Radar Cross-Sections (BRCS for the body flying at different speeds, attack angles, and elevations are examined. Numerical results show that the BRCS at a frequency higher than 300 MHz is only slightly affected if the speed is smaller than 7 Mach. The BRCS at 1 GHz would be significantly reduced if the speed is greater than 7 Mach and is continuously increased, which can be attributed to the absorption by the lossy plasma sheath. Typically, the BRCS is influenced by 5~10 dBm for a change of attack angle within 0~15 degrees, or for a change of elevation within 30~70 km above the ground.
Simulation of electromagnetic scattering through the E-XFEL third harmonic cavity module
Joshi, N.Y; Shiliang, L; Baboi, N
2017-01-01
The European XFEL (E-XFEL) is being fabricated in Hamburg to serve as an X-ray Free Electron Laser light source. The electron beam will be accelerated through linacs consisting of 1.3GHz superconducting cavities along a length of 2.1km. In addition, third harmonic cavities will improve the quality of the beam by line arising the ﬁeld proﬁle and hence reducing the energy spread. There are eight 3.9GHz cavities within a single module AH1 of E-XFEL. The beam-excited electromagnetic(EM) ﬁeld in these cavities can be decomposed into a series of eigenmodes. These modes are, in general, not cut-oﬀ between one cavity and the next, as they are able to couple to each other through out the module. Here for the ﬁrst time, we evaluate components of the scattering matrix for module AH1. This is a computation ally expensive system, and hence we employ a Generalized Scattering Matrix(GSM)technique to allow rapid computation with reduced memory requirements. Veriﬁcation is provided on reduced structures, which are...
Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Casal, Tania; Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Nielsen, Ulrik; Corr, Hugh; Ginestet, Arnaud; Decerprit, Guillaume; Walker, Nick; Kristensen, Steen S.
2014-05-01
The electromagnetic (EM) propagation and scattering properties of the ice and its inclusions strongly affect radar reception signals in radio echo sounding of ice-sheets. In particular, those properties are very strongly dependent on the sensing frequency, with penetration depth rapidly decreasing with increasing frequency. Furthermore, the surface scattering signals, which mask the radar echoes from the depth, increases monotonically with frequency. In spite of those drawbacks, the recent interests in the use of P-band (435 MHz), as compared to the more established sensing frequencies at 60 and 150 MHz, are driven mainly by two reasons: (1) the use of a shorter wavelength improves the spatial selectivity of the sensor as a reasonably sized antenna system could generate narrow beams; (2) P-band is the lowest frequency band allocated for active sensing from space, potentially adequate for satellite-based sounding of ice-sheets. New datasets acquired by P-band radar sounders are becoming available, e.g. from the systems built by University of Kansas and ESA's POLARIS instrument built by Technical University of Denmark, thus opening a possibility to quantitatively compare the merits and drawback of ice sounding at P-band. This paper will report the result of the analysis carried out on the POLARIS data which were acquired over East Antarctica in Feb. 2011 in the frame of the Danish IceGrav 2011 campaign. More specifically, ice sounding measurements were performed over the areas of Dronning/Queen Maud Land and its coastal ice-shelves (e.g. Princess Astrid Coast and Fimbul ice-shelf), and Adelaide Island. Different ice types and regimes have been covered in order to build up a comprehensive catalogue of the ice electromagnetic properties. In addition to the POLARIS data, some in-situ data on the surface roughness, ice core data from EPICA and ice-shelf basal roughness data from an upward looking sonar experiment (Autosub Under Ice programme, 2005) have been gathered
Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.
2011-01-01
Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…
2017-03-06
technique. This method is a substitute for a former “ polar -integration” algorithm [16, 24, 25] for integra- 1We believe this example reveals the true power...same accuracy levels as the polar -integration approach, but it does not require use of a complex polar integration or otherwise specialized algorithm ...solution on surfaces given in formats derived from Computer Aided Design, also known as CAD, and it has lead to new solvers for problems of Scattering
One-dimensional scattering problem for inverse square potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineev, V.S.
1990-01-01
Analytical continuation of the solution for the Schroedinger equation of inverse square potential, together with the modified method for variation of constants makes it possible to construct admittable self-adjoint extensions and to completely analyze the respective scattering problem along the entire line. In this case, the current density conservation and the wave function continuity when passing through the singular point x=0 require, that a 8-shaped induced potential should be introduced in the Schroedinger equation. The relevant calculations have shown that the potential x -2 can be either absolutely penetrable or absolutely impenetrable. 16 refs
Nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics and inverse scattering: Nonlinear waves and inverse scattering
Ablowitz, Mark J.
1994-12-01
Research investigations involving the fundamental understanding and applications of nonlinear wave motion and related studies of inverse scattering and numerical computation have been carried out and a number of significant results have been obtained. A class of nonlinear wave equations which can be solved by the inverse scattering transform (IST) have been studied, including the Kadaomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, the Davey-Stewartson equation, and the 2+1 Toda system. The solutions obtained by IST correspond to the Cauchy initial value problem with decaying initial data. We have also solved two important systems via the IST method: a 'Volterra' system in 2+1 dimensions and a new one dimensional nonlinear equation which we refer to as the Toda differential-delay equation. Research in computational chaos in moderate to long time numerical simulations continues.
Ramm, Alexander G
2013-01-01
The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....
A DE-Based Scatter Search for Global Optimization Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid scatter search (SS algorithm for continuous global optimization problems by incorporating the evolution mechanism of differential evolution (DE into the reference set updated procedure of SS to act as the new solution generation method. This hybrid algorithm is called a DE-based SS (SSDE algorithm. Since different kinds of mutation operators of DE have been proposed in the literature and they have shown different search abilities for different kinds of problems, four traditional mutation operators are adopted in the hybrid SSDE algorithm. To adaptively select the mutation operator that is most appropriate to the current problem, an adaptive mechanism for the candidate mutation operators is developed. In addition, to enhance the exploration ability of SSDE, a reinitialization method is adopted to create a new population and subsequently construct a new reference set whenever the search process of SSDE is trapped in local optimum. Computational experiments on benchmark problems show that the proposed SSDE is competitive or superior to some state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, Reiji
1989-01-01
General expressions of the matrix elements for nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma are derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The kinetic wave equations obtained for electromagnetic waves are expressed by four-order tensors in the rotating and cartesian coordinates. No restrictions are imposed on the propagation angle to a uniform magnetic field, the Larmor radius, the frequencies, or the wave numbers. By electrostatic approximation of the dielectric tensor and the matrix elements the kinetic wave equations can be applied to the case in which two scattering waves are electrostatic or they are partially electrostatic. Further, the matrix elements in the limit of parallel or perpendicular propagation to the magnetic field are given. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Tami
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss three sets of heuristic coefficients used in uniform theory of diffraction (UTD to characterize the electromagnetic scattering in realistic urban scenarios and canonical examples of diffraction by lossy conducting wedges using the three sets of heuristic coefficients and the Malyuzhinets solution as reference model. We compare not only the results of the canonical models but also their implementation in real outdoor scenarios. To predict the coverage of mobile networks, we used propagation models for outdoor environments by using a 3D ray-tracing model based on a brute-force algorithm for ray launching and a propagation model based on image theory. To evaluate each set of coefficients, we analyzed the mean and standard deviation of the absolute error between estimates and measured data in Ottawa, Canada; Valencia, Spain; and Cali, Colombia. Finally, we discuss the path loss prediction for each set of heuristic UTD coefficients in outdoor environment, as well as the comparison with the canonical results.
Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Rui; Guo Li-Xin; Wang An-Qi; Wu Zhen-Sen
2011-01-01
The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional (1D) rough sea surface with the Pierson—Moskowitz (PM) spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic (EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.
2018-01-01
The evaluation of vector wave fields can be accurately performed by means of diffraction integrals, differential equations and also series expansions. In this paper, a Bessel series expansion which basis relies on the exact solution of the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates is theoretically developed for the straightforward yet accurate description of low-numerical-aperture focal waves. The validity of this approach is confirmed by explicit application to Gaussian beams and apertured focused fields in the paraxial regime. Finally we discuss how our procedure can be favorably implemented in scattering problems.
Dorn, O.; Lesselier, D.
2010-07-01
is represented, overall via 16 contributions with 45 authors in total. This shows, in our opinion, that electromagnetic imaging and inversion remain amongst the most challenging and active research areas in applied inverse problems today. Below, we give a brief overview of the contributions included in this issue, ordered alphabetically by the surname of the leading author. 1. The complexity of handling potential randomness of the source in an inverse scattering problem is not minor, and the literature is far from being replete in this configuration. The contribution by G Bao, S N Chow, P Li and H Zhou, `Numerical solution of an inverse medium scattering problem with a stochastic source', exemplifies how to hybridize Wiener chaos expansion with a recursive linearization method in order to solve the stochastic problem as a set of decoupled deterministic ones. 2. In cases where the forward problem is expensive to evaluate, database methods might become a reliable method of choice, while enabling one to deliver more information on the inversion itself. The contribution by S Bilicz, M Lambert and Sz Gyimóthy, `Kriging-based generation of optimal databases as forward and inverse surrogate models', describes such a technique which uses kriging for constructing an efficient database with the goal of achieving an equidistant distribution of points in the measurement space. 3. Anisotropy remains a considerable challenge in electromagnetic imaging, which is tackled in the contribution by F Cakoni, D Colton, P Monk and J Sun, `The inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for anisotropic media', via the fact that transmission eigenvalues can be retrieved from a far-field scattering pattern, yielding, in particular, lower and upper bounds of the index of refraction of the unknown (dielectric anisotropic) scatterer. 4. So-called subspace optimization methods (SOM) have attracted a lot of interest recently in many fields. The contribution by X Chen, `Subspace-based optimization
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2014-07-06
Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half
An analytical approach to estimate the number of small scatterers in 2D inverse scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazli, Roohallah; Nakhkash, Mansor
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytical method to estimate the location and number of actual small targets in 2D inverse scattering problems. This method is motivated from the exact maximum likelihood estimation of signal parameters in white Gaussian noise for the linear data model. In the first stage, the method uses the MUSIC algorithm to acquire all possible target locations and in the next stage, it employs an analytical formula that works as a spatial filter to determine which target locations are associated to the actual ones. The ability of the method is examined for both the Born and multiple scattering cases and for the cases of well-resolved and non-resolved targets. Many numerical simulations using both the coincident and non-coincident arrays demonstrate that the proposed method can detect the number of actual targets even in the case of very noisy data and when the targets are closely located. Using the experimental microwave data sets, we further show that this method is successful in specifying the number of small inclusions. (paper)
Semiconductor failure threshold estimation problem in electromagnetic assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enlow, E.W.; Wunsch, D.C.
1984-01-01
Present semiconductor failure models to predict the one-microsecond square-wave power failure level for use with system electromagnetic (EM) assessments and hardening design are incomplete. This is because for a majority of device types there is insufficient data readily available in a composite data source to quantify the model parameters and the inaccuracy of the models cause complications in definition of adequate hardness margins and quantification of EM performance. This paper presents new semiconductor failure models which use a generic approach that are an integration and simplification of many present models. This generic approach uses two categorical models: one for diodes and transistors, and one for integrated circuits. The models were constructed from a large database of semiconductor failure data. The approach used for constructing diode and transistor failure level models is based on device rated power and are simple to use and universally applicable. The model predicts the value of the 1 μ second failure power to be used in the power failure models P = Kt /SUP -1/2/ or P = K 1 t -1 + K 2 t /SUP -1/2/ + K 3
Attenuation estimation by repeatedly solving the forward scattering problem.
Ilyina, Natalia; Hermans, Jeroen; Verboven, Erik; Van Den Abeele, Koen; D'Agostino, Emiliano; D'hooge, Jan
2018-03-01
Estimation of the attenuation is important in medical ultrasound not only for correct time-gain compensation but also for tissue characterization. In this paper, the feasibility of a new method for attenuation estimation is tested. The proposed method estimates the attenuation by repeatedly solving the forward wave propagation problem and matching the simulated signals to the measured ones. This approach allows avoiding common assumptions made by other methodologies and potentially allows to account and correct for other acoustic effects that may bias the attenuation estimate. The performance of the method was validated on simulated data and on data recorded in tissue mimicking phantoms with known attenuation properties, and was compared to the spectral-shift and spectral-difference methods. Simulation results showed the different methods to have good accuracy when noise-free signals were considered (the average relative error of the attenuation estimation did not exceed 15%). However, the accuracy of the conventional methods decreased rapidly in the presence of measurement noise and varying scatterer concentration, while the relative error of the proposed method remained below 15%. Furthermore, the proposed method outperformed conventional attenuation estimators in the experimental phantom study, where its average error was 8%, while the average error of the spectral-shift and spectral-difference methods was 26% and 32%, respectively. In summary, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and motivate us to refine the method for solving more general problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sayed, Sadeed Bin
2014-07-01
A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.
Di Gregorio, Pietro Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara
2017-04-01
The electromagnetic scattered field by a reinforced concrete structure is calculated by means of frequency-domain numerical simulations and by making use of the scattered-field formulation. The concrete pillar, used as supporting architectural element, is modelled as a parallelepiped shell made of concrete material inside which are present steel bars. In order to make the model simpler, the steel bars are supposed running parallel to the air-pillar interface. To excite the model, a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally with respect to the pillars surface, is adopted. We consider two different polarizations in order to determine the most useful in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. Moreover, a preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the pillar cross-section, the steel bars cross-section and the concrete cover. All the three components of the scattered field are monitored along a line just above the interface air-pillar. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are present in the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. The results obtained for different values of the concrete cover are compared, with the goal of determining the scattered field dependence on the concrete cover thickness. Considering different concrete cover thicknesses, we want to provide an electromagnetic method to obtain this useful parameter by observation of the scattered electromagnetic field. One of the practical applications of this study in the field of Civil Engineering may be the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques to monitor the thickness of the concrete that separates the metal bars embedded in the pillar from the outer surface. A correct distance is useful because the concrete cover serves as a protection against external agents avoiding corrosion of the bars that might prejudice the reinforced
A few categories of electromagnetic field problems treated through Fuzzy Logic
Lolea, M. S.; Dzitac, S.
2018-01-01
The paper deals with the problems of fuzzy logic applied in the field of electromagnetism. In the first part, there are presented some theoretical aspects regarding the characteristics and the application of the fuzzy logic in the general case. Are presented then, some categories of electromagnetic field problems treated by fuzzy logic. The accent is on the effects of exposure to the electromagnetic field on the human body. For this approach is dedicated a paragraph at the end of the paper. There is an application on how to treat by fuzzy logic the effects of electric field exposure. For this purpose, the fuzzy toolbox existing in the Matlab software and the results of some electric field strength measurements into a power substation are used. The results of the study and its conclusions are analyzed and exposed at the end of the paper.
Indoor detection of passive targets recast as an inverse scattering problem
Gottardi, G.; Moriyama, T.
2017-10-01
The wireless local area networks represent an alternative to custom sensors and dedicated surveillance systems for target indoor detection. The availability of the channel state information has opened the exploitation of the spatial and frequency diversity given by the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Such a fine-grained information can be used to solve the detection problem as an inverse scattering problem. The goal of the detection is to reconstruct the properties of the investigation domain, namely to estimate if the domain is empty or occupied by targets, starting from the measurement of the electromagnetic perturbation of the wireless channel. An innovative inversion strategy exploiting both the frequency and the spatial diversity of the channel state information is proposed. The target-dependent features are identified combining the Kruskal-Wallis test and the principal component analysis. The experimental validation points out the detection performance of the proposed method when applied to an existing wireless link of a WiFi architecture deployed in a real indoor scenario. False detection rates lower than 2 [%] have been obtained.
Kriging based robust optimisation algorithm for minimax problems in electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Yinjiang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the recent advances in kriging based worst-case design optimisation and proposes a new two-stage approach to solve practical problems. The efficiency of the infill points allocation is improved significantly by adding an extra layer of optimisation enhanced by a validation process.
Kriging based robust optimisation algorithm for minimax problems in electromagnetics
Li, Yinjiang; Rotaru, Mihai; Sykulski, Jan
2016-01-01
The paper discusses some of the recent advances in kriging based worst-case design optimisation and proposes a new two-stage approach to solve practical problems. The efficiency of the infill points allocation is improved significantly by adding an extra layer of optimisation enhanced by a validation process.
Computer modeling of electromagnetic problems using the geometrical theory of diffraction
Burnside, W. D.
1976-01-01
Some applications of the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), a high frequency ray optical solution to electromagnetic problems, are presented. GTD extends geometric optics, which does not take into account the diffractions occurring at edges, vertices, and various other discontinuities. Diffraction solutions, analysis of basic structures, construction of more complex structures, and coupling using GTD are discussed.
Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut
2017-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.
1990-01-01
Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength
On the solution of the inverse scattering problem on a ray
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egikyan, R.S.; Zhidkov, E.P.
1988-01-01
Quantum inverse scattering problem (ISP) is considered within the framework of two-particle scattering for local interaction case depending only on the scattering between particles. Constructing the solution of secondary integral equation solution of ISP is described in the clear image. Numerical calculations are conducted using a direct method
Grant, Ian S
1990-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
The report is the second in a series of investigations into the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by apertures in conducting screens. Herein...is presented a technique for obtaining the fields everywhere for plane electromagnetic radiation incident obliquely on a slotted conducting plane. The
The inverse problem for the refractometry diagnostics of electromagnetic turbulence in plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.
1994-01-01
Turbulence is an important property of laboratory plasmas. A number of relevant diagnostics are based on the interaction of an electromagnetic beam with plasma. Here we discuss a refractometry technique, where information on plasma properties is obtained by probing plasma with a plane polarized electromagnetic beam. It is shown that the problem of recovering statistical properties of plasma turbulence from the line integrated data can be solved uniquely using a realistic model of plasma. Analytical expressions relating statistics of both the random density and random magnetic fields to the measured statistics have been found. This information is of importance in studies of plasma turbulence. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Consoli
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The Single Bunch Selector (SBS will be used on the Spiral2 linear accelerator to reduce the rate of high energy bunches reaching the target with, in principle, no residual particles from the suppressed bunches. For this purpose, a pulsed electromagnetic wave will travel along the 100 Ω microstrip meander line electrode of the SBS. In this work we describe the broadband accurate characterization of the electrode electromagnetic features. The method applied here leads to the analytical determination of complex characteristic impedance, propagation constant, and group velocity from a measurement of the 50 Ω scattering parameters on the meander transmission line. Particular care is given to the de-embedding phase of the transitions required to connect the meander electrode to the measurement device.
Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.; Taflove, Allen
1991-01-01
The initial results for femtosecond pulse propagation and scattering interactions for a Lorentz medium obtained by a direct time integration of Maxwell's equations are reported. The computational approach provides reflection coefficients accurate to better than 6 parts in 10,000 over the frequency range of dc to 3 x 10 to the 16th Hz for a single 0.2-fs Gaussian pulse incident upon a Lorentz-medium half-space. New results for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are shown and compared with previous analyses. The present approach is robust and permits 2D and 3D electromagnetic pulse propagation directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.
Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Dimers of Two Finite Dielectric Cylinders
Kovtun-Kuzhel, V. A.; Ponyavina, A. N.
2017-07-01
We performed a numerical simulation of the scattering phase function for scattering of light by dimers of dielectric cylinders of finite length, using the volume integral equation formalism. We have studied the dependence of the scattering phase function on the optical and geometric parameters of the individual cylinders and their relative positions. We show that electrodynamic interaction between the cylinders leads to a substantial difference between the angular distribution of radiation scattered by this system and the angular distribution of radiation scattered by two cylinders with no electrodynamic coupling.
DGTD Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering from Penetrable Conductive Objects with IBC
Li, Ping
2015-10-16
To avoid straightforward volumetric discretization, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method integrated with the impedance boundary condition (IBC) is presented in this paper to analyze the scattering from objects with finite conductivity. Two situations are considered: i) the skin depth is smaller than the thickness of the conductive volume; ii) the skin depth is larger than the thickness of a thin conductive sheet. For the first situation, a surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed, wherein the surface impedance usually exhibits a complex relation with the frequency. To incorporate the SIBC into DGTD, the surface impedance is firstly approximated by rational functions in the Laplace domain using the fast relaxation vector-fitting (FRVF) technique. Via inverse Laplace transform, the time-domain DGTD matrix equations can be obtained conveniently in integral form with respect to time t. For the second situation, a transmission IBC (TIBC) is used to include the transparent effects of the fields. In the TIBC, the tangential magnetic field jump is related with the tangential electric field via the surface conductivity. In this work, a specifically designed DGTD algorithm with TIBC is developed to model the graphene up to the terahertz (THz) band. In order to incorporate the TIBC into DGTD without involving the time-domain convolution, an auxiliary surface polarization current governed by a first order differential equation is introduced over the graphene. For open-region scattering problems, the DGTD algorithm is further hybridized with the time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) method to rigorously truncate the computational domain. To demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed algorithm, several representative examples are provided.
Liu, Yang
2013-07-01
The computational complexity and memory requirements of multilevel plane wave time domain (PWTD)-accelerated marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based surface integral equation (SIE) solvers scale as O(NtNs(log 2)Ns) and O(Ns 1.5); here N t and Ns denote numbers of temporal and spatial basis functions discretizing the current [Shanker et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 51, 628-641, 2003]. In the past, serial versions of these solvers have been successfully applied to the analysis of scattering from perfect electrically conducting as well as homogeneous penetrable targets involving up to Ns ≈ 0.5 × 106 and Nt ≈ 10 3. To solve larger problems, parallel PWTD-enhanced MOT solvers are called for. Even though a simple parallelization strategy was demonstrated in the context of electromagnetic compatibility analysis [M. Lu et al., in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. AP-S, 4, 4212-4215, 2004], by and large, progress in this area has been slow. The lack of progress can be attributed wholesale to difficulties associated with the construction of a scalable PWTD kernel. © 2013 IEEE.
Lozano, Lorena; Algar, Ma Jesús; García, Eliseo; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe
2017-12-01
An improved ray-tracing method applied to high-frequency techniques such as the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) is presented. The main goal is to increase the speed of the analysis of complex structures while considering a vast number of observation directions and taking into account multiple bounces. The method is based on a combination of the Angular Z-Buffer (AZB), the Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP) algorithm and the A∗ heuristic search method to treat multiple bounces. In addition, a Master Point strategy was developed to analyze efficiently a large number of Near-Field points or Far-Field directions. This technique can be applied to electromagnetic radiation problems, scattering analysis, propagation at urban or indoor environments and to the mutual coupling between antennas. Due to its efficiency, its application is suitable to study large antennas radiation patterns and even its interactions with complex environments, including satellites, ships, aircrafts, cities or another complex electrically large bodies. The new technique appears to be extremely efficient at these applications even when considering multiple bounces.
Numerical model of electromagnetic scattering off a subterranean 3-dimensional dielectric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dease, C.G.; Didwall, E.M.
1983-08-01
As part of the effort to develop On-Site Inspection (OSI) techniques for verification of compliance to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a computer code was developed to predict the interaction of an electromagnetic (EM) wave with an underground cavity. Results from the code were used to evaluate the use of surface electromagnetic exploration techniques for detection of underground cavities or rubble-filled regions characteristic of underground nuclear explosions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan-Wei Guo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A highly efficient and robust scheme is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from electrically large arbitrary shaped conductors in a half space. This scheme is based on the electric field integral equation (EFIE with a half-space Green’s function. The precorrected fast Fourier transform (p-FFT is first extended to a half space for general three-dimensional scattering problems. A novel enhanced dual threshold incomplete LU factorization (ILUT is then constructed as an effective preconditioner to improve the convergence of the half-space EFIE. Inspired by the idea of the improved electric field integral operator (IEFIO, the geometrical-optics current/principle value term of the magnetic field integral equation is used as a physical perturbation to stabilize the traditional ILUT perconditioning matrix. The high accuracy of EFIE is maintained, yet good calculating efficiency comparable to the combined field integral equation (CFIE can be achieved. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to arbitrary geometrical structures including open surfaces and requires no extra types of Sommerfeld integrals needed in the half-space CFIE. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the high performance of the proposed solver among several other approaches in typical half-space problems.
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S. Lalléchère
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the advanced integration of uncertainties in electromagnetic interferences (EMI and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problems. In this context, the Monte Carlo formalism may provide a reliable reference to proceed to statistical assessments. After all, other less expensive and efﬁcient techniques have been implemented more recently (the unscented transform and stochastic collocation methods for instance and will be illustrated through uncertain EMC problems. Finally, we will present how the use of sensitivity analysis techniques may offer an efﬁcient complement to rough statistical or stochastic studies.
Stability of the direct and inverse problems in one-dimensional scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moura, C.A. de
1977-01-01
The one-dimensional scattering problem is to relate the potential q in the operator E=f(q), to the so-called scattering data associated with E. It is known that to a certain class of potentials there corresponds a certain class of scattering data, and conversely. The sense in which this correspondence and its inverse are stable is investigated. This question is interesting 'per se' and is particularly important for numerical or experimental approaches to these problems. Appropriate metrics in certain classes of potentials and of scattering data are introduced, and continuity results for both the direct and inverse mappings are proved [pt
Boundary value problems and the validity of the Post constraint in modern electromagnetism
Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2005-01-01
When a (frequency-domain) boundary value problem involving a homogeneous linear material is solved to assess the validity of the Post constraint, a conflict arises between the fundamental differential equations of electromagnetism in the chosen material and a naive application of the usual boundary conditions. It is shown here that the conflict vanishes when the boundary conditions are properly derived from the fundamental equations, and the validity of the Post constraint in modern macroscop...
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Zhe Song
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The fast and accurate numerical analysis for large-scale objects and complex structures is essential to electromagnetic simulation and design. Comparing to the exploration in EM algorithms from mathematical point of view, the computer programming realization is coordinately significant while keeping up with the development of hardware architectures. Unlike the previous parallel algorithms or those implemented by means of parallel programming on multicore CPU with OpenMP or on a cluster of computers with MPI, the new type of large-scale parallel processor based on graphics processing unit (GPU has shown impressive ability in various scenarios of supercomputing, while its application in computational electromagnetics is especially expected. This paper introduces our recent work on high performance computing based on GPU/CPU heterogeneous platform and its application to EM scattering problems and planar multilayered medium structure, including a novel realization of OpenMP-CUDA-MLFMM, a developed ACA method and a deeply optimized CG-FFT method. With fruitful numerical examples and their obvious enhancement in efficiencies, it is convincing to keep on deeply investigating and understanding the computer hardware and their operating mechanism in the future.
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Keisuke Fujisaki
2013-11-01
Full Text Available To connect different scale models in the multi-scale problem of microwave use, equivalent material constants were researched numerically by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field, taking into account eddy current and displacement current. A volume averaged method and a standing wave method were used to introduce the equivalent material constants; water particles and aluminum particles are used as composite materials. Consumed electrical power is used for the evaluation. Water particles have the same equivalent material constants for both methods; the same electrical power is obtained for both the precise model (micro-model and the homogeneous model (macro-model. However, aluminum particles have dissimilar equivalent material constants for both methods; different electric power is obtained for both models. The varying electromagnetic phenomena are derived from the expression of eddy current. For small electrical conductivity such as water, the macro-current which flows in the macro-model and the micro-current which flows in the micro-model express the same electromagnetic phenomena. However, for large electrical conductivity such as aluminum, the macro-current and micro-current express different electromagnetic phenomena. The eddy current which is observed in the micro-model is not expressed by the macro-model. Therefore, the equivalent material constant derived from the volume averaged method and the standing wave method is applicable to water with a small electrical conductivity, although not applicable to aluminum with a large electrical conductivity.
Electromagnetic Extended Finite Elements for High-Fidelity Multimaterial Problems LDRD Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siefert, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kramer, Richard Michael Jack [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Voth, Thomas Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
Surface effects are critical to the accurate simulation of electromagnetics (EM) as current tends to concentrate near material surfaces. Sandia EM applications, which include exploding bridge wires for detonator design, electromagnetic launch of flyer plates for material testing and gun design, lightning blast-through for weapon safety, electromagnetic armor, and magnetic flux compression generators, all require accurate resolution of surface effects. These applications operate in a large deformation regime, where body-fitted meshes are impractical and multimaterial elements are the only feasible option. State-of-the-art methods use various mixture models to approximate the multi-physics of these elements. The empirical nature of these models can significantly compromise the accuracy of the simulation in this very important surface region. We propose to substantially improve the predictive capability of electromagnetic simulations by removing the need for empirical mixture models at material surfaces. We do this by developing an eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and an associated Conformal Decomposition Finite Element Method (CDFEM) which satisfy the physically required compatibility conditions at material interfaces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods for diffusion and diffusion-like problems on node, edge and face elements in 2D and 3D. We also present preliminary work on h -hierarchical elements and remap algorithms.
Fujisaki, Keisuke; Ikeda, Tomoyuki
2013-01-01
To connect different scale models in the multi-scale problem of microwave use, equivalent material constants were researched numerically by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field, taking into account eddy current and displacement current. A volume averaged method and a standing wave method were used to introduce the equivalent material constants; water particles and aluminum particles are used as composite materials. Consumed electrical power is used for the evaluation. Water particles have the same equivalent material constants for both methods; the same electrical power is obtained for both the precise model (micro-model) and the homogeneous model (macro-model). However, aluminum particles have dissimilar equivalent material constants for both methods; different electric power is obtained for both models. The varying electromagnetic phenomena are derived from the expression of eddy current. For small electrical conductivity such as water, the macro-current which flows in the macro-model and the micro-current which flows in the micro-model express the same electromagnetic phenomena. However, for large electrical conductivity such as aluminum, the macro-current and micro-current express different electromagnetic phenomena. The eddy current which is observed in the micro-model is not expressed by the macro-model. Therefore, the equivalent material constant derived from the volume averaged method and the standing wave method is applicable to water with a small electrical conductivity, although not applicable to aluminum with a large electrical conductivity. PMID:28788395
μ-diff: An open-source Matlab toolbox for computing multiple scattering problems by disks
Thierry, Bertrand; Antoine, Xavier; Chniti, Chokri; Alzubaidi, Hasan
2015-07-01
The aim of this paper is to describe a Matlab toolbox, called μ-diff, for modeling and numerically solving two-dimensional complex multiple scattering by a large collection of circular cylinders. The approximation methods in μ-diff are based on the Fourier series expansions of the four basic integral operators arising in scattering theory. Based on these expressions, an efficient spectrally accurate finite-dimensional solution of multiple scattering problems can be simply obtained for complex media even when many scatterers are considered as well as large frequencies. The solution of the global linear system to solve can use either direct solvers or preconditioned iterative Krylov subspace solvers for block Toeplitz matrices. Based on this approach, this paper explains how the code is built and organized. Some complete numerical examples of applications (direct and inverse scattering) are provided to show that μ-diff is a flexible, efficient and robust toolbox for solving some complex multiple scattering problems.
Three dimensional rigorous model for optical scattering problems
Wei, X.
2006-01-01
We present a three-dimensional model based on the finite element method for solving the time-harmonic Maxwell equation in optics. It applies to isotropic or anisotropic dielectrics and metals, and to many configurations such as an isolated scatterer in a multilayer, bi-gratings and crystals. We
The finite element method in electromagnetics
Jin, Jianming
2014-01-01
A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The
Rigid format alter packets for the analysis of electromagnetic field problems
Spreeuw, E.; Reefman, R. J. B.
1975-01-01
The computer program NASTRAN is used to solve electromagnetic field problems. The diffusion equation and the boundary conditions valid for problems of these kinds together with a replacing potential energy function are given. The extent to which an analogy with finite element displacement and temperature approaches holds is indicated. The outputting of complex quantities is made possible after adjustment of standard rigid format 1 input data blocks to module SDR2. The applications made involve the study of the proximity effect in a system of three parallel conductors and the analysis of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the points of contact in circuit breakers.
Solving few-body scattering problems in the momentum lattice basis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pomerantsev V.N.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The brief description of a new approach based on the Wave-Packet Continuum Discretization method recently developed by the present authors towards solving few-body quantum scattering problems is given. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with non-singular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Khamiesi, I.M.; Kerimov, B.K.
1988-01-01
Second Born approximation corrections to electron scattering by nuclei with arbitrary spin are considered. Explicit integral expressions for the charge, magnetic dipole and interference differential cross sections are obtained. Magnetic and interference relative corrections are then investigated in the case of backward electron scattering using shell model form factors for nuclear targets 9 Be, 10 B, and 14 N. To understand exponential growth of these corrections with square of the electron energy K 0 2 , the case of electron scattering by 6 Li is considered using monopole model charge form factor with power-law asymptotics. 11 refs., 2 figs. (author)
Kitahama, Yasutaka; Itoh, Tamitake; Suzuki, Toshiaki
2018-05-01
To evaluate the shape of an Ag tip with regard to tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) signal, the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field and scattering spectrum, arising from surface plasmon resonance at the apex of the tip, were calculated using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the calculated forward scattering spectra from the smooth Ag tip, the band appeared within the visible region, similar to the experimental results and calculation for a corrugated Ag cone. In the FDTD calculation of TERS, the Ag tip acting as a monopole antenna was adopted by insertion of a perfect electric conductor between the root of the tip and a top boundary surface of the calculation space. As a result, the EM field was only enhanced at the apex. The shape dependence i.e. the EM field calculated at the apex with various curvatures on the different tapered tips, obtained using the monopole antenna model, was different from that simulated using a conventional dipole antenna model.
Kitahama, Yasutaka; Itoh, Tamitake; Suzuki, Toshiaki
2018-01-05
To evaluate the shape of an Ag tip with regard to tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) signal, the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field and scattering spectrum, arising from surface plasmon resonance at the apex of the tip, were calculated using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the calculated forward scattering spectra from the smooth Ag tip, the band appeared within the visible region, similar to the experimental results and calculation for a corrugated Ag cone. In the FDTD calculation of TERS, the Ag tip acting as a monopole antenna was adopted by insertion of a perfect electric conductor between the root of the tip and a top boundary surface of the calculation space. As a result, the EM field was only enhanced at the apex. The shape dependence i.e. the EM field calculated at the apex with various curvatures on the different tapered tips, obtained using the monopole antenna model, was different from that simulated using a conventional dipole antenna model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2015-03-06
The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.
A vectorial description of electromagnetic scattering by large bodies of spherical shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourrely, C.; Lemaire, T.; Chiappetta, P.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille
1989-10-01
We present a new method to obtain a vectorial solution of Helmholtz equation for large homogeneous scatterers having a cylindrical symmetry and a shape approximately spherical. Limitations of the method for arbitrarily shaped particles are discussed
Albella, Pablo; Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Maier, Stefan A
2015-12-10
High refractive index dielectric nanoparticles show high promise as a complementary nanophotonics platform due to compared with plasmonic nanostructures low absorption losses and the co-existence of magnetic and electric resonances. Here we explore their use as resonantly enhanced directional scatterers. We theoretically demonstrate that an asymmetric dimer of silicon nanoparticles shows tuneable directional scattering depending on the frequency of excitation. This is due to the interference between electric and magnetic dipoles excited in each nanoparticle, enabling directional control of the scattered light. Interestingly, this control can be achieved regardless of the polarization direction with respect to the dimer axis; however, difference in the polarization can shift the wavelengths at which the directional scattering is achieved. We also explore the application of such an asymmetric nanoantenna as a tuneable routing element in a nanometer scale, suggesting applications in optical nanocircuitry.
Scattering integral equations and four-nucleon problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narodetsky, I.M.
1981-01-01
This is the second part of the paper in which existing results from the application of integral technique to the four-nucleon bound states and scattering are reviewed. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear and elementary introduction in the integral equation method and to demonstrate its usefulness in physical applications. The presentation is based on the quarsiparticle appoach. This permits a simple interpretation of the equation in terms of quasiparticle scattering. The mathematical basis for the quasiparticle approach is the Hilbert-Schmidt method of the Fredholm integral equation theory. The first part of this review contains a detailed discussion of the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion as applied to the two-particle amplitudes which are the kernels of the three-body equations.The second part contains the discussion of the three- and four-body quasiparticle equations
Gasiewski, A. J.; Jackson, D. M.
1992-01-01
W-band measurements of the bistatic scattering function of some common microwave absorbing structures, including periodic wedge-type and pyramid-type iron-epoxy calibration loads and flat carbon-foam 'Echosorb' samples, were made using a network analyzer interface to a focused-lens scattering range. Swept frequency measurements over the 75-100 GHz band revealed specular and Bragg reflection characteristics in the measured data.
Numerical solution of electromagnetic field problems in two and three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trowbridge, C.W.
1981-01-01
Recent developments in algorithms for solving electromagnetic field problems carried out at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) are reviewed. The interaction of electric and magnetic fields provides many examples of coupled problems which have been solved by the Finite Element method. This paper concentrates on static and low frequency problems using the differential operator approach. The status of computation for 2D fields is discussed. The use of scalar potentials for 3D static fields for economy is emphasised and the importance of selecting potential types carefully to minimise numerical cancellation errors is also discussed. Some formulations for the vector 3D field problem for eddy current fields are derived with analytic and experimental field measurement comparisons. Results using software packages built at RAL are presented to illustrate the methods. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.A. Kuznetsova
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The magnetic dipole absorption cross section of spherical shaped metal particle was calculated in terms of kinetic approach. The particle considered was placed in the field of plane electromagnetic wave. The model of boundary conditions taking into account the dependence of the reflectivity coefficient both on the surface roughness parameter and on the electrons incidence angle was investigated. The results obtained were compared with theoretical computation results for model of combined diffusion-specular boundary conditions of Fuchs.
Review of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics
Sabatier, P. C.
1972-01-01
Methods of solution of the inverse scattering problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are presented. Scattering experiments of a beam of particles at a nonrelativisitic energy by a target made up of particles are analyzed. The Schroedinger equation is used to develop the quantum mechanical description of the system and one of several functions depending on the relative distance of the particles. The inverse problem is the construction of the potentials from experimental measurements.
Jiang, Li; You, Tingting; Yin, Penggang; Shang, Yang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Guo, Lin; Yang, Shihe
2013-04-07
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) have been investigated on the surface of Cu2O nanospheres. The SERS signals were believed to originate from the static chemical enhancement, resonant chemical enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement. The coupling between the adsorbates and the semiconductor, evidenced by the shift in absorption spectrum of modified Cu2O and the enhancement of non-totally symmetric modes of the 4-MBA and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPY) molecules, were invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, simulations were employed to investigate the nature of the enhancement mechanisms operative between the molecules and the semiconductor. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggested a charge transfer (CT) transition process between the molecules and the Cu2O nanospheres. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) simulations were conducted to map out the electromagnetic field around the Cu2O nanospheres. The experimental and simulation results have revealed the promise of the Cu2O nanospheres as a good SERS substrate and the prospect of using the SERS substrate as a valuable tool for in situ investigation and assay of the adsorption behavior on semiconductor surfaces.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a graphene-coated thin cylinder of left-handed metamaterial
Pashaeiadl, Hamid; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.
2018-04-01
In this paper we explored the scattering behavior of thin cylinders made of LHM and coated by a monoatomic graphene layer. A spectral tunability of the resonance peaks is evidenced by altering the chemical potential of the graphene coating, a fact that occurs at any state of polarization of the incident plane wave in opposition to the case of scatterers of dielectric core. On the contrary, no invisibility condition can be satisfied for dielectric environments. A singular performance is also found for cylinders with permittivity and permeability near zero. Practical implementations of our results can be carried out in sensing and wave manipulation driven by metamaterials.
Electromagnetic Problems Solving by Conformal Mapping: A Mathematical Operator for Optimization
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Wesley Pacheco Calixto
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Having the property to modify only the geometry of a polygonal structure, preserving its physical magnitudes, the Conformal Mapping is an exceptional tool to solve electromagnetism problems with known boundary conditions. This work aims to introduce a new developed mathematical operator, based on polynomial extrapolation. This operator has the capacity to accelerate an optimization method applied in conformal mappings, to determinate the equipotential lines, the field lines, the capacitance, and the permeance of some polygonal geometry electrical devices with an inner dielectric of permittivity ε. The results obtained in this work are compared with other simulations performed by the software of finite elements method, Flux 2D.
Zhang, Yang; Liu, Guoqiang; Tao, Chunjing; Wang, Hao; He, Wenjing
2009-01-01
The analysis of electromagnetic forward and inverse problems is very important in the process of image reconstruction for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). A new analysis method was introduced in this paper. It breaks through some illogical supposes that the existing methods applied and can improve the spatial resolution of the image availably. Besides it can avoid rotating the static magnetic field which is very difficult to come true in application, therefore the development of MAT-MI technique can be promoted greatly. To test the validity of the new method, two test models were analyzed, and the availability of the method was demonstrated.
Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves
Ghosh Roy, Dilip N
2001-01-01
The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.
Chui, S. T.; Chen, Xinzhong; Liu, Mengkun; Lin, Zhifang; Zi, Jian
2018-02-01
We study the response of a conical metallic surface to an external electromagnetic (em) field by representing the fields in basis functions containing the integrable singularity at the tip of the cone. A fast analytical solution is obtained by the conformal mapping between the cone and a round disk. We apply our calculation to the scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and successfully quantify the elastic light scattering from a vibrating metallic tip over a uniform sample. We find that the field-induced charge distribution consists of localized terms at the tip and the base and an extended bulk term along the body of the cone far away from the tip. In recent s-SNOM experiments at the visible and infrared range (600 nm to 1 μ m ) the fundamental of the demodulated near-field signal is found to be much larger than the higher harmonics whereas at THz range (100 μ m to 3 mm) the fundamental becomes comparable to the higher harmonics. We find that the localized tip charge dominates the contribution to the higher harmonics and becomes larger for the THz experiments, thus providing an intuitive understanding of the origin of the near-field signals. We demonstrate the application of our method by extracting a two-dimensional effective dielectric constant map from the s-SNOM image of a finite metallic disk, where the variation comes from the charge density induced by the em field.
Singh, Keshev
In the country with limited resources, where the nutrition level of the population has to be maintained under inhospitable situation, the potato has a special value as food. Therefore efforts should be made for improvement and spreading the cultivation of this important crop. It demands an effective program that may provide information about potato growing areas and the growth conditions. Remote sensing has been acknowledged to be a valuable source of spatially comprehensive and temporally repeatable information of crop covered soil moisture, crop growth climatic information etc, which is useful and necessary for agriculture purposes. For this purpose, microwave remote sensing has evolved as an important tool. Since microwave are able to penetrate more deeply into vegetation and underneath ground surface. It is also preferred to the optical frequency band because microwave can work in all type of weather and have a wide signal dynamic range compared optical wavelengths. However interpretation of microwave scattering from agricultural crops requires an understanding the interaction among microwave, vegetative material and the soil. In order to develop useful forward and inverse models for retrieving the vegetation characteristic, it is necessary to know in detail the dielectric properties and plant structure of the vegetation over the range of expected growing conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model based on microwave interaction with potato crop along with examination of biomass of potato crop with the varying underlying soil moisture is studied. For this purpose, X-band (9.5GHz) scatterometer is used for studying the interaction of microwave with potato crop biomass and underlying soil moisture at various sensor parameters (i.e. angular variation and polarization, HH- and VV-). Although there may be a lot of crop parameters (i.e. crop height, leaf area index, etc) which also gives their effect on microwave. All this parameters are interlinked in the crop
Fortney, Joseph C.
1991-12-01
This paper investigates the scattering from impedance strips and impedance-loaded conducting strips. The impedance strips are analyzed using Senior's impedance half plane formulation. Once the primary diffraction from the impedance half plane is presented, it is used to develop multiple diffraction mechanisms on an impedance strip. The scattering from impedance-loaded strips are analyzed using Maliuzhinets' impedance wedge formulation. The primary diffraction mechanism from an impedance wedge is used to develop the multiple diffractions on an impedance double wedge. The multiple diffractions on both types of strips are developed using the Extended Spectral Ray Method. Sample calculations are made for impedance strips and impedance-loaded strips for a large purely capacitive impedance, a large purely inductive impedance, a large real impedance, and a small real impedance. Measurements are made for impedance strips and impedance loaded strips and are used to compare against predictions. The impedance materials used are two magnetic radar absorbing materials and two resistive materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houfek, Karel
2008-01-01
Numerical solution of coupled radial differential equations which are encountered in multichannel scattering problems is presented. Numerical approach is based on the combination of the exterior complex scaling method and the finite-elements method with the discrete variable representation. This method can be used not only to solve multichannel scattering problem but also to find bound states and resonance positions and widths directly by diagonalization of the corresponding complex scaled Hamiltonian. Efficiency and accuracy of this method is demonstrated on an analytically solvable two-channel problem.
A dimensionality reduction technique for 2D scattering problems in photonics
Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred
2010-01-01
This paper describes a simulation method for 2D frequency domain scattering problems in photonics. The technique reduces the spatial dimensionality of the problem by means of global, continuous mode expansion combined with a variational formalism; the resulting equations are solved using a finite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnani, M.; Stefanon, M.; Puliti, P.
1988-01-01
A simple numerical procedure is presented to face particular problems encountered in the data analysis of small angle scattering studies of precipitation in complicated alloys. A suitable method for solving a least-squares problem with inequality constraints is suggested. (orig.)
Ivanova, Alyona; Stoffer, Remco; Kauppinen, L.J.; Hammer, Manfred
2009-01-01
In order to reduce the computational effort we develop a method for 3D-to-2D dimensionality reduction of scattering problems in photonics. Contrary to the `standard' Effective Index Method the effective parameters of the reduced problem are always rigorously defined using the variational technique,
Reich, Felix A.; Rickert, Wilhelm; Müller, Wolfgang H.
2018-03-01
This study investigates the implications of various electromagnetic force models in macroscopic situations. There is an ongoing academic discussion which model is "correct," i.e., generally applicable. Often, gedankenexperiments with light waves or photons are used in order to motivate certain models. In this work, three problems with bodies at the macroscopic scale are used for computing theoretical model-dependent predictions. Two aspects are considered, total forces between bodies and local deformations. By comparing with experimental data, insight is gained regarding the applicability of the models. First, the total force between two cylindrical magnets is computed. Then a spherical magnetostriction problem is considered to show different deformation predictions. As a third example focusing on local deformations, a droplet of silicone oil in castor oil is considered, placed in a homogeneous electric field. By using experimental data, some conclusions are drawn and further work is motivated.
Positive energy Weinberg states for the solution of scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawitscher, G.
1982-01-01
Positive energy Weinberg states are defined and numerically calculated in the presence of a general complex Woods-Saxon potential. The numerical procedure is checked for the limit of a square well potential for which the Weinberg states and the corresponding eigenvalues are known. A finite number M of these (auxiliary) positive energy Weinberg states are then use as a set of basis functions in order to provide a separable approximation of rank M, V/sub M/, to a potential V, and also to the scattering matrix element S which obtains as a result of the presence of V, S/sub M/. Both V/sub M/ and S/sub M/ are obtained by means of algebraic manipulations which involve the matrix elements of V calculated in terms of the auxiliary postive energy Weinberg states Next, expressions are derived which enable one to iteratively correct for the error in V--V/sub M/. These expressions are a modified version of the quasi-particle method of Weinberg. The convergence of S/sub M/ to S, as well as the first order interation of the error in S/sub M/ is examined as a function M for a numerical example which uses a complex Woods-Saxon potential for V and assumes zero angular momentum. With M = 5 and one iteration an error of less than 10% in S is achieved; for M = 8 the error is less than 1%. The method is expected to be useful for the solution of large systems of coupled equations by matrix techniques or when a part of the potential is non-local
The scattering of electromagnetic pulses by a slit in a conducting screen
Ackerknecht, W. E., III; Chen, C.-L.
1975-01-01
A direct method for calculating the impulse response of a slit in a conducting screen is presented which is derived specifically for the analysis of transient scattering by two-dimensional objects illuminated by a plane incident wave. The impulse response is obtained by assuming that the total response is composed of two sequences of diffracted waves. The solution is determined for the first two waves in one sequence by using Green's functions and the equivalence principle, for additional waves in the sequence by iteration, and for the other sequence by a transformation of coordinates. The cases of E-polarization and H-polarization are considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alkın Yurtkuran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle’s boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms.
Yurtkuran, Alkın
2014-01-01
The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms. PMID:24723834
Yurtkuran, Alkın; Emel, Erdal
2014-01-01
The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms.
Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja
2010-02-01
Only few studies have so far investigated possible health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) in children and adolescents, although experts discuss a potential higher vulnerability to such fields. We aimed to investigate a possible association between measured exposure to RF EMF fields and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. 1,498 children and 1,524 adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany) cities. During an Interview data on participants' mental health, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. Mental health behaviour was assessed using the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained radio-frequency EMF exposure profiles over 24 h. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Overall, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields was far below the reference level. Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Kries, Ruediger von; Radon, Katja
2010-01-01
Only few studies have so far investigated possible health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) in children and adolescents, although experts discuss a potential higher vulnerability to such fields. We aimed to investigate a possible association between measured exposure to RF EMF fields and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. 1,498 children and 1,524 adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany) cities. During an Interview data on participants' mental health, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. Mental health behaviour was assessed using the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained radio-frequency EMF exposure profiles over 24 h. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Overall, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields was far below the reference level. Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil de; Klein, Carlos Eduardo; Mariani, Viviana Cocco; Santos Coelho, Leandro dos
2013-01-01
The environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is an important daily optimization task in the operation of many power systems. It involves the simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives which are conflicting ones. The EED problem can be formulated as a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear multiobjective optimization problem. In recent years, many metaheuristic optimization approaches have been reported in the literature to solve the multiobjective EED. In terms of metaheuristics, recently, scatter search approaches are receiving increasing attention, because of their potential to effectively explore a wide range of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes an improved scatter search (ISS) to deal with multiobjective EED problems based on concepts of Pareto dominance and crowding distance and a new scheme for the combination method. In this paper, we have considered the standard IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 30-bus system with 6-generators and the results obtained by proposed ISS algorithm are compared with the other recently reported results in the literature. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ISS algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective EED problems. - Highlights: ► Economic dispatch. ► We solve the environmental/economic economic power dispatch problem with scatter search. ► Multiobjective scatter search can effectively improve the global search ability
Karachev, I I
1989-10-01
Maximum allowable electromagnetic field levels produced by teletransmitting stations and differentiated by frequency have been described. The prospects of further studies on the improvement of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic fields have been set forth.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akalin-Acar, Zeynep; Gencer, Nevzat G
2004-01-01
The forward problem of electromagnetic source imaging has two components: a numerical model to solve the related integral equations and a model of the head geometry. This study is on the boundary element method (BEM) implementation for numerical solutions and realistic head modelling. The use of second-order (quadratic) isoparametric elements and the recursive integration technique increase the accuracy in the solutions. Two new formulations are developed for the calculation of the transfer matrices to obtain the potential and magnetic field patterns using realistic head models. The formulations incorporate the use of the isolated problem approach for increased accuracy in solutions. If a personal computer is used for computations, each transfer matrix is calculated in 2.2 h. After this pre-computation period, solutions for arbitrary source configurations can be obtained in milliseconds for a realistic head model. A hybrid algorithm that uses snakes, morphological operations, region growing and thresholding is used for segmentation. The scalp, skull, grey matter, white matter and eyes are segmented from the multimodal magnetic resonance images and meshes for the corresponding surfaces are created. A mesh generation algorithm is developed for modelling the intersecting tissue compartments, such as eyes. To obtain more accurate results quadratic elements are used in the realistic meshes. The resultant BEM implementation provides more accurate forward problem solutions and more efficient calculations. Thus it can be the firm basis of the future inverse problem solutions
An electromagnetism-like method for the maximum set splitting problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kratica Jozef
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetism-like approach (EM for solving the maximum set splitting problem (MSSP is applied. Hybrid approach consisting of the movement based on the attraction-repulsion mechanisms combined with the proposed scaling technique directs EM to promising search regions. Fast implementation of the local search procedure additionally improves the efficiency of overall EM system. The performance of the proposed EM approach is evaluated on two classes of instances from the literature: minimum hitting set and Steiner triple systems. The results show, except in one case, that EM reaches optimal solutions up to 500 elements and 50000 subsets on minimum hitting set instances. It also reaches all optimal/best-known solutions for Steiner triple systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freiv, A V; Roshchupkin, S P
2008-01-01
The possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation is theoretically studied in the scattering of a quasi-classical electron by an ion in a field of linearly polarized waves of medium intensity. An expression for the total cross-section (the gain coefficient) for the wide interval of values of the adiabaticity parameter is obtained. It is shown that the wave amplification takes place in the range of values of adiabaticity parameter greater than 2 and can be sufficiently large
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arslanagic, Samel
2007-01-01
coefficients, as well as Snell’s law of refraction, and moreover, that for all choices of the signs, the physical behaviour of the solution is as expected. Previous studies on MTM-based 2D and 3D canonical problems have demonstrated the advantages of exploiting specific arrangements of MTMs in rectangular...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zarei S
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, mothers are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields before and even during pregnancy. It has recently been shown that exposure to mobile phone radiation during pregnancy may lead to adverse effects on the brain development in offspring and cause hyperactivity. Researchers have shown that behavioral problems in laboratory animals which have a similar appearance to ADHD are caused by intrauterine exposure to mobile phones. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the maternal exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields affect on the rate and severity of speech problems in their offspring. Methods: In this study, mothers of 35 healthy 3-5 year old children (control group and 77 children and diagnosed with speech problems who had been referred to a speech treatment center in Shiraz, Iran were interviewed. These mothers were asked whether they had exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, laptops and power lines. Results: We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002 or history of mobile phone use (months used and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003. However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring.
Li, ShanDe; Gao, GuiBing; Huang, QiBai; Liu, WeiQi; Chen, Jun
2011-08-01
We apply the fast multipole method (FMM) accelerated boundary element method (BEM) for the three-dimensional (3D) Helmholtz equation, and as a result, large-scale acoustic scattering problems involving 400000 elements are solved efficiently. This is an extension of the fast multipole BEM for two-dimensional (2D) acoustic problems developed by authors recently. Some new improvements are obtained. In this new technique, the improved Burton-Miller formulation is employed to overcome non-uniqueness difficulties in the conventional BEM for exterior acoustic problems. The computational efficiency is further improved by adopting the FMM and the block diagonal preconditioner used in the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) iterative solver to solve the system matrix equation. Numerical results clearly demonstrate the complete reliability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is potentially useful for solving large-scale engineering acoustic scattering problems.
A dimensionality reduction technique for 2D scattering problems in photonics
Alyona Ivanova, O. V.; Stoffer, Remco; Hammer, Manfred
2010-03-01
This paper describes a simulation method for 2D frequency domain scattering problems in photonics. The technique reduces the spatial dimensionality of the problem by means of global, continuous mode expansion combined with a variational formalism; the resulting equations are solved using a finite element method. Transparent influx boundary conditions and perfectly matched layers are employed at the computational window boundaries. Numerical examples validate the method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, 5 Bisbee Ct., Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States); Li, R.X., E-mail: rxli@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, L.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Ding, C.Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)
2015-10-15
A complete description of vector Bessel (vortex) beams in the context of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT) for the electromagnetic (EM) resonance scattering by a dielectric sphere is presented, using the method of separation of variables and the subtraction of a non-resonant background (corresponding to a perfectly conducting sphere of the same size) from the standard Mie scattering coefficients. Unlike the conventional results of standard optical radiation, the resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere in air in the field of EM Bessel beams is examined and demonstrated with particular emphasis on the EM field’s polarization and beam order (or topological charge). Linear, circular, radial, azimuthal polarizations as well as unpolarized Bessel vortex beams are considered. The conditions required for the resonance scattering are analyzed, stemming from the vectorial description of the EM field using the angular spectrum decomposition, the derivation of the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) using the integral localized approximation (ILA) and Neumann–Graf’s addition theorem, and the determination of the scattering coefficients of the sphere using Debye series. In contrast with the standard scattering theory, the resonance method presented here allows the quantitative description of the scattering using Debye series by separating diffraction effects from the external and internal reflections from the sphere. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to include rainbow formation in Bessel beams and the derivation of a generalized formula for the deviation angle of high-order rainbows. Potential applications for this analysis include Bessel beam-based laser imaging spectroscopy, atom cooling and quantum optics, electromagnetic instrumentation and profilometry, optical tweezers and tractor beams, to name a few emerging areas of research.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper
2010-01-01
We present an accurate, stable, and efficient solution to the Lippmann–Schwinger equation for electromagnetic scattering in two dimensions. The method is well suited for multiple scattering problems and may be applied to problems with scatterers of arbitrary shape or non-homogenous background mat...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broome, J.
1965-11-01
The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodman, S.
1993-05-01
Optical pumping of the ionospheric plasma by high-frequency radio waves produces a state of turbulence. Several consequences of the pumping are considered in this thesis. At reflection altitude the plasma is thought to be dominated by parametric instabilities and strong turbulence; these are both encapsulated in the so called Zakharov equations. The Zakharov equations are derived and generalised from kinetic theory. Limits of validity, corrections to the ion sound speed,effective ponderomotive force, nonlinear damping and other generalisation are included. As an example of the difference a kinetic approach makes, the threshold for parametric instabilities is seen to be lowered in a kinetic plasma. Mostly relevant to the upper hybrid layer is the recent discovery in the pumping experiments of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). In particular one feature of SEE which occurs around the cyclotron harmonics and depends on density striations is investigated. The observed frequency of emission, dependency on striations, time evolution and cutoff frequency below which the feature does not occur, are explained. Two theoretical approaches are taken. The first is a parametric three wave decay instability followed by a nonlinear mixing to produce SEE. Thresholds for the instability are well within experimental capacity. The second, less orthodox, approach, is a finite amplitude model. The finite amplitude model goes beyond the traditional parametric approach by being able to predict radiated power output. Miscellaneous aspects of a turbulent ionosphere are also examined. The dependency of the scattering cross section of a turbulent plasma upon higher order perturbations is considered. In a turbulent plasma, density gradients steeper than characteristic plasma scales may develop. The case of calculating the dielectric permittivity for a linear gradient of arbitrary steepness is considered
Double parton scattering in the ultraviolet. Addressing the double counting problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amsterdam VU Univ. (Netherlands)
2016-11-15
An important question in the theory of double parton scattering is how to incorporate the possibility of the parton pairs being generated perturbatively via 1→ 2splitting into the theory, whilst avoiding double counting with single parton scattering loop corrections. Here, we describe a consistent approach for solving this problem, which retains the notion of double parton distributions (DPDs) for individual hadrons. Further, we discuss the construction of appropriate model DPDs in our framework, and the use of these to compute the DPS part, presenting DPS 'luminosities' from our model DPDs for a few sample cases.
Analysis of a finite PML approximation to the three dimensional elastic wave scattering problem
Bramble, James H.
2010-01-01
We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to approximate solutions to the elastic wave scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift in spherical coordinates which leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the displacement vector posed on an infinite domain (the complement of the scatterer). The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). We prove existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the infinite domain and truncated domain PML equations (provided that the truncated domain is sufficiently large). We also show exponential convergence of the solution of the truncated PML problem to the solution of the original scattering problem in the region of interest. We then analyze a Galerkin numerical approximation to the truncated PML problem and prove that it is well posed provided that the PML damping parameter and mesh size are small enough. Finally, computational results illustrating the efficiency of the finite element PML approximation are presented. © 2010 American Mathematical Society.
The Wiener-Hopf method in electromagnetics
Zich, Rodolfo; Daniele, Vito
2014-01-01
A function-theoretic method, The Wiener-Hopf technique has found applications in a variety of fields, most notably in analytical studies of diffraction and scattering of waves. The Wiener‐Hopf Method in Electromagnetics is an advanced academic book which provides a rare comprehensive treatment of the Wiener-Hopf method. Using a high level mathematical approach to complex electromagnetics problems and applications, this new book illustrates the wide range of the latest applications, including ...
Three-body scattering problem in the fixed center approximation: The case of attraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kudryavtsev, Alexander E. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gani, Vakhid A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Romanov, Alexander I. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
We study the scattering of a light particle on a bound pair of heavy particles (e.g., the deuteron) within the fixed center approximation in the case of light-heavy attraction, solving the integral equation for the three-body Green's function both in the coordinate and in the momentum space. The results for the three-body scattering amplitude appear to be ambiguous -they depend on a single real parameter. This parameter may be fixed by a three-body input, e.g., the three-body scattering length. We also solve the integral equation for the three-body Green function in the momentum space, introducing a finite cut-off. We show that all three approaches are equivalent. We also discuss how our approach to the problem matches with the introduction of three-body contact interaction as done by other authors. (orig.)
The importance of anisotropic scattering in high energy neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.
1984-01-01
To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de
2009-01-01
An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method
Ergül, Özgür
2011-11-01
Fast and accurate solutions of large-scale electromagnetics problems involving homogeneous dielectric objects are considered. Problems are formulated with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation and discretized with the Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions. Solutions are performed iteratively by using the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA). For the solution of large-scale problems discretized with millions of unknowns, MLFMA is parallelized on distributed-memory architectures using a rigorous technique, namely, the hierarchical partitioning strategy. Efficiency and accuracy of the developed implementation are demonstrated on very large problems involving as many as 100 million unknowns.
Cui, Xue-Wu; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Long-Jian; Gao, Min; Yan, Fei; Liang, Zhi-Peng
2017-09-01
Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61301056 and 11176007), the Sichuan Provincial Science and Technology Support Program, China (Grant No. 2013HH0047), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 141062), and the “111” Project, China (Grant No. B07046).
Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pautz, S.D.
1998-04-01
The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S N ) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S N equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S N solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S N equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method
Inverse scattering problem for a magnetic field in the Glauber approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, I.V.
1985-01-01
New results in the general theory of scattering are obtained. An inverse problem at fixed energy for an axisymmetric magnetic field is formulated and solved within the frames of the quantum-mechanical Glauber approximation. The solution is found in quadratures in the form of an explicit inversion algorithm reproducing a vector potential by the angular dependence of the scattering amplitude. Extreme transitions from the eikonal inversion method to the classical and Born ones are investigated. Integral and differential equations are derived for the eikonal amplitude that ensure the real value of the vector potential and its energy independence. Magnetoelectric analogies the existence of equivalent axisymmetric electric and magnetic fields scattering charged particles in the same manner both in the Glauber and Born approximation are established. The mentioned analogies permit to simulate ion-potential scattering by potential one that is of interest from the practical viewpoint. Three-dimensional (excentral) eikonal inverse problems for the electric and magnetic fields are discussed. The results of the paper can be used in electron optics
Several problems of the theory of transition radiation and transition scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, V.L.; Tsytovich, V.N.
1979-01-01
The process of transition radiation is a very general one. It appears if some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example a point charge, multipole etc), is moving with a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and/or nonstationary medium. In the case of a periodic medium the transition radiation has some special peculiarities and is called the resonance transition radiation or transition scattering. Transition scattering occurs particularly in the case when some wave of dielectric permittivity acts on a nonmoving (fixed) charge. The processes of transition radiation and transition scattering have analogies outside electrodynamics similarly to the Vavilov-Cherenkov emission. The latter occurs also for a source moving with a constant velocity but in a homogeneous medium (and only if the velocity of the source exceeds the wave phase velocity in the medium). The present review is dealing with several problems of the theory of transition radiation and transition scattering. Attention is paid mainly to the formulation of the problems and to revealing characterisic features and peculiarities of the phenomena described. (Auth.)
Kim, Seungil
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the spectrum of the operator which results when the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) is applied in Cartesian geometry to the Laplacian on an unbounded domain. This is often thought of as a complex change of variables or "complex stretching." The reason that such an operator is of interest is that it can be used to provide a very effective domain truncation approach for approximating acoustic scattering problems posed on unbounded domains. Stretching associated with polar or spherical geometry lead to constant coefficient operators outside of a bounded transition layer and so even though they are on unbounded domains, they (and their numerical approximations) can be analyzed by more standard compact perturbation arguments. In contrast, operators associated with Cartesian stretching are non-constant in unbounded regions and hence cannot be analyzed via a compact perturbation approach. Alternatively, to show that the scattering problem PML operator associated with Cartesian geometry is stable for real nonzero wave numbers, we show that the essential spectrum of the higher order part only intersects the real axis at the origin. This enables us to conclude stability of the PML scattering problem from a uniqueness result given in a subsequent publication. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrington, John; Sick, Ingo
2007-01-01
The extraction of the strangeness form factors from parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering is sensitive to the electromagnetic form factors at low Q 2 . We provide parametrizations for the form factors and uncertainties, including the effects of two-photon exchange corrections to the extracted electromagnetic form factors. We study effect of the correlations between different form factors, in particular as they impact the parity-violating asymmetry and the extraction of the strangeness form factors. We provide a prescription to extract the strangeness form factors from the asymmetry that provides an excellent approximation of the full two-photon correction. The corrected form factors are also appropriate as input for other low-Q analyses, although the effects of correlations and two-photon exchange corrections may be different
Analysis of a Cartesian PML approximation to acoustic scattering problems in and
Bramble, James H.
2013-08-01
We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique applied in Cartesian geometry to approximate solutions of the acoustic scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift ("stretching") and leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the acoustic wave posed on an infinite domain, the complement of the bounded scatterer. The use of Cartesian geometry leads to a PML operator with simple coefficients, although, still complex symmetric (non-Hermitian). The PML reformulation results in a problem whose solution coincides with the original solution inside the PML layer while decaying exponentially outside. The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). This paper provides new stability estimates for the Cartesian PML approximations both on the infinite and the truncated domain. We first investigate the stability of the infinite PML approximation as a function of the PML strength σ0. This is done for PML methods which involve continuous piecewise smooth stretching as well as piecewise constant stretching functions. We next introduce a truncation parameter M which determines the size of the PML layer. Our analysis shows that the truncated PML problem is stable provided that the product of Mσ0 is sufficiently large, in which case the solution of the problem on the truncated domain converges exponentially to that of the original problem in the domain of interest near the scatterer. This justifies the simple computational strategy of selecting a fixed PML layer and increasing σ0 to obtain the desired accuracy. The results of numerical experiments varying M and σ0 are given which illustrate the theoretically predicted behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modern Electromagnetic Scattering
2013-08-10
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of Physics Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION ...this section, a physically intuitive derivation of the SCV approximation is presented. The derivation is organized as follows. First, we imagine a...Am + Am)Hm(kN+2a) = (Bm +Bm) Jm(kN+1a) + CmHm(kN+2a), (6.6a) 96 DmJ ′m(kN+2a) + (Am + Am)H ′m(kN+2a) = kN+1 kN+2 [ (Bm +Bm) J ′m(kN+1a) + CmH ′m(kN
jInv: A Modular and Scalable Framework for Electromagnetic Inverse Problems
Belliveau, P. T.; Haber, E.
2016-12-01
Inversion is a key tool in the interpretation of geophysical electromagnetic (EM) data. Three-dimensional (3D) EM inversion is very computationally expensive and practical software for inverting large 3D EM surveys must be able to take advantage of high performance computing (HPC) resources. It has traditionally been difficult to achieve those goals in a high level dynamic programming environment that allows rapid development and testing of new algorithms, which is important in a research setting. With those goals in mind, we have developed jInv, a framework for PDE constrained parameter estimation problems. jInv provides optimization and regularization routines, a framework for user defined forward problems, and interfaces to several direct and iterative solvers for sparse linear systems. The forward modeling framework provides finite volume discretizations of differential operators on rectangular tensor product meshes and tetrahedral unstructured meshes that can be used to easily construct forward modeling and sensitivity routines for forward problems described by partial differential equations. jInv is written in the emerging programming language Julia. Julia is a dynamic language targeted at the computational science community with a focus on high performance and native support for parallel programming. We have developed frequency and time-domain EM forward modeling and sensitivity routines for jInv. We will illustrate its capabilities and performance with two synthetic time-domain EM inversion examples. First, in airborne surveys, which use many sources, we achieve distributed memory parallelism by decoupling the forward and inverse meshes and performing forward modeling for each source on small, locally refined meshes. Secondly, we invert grounded source time-domain data from a gradient array style induced polarization survey using a novel time-stepping technique that allows us to compute data from different time-steps in parallel. These examples both show
REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Small-angle neutron scattering in structure research of magnetic fluids
Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Aksenov, Viktor L.
2011-01-01
A magnetic fluid (MF) is a liquid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles coated by surfactants for stabilization. The MF research reviewed in this paper is primarily aimed at investigating the atomic and magnetic structure of MF particles and the way they interact under various conditions by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The presence of a liquid carrier in the structure and the magnetic properties of MFs, which are very close to those of an ideal superparamagnetic system, allow the effective use of the major neutron scattering features: the strong effect of hydrogen-deuterium isotopic substitution and magnetic scattering. An extension of the contrast variation technique to the structure research on polydisperse and superparamagnetic systems is proposed. The cases of noninteracting and interacting particles, the latter with cluster formation taken into account, are considered for non-magnetized and magnetized MFs. The polarized neutron scattering analysis of the structure of magnetized MFs is illustrated by examples. Topical problems in further developing the method to study multiparameter systems are identified.
Integral equation methods for electromagnetics
Volakis, John
2012-01-01
This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.
2002-01-01
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixneuf, Sophie [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH IEK-8: Troposphere, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael, E-mail: michel.chrysos@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France)
2015-02-28
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne–Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α{sub ∥} − α{sub ⊥}. Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm{sup −1} and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M{sub 6}, as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α{sub ∥} − α{sub ⊥}, which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations.
CIME School on "Computational Electromagnetism"
Valli, Alberto
2015-01-01
Presenting topics that have not previously been contained in a single volume, this book offers an up-to-date review of computational methods in electromagnetism, with a focus on recent results in the numerical simulation of real-life electromagnetic problems and on theoretical results that are useful in devising and analyzing approximation algorithms. Based on four courses delivered in Cetraro in June 2014, the material covered includes the spatial discretization of Maxwell’s equations in a bounded domain, the numerical approximation of the eddy current model in harmonic regime, the time domain integral equation method (with an emphasis on the electric-field integral equation) and an overview of qualitative methods for inverse electromagnetic scattering problems. Assuming some knowledge of the variational formulation of PDEs and of finite element/boundary element methods, the book is suitable for PhD students and researchers interested in numerical approximation of partial differential equations and scienti...
Solution of the nonlinear inverse scattering problem by T-matrix completion. I. Theory.
Levinson, Howard W; Markel, Vadim A
2016-10-01
We propose a conceptually different method for solving nonlinear inverse scattering problems (ISPs) such as are commonly encountered in tomographic ultrasound imaging, seismology, and other applications. The method is inspired by the theory of nonlocality of physical interactions and utilizes the relevant formalism. We formulate the ISP as a problem whose goal is to determine an unknown interaction potential V from external scattering data. Although we seek a local (diagonally dominated) V as the solution to the posed problem, we allow V to be nonlocal at the intermediate stages of iterations. This allows us to utilize the one-to-one correspondence between V and the T matrix of the problem. Here it is important to realize that not every T corresponds to a diagonal V and we, therefore, relax the usual condition of strict diagonality (locality) of V. An iterative algorithm is proposed in which we seek T that is (i) compatible with the measured scattering data and (ii) corresponds to an interaction potential V that is as diagonally dominated as possible. We refer to this algorithm as to the data-compatible T-matrix completion. This paper is Part I in a two-part series and contains theory only. Numerical examples of image reconstruction in a strongly nonlinear regime are given in Part II [H. W. Levinson and V. A. Markel, Phys. Rev. E 94, 043318 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043318]. The method described in this paper is particularly well suited for very large data sets that become increasingly available with the use of modern measurement techniques and instrumentation.
Frasch, Jonathan Lemoine
Determining the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of materials is an important task in electromagnetics research. The method using reflection and transmission scattering parameters to determine these constants has been widely employed for many years, ever since the work of Nicolson, Ross, and Weir in the 1970's. For general materials that are homogeneous, linear, and isotropic, the method they developed (the NRW method) works very well and provides an analytical solution. For materials which possess a metal backing or are applied as a coating to a metal surface, it can be difficult or even impossible to obtain a transmission measurement, especially when the coating is thin. In such a circumstance, it is common to resort to a method which uses two reflection type measurements. There are several such methods for free-space measurements, using multiple angles or polarizations for example. For waveguide measurements, obtaining two independent sources of information from which to extract two complex parameters can be a challenge. This dissertation covers three different topics. Two of these involve different techniques to characterize conductor-backed materials, and the third proposes a method for designing synthetic validation standards for use with standard NRW measurements. All three of these topics utilize modal expansions of electric and magnetic fields to analyze propagation in stepped rectangular waveguides. Two of the projects utilize evolutionary algorithms (EA) to design waveguide structures. These algorithms were developed specifically for these projects and utilize fairly recent innovations within the optimization community. The first characterization technique uses two different versions of a single vertical step in the waveguide. Samples to be tested lie inside the steps with the conductor reflection plane behind them. If the two reflection measurements are truly independent it should be possible to recover the values of two complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. R. Robinson
Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.
Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Barton, John
2000-01-01
Theoretical procedures were developed, computer programs were written, and demonstration calculations were performed investigating the modeling and predicted performance of the photothermal modulation of Mie scattering (PMMS...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Zhu Xuehua
1994-01-01
The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculating model of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry is given. The computing code NOTRAN/3D has been encoded and the satisfied conclusion is gained
Mathematical Analysis of Deterministic and Stochastic Problems in Complex Media Electromagnetics
Roach, G F; Yannacopoulos, A N
2012-01-01
Electromagnetic complex media are artificial materials that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves in surprising ways not usually seen in nature. Because of their wide range of important applications, these materials have been intensely studied over the past twenty-five years, mainly from the perspectives of physics and engineering. But a body of rigorous mathematical theory has also gradually developed, and this is the first book to present that theory. Designed for researchers and advanced graduate students in applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and physics, this book in
μe universality problem in the unified models of weak and electromagnetic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekalo, M.P.; Koval'chuk, V.A.; Rekalo, A.P.
1979-01-01
The unified SU(2)xU(1) model of the weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons and quarks is suggested. In this model the μe universality is violated for the neutral current weak interactions: the muonic neutral weak current is a vector, while the electronic neutral weak current is a sum of both vector and axial parts. The μe universality of charged current weak interaction and electromagnetic interaction is conserved in the suggested model. The model is generalized on the hadronic processes
Analytic Solution of the Electromagnetic Eigenvalues Problem in a Cylindrical Resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [Fermilab
2016-10-06
Resonant accelerating cavities are key components in modern particles accelerating facilities. These take advantage of electromagnetic fields resonating at microwave frequencies to accelerate charged particles. Particles gain finite energy at each passage through a cavity if in phase with the resonating field, reaching energies even of the order of $TeV$ when a cascade of accelerating resonators are present. In order to understand how a resonant accelerating cavity transfers energy to charged particles, it is important to determine how the electromagnetic modes are exited into such resonators. In this paper we present a complete analytical calculation of the resonating fields for a simple cylindrical-shaped cavity.
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-01-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernichenko, Yu.D.
2005-01-01
Within the relativistic quasipotential approach to quantum field theory, the relativistic inverse scattering problem is solved for the case where the total quasipotential describing the interaction of two relativistic spinless particles having different masses is a superposition of a nonlocal separable and a local quasipotential. It is assumed that the local component of the total quasipotential is known and that there exist bound states in this local component. It is shown that the nonlocal separable component of the total interaction can be reconstructed provided that the local component, an increment of the phase shift, and the energies of bound states are known
Nuclear structure investigations with electromagnetic probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drechsel, D.
1987-01-01
This paper is related to the study of electromagnetic interactions, current of hadronic systems, deep inelastic scattering, quasifree scattering, low energy theorems and electromagnetic reactions above pion threshold. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
The Fourier-grid formalism: philosophy and application to scattering problems using R-matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Layton, E.G.
1993-01-01
The Fourier-grid (FG) method is a recent L 2 variational treatment of the quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem that does not require the use of a set of basis functions; it is rather a discrete variable representation approach. In this article we restate the FG philosophy in more general terms, examine and compare this method with other approaches to the eigenvalue problem, and begin the development of an FG R-matrix method for scattering. The philosophy of the FG method is to use the simplest representation for each of the kinetic and potential energy operators of the Hamiltonian, and use a generalized Fourier transform to put the matrix elements of one of the above operators in the same representation as the other, so the Hamiltonian has a single representation. (author)
Solution for a window coating problem developed in the JT-60U Thomson scattering system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Naito, Osamu; Hatae, Takaki; Nagashima, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
1996-11-01
For an exact measurement of fusion plasmas with higher electron temperature, the following two methods which can solve a window coating problem were developed in the JT-60U Thomson scattering system. One is an in situ monitoring method which can infer a window transmission with sufficient precision from a known attenuation of the deposited film. The other is an in situ window cleaning method which removes the film on the basis of a laser blow-off technique. As the results of the extensive investigations, the existence of chromatic upper limit has been found in the recovered transmission after the laser blow-off cleaning, however, which gives systematic errors only of less than 3% to the apparent measurement for both electron density and temperature at 10 keV or less. The attenuation itself was unchanged before and after the laser blow-off cleaning. So the first method can be also applicable to the window after the laser blow-off cleaning. A complementary use of both the methods against the window coating problem can be expected to provide the Thomson scattering measurement of high T{sub e} plasmas with durable reliability and sufficient precision in the present tokamaks and also the ITER. (author)
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
Lele, P P
1980-01-01
The feasibility, and the biophysical and engineering concepts underlying the use of electromagnetic energy and ultrasound for production of deep, local hyperthermia are discussed. Focused ultrasound currently is the only modality that can be used for producing controllable levels of hyperthermia localized to deep seated tumors, non-invasively and safely. The ultrasonic focus needs to moved within the tissues around the periphery of the tumor to achieve uniform temperature distributions.
Derkachov, G.; Jakubczyk, T.; Jakubczyk, D.; Archer, J.; Woźniak, M.
2017-07-01
Utilising Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) enables significant reduction of computation time at a moderate cost, by means of parallel computing. In the paper [Jakubczyk et al., Opto-Electron. Rev., 2016] we reported using GPU for Mie scattering inverse problem solving (up to 800-fold speed-up). Here we report the development of two subroutines utilising GPU at data preprocessing stages for the inversion procedure: (i) A subroutine, based on ray tracing, for finding spherical aberration correction function. (ii) A subroutine performing the conversion of an image to a 1D distribution of light intensity versus azimuth angle (i.e. scattering diagram), fed from a movie-reading CPU subroutine running in parallel. All subroutines are incorporated in PikeReader application, which we make available on GitHub repository. PikeReader returns a sequence of intensity distributions versus a common azimuth angle vector, corresponding to the recorded movie. We obtained an overall ∼ 400 -fold speed-up of calculations at data preprocessing stages using CUDA codes running on GPU in comparison to single thread MATLAB-only code running on CPU.
Kim, Man; Lee, Joo-Yul; Kwon, Sik-Chol; Kim, Dongsoo; Kim, In-Gon; Choi, Yong
2006-11-01
Nickel mesh, as one of the most efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials, has been widely adopted in electronic devices such as plasma display panel (PDP). In this study, the nickel mesh sheet was continuously produced in industrial scale by a unique electrochemical process and which microstructure was analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The precision nickel mesh sheet was well formed by continuous electro-forming equipment with a rotating patterned cathode, soluble/insoluble anode and multiple stage of rolling wheels. Neutron diffraction analysis and morphology observation showed that the nickel mesh formed by electro-deposition process has less defects for industrial applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Man; Lee, Joo-Yul; Kwon, Sik-Chol; Kim, Dongsoo; Kim, In-Gon; Choi, Yong
2006-01-01
Nickel mesh, as one of the most efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials, has been widely adopted in electronic devices such as plasma display panel (PDP). In this study, the nickel mesh sheet was continuously produced in industrial scale by a unique electrochemical process and which microstructure was analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The precision nickel mesh sheet was well formed by continuous electro-forming equipment with a rotating patterned cathode, soluble/insoluble anode and multiple stage of rolling wheels. Neutron diffraction analysis and morphology observation showed that the nickel mesh formed by electro-deposition process has less defects for industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.
1989-01-01
This paper considers the scattering of solar neutrinos by electrons as a means for distinguishing between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. In terms of the ratio R between the observed cross-section and that for pure electron-type neutrinos, some correlation between the value of R and each solution is found. A value of R ≤ 1/3 implies that the adiabatic solution is correct, while values between 1/3 and 3/5 are consistent with the large angle solution. A value close to 1/2 is also consistent with the non-adiabatic solution, and a value less than (1/6 - 1/7) implies oscillations into sterile neutrinos
Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts
Apagyi, B; Scheid, W
2003-01-01
A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Shahriari
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.
Pegarkov, A. I.
2001-07-01
Within the framework of the nonadiabatic approach developed in the preceding paper, the resonance scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and resonance fluorescence are studied in detail for diatomic and triatomic molecules, and polyatomic symmetric and antisymmetric top molecules, which interact with the field of short-wavelength radiation with a wavelength λ ≥ Å and an intensity up to 1014 W/cm2. The coherent excitations of high-lying Rydberg and autoionizing states are taken into account. Analytical expressions for calculating the tensors and cross sections of the above processes are derived.
Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.
1992-01-01
The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code version D is a 3-D numerical electromagnetic scattering code based upon the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD). The manual provides a description of the code and corresponding results for several scattering problems. The manual is organized into 14 sections: introduction; description of the FDTD method; operation; resource requirements; version D code capabilities; a brief description of the default scattering geometry; a brief description of each subroutine; a description of the include file; a section briefly discussing Radar Cross Section computations; a section discussing some scattering results; a sample problem setup section; a new problem checklist; references and figure titles. The FDTD technique models transient electromagnetic scattering and interactions with objects of arbitrary shape and/or material composition. In the FDTD method, Maxwell's curl equations are discretized in time-space and all derivatives (temporal and spatial) are approximated by central differences.
The Scatter Search Based Algorithm to Revenue Management Problem in Broadcasting Companies
Pishdad, Arezoo; Sharifyazdi, Mehdi; Karimpour, Reza
2009-09-01
The problem under question in this paper which is faced by broadcasting companies is how to benefit from a limited advertising space. This problem is due to the stochastic behavior of customers (advertiser) in different fare classes. To address this issue we propose a mathematical constrained nonlinear multi period model which incorporates cancellation and overbooking. The objective function is to maximize the total expected revenue and our numerical method performs it by determining the sales limits for each class of customer to present the revenue management control policy. Scheduling the advertising spots in breaks is another area of concern and we consider it as a constraint in our model. In this paper an algorithm based on Scatter search is developed to acquire a good feasible solution. This method uses simulation over customer arrival and in a continuous finite time horizon [0, T]. Several sensitivity analyses are conducted in computational result for depicting the effectiveness of proposed method. It also provides insight into better results of considering revenue management (control policy) compared to "no sales limit" policy in which sooner demand will served first.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faugeras, P.E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Groupe de recherches sur la fusion controlee
1967-07-01
The problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a non-uniform, cylindrically symmetrical plasma is solved analytically, by a self-consistent field method, for a wave with the electric field parallel to the cylinder axis. Numerical results for the diffracted field are plotted for interesting ranges of the parameters involved: diameter, density on the axis, radial profile of the density, and collision frequencies. The case where the incident field is cylindric (waves surfaces parallel to the cylinder axis) is examined - this permits to connect theoretical calculations and experimental diffraction patterns, and also to explain the diffraction effects observed in a classical microwave interferometry experiment. These results, and the possibility of measuring exactly the diffracted field (showed by experiments with dielectric and metallic rods) lead to a new plasma diagnostic method, based on the diffraction, which has no theoretical limitations and it usable when the classical free-space wave methods are not (plasma diameter lower than 10 wave lengths). The feasibility of this method is tested with a plasma at atmospheric pressure and a 2 mm incident wavelength. The plasma is obtained by the laminar flow of a plasma torch, with a working gas (He or Ar) seeded by potassium (density continuously variable between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}. Some diffraction patterns by this plasma and for various incident waves, are also given and explained with theoretical calculations. (author) [French] On etudie la diffusion coherente d'une onde electromagnetique par un cylindre de plasma inhomogene par une methode de champ self-consistant, et pour une onde de vecteur electrique parallele a l'axe du cylindre. On a calcule le champ diffracte en faisant varier le diametre du cylindre, la densite sur l'axe, le profil de densite et les frequences de collisions, et on donne ici les principaux resultats. On examine ensuite le cas d'une onde
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, T.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Dass, Sarat
2011-06-30
Flaw profile characterization from NDE measurements is a typical inverse problem. A novel transformation of this inverse problem into a tracking problem, and subsequent application of a sequential Monte Carlo method called particle filtering, has been proposed by the authors in an earlier publication [1]. In this study, the problem of flaw characterization from multi-sensor data is considered. The NDE inverse problem is posed as a statistical inverse problem and particle filtering is modified to handle data from multiple measurement modes. The measurement modes are assumed to be independent of each other with principal component analysis (PCA) used to legitimize the assumption of independence. The proposed particle filter based data fusion algorithm is applied to experimental NDE data to investigate its feasibility.
PT -symmetry breaking for the scattering problem in a one-dimensional non-Hermitian lattice model
Zhu, Baogang; Lü, Rong; Chen, Shu
2016-03-01
We study the PT -symmetry breaking for the scattering problem in a one-dimensional non-Hermitian tight-binding lattice model with balanced gain and loss distributed on two adjacent sites. In the scattering process the system undergoes a transition from the exact PT -symmetric phase to the phase with spontaneously breaking PT symmetry as the amplitude of complex potentials increases. Using the S-matrix method, we derive an exact discriminant, which can be used to distinguish different symmetry phases, and determine the exceptional point for the symmetry breaking analytically. In the PT -symmetry-breaking region, we also confirm the appearance of the unique feature, i.e., the coherent perfect absorption laser, in this simple non-Hermitian lattice model. The study of the scattering problem of such a simple model provides an additional way to unveil the physical effect of non-Hermitian PT -symmetric potentials.
Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem
Park, Won-Kwang
2017-07-01
MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Hossein Sadeghi
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, two different sub-problems are considered to solve a resource constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP, namely i assignment of modes to tasks and ii scheduling of these tasks in order to minimize the makespan of the project. The modified electromagnetism-like algorithm deals with the first problem to create an assignment of modes to activities. This list is used to generate a project schedule. When a new assignment is made, it is necessary to fix all mode dependent requirements of the project activities and to generate a random schedule with the serial SGS method. A local search will optimize the sequence of the activities. Also in this paper, a new penalty function has been proposed for solutions which are infeasible with respect to non-renewable resources. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with the best algorithms published so far on the basis of CPU time and number of generated schedules stopping criteria. Reported results indicate excellent performance of the algorithm.
The problem of scattering in fibre-fed VPH spectrographs and possible solutions
Ellis, S. C.; Saunders, Will; Betters, Chris; Croom, Scott
2014-07-01
All spectrographs unavoidably scatter light. Scattering in the spectral direction is problematic for sky subtraction, since atmospheric spectral lines are blurred. Scattering in the spatial direction is problematic for fibre fed spectrographs, since it limits how closely fibres can be packed together. We investigate the nature of this scattering and show that the scattering wings have both a Lorentzian component, and a shallower (1/r) component. We investigate the causes of this from a theoretical perspective, and argue that for the spectral PSF the Lorentzian wings are in part due to the profile of the illumination of the pupil of the spectrograph onto the diffraction grating, whereas the shallower component is from bulk scattering. We then investigate ways to mitigate the diffractive scattering by apodising the pupil. In the ideal case of a Gaussian apodised pupil, the scattering can be significantly improved. Finally we look at realistic models of the spectrograph pupils of fibre fed spectrographs with a centrally obstructed telescope, and show that it is possible to apodise the pupil through non-telecentric injection into the fibre.
Physics of continuous media problems and solutions in electromagnetism, fluid mechanics and MHD
Vekstein, Grigory
2013-01-01
This book presents an excellent and exemplary collection of up-to-date exercises and their solutions on continuous media, covering a wide range of topics from electro-, magnetohydro- and fluid dynamics, and from the theory of elasticity. The author is an international expert with many years of research and teaching experience in the field. Each chapter begins with a comprehensive summary of definitions and the mathematical description of the physical laws necessary to understand and solve the series of problems that follow. The problems and exercises are a gradual built up in each of the topics and they introduce the reader step by step into the principles of the subject. The solutions are well explained and detailed with additional readings when necessary. This exercise book is written in a true scholarly manner that allows the reader to understand the basic principles and physical laws of continuous media. This problem-solving book is highly recommended to graduate and postgraduate students, postdoctoral re...
Geilhufe, Matthias; Achilles, Steven; Köbis, Markus Arthur; Arnold, Martin; Mertig, Ingrid; Hergert, Wolfram; Ernst, Arthur
2015-11-01
For a reliable fully-relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method, an accurate solution of the underlying single-site scattering problem is necessary. We present an extensive discussion on numerical solutions of the related differential equations by means of standard methods for a direct solution and by means of integral equations. Our implementation is tested and exemplarily demonstrated for a spherically symmetric treatment of a Coulomb potential and for a Mathieu potential to cover the full-potential implementation. For the Coulomb potential we include an analytic discussion of the asymptotic behaviour of irregular scattering solutions close to the origin (r\\ll 1 ).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, F.M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, E.O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil); Pereira, M., E-mail: marciano@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil)
2013-12-15
In this work the bound state and scattering problems for a spin- 1/2 particle undergone to an Aharonov–Bohm potential in a conical space in the nonrelativistic limit are considered. The presence of a δ-function singularity, which comes from the Zeeman spin interaction with the magnetic flux tube, is addressed by the self-adjoint extension method. One of the advantages of the present approach is the determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter in terms of physics of the problem. Expressions for the energy bound states, phase-shift and S matrix are determined in terms of the self-adjoint extension parameter, which is explicitly determined in terms of the parameters of the problem. The relation between the bound state and zero modes and the failure of helicity conservation in the scattering problem and its relation with the gyromagnetic ratio g are discussed. Also, as an application, we consider the spin- 1/2 Aharonov–Bohm problem in conical space plus a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. -- Highlights: •Planar dynamics of a spin- 1/2 neutral particle. •Bound state for Aharonov–Bohm systems. •Aharonov–Bohm scattering. •Helicity nonconservation. •Determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter.
THE GENERATION OF THERMOELASTIC STRESS WAVES BY IMPULSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ABSORPTION), (*STRESSES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), SURFACE PROPERTIES, INTERACTIONS, HEAT TRANSFER, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES, LASERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, SOLIDS
Electromagnetic structure of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, R.G.
1986-07-01
A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafiq, A.; Meyer, H.E. de; Grosjean, C.C.
1985-01-01
An approximate model based on an improved diffusion-type theory is established for treating multiple synthetic scattering in a homogeneous slab of finite thickness. As in the case of the exact treatment given in the preceding paper (Part I), it appears possible to transform the considered transport problem into an equivalent fictitious one involving multiple isotropic scattering, therefore permitting the application of an established corrected diffusion theory for treating isotropic scattering taking place in a convex homogeneous medium bounded by a vacuum in the presence of various types of sources. The approximate values of the reflection and transmission coefficients are compared with the rigorous values listed in Part I. In this way, the high accuracy of the approximation is clearly demonstrated. (author)
Bohr quantum theory of the magnetic monopoles and classical electron electromagnetic mass problem
Pankovic, Vladan
2010-01-01
In the first part of this work we apply Bohr (old or naive quantum atomic) theory for analysis of the remarkable electro-dynamical problem of magnetic monopoles. We reproduce formally exactly some basic elements of the Dirac magnetic monopoles theory, especially Dirac electric/magnetic charge quantization condition. It follows after application of Bohr theory at the system, simply called magnetic monopole "atom", consisting of the practically standing, massive magnetic monopole as the "nucleu...
International electromagnetic workshop. Problem 2: Infinitely long cylinder in a sinusoidal field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morisue, T.
1986-01-01
In this report, Problem 2 is solved using the magnetic vector potential and integral equation method. The computing process consists of two phases: in Phase 1 the boundary values of the vector potential and its normal derivative are calculated, and in Phase 2 the magnetic field and eddy current at the specified points are computed using the finite difference method (in the cylinder) and the integral equation method (both inside and outside the cylinder). The results coincide well with the analytical solution
Meromorphic extension of the scattering matrix for long range two-body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, C.; Martinez, A.
1989-01-01
We prove the existence of a meromorphic extension of the scattering matrix for long range potentials analytic at infinity. This extension exists as a bounded operator on some Gevrey spaces on S n-1 , with critical depending on the rate of decay of the potential at infinity. We use a semi-stationary definition of the scattering operator due to Isozaki-Kitada, using time independent modifiers. We show that the poles of the scattering matrix coincide with the resonances of the Hamiltonian [fr
Sabbagh, Harold A; Sabbagh, Elias H; Aldrin, John C; Knopp, Jeremy S
2013-01-01
Computational Electromagnetics and Model-Based Inversion: A Modern Paradigm for Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation describes the natural marriage of the computer to eddy-current NDE. Three distinct topics are emphasized in the book: (a) fundamental mathematical principles of volume-integral equations as a subset of computational electromagnetics, (b) mathematical algorithms applied to signal-processing and inverse scattering problems, and (c) applications of these two topics to problems in which real and model data are used. By showing how mathematics and the computer can solve problems more effectively than current analog practices, this book defines the modern technology of eddy-current NDE. This book will be useful to advanced students and practitioners in the fields of computational electromagnetics, electromagnetic inverse-scattering theory, nondestructive evaluation, materials evaluation and biomedical imaging. Users of eddy-current NDE technology in industries as varied as nuclear power, aerospace,...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malhotra, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, P.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
A semi-quantitative analysis is given of some of the ways in which spin-lattice interactions can modify the cross-sections observable in neutron scattering experiments. This analysis is applied to the scattering from the invar alloy Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using a model in which the magnetic moment is a function of the near neighbour separation. This model has been applied to clarify the results of inelastic scattering experiments carried out on Fe{sub 65}Ni{sub 35} using both polarised and unpolarised neutrons. The extra information obtainable using polarised neutrons as well as the difficulties and limitations of the technique for inelastic scattering are discussed. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.
THEORY OF ELECTRON-DEUTERON SCATTERING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, L. III
1963-06-15
Information on the electromagnetic form factors of the neutron is obtained from the theory of inelastic electrondeuteron scattering. Problems in the analysis of these experiments that are related to the detailed structure of the deuteron and to the strong final state interactions between the emergent nucleons are considered. Problems arising from an ambiguity in the sign of the Dirac or charge form factor are also discussed. (C.E.S.)
Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics
Graglia, Roberto D
2016-01-01
Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.
Applications of Advanced Electromagnetics Components and Systems
Kouzaev, Guennadi A
2013-01-01
This text, directed to the microwave engineers and Master and PhD students, is on the use of electromagnetics to the development and design of advanced integrated components distinguished by their extended field of applications. The results of hundreds of authors scattered in numerous journals and conference proceedings are carefully reviewed and classed. Several chapters are to refresh the knowledge of readers in advanced electromagnetics. New techniques are represented by compact electromagnetic–quantum equations which can be used in modeling of microwave-quantum integrated circuits of future In addition, a topological method to the boundary value problem analysis is considered with the results and examples. One extended chapter is for the development and design of integrated components for extended bandwidth applications, and the technology and electromagnetic issues of silicon integrated transmission lines, transitions, filters, power dividers, directional couplers, etc are considered. Novel prospec...
Operator of pair electron-ion collisions in alternating electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, A. A.
2008-01-01
Collisions of electrons with ions in the presence of an alternating electromagnetic field are considered. Based on the first principles (the Liouville equations for N particles), a general expression for the collisional operator in the approximation of pair collisions at an arbitrary scattering potential, including that depending periodically on time, is derived. The problem of collisions in plasma in the presence of an electromagnetic field can be reduced to this case by introducing drift coordinates. It is shown that the method of test particles can be applied to the problem of particle collisions in an alternating electromagnetic field.
High-energy gravitational scattering and the general relativistic two-body problem
Damour, Thibault
2018-02-01
A technique for translating the classical scattering function of two gravitationally interacting bodies into a corresponding (effective one-body) Hamiltonian description has been recently introduced [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104015]. Using this technique, we derive, for the first time, to second-order in Newton's constant (i.e. one classical loop) the Hamiltonian of two point masses having an arbitrary (possibly relativistic) relative velocity. The resulting (second post-Minkowskian) Hamiltonian is found to have a tame high-energy structure which we relate both to gravitational self-force studies of large mass-ratio binary systems, and to the ultra high-energy quantum scattering results of Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano. We derive several consequences of our second post-Minkowskian Hamiltonian: (i) the need to use special phase-space gauges to get a tame high-energy limit; and (ii) predictions about a (rest-mass independent) linear Regge trajectory behavior of high-angular-momenta, high-energy circular orbits. Ways of testing these predictions by dedicated numerical simulations are indicated. We finally indicate a way to connect our classical results to the quantum gravitational scattering amplitude of two particles, and we urge amplitude experts to use their novel techniques to compute the two-loop scattering amplitude of scalar masses, from which one could deduce the third post-Minkowskian effective one-body Hamiltonian.
Double parton scattering in the ultraviolet. Addressing the double counting problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2016-03-15
In proton-proton collisions there is a smooth transition between the regime of double parton scattering, initiated by two pairs of partons at a large relative distance, and the regime where a single parton splits into a parton pair in one or both protons. We present a scheme for computing both contributions in a consistent and practicable way.
Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology
Snieder, R.K.
1987-01-01
Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory to
Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology
Snieder, R.K.
1987-01-01
Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory
The videopulse scattering in inhomogeneous media containing conductive cylinder objects
Varianytsia-Roshchupkina, Liudmyla A.
2003-01-01
The results of the computer simulation of videopulse scattering on the conductive cylinder objects buried in homogeneous media are presented in this work. The finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and Mur's absorbing boundary conditions of second order were used to regularize the problem. The analysis and the comparison of the scattered electromagnetic fields obtained at different dielectric parameters of the media and different sizes of the conductive objects were carried out.
Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation
Eom, Hyo J
2001-01-01
The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.
Hunziker, J.; Thorbecke, J.; Slob, E. C.
2014-12-01
Commonly, electromagnetic measurements for exploring and monitoring hydrocarbon reservoirs are inverted for the subsurface conductivity distribution by minimizing the difference between the actual data and a forward modeled dataset. The convergence of the inversion process to the correct solution strongly depends on the shape of the solution space. Since this is a non-linear problem, there exist a multitude of minima of which only the global one provides the correct conductivity values. To easily find the global minimum we desire it to have a broad cone of attraction, while it should also feature a very narrow bottom in order to obtain the subsurface conductivity with high resolution. In this study, we aim to determine which combination of input data corresponds to a favorable shape of the solution space. Since the solution space is N-dimensional, with N being the number of unknown subsurface parameters, plotting it is out of the question. In our approach, we use a genetic algorithm (Goldberg, 1989) to probe the solution space. Such algorithms have the advantage that every run of the same problem will end up at a different solution. Most of these solutions are expected to lie close to the global minimum. A situation where only few runs end up in the global minimum indicates that the solution space consists of a lot of local minima or that the cone of attraction of the global minimum is small. If a lot of runs end up with a similar data-misfit but with a large spread of the subsurface medium parameters in one or more direction, it can be concluded that the chosen data-input is not sensitive with respect to that direction. Compared to the study of Hunziker et al. 2014, we allow also to invert for subsurface boundaries and include more combinations of input datasets. The results so far suggest that it is essential to include the magnetic field in the inversion process in order to find the anisotropic conductivity values. ReferencesGoldberg, D. E., 1989. Genetic
King, Hubert
2010-03-01
A surprisingly wide range of matter consists of dispersions of one material in another. In the hydrocarbon industry we often work with mixtures of solid, liquid, and gas as a consequence of the production of hydrocarbons. For example, in deep sea oil production solid phases of wax or gas hydrates can form in pipelines due to low temperatures and high pressures. Dispersions also arise in the products we design; examples include polymers, fuel additives, and lubricants. Hence, understanding such dispersions is a key technology. Size of the dispersed phase (supermolecular) and sensitivity of the structure to the presence of a fluid phase (high-vacuum imaging methods are difficult), makes the small-angle scattering technique, using light, x-rays, and neutrons, a preferred method of structure determination. We focus in this talk on neutron scattering, and this method has several strengths: 1) contrast matching to highlight features is easily achieved through use of various isotopes, for example ^1H vs ^2H, 2) an unprecedented range of length scales is accessible (several μm to nm) through the combined use of SANS and USANS, and 3) the concentration of scattering entities is precisely determined because scattering is routinely measured on an absolute basis. When one considers small-angle scattering from a dispersion, simple models such as Debye scattering, where the magnitude of the momentum transfer (q=2π Sin(θ)/λ) is comparable to the size of the dispersed phases (R*q˜1), is often used to estimate the size of the dispersed phase. However, this simple approach fails in many real-world cases where we must deal with, for example, high concentrations of solids or highly-anisotropic dispersed phases. In this talk we will illustrate how we have utilized combined SANS / USANS data along with contrast matching techniques to understand the structure-property relations governing behavior in several areas of interest, including self-assembly of polymers in fuel additives
Ida, Nathan
2015-01-01
This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems and summaries. The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...
An electromagnetic Thirring problem.
Ehlers, J.; Rindler, W.
1971-01-01
A neutral rotating mass shell surrounds a concentric stationary electrically charged insulating shell. The dipole-like magnetic field induced by (and proportional to) the rotation of the neutral shell is calculated on the basis of the coupled linearized Einstein-Maxwell field equations of general relativity. This field is apparently at variance with a conjecture made on Machian grounds, for which a possible explanation is suggested. The corresponding induced quadrupolar electric field is calculated for the region within the charged shell, and the potential is given for this field everywhere. Though understandable on mutually inconsistent elementary grounds, we regard this field as a useful example of a solution of linearized general relativity.-
WKB approach to evaluate series of Mathieu functions in scattering problems
Hubert, Maxime; Dubertrand, Remy
2017-01-01
The scattering of a wave obeying Helmholtz equation by an elliptic obstacle can be described exactly using series of Mathieu functions. This situation is relevant in optics, quantum mechanics and fluid dynamics. We focus on the case when the wavelength is comparable to the obstacle size, when the most standard approximations fail. The approximations of the radial (or modified) Mathieu functions using WKB method are shown to be especially efficient, in order to precisely evaluate series of suc...
Sparse Reconstruction Schemes for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2016-03-01
Electromagnetic imaging is the problem of determining material properties from scattered fields measured away from the domain under investigation. Solving this inverse problem is a challenging task because (i) it is ill-posed due to the presence of (smoothing) integral operators used in the representation of scattered fields in terms of material properties, and scattered fields are obtained at a finite set of points through noisy measurements; and (ii) it is nonlinear simply due the fact that scattered fields are nonlinear functions of the material properties. The work described in this thesis tackles the ill-posedness of the electromagnetic imaging problem using sparsity-based regularization techniques, which assume that the scatterer(s) occupy only a small fraction of the investigation domain. More specifically, four novel imaging methods are formulated and implemented. (i) Sparsity-regularized Born iterative method iteratively linearizes the nonlinear inverse scattering problem and each linear problem is regularized using an improved iterative shrinkage algorithm enforcing the sparsity constraint. (ii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear inexact Newton method calls for the solution of a linear system involving the Frechet derivative matrix of the forward scattering operator at every iteration step. For faster convergence, the solution of this matrix system is regularized under the sparsity constraint and preconditioned by leveling the matrix singular values. (iii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear Tikhonov method directly solves the nonlinear minimization problem using Landweber iterations, where a thresholding function is applied at every iteration step to enforce the sparsity constraint. (iv) This last scheme is accelerated using a projected steepest descent method when it is applied to three-dimensional investigation domains. Projection replaces the thresholding operation and enforces the sparsity constraint. Numerical experiments, which are carried out using
Ansari, S. M.; Farquharson, C. G.; MacLachlan, S. P.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a new finite-element solution to the potential formulation of the geophysical electromagnetic (EM) problem that explicitly implements the Coulomb gauge, and that accurately computes the potentials and hence inductive and galvanic components, is proposed. The modelling scheme is based on using unstructured tetrahedral meshes for domain subdivision, which enables both realistic Earth models of complex geometries to be considered and efficient spatially variable refinement of the mesh to be done. For the finite-element discretization edge and nodal elements are used for approximating the vector and scalar potentials respectively. The issue of non-unique, incorrect potentials from the numerical solution of the usual incomplete-gauged potential system is demonstrated for a benchmark model from the literature that uses an electric-type EM source, through investigating the interface continuity conditions for both the normal and tangential components of the potential vectors, and by showing inconsistent results obtained from iterative and direct linear equation solvers. By explicitly introducing the Coulomb gauge condition as an extra equation, and by augmenting the Helmholtz equation with the gradient of a Lagrange multiplier, an explicitly gauged system for the potential formulation is formed. The solution to the discretized form of this system is validated for the above-mentioned example and for another classic example that uses a magnetic EM source. In order to stabilize the iterative solution of the gauged system, a block diagonal pre-conditioning scheme that is based upon the Schur complement of the potential system is used. For all examples, both the iterative and direct solvers produce the same responses for the potentials, demonstrating the uniqueness of the numerical solution for the potentials and fixing the problems with the interface conditions between cells observed for the incomplete-gauged system. These solutions of the gauged system also
Dorn, Oliver; Lionheart, Bill
2010-11-01
This proceeding combines selected contributions from participants of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse Problems which was hosted by the University of Manchester in June 2009. The workshop was organized by the two guest editors of this conference proceeding and ran in parallel to the 10th International Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography, which was guided by Bill Lionheart, Richard Bayford, and Eung Je Woo. Both events shared plenary talks and several selected sessions. One reason for combining these two events was the goal of bringing together scientists from various related disciplines who normally might not attend the same conferences, and to enhance discussions between these different groups. So, for example, one day of the workshop was dedicated to the broader area of geophysical inverse problems (including inverse problems in petroleum engineering), where participants from the EIT community and from the medical imaging community were also encouraged to participate, with great success. Other sessions concentrated on microwave medical imaging, on inverse scattering, or on eddy current imaging, with active feedback also from geophysically oriented scientists. Furthermore, several talks addressed such diverse topics as optical tomography, photoacoustic tomography, time reversal, or electrosensing fish. As a result of the workshop, speakers were invited to contribute extended papers to this conference proceeding. All submissions were thoroughly reviewed and, after a thoughtful revision by the authors, combined in this proceeding. The resulting set of six papers presenting the work of in total 22 authors from 5 different countries provides a very interesting overview of several of the themes which were represented at the workshop. These can be divided into two important categories, namely (i) modelling and (ii) data inversion. The first three papers of this selection, as outlined below, focus more on modelling aspects, being an essential component of
Volberg, A.; Yuditskii, P.
2001-01-01
Solving inverse scattering problem for a discrete Sturm-Liouville operator with the fast decreasing potential one gets reflection coefficients $s_\\pm$ and invertible operators $I+H_{s_\\pm}$, where $ H_{s_\\pm}$ is the Hankel operator related to the symbol $s_\\pm$. The Marchenko-Fadeev theorem (in the continuous case) and the Guseinov theorem (in the discrete case), guarantees the uniqueness of solution of the inverse scattering problem. In this article we asks the following natural question --...
Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Cui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.
The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieves, J.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.
2012-01-01
The charged-current double differential neutrino cross section, measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration, has been analyzed using a microscopical model that accounts for, among other nuclear effects, long range nuclear (RPA) correlations and multinucleon scattering. We find that MiniBooNE data are fully compatible with the world average of the nucleon axial mass in contrast with several previous analyses which have suggested an anomalously large value. We also discuss the reliability of the algorithm used to estimate the neutrino energy.
SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-07-29
A scheme for efficiently solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on sparse investigation domains is described. The proposed scheme reconstructs the (complex) dielectric permittivity of an investigation domain from fields measured away from the domain itself. Least-squares data misfit between the computed scattered fields, which are expressed as a nonlinear function of the permittivity, and the measured fields is constrained by the L0/L1-norm of the solution. The resulting minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two-dimensional problems, where the ``measured\\'\\' fields are synthetically generated or obtained from actual experiments. These numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed scheme in reconstructing sparse profiles with high permittivity values.
An Effective Math Model for Eliminating Interior Resonance Problems of EM Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Yun-feng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that if an E-field integral equation or an H-field integral equation is applied alone in analysis of EM scattering from a conducting body, the solution to the equation will be either nonunique or unstable at the vicinity of a certain interior frequency. An effective math model is presented here, providing an easy way to deal with this situation. At the interior resonant frequencies, the surface current density is divided into two parts: an induced surface current caused by the incident field and a resonance surface current associated with the interior resonance mode. In this paper, the presented model, based on electric field integral equation and orthogonal modal theory, is used here to filter out resonant mode; therefore, unique and stable solution will be obtained. The proposed method possesses the merits of clarity in concept and simplicity in computation. A good agreement is achieved between the calculated results and those obtained by other methods in both 2D and 3D EM scattering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitry Shepelsky
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Cauchy problem for the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH equation \\[u_t-\\alpha^2 u_{xxt}+2\\omega u_x +3uu_x+\\gamma u_{xxx}=\\alpha^2 (2u_x u_{xx} + uu_{xxx}\\] with zero boundary conditions (as \\(|x|\\to\\infty\\ is treated by the Riemann-Hilbert approach to the inverse scattering transform method. The approach allows us to give a representation of the solution to the Cauchy problem, which can be efficiently used for further studying the properties of the solution, particularly, in studying its long-time behavior. Using the proposed formalism, smooth solitons as well as non-smooth cuspon solutions are presented.
Jerez-Hanckes, Carlos; Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Turc, Catalin
2017-12-01
We present Nyström discretizations of multitrace/singletrace formulations and non-overlapping Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for bounded composite scatterers with piecewise constant material properties. We investigate the performance of DDM with both classical Robin and optimized transmission boundary conditions. The optimized transmission boundary conditions incorporate square root Fourier multiplier approximations of Dirichlet to Neumann operators. While the multitrace/singletrace formulations as well as the DDM that use classical Robin transmission conditions are not particularly well suited for Krylov subspace iterative solutions of high-contrast high-frequency Helmholtz transmission problems, we provide ample numerical evidence that DDM with optimized transmission conditions constitute efficient computational alternatives for these type of applications. In the case of large numbers of subdomains with different material properties, we show that the associated DDM linear system can be efficiently solved via hierarchical Schur complements elimination.
Chen, Chien-Hung; Chiu, Chien-Ching; Sun, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Wan-Ling
2011-01-01
This paper reports a two-dimensional time-domain inverse scattering algorithm based upon the finite-difference time domain method (FDTD) for determining the shape of a perfectly conducting cylinder. FDTD is used to solve the scattering electromagnetic wave of a perfectly conducting cylinder. The inverse problem is resolved by an optimization approach and the global searching scheme asynchronous particle swarm optimization is then employed to search the parameter space. By properly processing the scattered field, some electromagnetic properties can be reconstructed. A set of representative numerical results is presented to demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to efficiently reconstruct the electromagnetic properties of metallic scatterer even when the initial guess is far away from the exact one. In addition, the effects of Gaussian noises on imaging reconstruction are also investigated.
Study of the sensitivity of the radiation transport problem in a scattering medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin
2002-03-01
In this work, the system of differential equations obtained by the angular approach of the two-dimensional transport equation by the discrete ordinates method is solved through the formulation of finite elements with the objective of investigating the sensitivity of the outgoing flux of radiation with the incoming flux and the properties of absorption and scattering of the medium. The variational formulation for the system of differential equations of second order with the generalized boundary conditions of Neumann (third type) allows an easy implementation of the method of the finite elements with triangular mesh and approximation space of first order. The geometry chosen for the simulations is a circle with a non homogeneous circular form in its interior. The mapping of Dirichlet-Neumann is studied through various simulations involving the incoming flux, the outgoing flux and the properties of the medium. (author)
Hunziker, J.W.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Slob, E.C.
2014-01-01
We determined that the electromagnetic vertical transverse isotropic response in a layered earth can be obtained by solving two equivalent scalar equations, which were for the vertical electric field and for the vertical magnetic field, involving only a scalar global reflection coefficient. Besides
Sulangi, Miguel Antonio; Allan, Milan P.; Zaanen, Jan
2017-10-01
We revisit the interpretation of quasiparticle scattering interference in cuprate high-Tc superconductors. This phenomenon has been very successful in reconstructing the dispersions of d -wave Bogoliubov excitations, but the successful identification and interpretation of quasiparticle interference (QPI) in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) experiments rely on theoretical results obtained for the case of isolated impurities. We introduce a highly flexible technique to simulate STS measurements by computing the local density of states using real-space Green's functions defined on two-dimensional lattices with as many as 100 000 sites. We focus on the following question: to what extent can the experimental results be reproduced when various forms of distributed disorder are present? We consider randomly distributed pointlike impurities, smooth "Coulombic" disorder, and disorder arising from random on-site energies and superconducting gaps. We find an apparent paradox: the QPI peaks in the Fourier-transformed local density of states appear to be sharper and better defined in experiment than those seen in our simulations. We arrive at a no-go result for smooth-potential disorder since this does not reproduce the QPI peaks associated with large-momentum scattering. An ensemble of pointlike impurities gets closest to experiment, but this goes hand in hand with impurity cores that are not seen in experiment. We also study the effects of possible measurement artifacts (the "fork mechanism"), which turn out to be of relatively minor consequence. It appears that a more microscopic model of the tunneling process needs to be incorporated in order to account for the sharpness of the experimentally obtained QPI peaks.
The critical slab problem for pure-triplet anisotropic scattering by singular eigenfunction method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministery of Education, Ankara (Turkey). General Directorate of Secondary Education
2017-12-15
The infinite medium Green function can be written by using the jump condition, found Case's eigenfunctions. Thus, any reactor theory problem which is inplane geometry such the criticality problem as can be investigated by using the proper boundary conditions and suggested flux definitions. By using the criticality equation the critical thicknesses can be calculated as numerically. The selected numerical results can be tabulated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Se Yun
2009-01-01
This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.
Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popa, Alexandru
2008-01-01
The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.
2002-01-01
A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer is initia......A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer...... efficient than the MoM/SIBC method, proving that the proposed novel combination is a powerful and advantageous computational tool....
Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory
Potthast, Roland
2001-01-01
Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories
Fafin, Alexandre; Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Gourbilleau, Fabrice
2013-10-07
A new algorithm based on auxiliary differential equation and finite difference time domain method (ADE-FDTD method) is presented to model a waveguide whose active layer is constituted of a silica matrix doped with rare-earth and silicon nanograins. The typical lifetime of rare-earth can be as large as some ms, whereas the electromagnetic field in a visible range and near-infrared is characterized by a period of the order of fs. Due to the large difference between these two characteristic times, the conventional ADE-FDTD method is not suited to treat such systems. A new algorithm is presented so that the steady state of rare earth and silicon nanograins electronic levels populations along with the electromagnetic field can be fully described. This algorithm is stable and applicable to a wide range of optical gain materials in which large differences of characteristic lifetimes are present.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir I. Gurevich
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article is the continuation of the theme highlighted in the previous article with same title. The new article evaluates the results of digital protective relays (DPR testing for immunity to the E1 component of High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP and to Intentional Electromagnetic Interferences (IEMI impacts, conducted by some independent American organizations; discusses the features of relay protection devices as well as clarifies and supplements the procedure for testing these devices. Due to methodology errors during the DPR tests conducted by mentioned organizations earlier, they cannot be considered as satisfactory and their results as meaningful. At the moment there are no reliable data on the level of DPR immunity to IDEI, which suggests that the test should be conducted further.
Connection between one-parameter problems in the theory of charged particle potential scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popushoj, M.N.
1989-01-01
Schroedinger equation for superposition of centrifugal Coulomb and nuclear potentials was used to establish the similarity of direct and inverse problems: 1) at k=const, a=const, λ=Var and a=const, λ=1/2, k=var (k -wave number, λ=l+1/2, l - orbital momentum, a - Coulomb coupling constant); 2) at k=const, λ=const, a=var and λ=const, a=0, k=var
A sparse electromagnetic imaging scheme using nonlinear landweber iterations
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-10-26
Development and use of electromagnetic inverse scattering techniques for imagining sparse domains have been on the rise following the recent advancements in solving sparse optimization problems. Existing techniques rely on iteratively converting the nonlinear forward scattering operator into a sequence of linear ill-posed operations (for example using the Born iterative method) and applying sparsity constraints to the linear minimization problem of each iteration through the use of L0/L1-norm penalty term (A. Desmal and H. Bagci, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag, 7, 3878–3884, 2014, and IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 3, 532–536, 2015). It has been shown that these techniques produce more accurate and sharper images than their counterparts which solve a minimization problem constrained with smoothness promoting L2-norm penalty term. But these existing techniques are only applicable to investigation domains involving weak scatterers because the linearization process breaks down for high values of dielectric permittivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.
1976-01-01
The resolution correction uses the camera response (FDP) as a function of photon energy and origin (primary or scattered). From filters thus calculated may be generated the scattered photon contribution which must then be substracted from the lower energy image. The linear combination method uses an operator which allows the spatial distribution of the scattering factor to be accounted for. In default of using an analytical knowledge of the scattering spectrum a preliminary study on a phantom is necessary [fr
Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ould-Saada, F. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik
1996-11-01
Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.
Beggs, John H.; Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.
1992-01-01
The Penn State Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Scattering Code Version C is a three-dimensional numerical electromagnetic scattering code based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique. The supplied version of the code is one version of our current three-dimensional FDTD code set. The manual given here provides a description of the code and corresponding results for several scattering problems. The manual is organized into 14 sections: introduction, description of the FDTD method, operation, resource requirements, Version C code capabilities, a brief description of the default scattering geometry, a brief description of each subroutine, a description of the include file (COMMONC.FOR), a section briefly discussing radar cross section computations, a section discussing some scattering results, a new problem checklist, references, and figure titles.
Electromagnetic fields and Green functions in elliptical vacuum chambers
AUTHOR|(CDS)2084216; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Palumbo, Luigi; Vaccaro, Vittorio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic interaction between a point charge travelling inside a waveguide of elliptical cross section, and the waveguide itself. By using a convenient expansion of the Mathieu functions, useful in particular for treating a variety of problems in applied mathematics and physics with elliptic geometry, we first obtain the longitudinal electromagnetic field of a point charge (Green function) in free space in terms of elliptical coordinates. This expression allows, then, to calculate the scattered field due to the boundary conditions in our geometry. By summing the contribution of the direct or primary field and the indirect field scattered by the boundary, after a careful choice of some expansion expressions, we derive a novel formula of the longitudinal electric field, in any transverse position of the elliptical cross section, generated by the charge moving along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide. The obtained expression is represented in a closed form, it can be diffe...
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Inverse Methods in Electromagnetic Imaging
Brand, Hans; Cram, Leonard; Gjessing, Dag; Jordan, Arthur; Keydel, Wolfgang; Schwierz, Günther; Vogel, Martin
1985-01-01
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the use of polarization effects for radar and electromagnetic imaging problems (References 1, 2, and 3). The problem of electro magnetic imaging can be divided into the following areas: (1) Propagation of the Stokes' vector from the transmitter to the target region through various atmospheric conditions (rain, dust, fog, clouds, turbulence, etc.). (2) Scattering of the Stokes' vector from the object. (3) Scattering of the Stokes' vector from the rough surface, terrain, and the volume scattering. (4) Propagation of the Stokes' vector from the target region to the receiver. (5) The characteristics of the receiver relating the Stokes' vector to the output. The propagation characteristics of the Stokes' vector through various media can be described by the equation of transfer. Even though the scalar equation of transfer has been studied extensively in the past, the vector equation of transfer has not received as much attention. In recent years, however, a...
De Hoop, A.T.; Abubakar, A.; Habashy, T.M.
2009-01-01
The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems is discussed. A novel feature of the formulation is a tensor partitioning of the relevant dynamic stress and the contrast source volume density of deformation rate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliva, Amaury M.; Filho, Hermes A.; Silva, Davi M.; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional; Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)
2017-07-01
In this paper, we propose a numerical methodology for the development of a method of the spectral nodal class that will generate numerical solutions free from spatial truncation errors. This method, denominated Spectral Deterministic Method (SDM), is tested as an initial study of the solutions (spectral analysis) of neutron transport equations in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, multigroup approximation, with linearly anisotropic scattering, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous domains with fixed source. The unknowns in the methodology are the cell-edge, and cell average angular fluxes, the numerical values calculated for these quantities coincide with the analytic solution of the equations. These numerical results are shown and compared with the traditional ne- mesh method Diamond Difference (DD) and the coarse-mesh method spectral Green's function (SGF) to illustrate the method's accuracy and stability. The solution algorithms problems are implemented in a computer simulator made in C++ language, the same that was used to generate the results of the reference work. (author)
Grid computing for electromagnetics
Tarricone, Luciano
2004-01-01
Today, more and more practitioners, researchers, and students are utilizing the power and efficiency of grid computing for their increasingly complex electromagnetics applications. This cutting-edge book offers you the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to use this new approach to supercomputing for your challenging projects. Supported with over 110 illustrations, the book clearly describes a high-performance, low-cost method to solving huge numerical electromagnetics problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, P.W.; Dove, M.T.
1985-01-01
One problem in the analysis of triple-axis neutron inelastic scattering data is the large numerical computations involved in applying full resolution corrections, which in one extreme involves an often-repeated four-dimensional numerical integral. A program called SHAMGAR has been written for an ICL Distributed Array Processor that will both calculate the full convolution of a model scattering function with the resolution function and allow refinement of the model simultaneously to many sets of experimental data by a non-linear least-squares fit. Sample results and performance figures are given. (orig.)
Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory
Stumpf, Martin
2018-01-01
The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LI, Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2007-01-01
In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.
Extraction of Weak Scatterer Features Based on Multipath Exploitation in Radar Imagery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhannad Almutiry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We proposed an improved solution to two problems. The first problem is caused by the sidelobe of the dominant scatterer masking a weak scatterer. The proposed solution is to suppress the dominant scatterer by modeling its electromagnetic effects as a secondary source or “extra dependent transmitter” in the measurement domain. The suppression of the domain scatterer reveals the presence of the weak scatterer based on exploitation of multipath effects. The second problem is linearizing the mathematical forward model in the measurement domain. Improving the quantity of the prediction, including multipath scattering effects (neglected under the Born approximation, allows us to solve the inverse problem. The multiple bounce (multipath scattering effect is the interaction of more than one target in the scene. Modeling reflections from one target towards another as a transmitting dipole will add the multiple scattering effects to the scattering field and permit us to solve a linear inverse problem without sophisticated solutions of a nonlinear matrix in the forward model. Simulation results are presented to validate the concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, Welton A.; Filho, Hermes Alves; Barros, Ricardo C.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Fixed-source S N transport problems. • Energy multigroup model. • Anisotropic scattering. • Slab-geometry spectral nodal method. - Abstract: A generalization of the spectral Green’s function (SGF) method is developed for multigroup, fixed-source, slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) problems with anisotropic scattering. The offered SGF method with the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme converges numerical solutions that are completely free from spatial truncation errors for multigroup, slab-geometry S N problems with scattering anisotropy of order L, provided L < N. As a coarse-mesh numerical method, the SGF method generates numerical solutions that generally do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. Therefore, we describe in this paper a technique for the spatial reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the multigroup SGF method. Numerical results are given to illustrate the method’s accuracy
Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics
Shang, Joseph J S
2016-01-01
Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenglart, E. [Laboratoire de Mathematique, Insa de Rouen, B.P. 08, 76131 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Gouesbet, G. [Laboratoire d`Energetique des Systemes et Procedes, Insa de Rouen, URA CNRS 230, B.P. 08, 76131 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)
1996-09-01
The separability theorem states that, given a linear partial differential equation and special coordinates allowing to find a family of separated solutions, all solutions of physical interest of the equations can be obtained from linear combinations of the separated solutions. In developing the theory of interaction between an infinite cylinder and a Gaussian beam, it has been recently observed that the theorem may fail in terms of functions. In this paper, it is shown that the separability theorem is recovered if solutions are expressed in terms of distributions instead of in terms of functions. Relevance to light scattering theory is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchand, C.
1987-09-01
The He3 nuclear structure was studied, particularly the longitudinal and transverse response functions and the momentum distribution of high linear momentum protons. Measurements of the inclusive cross sections for incident energies between 120 and 667 MeV were used to derive the electromagnetic response functions for momentum and energy transfers covering the quasi-elastic region and a part of the delta resonance (1232). The Coulomb sum rule is saturated for momentum transfers ≥ 500 MeV/sec. The drop to zero of the longitudinal response after the quasi-elastic peak confirms the transverse nature of the mesic exchange currents and of the excitation of the delta resonance in the nucleus. Measurement of the (e, e'p) exclusive cross sections at 560 MeV incident energy allowed a direct determination of proton linear momentum distributions at 300 to 600 MeV/c for the pd and ppn decay channels. The data agree with wave function calculations and do not indicate an excess of high momentum components. Analysis of the ppn decay channel indicates that high linear momentum components in He3 are dominated by two-nucleon processes, i.e., nucleon-nucleon correlations at medium and short range. Kinematic evidence supports this picture: displacement of the missing energy and dynamic spectra, and comparison of the linear momentum distribution for protons in He3 and deuterium [fr
Milson, James L.
1990-01-01
Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)
Electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles and gauge invariance
Nagorny, S. I.; Dieperink, A. E. L.
1998-01-01
Abstract: Electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles are discussed on the basis of a purely electromagnetic reaction: virtual Compton scattering off a proton. It is shown that the definition of off-shell electromagnetic form factors is not gauge invariant and that these cannot be investigated
Black hole scattering via pseudospectral methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clemente, Paula C.M.; Oliveira, Henrique P. de; Rodrigues, Eduardo L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: We have considered the problem which refers to scattering and absorption of perturbations from a black hole. These perturbations can be scalar, electromagnetic or gravitational waves and satisfy a Schrodinger-type equation, where the potential is specified by the black hole under consideration. Unfortunately, this problem can not be solved by a standard pseudospectral method, the reason is that does not exist a infinite interval basis set, capable of modelling the ingoing and outgoing waves. By using the rational Chebyshev functions and, adding to it, special functions called 'radiation functions' we are able to compute with high precision the transmission and reflection coefficients. These difficulties emerge, because the rational Chebyshev functions can not correctly represent the asymptotic sine waves present in the work. In order to introduce the various concepts involved in the study of wave scattering by black holes, we have assumed in this work, the easiest relativistic case, where scalar waves are scattered by a potential generated by a static and spherically symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. We have adapted and modified the pseudospectral method devised by Boyd, (Computer in Physics, 83 (1990)) which consists in a potential barrier problem in one dimension, the concept of numerical implementation remains the same. The extension of the code for the wave scattering by other black holes is, also, discussed. (author)
Electromagnetic processes and interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheck, F.
1983-01-01
The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)
Covariant electromagnetic field lines
Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.
2017-08-01
Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.
Modern Theory of Gratings Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena
Sirenko, Yuriy K
2010-01-01
Diffraction gratings are one of the most popular objects of analysis in electromagnetic theory. The requirements of applied optics and microwave engineering lead to many new problems and challenges for the theory of diffraction gratings, which force us to search for new methods and tools for their resolution. In Modern Theory of Gratings, the authors present results of the electromagnetic theory of diffraction gratings that will constitute the base of further development of this theory, which meet the challenges provided by modern requirements of fundamental and applied science. This volume covers: spectral theory of gratings (Chapter 1) giving reliable grounds for physical analysis of space-frequency and space-time transformations of the electromagnetic field in open periodic resonators and waveguides; authentic analytic regularization procedures (Chapter 2) that, in contradistinction to the traditional frequency-domain approaches, fit perfectly for the analysis of resonant wave scattering processes; paramet...
Effects of 6q bags in the 1D2 pp scattering amplitude and the problem of dibaryon resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grach, I.L.; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the short-range NN forces in the quark compound bag method reproduce the energy dependence of the 1 D 2 pp-scattering amplitude predicted by existing phaseshift analyses. The parameters of the six-quark bag wave function obtained by description of the experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the MIT bag model
Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Hua
2002-01-01
Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim N. Pelevin
2001-12-01
Full Text Available A method for estimating the water backscattering coefficient was put forward on the basis of experimental data of diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance. Calculations were carried out for open sea waters of different types and the spectral dependencies were found ("anomalous" spectra and explained. On this basis, a new model of light backscattering on particles in the sea is proposed. This model may be useful for modelling remote sensing reflectance spectra in order to solve the inverse problems of estimating the concentration of natural admixtures in shelf waters.
Fymat, A. L.
1976-01-01
The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.
Soloveichik, Yury G.; Persova, Marina G.; Domnikov, Petr A.; Koshkina, Yulia I.; Vagin, Denis V.
2018-03-01
We propose an approach to solving multisource induction logging problems in multidimensional media. According to the type of induction logging tools, the measurements are performed in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 14 MHz, transmitter-receiver offsets vary in the range of 0.5-8 m or more, and the trajectory length is up to 1 km. For calculating the total field, the primary-secondary field approach is used. The secondary field is calculated with the use of the finite-element method (FEM), irregular non-conforming meshes with local refinements and a direct solver. The approach to constructing basis functions with the continuous tangential components (from Hcurl(Ω)) on the non-conforming meshes from the standard shape vector functions is developed. On the basis of this method, the algorithm of generating global matrices and a vector of the finite-element equation system is proposed. We also propose the method of grouping the logging tool positions, which makes it possible to significantly increase the computational effectiveness. This is achieved due to the compromise between the possibility of using the 1-D background medium, which is very similar to the investigated multidimensional medium for a small group, and the decrease in the number of the finite-element matrix factorizations with the increasing number of tool positions in one group. For calculating the primary field, we propose the method based on the use of FEM. This method is highly effective when the 1-D field is required to be calculated at a great number of points. The use of this method significantly increases the effectiveness of the primary-secondary field approach. The proposed approach makes it possible to perform modelling both in the 2.5-D case (i.e. without taking into account a borehole and/or invasion zone effect) and the 3-D case (i.e. for models with a borehole and invasion zone). The accuracy of numerical results obtained with the use of the proposed approach is compared with the one
X-ray electromagnetic application technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2011-01-01
The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, J.M.; Fertig, K.W. Jr.
1983-01-01
In order to inspect flaws which lie too close to the surface a Fourier elastodynamic formalism is proposed which enables one to decompose the elastodynamic system into separately charterizable parts by means of planes perpendicular to the z-axis. The process can be represented by a generalized transfer function relating the near-field scattered waves to the waves incident on a slab of material containing the flaw. The Fourier elastodynamics are applied to the characterization of the total scattering process involving a flaw at various distances from a plastic-water interface. An abbreviated discussion of Fourier elastodynamics is presented, and the results specialized to the case of spherical voids and inclusions bear an interface. Finally, the computational results for several ranges of temporal frequency and for a sequence of values of the distance from the flaw center to the interface are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barford, Thomas; Birse, Michael C
2005-01-01
A distorted-wave version of the renormalization group is applied to scattering by an inverse-square potential and to three-body systems. In attractive three-body systems, the short-distance wavefunction satisfies a Schroedinger equation with an attractive inverse-square potential, as shown by Efimov. The resulting oscillatory behaviour controls the renormalization of the three-body interactions, with the renormalization-group flow tending to a limit cycle as the cut-off is lowered. The approach used here leads to single-valued potentials with discontinuities as the bound states are cut off. The perturbations around the cycle start with a marginal term whose effect is simply to change the phase of the short-distance oscillations, or the self-adjoint extension of the singular Hamiltonian. The full power counting in terms of the energy and two-body scattering length is constructed for short-range three-body forces
Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...
Das, Ashok
2013-01-01
These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse
2015-01-01
Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, A.B.; Murzakhanov, Z.G.; Grunskaya, L.V.
1994-01-01
A proposal on the experimental detection of extremely low-frequency variations of the electromagnetic Earth field at the gravitational-wave frequency and method for correlation processing results of the experiments are described. 14 refs
Circuit oriented electromagnetic modeling using the PEEC techniques
Ruehli, Albert; Jiang, Lijun
2017-01-01
This book provides intuitive solutions to electromagnetic problems by using the Partial Eelement Eequivalent Ccircuit (PEEC) method. This book begins with an introduction to circuit analysis techniques, laws, and frequency and time domain analyses. The authors also treat Maxwell's equations, capacitance computations, and inductance computations through the lens of the PEEC method. Next, readers learn to build PEEC models in various forms: equivalent circuit models, non orthogonal PEEC models, skin-effect models, PEEC models for dielectrics, incident and radiate field models, and scattering PEEC models. The book concludes by considering issues like such as stability and passivity, and includes five appendices some with formulas for partial elements.
Sparse electromagnetic imaging using nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-04-13
A sparse nonlinear electromagnetic imaging scheme is proposed for reconstructing dielectric contrast of investigation domains from measured fields. The proposed approach constructs the optimization problem by introducing the sparsity constraint to the data misfit between the scattered fields expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast and the measured fields and solves it using the nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. The thresholding is applied to the result of every nonlinear Landweber iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in reconstructing sparse dielectric profiles.
A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains
Sandhu, Ali Imran
2017-05-13
The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does not satisfy the restricted isometry property, a damping parameter is added to the diagonal entries of the matrix to make the CoSaMP work. The damping factor can be selected based on the level of noise in the measurements. Numerical experiments, which demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed algorithm, are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Rossignol
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This proposal is devoted to a collaborative approach dealing with microwave microscopy experiments. The application is dedicated to an electromagnetic field cartography above circuits and the influence of nanometric material layer deposition on the circuits. The first application is associated to a microstrip ring resonator. The results match with the simulated fields. The second application is focused on the effects of a dielectric layer deposited on the circuit and its impact in terms of electromagnetic propagation.
Concise formulation of the three-dimensional multiple-scattering theory.
Oyhenart, Laurent; Vignéras, Valérie
2012-08-01
The scattering of an electromagnetic wave by a set of dielectric and metallic spheres is a well-known physical problem. We show a mathematical simplification of the multiple-scattering theory. In this paper, we will establish the multiple-scattering equation in two different ways. Through the study of the equation form, we can choose the simplest spherical wave expansion for calculations. Then, we propose concise expressions of the Mie scattering coefficients and translation coefficients for both polarizations. With these simplified expressions, large spheres are studied without loss of accuracy. Far-field expressions, cross-sections, and the scattering matrix are also simplified. Thus, we obtain formulas that can be easily understood from a physical point of view.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits
Zitai, Hong
2018-02-01
Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.
Isogeometric analysis and shape optimization in electromagnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nguyen, Dang Manh
In this thesis a recently proposed numerical method for solving partial differential equations, isogeometric analysis (IGA), is utilized for the purpose of shape optimization, with a particular emphasis on applications to two-dimensional design problems arising in electromagnetic applications...... parametrization are combined into an iterative algorithm for shape optimization of two dimensional electromagnetic problems. The algorithm may also be relevant for problems in other engineering disciplines. Using the methods developed in this thesis, remarkably we have obtained antennas that perform one million...... times better than an earlier topology optimization result. This shows a great potential of shape optimization using IGA in the area of electromagnetic antenna design in particular, and for electromagnetic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fagundes, Daniel Almeida
2010-01-01
The theoretical description of high-energy elastic hadron scattering constitutes an open problem in both, the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions (QCD) and the phenomenological context. In this work the inverse problem in elastic hadron scattering is discussed in the impact parameter and eikonal frameworks, specifically a study on the empirical extraction of the profile, the inelastic overlap and the eikonal functions, from the experimental data and some principles and high-energy theorems (model independent). The analysis is limited to elastic proton-proton scattering in the center of momentum energy interval 19.4 - 62.5 GeV. In particular, a novel representation for the Martin's Real Part Formula is introduced but without the scaling property and suitable for empirical analysis. By means of this representation, and two other parametrizations previously introduced (constrained and unconstrained), several properties of the inelastic overlap function and the imaginary part of the eikonal (opacity) in the momentum transfer space are determined, in special: (1) evidence of a peripheral effect (tail) in the inelastic overlap function in the parameter impact space above 2 fm; (2) development of analytical parametrizations for this function leading to three gaussian components with centers at 0.0, ∼0.7 and ∼1.3 fm; (3) evidence of a finite zero (change of sign) in the opacity function in the momentum transfer space; (4) development of empirical parametrization for this function consistent with form factors as a product of two monopoles with constrained masses (not a dipole type) and a term with zero; (5) detailed discussion on the determination of the opacity function in the momentum transfer space through the semi-analytical approach. The applicability of these empirical results in the development of eikonal models (mainly those inspired in QCD) is also discussed. (author)
Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFord, J.F.
1993-03-01
The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.
Gravitational Bhabha scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, A F; Khanna, Faqir C
2017-01-01
Gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) as a theory for gravity has been developed similar to the electromagnetic field theory. A weak field approximation of Einstein theory of relativity is similar to GEM. This theory has been quantized. Traditional Bhabha scattering, electron–positron scattering, is based on quantized electrodynamics theory. Usually the amplitude is written in terms of one photon exchange process. With the development of quantized GEM theory, the scattering amplitude will have an additional component based on an exchange of one graviton at the lowest order of perturbation theory. An analysis will provide the relative importance of the two amplitudes for Bhabha scattering. This will allow an analysis of the relative importance of the two amplitudes as the energy of the exchanged particles increases. (paper)
Light scattering by small particles
Hulst, H C van de
1981-01-01
""A must for researchers using the techniques of light scattering."" ? S. C. Snowdon, Journal of the Franklin InstituteThe measurement of light scattering of independent, homogeneous particles has many useful applications in physical chemistry, meteorology and astronomy. There is, however, a sizeable gap between the abstract formulae related to electromagnetic-wave-scattering phenomena, and the computation of reliable figures and curves. Dr. van de Hulst's book enables researchers to bridge that gap. The product of twelve years of work, it is an exhaustive study of light-scattering properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levin, F.S.; Krueger, H.
1977-01-01
We propose in this article that the non-Hermitian equations typical of some many-body scattering theories be used to help solve many-body bound-state problems. The basic idea is to exploit the channel nature of many-body bound states that must exist because bound states are obvious negative-energy extensions of scattering states. Since atomic, molecular, and nuclear systems all display multichannel effects for E > 0, at least through Pauli-principle effects if not through mass-transfer reactions, this use of positive-energy methods for solving bound-state problems could have wide applicability. The development used here is based on the channel-component-state method of the channel-coupling-array theory, recently described in detail for the E > 0 case, and various aspects of the formalism are discussed. Detailed calculations using simple approximations are discussed for H 2 + , one of the simplest systems displaying channel structure. Comparison with the exact, Born-Oppenheimer results of Wind show that the non-Hermitian-equation, channel-component values of the equilibrium separation and total binding energy are accurate to within 2%, while the dissociation energy is accurate to 10%. The resulting wave function is identical to that arising from the simplest MO calculation, for which these numbers are less accurate than the preceding by at least a factor of 3. We also show that identical particle symmetry for the H 2 + case reduces the pair of coupled (two-channel) equations to a single equation with an exchange term. Similar reductions will occur for larger numbers of identical particles, thus suggesting application of the formalism to atomic structure problems. A detailed analysis of the present numerical results, their general implications, and possible applications is also given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, J.
2003-01-01
Full text: Small angle scattering and reflectometry are ideal techniques to study material structure and composition on the nano-scale. This talk will focus on the underlying interactions that x-rays and neutrons have with matter. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation and interact with the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus, whereas the primary interaction of the neutron is with the nucleus itself
Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
2006-11-27
of 5.5 mT (Bmax) were generated by a doughnut -shaped annular electromagnet device. A rabbit in a holder was placed into the annular electromagnets...powerful tools to stimulate a range of benefits for society, in addition to economic development. However, technological progress in the broadest sense...disease is one of the biggest, if not the biggest problem and challenge, economically as well as in terms of animal welfare and environmental pressure
On Continuation of Solutions to Boundary Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Modern investigation of the real-analytic continuability of solutions to boundary problems involves elements of complex and microlocal analysis, as well as the theory of pseudodifferential operators. Apart from its purely mathematical interest, this investigation can lead to significant improvement...... of numerical methods used in, e.g., acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In this talk, I shall take as the starting point the desire to improve one such numerical method, namely the so-called Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). The latter is a promising numerical scheme, with the potential of replacing...... the traditional boundary layer formulations in the numerical solution of scattering problems. To address the convergence issues inherent to the MAS, I shall introduce a relevant general real-analytic continuation problem and describe how it can be reformulated in terms of an analytic Cauchy problem in the complex...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.
1983-01-01
The problem of static electromagnetic field admitting a time-like and two space-like Killing vectors is completely solved. The solutions contain plane-symmetric solution as a special case. The solutions can be transformed into solutions describing the gravitational field of a charge line-mass by suitably introducing weyl's canonical coordinates. Further, these solutions are true generalizations of Kasner solutions. (Author) [pt
Electromagnetism and interconnections
Charruau, S
2009-01-01
This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.
Electromagnetic field computation at fractal dimensions
Zubair, M.; Ang, Y. S.; Ang, L. K.
According to Mandelbrot's work on fractals, many objects are in fractional dimensions that the traditional calculus or differential equations are not sufficient. Thus fractional models solving the relevant differential equations are critical to understand the physical dynamics of such objects. In this work, we develop computational electromagnetics or Maxwell equations in fractional dimensions. For a given degree of imperfection, impurity, roughness, anisotropy or inhomogeneity, we consider the complicated object can be formulated into a fractional dimensional continuous object characterized by an effective fractional dimension D, which can be calculated from a self-developed algorithm. With this non-integer value of D, we develop the computational methods to design and analyze the EM scattering problems involving rough surfaces or irregularities in an efficient framework. The fractional electromagnetic based model can be extended to other key differential equations such as Schrodinger or Dirac equations, which will be useful for design of novel 2D materials stacked up in complicated device configuration for applications in electronics and photonics. This work is supported by Singapore Temasek Laboratories (TL) Seed Grant (IGDS S16 02 05 1).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avetisyan, Yu. A.; Trifonov, E. D.
2008-01-01
We give a general formulation of the semiclassical approach to solving the problem of interaction between a Bose-Einstein condensate of dilute gas and electromagnetic radiation without using the commonly applied mean-field approximation. We suggest variants of the systems of Maxwell-Schroedinger equations whose solution describes such effects as superradiant light scattering, light beam amplification, atomic wave (atomic laser) amplification, induced transparency, and reduction in the group velocity of light
Electromagnetic Scattering by Surface of Arbitrary Shape.
1980-03-01
MS 38677 i I I, CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Rome Ar Development Center ( RBCA ) Griffiss AFB NY 13441 114it 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME o ADDRESS...Same IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES RADC Project Engineer: John H. Edwards, Jr. ( RBCA ) This work was performed while the first two authors were at Syracuse
Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering
Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.
1985-01-01
Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.
Computational Electromagnetics
Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders
2013-01-01
Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.
1991-01-01
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs
Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao
2000-01-01
A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data
Zeddam, Ahmed; Avril, Gautier; Tlich, Mohamed
2009-01-01
This article deals with the electromagnetic environment management problem within the context of high speed digital transmissions deployed in wired telecommunication networks. Traditionally, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is assured by filtering for better electromagnetic immunity, and by cable shielding for emission limitation. However, like cognitive radio, we can also, for high speed wired transmissions, treat the EMC as an intelligent and autonomous system capable of perceiving its environment, interpreting it, making suited decisions, and reacting according to the constraints related to the electromagnetic environment. In this context, some application examples are here given in order to illustrate this evolution towards a cognitive EMC in wired networks. To cite this article: A. Zeddam et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-02-01
The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research
Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.B.
1976-01-01
The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)
Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment
A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z.A.A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar
2009-01-01
Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...
Integration of basic electromagnetism and engineering technology
Bentz, Sigurd
1995-01-01
The theory of electromagnetism is taught as a part of most contemporary electrical engineering curricula. Usually a basic course is intended to cover all the fundamental electromagnetic theory which is needed in later engineering courses. However it is often found that students fail to understand and retain much of the course material, which in turn makes their subsequent studies more difficult. We describe a freshman course in electromagnetism which alleviates these problems. Our hypothesis ...
Three-dimensional sparse electromagnetic imaging accelerated by projected steepest descent
Desmal, Abdulla
2016-11-02
An efficient and accurate scheme for solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on three-dimensional sparse investigation domains is proposed. The minimization problem is constructed in such a way that the data misfit between measurements and scattered fields (which are expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast) is constrained by the contrast\\'s first norm. The resulting minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations accelerated using a steepest descent algorithm. A projection operator is applied at every iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint by thresholding the result of that iteration. Steepest descent algorithm ensures accelerated and convergent solution by utilizing larger iteration steps selected based on a necessary B-condition.
Electromagnetic induction spectroscopy
Won, I. J.; Keiswetter, Dean A.
1998-09-01
An object, made partly or wholly of metals, has a distinct combination of electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and geometrical shape and size. When the object is exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, it produces a secondary magnetic field. By measuring the secondary field in a broadband spectrum, we obtain a distinct spectral signature that may uniquely identify the object. Based on the response spectrum, we attempt to 'fingerprint' the object. This is the basic concept of Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS). EMIS technology may be particularly useful for detecting buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. By fully characterizing and identifying an object without excavation. We should be able to reduce significantly the number of false targets. EMIS should be fully applicable to many other problems where target identification and recognition (without intrusive search) are important. For instance, an advanced EMIS device at an airport security gate may be able to recognize a particular weapon by its maker and type.
Classical Electromagnetic Theory
VanderLinde, Jack
2004-01-01
This book is a self contained course in electromagnetic theory suitable for senior physics and electrical engineering students as well as graduate students whose past has not prepared them well for books such as Jackson or Landau and Lifschitz. The text is liberally sprinkled with worked examples illustrating the application of the theory to various physical problems. In this new edition I have endeavored to improve the accuracy and readability, added and further clarified examples, added sections on Schwarz-Christoffel mappings, and to make the book more self sufficient added an appendix on orthogonal function expansions and added the derivation of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials as well as derivation of their generating functions. The number of student exercises has been increased by 45 over the previous edition. This book stresses the unity of electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic fields developed in parallel. SI units are used throughout and considerable use is made of tensor notatio...
Scattering of waves by Langmuir solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendonca, J.T. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)
1983-08-01
Scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves by one-dimensional Langmuir solitons in a uniform and isotropic plasma is studied analytically using a perturbation method. Mode conversion via scattering by solitons is also considered. The results are also relevant for the case of ion-acoustic solitons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madrangeas, V. [Faculte des Sciences de Limoges, 87 (France); Nicolas, L. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 (France)
2001-07-01
This book is a reedition of a special issue (2001, vol. 4) of the journal 'Revue Internationale de Genie Electrique'. It brings together 11 selected papers among the hundred presented at the Numelec 2000 conference devoted to the analysis, modeling and optimization of electromagnetic fields. Content: a new hysteresis model for oriented grains sheets, inverse problem modeling of ferromagnetic sheets, adaptative approximation of objective functions using diffuse elements method, application of generic algorithms for the localizing of a magnetic dipole, optimization of an active shielding, mixed symbolic and numerical model for the dimensioning of converters, resolution of differential equations for the study of power electronic circuits, large problems resolution using boundary integrals method, gradient-type optimization methodology for the dimensioning of electrical devices, currents and reconnection torque amplitudes of a self-primed asynchronous machine, bi-static scattering of electromagnetic waves from sea surface and snowy-covered surfaces. (J.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Jingkun
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Echo simulation is a precondition for developing radar imaging systems, algorithms, and subsequent applications. Electromagnetic scattering modeling of the target is key to echo simulation. At terahertz (THz frequencies, targets are usually of ultra-large electrical size that makes applying classical electromagnetic calculation methods unpractical. In contrast, the short wavelength makes the surface roughness of targets a factor that cannot be ignored, and this makes the traditional echo simulation methods based on point scattering hypothesis in applicable. Modeling the scattering characteristics of targets and efficiently generating its radar echoes in THz bands has become a problem that must be solved. In this paper, a hierarchical semi-deterministic modeling method is proposed. A full-wave algorithm of rough surfaces is used to calculate the scattered field of facets. Then, the scattered fields of all facets are transformed into the target coordinate system and coherently summed. Finally, the radar echo containing phase information can be obtained. Using small-scale rough models, our method is compared with the standard high-frequency numerical method, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method. Imaging results of a full-scale cone-shape target is presented, and the scattering model and echo generation problem of the full-scale convex targets with rough surfaces in THz bands are preliminary solved; this lays the foundation for future research on imaging regimes and algorithms.
Some direct methods in electromagnetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay, J.; Scheurer, B.
1991-01-01
At the CEA/DAM, various studies including ones aimed at researching for low observability have stimulated the development of electromagnetics computer codes. For this purpose both mathematical and numerical methods have been devised. Two of them are described in this paper. The first approach consists of enlarging to electromagnetics problems some ideas and methods issued from mechanics and structural design. A flexible computer code covering a wide range of applications has been developed. The second approach is explicitly concerned with axisymmetric bodies and low observability problems. Boundary element methods, as well as mixed boundary element and finite element methods are briefly described and exemplified. (author). 21 refs., 13 figs., 3 insets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site......-specific, ragged sonic landscape. The work exhibits intrinsic, non-trivial, emerging behaviour, cyclic or wave-like, which converges and ebbs. It varies its sonic and visual display through a dynamic interaction of light sources, fog and light sensors. The system maintains a fluxing state of ambivalence between...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burch, Aidan
2004-01-01
Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems
Staszewska, G.
1981-06-01
A new approach to the solution of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering problems is proposed. This method is a combination of iteration and variation procedures. The main advantage of this method is that exchange terms can be calculated in a direct and straightforward manner. The method is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and does not require trial functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions. Using the Volterra formulation one can find the solution on an interval determined by the range of the exchange potential and the long-range potential terms can be taken into account by a projection procedure giving the asymptotic value of the reactance matrix. The method is tested on the case of electron-hydrogen atom scattering in the 1s-2s and 1s-2s-2p approximation. We have adapted the method proposed originally by Rayski to obtain solutions of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering. As mentioned in section 1 the construction of the method secures an automatic fulfilment of the boundary conditions. It allows an easy calculation of the exchange potential as well as an estimation of the introduced approximation. It gives also a possibility of detecting any spurious convergence. Moreover, it is important that this formalism can be applied in the case of normalized as well as unnormalized initial integral equations. This fact is of special importance in the case of long-range interactions. When the method is used for unnormalized (Volterra) equations it allows application of a very convenient projection procedure for treating the long-range terms in the direct potential. Electron-hydrogen atom collisions are investigated as a numerical illustration of the method. In the 1s-2s approximation the normalized equations were solved, while in the 1s-2s-2p approximation the solution was obtained with the help of Volterra equations and the long-range terms of the direct potential were taken into account
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.
2010-01-01
Scalar dispersion in the atmosphere is an important area wherein different approaches are followed in development of good analytical model. The analyses based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes offer an opportunity of model development based on first principles of physics and hence such models have an edge over the existing models. Both forward and backward calculation methods are being developed for atmospheric dispersion around NPPs at BARC Forward modeling methods, which describe the atmospheric transport from sources to receptors, use forward-running transport and dispersion models or computational fluid dynamics models which are run many times, and the resulting dispersion field is compared to observations from multiple sensors. Backward or inverse modeling methods use only one model run in the reverse direction from the receptors to estimate the upwind sources. Inverse modeling methods include adjoint and tangent linear models, Kalman filters, and variational data assimilation, and neural network. The present paper is aimed at developing a new approach where the identified specific signatures at receptor points form the basis for source estimation or inversions. This approach is expected to reduce the large transient data sets to reduced and meaningful data sets. In fact this reduces the inherently transient data set into a time independent mean data set. Forward computation were carried out with CFD code for various case to generate a large set of data to train the ANN. Specific signature analysis was carried out to find the parameters of interest for ANN training like peak concentration, time to reach peak concentration and time to fall, the ANN was trained with data and source strength and location were predicted from ANN. Inverse problem was performed using ANN approach in long range atmospheric dispersion. An illustration of application of CFD code for atmospheric dispersion studies for a hypothetical case is also included in the paper. (author)
Electron scattering and nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, T.W.; Walecka, J.D.
1975-01-01
Electron scattering is treated within the framework of the one-photon exchange approximation. Electron excitation of collective particle-hole states (including the giant dipole resonance) is detailed. The process of quasi-elastic scattering is then discussed within the framework of the Fermi gas model. A brief review is presented of the relationship between electromagnetic interactions and semileptonic weak interactions, stressing the extra knowledge that the electron scattering yields. Finally, a few special topics of interest in intermediate energy physics are examined. 221 references
Scattering from Model Nonspherical Particles Theory and Applications to Environmental Physics
Borghese, Ferdinando; Saija, Rosalba
2007-01-01
The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by nonspherical particles has become an increasingly important research topic over the past 20 years. Instead of handling anisotropic particles of arbitrary shape, the authors consider the more amenable problem of aggregates of spherical particles. This is often a very satisfactory approach as the optical response of nonspherical particles depends more on their general symmetry and the quantity of refractive material than on the precise details of their shape. The book addresses a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from scattering properties of water droplets containing pollutants, atmospheric aerosols and ice crystals to the modeling of cosmic dust grains as aggregates. In this extended second edition the authors have encompassed all the new topics arising from their recent studies of cosmic dust grains. Thus many chapters were deeply revised and new chapters were added. The new material spans The description of the state of polarization of electromagnetic wave...
What Are Electromagnetic Fields?
... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Amaya, N.; Weiss, F.; Schmitt, A.
1991-04-18
An electromagnet, particularly for use in switching valves for the direct control of a fuel injection quantity on fuel injection pumps, has a magnet pot (25) made of soft magnetic material, an annular excitation coil (30) and a magnet armature (29), which is situated with a working air gap in front of the magnet pot (25). To improve the dynamic behaviour of the electromagnet (20), ie: to achieve extremely low switching times with simple manufacture of the magnetic circuit, the magnet pot (25) and/or the magnet armature (29) made as a solid part is provided with an even number of at least four radial slots (41), which pass through the magnet pot (25) or the magnet armature (29) over their whole axial length. Successive radial slots (41a, 41b) extend alternately from the outside or from the inside jacket surface (311 or 321) to near the inside or the outside jacket surface (321 or 311) respectively and end there, always leaving a bar of material (42 or 43).
Project Physics Tests 4, Light and Electromagnetism.
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.
Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 4 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 22 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of light and electromagnetism are examined on charges, reflection, electrostatic forces, electric potential, speed of light, electromagnetic waves and radiations, Oersted's and Faraday's work,…
Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces
Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.
2016-10-01
In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a Lp Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space Lp* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us Lp with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown.
Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.
2016-01-01
In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a L p Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space L p* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us L p with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown. (paper)
Conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational waves in the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crispino, Luis C.B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Higuchi, Atsushi
2011-01-01
Full text: Wave scattering by black holes is a subject that has received much attention in the 1970s, and has been extensively studied since then. Some recent works have been devoted to computing the scalar absorption and scattering cross sections of charged black holes. The presence of a background electromagnetic field leads to a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. To study the propagation of the electromagnetic field in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime, one has to take into account this electromagnetic-gravitational mixing. In this work we compute numerically the absorption cross section of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes for the electromagnetic field for arbitrary frequencies, taking into account the coupling of the electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. We also compute the conversion coefficients of electromagnetic to gravitational waves by scattering from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Pinel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the coherent scattering from random rough layers made up of two uncorrelated random rough surfaces, by considering 2D problems. The results from a rigorous electromagnetic method called PILE (propagation-inside-layer expansion are used as a reference. Also, two asymptotic analytical approaches are presented and compared to the numerical model for comparison. The cases of surfaces with both Gaussian and exponential correlations are studied. This approach is applied to road survey by GPR at nadir.
Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media
Jin, Ya-Qiu
I. Polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery. EM wave propagation and scattering in polarimetric SAR interferometry / S. R. Cloude. Terrain topographic inversion from single-pass polarimetric SAR image data by using polarimetric stokes parameters and morphological algorithm / Y. Q. Jin, L. Luo. Road detection in forested area using polarimetric SAR / G. W. Dong ... [et al.]. Research on some problems about SAR radiometric resolution / G. Dong ... [et al.]. A fast image matching algorithm for remote sensing applications / Z. Q. Hou ... [et al.]. A new algorithm of noised remote sensing image fusion based on steerable filters / X. Kang ... [et al.]. Adaptive noise reduction of InSAR data based on anisotropic diffusion models and their applications to phase unwrapping / C. Wang, X. Gao, H. Zhang -- II. Scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Modeling tools for backscattering from rough surfaces / A. K. Fung, K. S. Chen. Pseudo-nondiffracting beams from rough surface scattering / E. R. Méndez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin. Surface roughness clutter effects in GPR modeling and detection / C. Rappaport. Scattering from rough surfaces with small slopes / M. Saillard, G. Soriano. Polarization and spectral characteristics of radar signals reflected by sea-surface / V. A. Butko, V. A. Khlusov, L. I. Sharygina. Simulation of microwave scattering from wind-driven ocean surfaces / M. Y. Xia ... [et al.]. HF surface wave radar tests at the Eastern China Sea / X. B. Wu ... [et al.] -- III. Electromagnetics of complex materials. Wave propagation in plane-parallel metamaterial and constitutive relations / A. Ishimaru ... [et al.]. Two dimensional periodic approach for the study of left-handed metamaterials / T. M. Grzegorczyk ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of the effective constitutive parameters of a random medium containing small chiral spheres / Y. Nanbu, T. Matsuoka, M. Tateiba. Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media: from the Helmholtz to the Ginzburg -Landau equation / M
Dielectric effects on Thomson scattering in a relativistic magnetized plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindslev, H.
1991-01-01
The effects of the dielectric properties of a relativistic magnetized plasma on the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by fluctuations in electron density are investigated. The origin of the density fluctuations is not considered. Expressions for the scattering cross-section and the scattered...
Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility
1995-01-01
This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E
Introduction to electromagnetic engineering
Harrington, Roger E
2003-01-01
This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr
Robustness of Acoustic Scattering Cancellation to Parameter Variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Guattari
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This contribution aims at investigating the possibility to cloak a spherical object from an acoustic wave by applying the scattering cancellation approach. In electromagnetism, the scattering problem is treated using the Mie expansion technique, through which the scattered field by a spherical object can be represented as a superposition of TE and TM spherical harmonics. It is possible to extend this concept to the acoustic field by defining an analogous approach; the pressure field, generated by an elastic wave impinging on a spherical object, can be expressed applying the Mie expansion technique, as well. In acoustics, to achieve scattering suppression at a given frequency, the constitutive parameters to control are density and compressibility. By varying these parameter values, it is possible to define an engineered material with anomalous properties, which cannot be found in nature, able to reduce the scattering cross-section (SCS from a spherical object. We propose a study about the effectiveness of the SCS reduction from an elastic sphere coated with a properly-designed acoustic metamaterial. The sensitivity of the SCS to parameter variations is analyzed for different coating thicknesses and sphere dimensions. Our analysis is supported by both the analytical modelling of the structure and numerical simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, R D; Robson, R E; Morrison, Michael A; Li, B; Ness, K F
2007-01-01
Controversy has surrounded the determination of the v= 0 → 1 vibrational cross-section for e-H 2 scattering for some thirty years: differences exist between values measured in crossed-beam experiments, which agree well with ab-initio quantum mechanical values, and cross sections derived from swarm experiments. These differences are far larger than the estimated errors associated with all three determinations, which will all remain under something of a cloud until the discrepancy is resolved. Following the suggestion of Buckman et al. [1], research on this problem has recently refocused on the transport theory used to determine cross sections from swarm data. This paper will review the results and implications of this recent research and will present new results on the validity of conventional semi-classical transport theory. We consider approximations used in contemporary solutions of the semi-classical Boltzmann equation including steady-state hydrodynamic assumptions. In addition, we address the validity of the semi-classical Boltzmann equation itself with particular reference to conservation of angular momentum and to the importance of taking into account the essentially fermionic nature of electrons in transport theory
Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe
2011-01-01
When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.