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Sample records for electromagnetic radiations rf-emr

  1. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHZ) Mobile Phones Induces Oxidative Stress and Reduces Sperm Motility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailankot, Maneesh; Kunnath, Anil P; Jayalekshmi, H; Koduru, Bhargav; Valsalan, Rohith

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10–12 weeks old) were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz) mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility. PMID:19578660

  2. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  3. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, B J; Nixon, B; King, B V; De Iuliis, G N; Aitken, R J

    2016-12-01

    Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism. Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced the antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that discussed this phenomenon, whereas consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments. In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production. A continued focus on research, which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  5. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  6. Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on novel object associative recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Lu, Jun-Mei; Xing, Zhen-He; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Hu, Lin-Qi; Xue, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2017-03-17

    Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can influence learning and memory in rodents. In this study, we examined the effects of single exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min on subsequent recognition memory in mice, using the novel object recognition task (NORT). RF-EMR exposure at an intensity of >2.2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) power density induced a significant density-dependent increase in NORT index with no corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity. RF-EMR exposure increased dendritic-spine density and length in hippocampal and prefrontal cortical neurons, as shown by Golgi staining. Whole-cell recordings in acute hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical slices showed that RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the resting membrane potential and action potential frequency, and reduced the action potential half-width, threshold, and onset delay in pyramidal neurons. These results demonstrate that exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min can significantly increase recognition memory in mice, and can change dendritic-spine morphology and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The SAR in this study (3.3 W/kg) was outside the range encountered in normal daily life, and its relevance as a potential therapeutic approach for disorders associated with recognition memory deficits remains to be clarified.

  7. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Caires; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Musso, Camila Manso; Stabler, Collin Turner; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González; Mourão-Júnior, Carlos Alberto; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2014-09-01

    The development of communication systems has brought great social and economic benefits to society. As mobile phone use has become widespread, concerns have emerged regarding the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) used by these devices. To verify potential effects of mobile phone radiation on the central nervous system (CNS) in an animal model. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were exposed to RF-EMR from a Global System for Mobile (GSM) cell phone (1·8 GHz) for 3 days. At the end of the exposure, the following behavioral tests were performed: open field and object recognition. Our results showed that exposed animals did not present anxiety patterns or working memory impairment, but stress behavior actions were observed. Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR does not promote CNS impairment, but suggest that it may lead to stressful behavioral patterns.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  9. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P electromagnetic radiation could not directly induce DNA damage in normal spiral ganglion neurons, but

  10. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Si, Tianlei; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Fuqiang; Wang, Lufeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-08-04

    The decreased reproductive capacity of men is an important factor contributing to infertility. Accumulating evidence has shown that Electromagnetic radiation potentially has negative effects on human health. However, whether radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) affects the human reproductive system still requires further investigation. Therefore, The present study investigates whether RF-EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz can trigger sperm cell apoptosis and affect semen morphology, concentration, and microstructure. Twenty four rats were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation with a special absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. After 50d, the sperm count, morphology, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), representing the sum of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, were investigated. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and genes, including bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. In the present study, the percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased by 91.42% compared with the control group. Moreover, the ROS concentration in exposure group was increased by 46.21%, while the TAC was decreased by 28.01%. Radiation also dramatically decreased the protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased that of bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. RF-EMR increases the ROS level and decreases TAC in rat sperm. Excessive oxidative stress alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and triggers sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  11. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure inside the metro tube infrastructure in Warszawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    Antennas from various wireless communications systems [e.g. mobile phones base transceiver stations (BTS) and handsets used by passengers, public Internet access, staff radiophone transmitters used between engine-drivers and traffic operators] emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) are used inside underground metro public transportation. Frequency-selective exposimetric investigations of RF-EMR exposure inside the metro infrastructure in Warsaw (inside metro cars passing between stations and on platforms) were performed. The statistical parameters of exposure to the E-field were analyzed for each frequency range and for a total value (representing the wide-band result of measurements of complex exposure). The recorded exposimetric profiles showed the dominant RF-EMR sources: handsets and BTS of mobile communication systems (GSM 900 and UMTS 2100) and local wireless Internet access (WiFi 2G). Investigations showed that the GSM 900 system is the dominant source of exposure - BTS (incessantly active) on platforms, and handsets - used by passengers present nearby during the tube drive. The recorded E-field varies between sources (for BTS were: medians - 0.22 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.37 V/m; and for handsets: medians - 0.28 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.47 V/m). Maximum levels (peaks) of exposure recorded from mobile handsets exceeded 10 V/m (upper limit of used exposimeters). Broadband measurements of E-field, including the dominant signal emitted by staff radiophones (151 MHz), showed that the level of this exposure of engine-drivers does not exceed 2.5 V/m.

  12. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. COHERENCE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , COHERENT SCATTERING), (*COHERENT SCATTERING, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), LIGHT, INTERFERENCE, INTENSITY, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS, QUANTUM THEORY, BOSONS, INTERFEROMETERS, CHINA

  14. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Iuliis, Geoffry N; Newey, Rhiannon J; King, Bruce V; Aitken, R John

    2009-07-31

    In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR) from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (PDNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-10

    A methodology is given for determining whether electromagnetic radiation of sufficient strength to cause performance degradation to the test item...exists at the test item location. The results of an electromagnetic radiation effects test are used to identify the radio frequencies and electromagnetic ... radiation levels to which the test item is susceptible. Further, using a test bed, comparisons are made with the representative signal levels to

  16. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  17. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  18. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  19. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  20. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffry N De Iuliis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001. Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications

  1. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  2. Cardiovascular Responses to Electromagnetic Radiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    fatigue. ABSTRACT. Electromagnetic signaling has recently greatly increased due to mobile telephony and computers some of which radiate much and have wide spectra. The radiations are also reflected and thus form standing waves with incoming ones. In cities both the direct and reflected radiations form complex ...

  3. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  4. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  5. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  6. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  7. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  8. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  9. THE GENERATION OF THERMOELASTIC STRESS WAVES BY IMPULSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ABSORPTION), (*STRESSES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), SURFACE PROPERTIES, INTERACTIONS, HEAT TRANSFER, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES, LASERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, SOLIDS

  10. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  11. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, John

    1975-01-01

    Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation covers the theory and experimental application of plasma scattering. The book discusses the basic properties of a plasma and of the interaction of radiation with a plasma; the relationship between the scattered power spectrum and the fluctuations in plasma density; and the incoherent scattering of low-temperature plasma. The text also describes the constraints and problems that arise in the application of scattering as a diagnostic technique; the characteristic performance of various dispersion elements, image dissectors, and detectors; and the ge

  12. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  13. ORDNANCE CORPS VIEWS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION HAZARDS TO WEAPONS SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS, * ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), HAZARDS, ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, ANTENNAS, ATTENUATORS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING, SENSITIVITY, WEAPON SYSTEMS, MODULATION, CIRCUITS, BROADBAND

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  15. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  16. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z.A.A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  17. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  18. Electromagnetic radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation emitted from a laser wakefield accelerator is calculated based on Lienard-Wiechert potentials. It is found that at wavelengths longer than the bunch length, the radiation is coherent. The coherent radiation, which typically lies in the infrared

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation from QCD Matter: Theory Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory developments in electromagnetic radiation from relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Electromagnetic observables can serve as a thermometer, a viscometer, and tomographic probes to the collision system. The current status of the "direct photon flow puzzle" is highlighted.

  20. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  1. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.

    2012-02-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term à la Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle’s rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin (1)/(2) and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation under explicit symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhiraj; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-04-10

    We report our observation that radiation from a system of accelerating charges is possible only when there is explicit breaking of symmetry in the electric field in space within the spatial configuration of the radiating system. Under symmetry breaking, current within an enclosed area around the radiating structure is not conserved at a certain instant of time resulting in radiation in free space. Electromagnetic radiation from dielectric and piezoelectric material based resonators are discussed in this context. Finally, it is argued that symmetry of a resonator of any form can be explicitly broken to create a radiating antenna.

  3. Electromagnetic radiations and cancer. Cause and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R E

    1988-10-15

    The various types of electromagnetic radiation differ considerably in their ability to induce cancer. The potential of radiofrequency or microwave radiation and low-frequency electromagnetic radiation to alter DNA is very limited, because their energy is too low to produce substantial ionizations. They are therefore unlikely to be carcinogenic by any direct mechanism. Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenicity of microwave radiation are basically negative. Studies of workers with relatively high exposures to low-frequency electromagnetic fields have suggested that such persons may be at somewhat elevated risk for leukemia, especially of the acute myeloid type, but the studies have had methodologic weaknesses and mixed results. The association is not proven at this point, but neither can it be ruled out. For ionizing radiation, which is clearly carcinogenic, major questions pertain to how to define the magnitude of risk from low doses and low dose rates, how to identify subgroups of people who are especially susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, and how to minimize radiation exposure. When fortuitous radiation exposure from manmade sources, such as radioactive releases from nuclear power plants, are examined in the context of the total exposure people receive from natural sources, medical irradiation, etc., they are almost always found to be small by comparison. Quantitatively, two sources of radiation provide the greatest opportunities for exposure reduction: abatement of radon levels in homes, and reduction in medical radiation exposures.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  5. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation field of an electron avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Vernon; Cooray, Gerald

    2012-11-01

    Electron avalanches are the main constituent of electrical discharges in the atmosphere. However, the electromagnetic radiation field generated by a single electron avalanche growing in different field configurations has not yet been evaluated in the literature. In this paper, the electromagnetic radiation fields created by electron avalanches were evaluated for electric fields in pointed, co-axial and spherical geometries. The results show that the radiation field has a duration of approximately 1-2 ns, with a rise time in the range of 0.25 ns. The wave-shape takes the form of an initial peak followed by an overshoot in the opposite direction. The electromagnetic spectrum generated by the avalanches has a peak around 109 Hz.

  7. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  8. Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the elect...

  9. Superluminal localized structures of electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, Nikolai N [Research Institute for Laser Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-28

    This paper analyzes localized invariable-form structures of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum and soliton-like light structures traveling superluminally in a nonlinear medium. Both types of structures are concluded to be unstable to small perturbations. (annus mirabilis. methodological notes)

  10. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  11. Stochastic electromagnetic radiation of complex sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2007-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by localized complex electric charge and current distributions is studied. A statistical formalism in terms of general dynamical multipole fields is developed. The appearing coefficients are treated as stochastic variables. Hereby as much as possible a

  12. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

  13. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  14. [Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłowska, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2014-05-08

    Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  15. Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miłowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  16. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  17. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  19. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Buckus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN. The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm2. The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP.

  20. A Technical Approach to the Evaluation of Radiofrequency Radiation Emissions from Mobile Telephony Base Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukčinskienė, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas; Šidlauskienė, Aurelija; Čerkauskienė, Rimantė; Isopescu, Dorina Nicolina; Stabryla, Jan; Cretescu, Igor

    2017-03-01

    During the last two decades, the number of macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas emitting radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in residential areas has increased significantly, and therefore much more attention is being paid to RF EMR and its effects on human health. Scientific field measurements of public exposure to RF EMR (specifically to radio frequency radiation) from macrocell mobile telephony base station antennas and RF electromagnetic field (EMF) intensity parameters in the environment are discussed in this article. The research methodology is applied according to the requirements of safety norms and Lithuanian Standards in English (LST EN). The article presents and analyses RF EMFs generated by mobile telephony base station antennas in areas accessible to the general public. Measurements of the RF electric field strength and RF EMF power density were conducted in the near- and far-fields of the mobile telephony base station antenna. Broadband and frequency-selective measurements were performed outside (on the roof and on the ground) and in a residential area. The tests performed on the roof in front of the mobile telephony base station antennas in the near-field revealed the presence of a dynamic energy interaction within the antenna electric field, which changes rapidly with distance. The RF EMF power density values on the ground at distances of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m from the base station are very low and are scattered within intervals of 0.002 to 0.05 μW/cm². The results were compared with international exposure guidelines (ICNIRP).

  1. Electromagnetic radiation from a rapidly rotating magnetized star in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2016-02-01

    A general formula for the electromagnetic energy radiated by a rapidly rotating magnetic dipole in arbitrary motion is obtained. For a pulsar orbiting in a binary system, it is shown that the electromagnetic radiation produced by the orbital motion is usually weaker than the gravitational radiation, but not entirely negligible for general relativistic corrections.

  2. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is not yet direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. This paper reviews the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  3. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Köhler, M.; Wolf, M.; Schwab, M.; Loidl, A.

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  4. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  5. Method of attenuation of electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, G.P.; Mawdsley, G.E.; Yaffe, M.J.

    1990-05-30

    A method for the protection of matter, including humans, by attenuation of electromagnetic radiation comprises providing the matter with a protective layer of an inorganic composition formed from at least two elements, or compounds thereof, selected from different specified groups. The elements provide complementary attenuation of the radiation, and may be selected to optimize protection against specific energy spectra. The inorganic composition may be in a carrier e.g. a polymer. The method may be used in a variety of ways e.g. in protection of humans from x-rays, gamma rays or other radiation, or in packaging applications, protection of equipment sensitive to radiation or the like. The inorganic composition comprises elements or compounds of Ac, Bi, Au, Pb, Hg, Pu, Po, Pa, Tl, Th and/or U together with elements or compounds of Sb, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cs, La, Pb, In, I, Ag, Te, Sn, W, Au, Ir, Hg, Os, Pt, Re, Ta and/or Tl. (author).

  6. Study of electromagnetic radiation produced by household equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the experimental study of electromagnetic radiation produced by different household equipment. Measurements were performed at various distances from the tested devices and in different operating modes of these, using the FA306 electromagnetic field analyzer. Also, it has been analyzed the cumulative effect of multiple sources. The experiments allowed the identification of measures to minimize the effects of exposure to artificial electromagnetic radiation produced by electrical household equipment.

  7. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  9. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation Reaction in General Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Nuala

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis examines the electromagnetic radiation reaction felt by a charged body falling freely in an external gravitational field in general relativity. The original objective was to find a new derivation of the radiation reaction force F^{i} of DeWitt and DeWitt^1 which was calculated for the special case of a point charge falling in slow motion in a weak, static gravitational field: F ^{i} = {2over 3}e^2R^{i}_{0j0 }v^{j}. This may be thought of as a local expression since it involves the particle's velocity v^{j } and the local Riemann curvature tensor R ^{i}_{0j0}. Its derivation involves integrals over the whole history of the particle, covering distances of approximately the length scale on which R^{i}_{0j0 } changes. This is different from calculations of the Abraham-Lorentz force of flat space-time involving integrals over distances only a few times the size of the charge. This work was motivated by the wish to find a "local" derivation of the local reaction force. Using Schutz's^2 local initial value method to solve the problem of a charged, rigid, spherically symmetric body moving in an external gravitational field of arbitrary metric. Calculations are done in a Riemann normal coordinate system ^3 and are only valid in a normal neighbourhood of the origin, where geodesics have not begun to cross one another. We solve Maxwell's equations for the self -force by making a slow-motion approximation and keeping terms to first order only in the Riemann tensor and velocity. It is surprising that we find no local radiation reaction. Consider two particles in a static spacetime with the same initial conditions at t = 0. Particle A is that of DeWitt and DeWitt; it feels a reaction force F^{i} = {2over 3}e^2R^{i }_{0j0}v^{j}. Particle B is accelerated from rest to the same small velocity; it feels no reaction force. The two particles therefore follow different trajectories. We conclude that there is a

  11. Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

    1991-07-31

    In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

  12. Quadrupole electromagnetic radiation of an oscillating charged droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2017-06-01

    Analytical calculations using the first order of smallness with respect to dimensionless amplitude of oscillations show that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation of a charged droplet is determined by time-dependent quadrupole moment.

  13. Study of interrelation between electromagnetic radiation and rock strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, L. V.; Bespal'ko, A. A.; Fedotov, P. I.; Pomishin, E. K.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the study of the electromagnetic radiation of real rock samples under acoustic impact. The test samples are made of kerns from the iron ore mine with different petrophysical features and strength. The study has shown that the electromagnetic radiation parameters are related to the sample strength. However, this dependence is not observed for samples with magnetite that can be due to individual structural-textural features and quartz inclusions.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation Interface System and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbrecher, Donald H

    2005-01-01

    .... The termination section may comprise an electrical resistance for capturing substantially all the electromagnetic wave energy received by each respective bristle to thereby prevent reflections...

  15. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  17. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Tian, Tian; Xiao, Bo; Li, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The current work examines the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the hemorheology to provide an experimental basis for radiation protection. Electromagnetic radiation was generated by a Helmholtz coil constructed from copper wire. There were six rats altogether: three rats in the experimental group, and three rats in the control group. The rats in the experimental group were continuously exposed to radiation for 10 hours every day, and rats in the control group remained in a normal environment. After 30 days, the characteristics of hemorheology of the two groups were compared. The average plasma viscosity, whole blood high shear velocity, and whole blood low shear viscosity were lower in rats in the experimental group than in rats in the control group, while the whole blood shear viscosity was higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Results suggest that long term exposure to electromagnetic radiation does have certain impacts on the cardiovascular system, deeming it necessary to take preventative measures.

  18. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Mohapatra, Nirupam; John, Pamala; K, Nalini; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure. It also induced apoptosis in the amygdala. RF-EMR exposure altered dendritic arborization pattern in basolateral amygdala but not in the central amygdala. Altered place preference and hyperactivity-like behavior was evident after RF-EMR exposure, but brain caspase-3 activity did not change. RF-EMR exposure perturbed normal cellular architecture of amygdala and this was associated with altered place preference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does the cellphone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debate regarding the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation has been recently raised. The effects of this radiation on locomotor activity are not well known. Hence, in this ... Interestingly, an hour exposure to the cellphone ringing mode did not significantly affect the fly movement speed in the negative geotaxis assay.

  20. The combined method for uncertainty evaluation in electromagnetic radiation measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Aleksandar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation of all frequencies represents one of the most common and fastest growing environmental influence. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of electromagnetic radiation and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. An electronic or electrical product should not generate electromagnetic radiation which may impact the environment. In addition, electromagnetic radiation measurement results need to be accompanied by quantitative statements about their accuracy. This is particularly important when decisions about product specifications are taken. This paper presents an uncertainty budget for disturbance power measurements of the equipment as part of electromagnetic radiation. We propose a model which uses a mixed distribution for uncertainty evaluation. The evaluation of the probability density function for the measurand has been done using the Monte Carlo method and a modified least-squares method (combined method. For illustration, this paper presents mixed distributions of two normal distributions, normal and rectangular, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009 i br. 171007

  1. Electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation by quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic field is calculated. The contributing processes are synchrotron radiation and one--photon annihilation. It is shown that in relativistic heavy--ion collisions at RHIC and LHC synchrotron radiation dominates over the annihilation. Moreover, it constitutes a significant part of all photons produced by the plasma at low transverse momenta; its magnitude depends on the plasma temperature and the magnetic field strength. Electr...

  2. Electromagnetic radiation influence on clinical course of experimental wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronina Е.А.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives close attention to the study of electromagnetic radiation influence (EMR at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide (150 GHz and atmospheric oxygen (129 GHz on the clinical course of experimental wound infection caused by antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Measuring Equipment was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the atmospheric oxygen and nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum structure. The experiments proved the fact that exposure to radiation at the frequency of molecular spectrum absorption and radiation (MSAR of nitric oxide and atmospheric oxygen had positive impact on the course of traumatic process

  3. electromagnetic radiation exposure from cellular base station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    to human health from exposure to radio frequency. (RF) electromagnetic fields ... adverse health effects such as blood brain barrier, cancer and sleep ... restrictions set by ICNIRP as shown in Table 1 [20]. Table 1: Basic restrictions between 10 and 300 GHz. Exposure characteristics. Power density (. 2. /. mW ). Occupational ...

  4. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J; Garcia, M; Perez, C; Valverde, J V; Lopez-Sanchez, C; Garcia-Martinez, V; Quesada, J L

    2009-11-01

    To analyse the possible impact of low and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the outer hairs cells of the organ of Corti, in a guinea pig model. Electromagnetic fields of 50, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 5000 Hz frequencies and 1.5 microT intensity were generated using a transverse electromagnetic wave guide. Guinea pigs of both sexes, weighing 100-150 g, were used, with no abnormalities on general and otic examination. Total exposure times were: 360 hours for 50, 500 and 1000 Hz; 3300 hours for 2000 Hz; 4820 hours for 4000 Hz; and 6420 hours for 5000 Hz. One control animal was used in each frequency group. The parameters measured by electric response audiometer included: hearing level; waves I-IV latencies; wave I-III interpeak latency; and percentage appearance of waves I-III at 90 and 50 dB sound pressure level intensity. Values for the above parameters did not differ significantly, comparing the control animal and the rest of each group. In addition, no significant differences were found between our findings and those of previous studies of normal guinea pigs. Prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields of 50 Hz to 5 KHz frequencies and 1.5 microT intensity, produced no functional or morphological alteration in the outer hair cells of the guinea pig organ of Corti.

  5. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in Jalandhar city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basandrai, D.; Dhami, A. K.; Bedi, R. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Environment pollution from electromagnetic radiations emitted from cell phone towers is a new kind of health hazard, which has increase the public concern regarding the health implications of electromagnetic radiations on humans and animals. Long term consequences of these radiations are still unknown. So it become important to measure and maps the electromagnetic radiation level to analyze potential risk. The present study has been taken to estimate the RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities level near school, hospitals and old age home of Jalandhar City, India. The radiation exposure was measured using a handheld portable electrosmog meter. Results were compared with the safety guidelines issued by ICNIRP (International commission on non ionizing radiation protection) and Bio-initiative report, 2012. It has been found that the radiation exposure level in terms of power densities and corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) are much below than ICNIRP guidelines for all schools, hospitals and old age home. But in the case of 3 schools, the results are quite alarming where the power density and SAR was found to be 79.6% and 4%, respectively higher in comparisons with safe biological limit.

  6. Influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a general helicity-rotation coupling is demonstrated for electromagnetic waves propagating in the field of a slowly rotating body and in the Goedel universe. This coupling leads to differential focusing of circularly polarized radiation by a gravitational field which is detectable for a rapidly rotating collapsed body. The electromagnetic perturbations and their frequency spectrum are given for the Goedel universe. The spectrum of frequencies is bounded from below by the characteristic rotation frequency of the Goedel universe. If the universe were rotating, the differential focusing effect would be extremely small due to the present upper limit on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation.

  7. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Sch?chter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35?C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  8. Non-thermal electromagnetic radiation damage to lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormusov, Elvira; P Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Schächter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-05-21

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35°C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was used to investigate the effects of microwave radiation on the lenses. 58 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into four groups: (1) Control lenses incubated in organ culture for 10 to15 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated with 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwave radiation for 90 cycles of 50 minutes irradiation followed by 10 minutes pause and cultured up to 10 days. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 2 with 192 cycles of radiation and cultured for 15 days. (4) Lenses exposed to 39.5°C for 2 hours 3 times with 24 hours interval after each treatment beginning on the second day of the culture and cultured for 11 days. During the culture period, lens optical quality was followed daily by a computer-operated scanning laser beam. At the end of the culture period, control and treated lenses were analyzed morphologically and by assessment of the lens epithelial ATPase activity. Exposure to 1.1 GHz, 2.22 mW microwaves caused a reversible decrease in lens optical quality accompanied by irreversible morphological and biochemical damage to the lens epithelial cell layer. The effect of the electromagnetic radiation on the lens epithelium was remarkably different from those of conductive heat. The results of this investigation showed that electromagnetic fields from microwave radiation have a negative impact on the eye lens. The lens damage by electromagnetic fields was distinctly different from that caused by conductive heat.

  9. Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    expected that the basis for extrapolation will be refined in future as interactions of electromagnetic fields with the body are better quantified and an...control study of male physiotherapists who may have used shortwave, microwave, infrared and acoustic equipment for therapeutic purposes indicated no...study of female physiotherapists who gave birth to children with malformations suggested that the number of ,.ch children was higher among those who

  10. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  11. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  12. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-01-01

     In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation...

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  14. Radiation pressure and the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    We derive the force of the electromagnetic radiation on material objects by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electro-dynamics. The derivation is straightforward in the case of solid metals and solid dielectrics, where the mass density and the optical constants of the media are assumed to remain unchanged under internal and external pressures, and where material flow and deformation can be ignored. For metallic mirrors, we separate the contribution to the radiation pressure...

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For cellular network Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennas to operate as intended without adverse health effects, they must comply with Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators ...

  16. Electromagnetic radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a charged drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a spherical charged drop are asymptotically analyzed under the conditions of a multimode initial deformation of its equilibrium shape. It is found that if the spectrum of initially excited modes contains two adjacent modes, the translation mode of oscillations is excited among others. In this case, the center of the drop's charge oscillates about the equilibrium position, generating a dipole electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the intensity of this radiation is many orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of the drop's radiation, which arises in calculations of the first order of smallness and is related to the drop's charged surface oscillations.

  17. Cancer and electromagnetic radiation therapy: Quo Vadis?

    CERN Document Server

    Makropoulou, Mersini

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, treating cancer with a beam of photons is a well established therapeutic technique, developed over 100 years, and today over 50% of cancer patients will undergo traditional X-ray radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation therapy is not the only option, as the high-energy photons delivering their cell-killing radiation energy into cancerous tumor can lead to significant damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor, located throughout the beam's path. Therefore, in nowadays, advances in ionizing radiation therapy are competitive to non-ionizing ones, as for example the laser light based therapy, resulting in a synergism that has revolutionized medicine. The use of non-invasive or minimally invasive (e.g. through flexible endoscopes) therapeutic procedures in the management of patients represents a very interesting treatment option. Moreover, as the major breakthrough in cancer management is the individualized patient treatment, new biophotonic techniques, e.g. photo-activated drug carriers, help...

  18. Electromagnetic radiation screening of semiconductor devices for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. C.; Brammer, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    A review is presented of the mechanism of interaction of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges, with various semiconductor device defects. Previous work conducted in this area was analyzed as to its pertinence to the current problem. The task was studied of implementing electromagnetic screening methods in the wavelength region determined to be most effective. Both scanning and flooding type stimulation techniques are discussed. While the scanning technique offers a considerably higher yield of useful information, a preliminary investigation utilizing the flooding approach is first recommended because of the ease of implementation, lower cost and ability to provide go-no-go information in semiconductor screening.

  19. Electrosmog. Effects of electromagnetic radiation. Elektrosmog. Die Wirkung elektromagnetischer Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimtz, G. (Koeln Univ. (Germany)); Maecker, S. (Koeln Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.)

    1994-01-01

    After a detailed explanation of the structure of electromagnetic fields, the authors discuss the mechanisms of interaction which affect biological systems in dependence of the size and frequency of electromagnetic fields. Natural and technical sources of radiation are discussed, as are the physical and physiological fundamentals from which limiting values and other protective measures are derived. The functions of national and international decision-making authorities are outlined, and addresses are given of public institutions in Germany to whom the reader may refer for further information. (orig./MG)

  20. Study on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of discharging excimer laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Duliang; Liang, Xu; Fang, Xiaodong; Wang, Qingsheng

    2016-10-01

    Excimer laser in condition of high voltage, large current and fast discharge will produce strong electromagnetic pulse radiation and electromagnetic interference on the around electrical equipment. The research on characteristics and distribution of excimer laser electromagnetic radiation could provide important basis for electromagnetic shielding and suppressing electromagnetic interference, and further improving the electromagnetic compatibility of system. Firstly, electromagnetic radiation source is analyzed according to the working principle of excimer laser. The key test points of the electromagnetic radiation, hydrogen thyratron, main discharge circuit and laser outlet, are determined by the mechanical structure and the theory of electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, characteristics of electromagnetic field were tested using a near field probe on the key positions of the vertical direction at 20, 50, and 80 cm, respectively. The main radiation frequencies and the radiation field characteristics in the near field are obtained. The experimental results show that the main radiation frequencies distribute in 47, 65, and 130 MHz for electric field and the main radiation frequencies distribute in 34, 100, and 165 MHz for magnetic field. The intensity of electromagnetic field decreases rapidly with the increase of test distance. The higher the frequency increases, the faster the amplitude attenuate. Finally, several electromagnetic interference suppression measurement methods are proposed from the perspective of electromagnetic compatibility according to the test results.

  1. Feed network and electromagnetic radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardavan, Arzhang; Singleton, John; Linehan, Kevin E.; Ardavan, Houshang; Schmidt-Zwiefel, Andrea Caroline

    2017-01-17

    An antenna may include a volume polarization current radiator and a feed network. The volume polarization current radiator, includes a dielectric solid (such as a dielectric strip), and a plurality of closely-spaced excitation elements (24), each excitation element (24) being configured to induce a volume polarization current distribution in the dielectric solid proximate to the excitation element when a voltage is applied to the excitation element. The feed network is coupled to the volume polarization current radiator. The feed network also includes a plurality of passive power divider elements (32) and a plurality of passive delay elements (d1-d6) coupling the first port (30) and the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164), the plurality of power divider elements (32) and the plurality of phase delay elements (d1-d6) being configured such that a radio-frequency signal that is applied to the first port (30) experiences a progressive change of phase as it is coupled to the plurality of second ports (108, 109, 164) so as to cause the volume polarization current distribution to propagate along the dielectric solid.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation in a semi-compact space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yokoo, Sumito

    2018-02-01

    In this note, we investigate the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a revolving point charge in a compact space. If the point charge is circulating with an angular frequency ω0 on the (x , y)-plane at z = 0 with boundary conditions, x ∼ x + 2 πR and y ∼ y + 2 πR, it emits radiation into the z-direction of z ∈ [ - ∞ , + ∞ ]. We find that the radiation shows discontinuities as a function of ω0 R at which a new propagating mode with a different Fourier component appears. For a small radius limit ω0 R ≪ 1, all the Fourier modes except the zero mode on (x , y)-plane are killed, but an effect of squeezing the electric field totally enhances the radiation. In the large volume limit ω0 R → ∞, the energy flux of the radiation reduces to the expected Larmor formula.

  3. Polymers and electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnabel, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation from linearly and nonlinearly oscillating charge drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that analytic calculations of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating charged drop in the approximation linear in the oscillation amplitude (small parameter is on the order of 0.1) give only the quadrupole component of the total radiation. The dipole component can only be obtained in calculations using higher-order approximations. Nevertheless, the intensity of the dipole radiation turns out to be substantially higher (by 14-15 orders of magnitude). This is because the decomposition of radiation from a system of charges into multipole components (differing even in the rates of decrease in the potential with the distance) is carried out using the expansion in a substantially smaller parameter, viz., the ratio of the size of the emitting system (in our case, a drop of radius 10 μm) to the distance to the point of observation in the wave zone of the emission of radiation (emitted wavelength) of 100-1000 m. As a result, this second small parameter is on the order of 10-7 to 10-8. On the other hand, in accordance with the field theory, the ratio of intensities of quadrupole and dipole radiations is proportional to the squared ratio of the hydrodynamic velocity of the oscillating surface of a charged drop to the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic signal in vacuum (velocity of light), which yields a ratio of 10-14 to 10-15.

  5. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  6. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy balance in coherent electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Coisson, R

    1994-01-01

    Bunched charges, as in the 'free electron laser', radiate more energy than unbunched ones. For a better understanding of how the forces between particles determine the conservation of energy, we take the simple model of two charges within a wavelength of a sinusodoidal wave, and show that the relative phase of the particle's motion with respect to the wave is modified by the force between the two particles, and this explains the extra work done by the wave. The phase shift is proportional to the emitted field and depends on the retardation (particle distance divided by speed of light), and turns out to be independent of distance. (author)

  8. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  9. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  10. Multipole charge conservation and implications on electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Ali

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that conserved charges associated with a specific subclass of gauge symmetries of Maxwell electrodynamics are proportional to the well known electric mul-tipole moments. The symmetries are residual gauge transformations surviving the Lorenz gauge, with nontrivial conserved charge at spatial infinity. These "Multipole charges" receive contributions both from the charged matter and electromagnetic fields. The former is nothing but the electric multipole moment of the source. In a stationary configuration, there is a novel equipartition relation between the two contributions. The multipole charge, while conserved, can freely interpolate between the source and the electromagnetic field, and therefore can be propagated with the radiation. Using the multipole charge conservation, we obtain infinite number of constraints over the radiation produced by the dynamics of charged matter.

  11. Gold Nanocluster-Mediated Cellular Death under Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Rius, Anna; Ivask, Angela; Das, Shreya; Penya-Auladell, Nuria; Fabregas, Laura; Fletcher, Nicholas L; Houston, Zachary H; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-11-29

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have become a promising nanomaterial for cancer therapy because of their biocompatibility and fluorescent properties. In this study, the effect of ultrasmall protein-stabilized 2 nm Au NCs on six types of mammalian cells (fibroblasts, B-lymphocytes, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and two types of prostate cancer cells) under electromagnetic radiation is investigated. Cellular association of Au NCs in vitro is concentration-dependent, and Au NCs have low intrinsic toxicity. However, when Au NC-incubated cells are exposed to a 1 GHz electromagnetic field (microwave radiation), cell viability significantly decreases, thus demonstrating that Au NCs exhibit specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity, likely resulting from localized heating. Upon i.v. injection in mice, Au NCs are still present at 24 h post administration. Considering the specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity and low intrinsic toxicity, our work suggests the potential of Au NCs as effective and safe nanomedicines for cancer therapy.

  12. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by Acoustic Excitation of Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, Lyudmila V.; Bespalko, Anatolii A.; Fedotov, Pavel I.; Baksht, Rina B.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents an experiment on acoustic excitation of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals in skarn, sandstone, and magnetite ore samples. For the skarn and sandstone samples, the EMR signal amplitude was observed to decrease with increasing ultimate strength. Supposedly, this effect can be explained by assuming that EMR is generated when an acoustic wave propagates through an electrical double layer. The presence of piezoelectric inclusions ( e.g., quartz) in the magnetite ore enhances the analog EMR signal and its spectral components.

  14. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Froes Meyer; Oscar Ariel Ronzio; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Sebastiao David Santos-Filho; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light) and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves) have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were...

  15. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    unclassified ~ .~~~I4 I~~I~O Security CIas,iac.tioft A - 1140S BiOLOGiCA L. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION A Digest of Current Lite rature and a... arma , il. M . (Em — The control was heated to the same temperature. Environ. F.ng. Sci., Howard Univ., Washington , B. C.) Both samples were then

  16. Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2017-11-01

    The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.

  17. Phase Transition in the Process of Formation of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, V. P.; Vaiman, E. V.; Prasath, A.

    2017-04-01

    A new look at the description of the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave radiation as a phase transition of a quasi-static field state (near zone) in the field of running wave (far zone) is suggested. It is demonstrated that the boundary of this transition, called the causal surface, is sufficiently localized. The position of the causal surface depends on the chosen radiation frequency. The skin layer in media with strong absorption is formed at the boundary of the causal surface, and this can be used for depth sensing of such media.

  18. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  19. BATHYMETRIC SOUNDING by REMOTE SENSING Using ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel modus operandi to survey the ocean floor. We utilize the eruption of submarine volcanoes as a light source. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by such eruptions illuminate the ocean floor and thus provides information about the barythmetric topology, and a geostationary satellite can monitor this. Since the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation is many orders of magnitude shorter than that of the acoustic wave, finer details of the bathymetric features can be obtained. We show that a topographical representation of the seabed can be derived from the Signal Diagram by a simple transformation (a mirror reflection. In this case the radiation is emitted by water molecules stimulated by the heat of the volcanic eruption, in contradistinction to the case of tsunami radiation, where the water molecules are stimulated by mutual collisions at high speed. We give two examples: Illapel, Chile and Chichi-shima, Japan. We have also shown that water molecules in the ocean, when stimulated by the heat of submarine volcanic eruption, will emit infrared radiation

  20. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light-matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  2. [Influence of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiev, G A; Babaev, E I; Topchieva, Sh A; Chumburidze, T B; Nemsitsveridze, N G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom. It was found that mice intoxicated with snake venom, with moderate to high exposure to electromagnetic radiation and mice intoxicated with venom, which had not been exposed to the radiation showed the same symptoms of intoxication and death. At the same time, the longevity of mice intoxicated with venom exposed to electromagnetic radiation was higher. The longevity of mice in control group was 25+/-5 min. The longevity of mice intoxicated with exposed to electromagnetic radiation snake venom was from 29 to 60 min. The research showed that the longevity of mice intoxicated with snake venom rose with the level of electromagnetic radiation intensity the snake was exposed to. Accordingly, snake venom, with exposure to high intensity electromagnetic radiation is less toxic.

  3. Human reactions to electromagnetic radiation in millimeter range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, E.A.; Belyy, M.U.; Sit' ko, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The article deals with a problem that is on the boundary of different disciplines. The authors discovered previously unknown effects of low-energy electromagnetic radiation on the human body. A total of 188 subjects, both healthy and sick in terms of medical diagnosis, were submitted to sensory tests. The vast majority of healthy subjects did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz and power density of up to 10 mW/cm/sup 2/. The same situation was also observed in many cases with patients. However, exposure of very specific parts of the body of sick subjects to electromagnetic waves at a fixed frequency in the range of 45-65 GHz elicited a sensory reaction in the region of the organ with a marked impairment, and this was an organ that was spatially remote from the irradiated region. It was established that the zones on the surface of the body that are the most sensitive to radiation coincide with acupuncture zones that are known in reflex acupuncture therapy. In addition to presentation of experimental results, the authors also propose a theoretical interpretation of the demonstrated effects.

  4. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Radiation with MPI-CUDA Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bing; Tang, Long; Xie, Jiang; Wang, XiaoWei; Song, AnPing

    2015-01-01

    Using parallel computation can enhance the performance of numerical simulation of electromagnetic radiation and get great runtime reduction. We simulate the electromagnetic radiation calculation based on the multicore CPU and GPU Parallel Architecture Clusters by using MPI-OpenMP and MPI-CUDA hybrid parallel algorithm. This is an effective solution comparing to the traditional finite-difference time-domain method which has a shortage in the calculation of the electromagnetic radiation on the ...

  5. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-01-01

     In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference ...

  6. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  7. Two-Dimensional Electron System in Electromagnetic Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Radu Paul; Manolescu, Andrei

    We consider a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a monochromatic linear polarized electromagnetic field, within the Floquet formalism. The Floquet states have a simple relation with the energy eigenstates in the absence of the field. Therefore the single-particle and the two-particle Green functions of the many-body system with Coulomb interactions, in the radiation field, can be formally calculated by the standard diagrammatic techniques, as for the conservative system. We derive the elementary excitations of quasi-particle type, the plasma dispersion relation, and the ground state quasi-energy, and we relate them to the corresponding results for the conservative system.

  8. Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Supercritical Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Shabad, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is pointed, that effects of refraction of electromagnetic radiation in the medium, formed by the magnetized vacuum, become essential already for relatively soft photons, not hard enough to create an electron-positron pair, including those belonging to soft gamma-, X-ray, optic and radio- range, if the magnetic field B exceeds the critical value of Bcr=m^2/e=4.4 10^13 Gauss. Three leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the one-loop polarization operator in a constant magnetic field ar...

  9. Specific Electromagnetic Effects of Microwave Radiation on Escherichia coli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shamis, Yury; Taube, Alex; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Croft, Rodney; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation applied under a sublethal temperature on Escherichia coli. The experiments were conducted at a frequency of 18 GHz and at a temperature below 40°C to avoid the thermal degradation of bacterial cells during exposure. The absorbed power was calculated to be 1,500 kW/m3, and the electric field was determined to be 300 V/m. Both values were theoretically confirmed using CST Microwave Studio 3D Electromagnetic Simulation Softwa...

  10. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation from gravitational waves generated by neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; Gretarsson, Andri; Singleton, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation produced from the vacuum by gravitational waves. We review the calculations leading to the possibility of vacuum conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic waves and show how this process evades the well-known prohibition against particle production from gravitational waves. Using Newman-Penrose scalars, we estimate the luminosity of this proposed electromagnetic counterpart radiation coming from gravitational waves produced by neutron star oscillations. The detection of electromagnetic counterpart radiation would provide an indirect way of observing gravitational radiation with future spacecraft missions, especially lunar orbiting probes.

  11. Radiation Bandwidth Improvement of Electromagnetic Band Gap Cavity Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Abdelhalim; Djahli, Farid; Attia, Hussein; Denidni, Tayeb. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an electromagnetic band gap cavity antenna with improved radiation and impedance bandwidths is presented. The proposed antenna is constructed by placing a triple-layer heterogeneous printed-unprinted partially reflective surface (PRS) above a primary aperture-coupled patch antenna. The PRS unit-cell provides a positive gradient reflection phase behavior over the desired frequency range. A prototype antenna is fabricated and measured that highlighted its ability to achieve 3-dB gain bandwidth of about 35.9 %, from 7.93 GHz to 11.4 GHz, with a peak gain of 14.25 dBi at 8.5 GHz. In addition, the impedance bandwidth is 40.32 %, from 7.9 GHz to 11.89 GHz. Thus, the designed antenna outperforms many other competitors for improving the radiation bandwidth of planar antennas with the same presented concept.

  12. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Smith, D. A.; LeVine, D. M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphological difference between the electromagnetic radiation-field waveforms of "first" and "subsequent" return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes is well known and can be used to identify the formation of new channels to ground. This difference is generally believed due to the existence of branches on first-stroke channels, whereas subsequent strokes re-illuminate only the main channel of a previous stroke; but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is relatively weak. It has been argued for the influence of channel geometry on the fine structure of radiation from subsequent return strokes by comparing the field-change waveforms recorded at the same station from strokes within the same flash and between different flashes of both natural and triggered lightning. The present paper introduces new evidence for both of these hypotheses from a comparison of waveforms between sensors in different directions from the same stroke.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency.

  14. Radiation pressure and the linear momentum of the electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2013-01-01

    We derive the force of the electromagnetic radiation on material objects by a direct application of the Lorentz law of classical electro-dynamics. The derivation is straightforward in the case of solid metals and solid dielectrics, where the mass density and the optical constants of the media are assumed to remain unchanged under internal and external pressures, and where material flow and deformation can be ignored. For metallic mirrors, we separate the contribution to the radiation pressure of the electrical charge density from that of the current density of the conduction electrons. In the case of dielectric media, we examine the forces experienced by bound charges and currents, and determine the contribution of each to the radiation pressure. These analyses reveal the existence of a lateral radiation pressure inside the dielectric media, one that is exerted at and around the edges of a finite-diameter light beam. The lateral pressure turns out to be compressive for s-polarized light and expansive for p-po...

  15. Electromagnetic induction and radiation-induced abnormality of wave propagation in excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wu, Fuqiang; Hayat, Tasawar; Zhou, Ping; Tang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Continuous wave emitting from sinus node of the heart plays an important role in wave propagating among cardiac tissue, while the heart beating can be terminated when the target wave is broken into turbulent states by electromagnetic radiation. In this investigation, local periodical forcing is applied on the media to induce continuous target wave in the improved cardiac model, which the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered by using magnetic flux, then external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the media. It is found that target wave propagation can be blocked to stand in a local area and the excitability of media is suppressed to approach quiescent but homogeneous state when electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the media. The sampled time series for membrane potentials decrease to quiescent state due to the electromagnetic radiation. It could accounts for the mechanism of abnormality in heart failure exposed to continuous electromagnetic field.

  16. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus Raimondas; Strukcinskiene Birute; Raistenskis Juozas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the...

  17. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  18. Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Apertures: II. Oblique Incidence on the Slotted Plane for Parallel Polarization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is the second in a series of investigations into the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by apertures in conducting screens. Herein...is presented a technique for obtaining the fields everywhere for plane electromagnetic radiation incident obliquely on a slotted conducting plane. The

  19. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  20. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, R.; van Hees, H.

    2016-08-01

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator ( ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes.

  1. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Hees, H. van [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator (ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to (a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and (b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes. (orig.)

  2. Electromagnetic radiation trapped in the magnetosphere above the plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electromagnetic noise band is frequently observed in the outer magnetosphere by the Imp 6 spacecraft at frequencies from about 5 to 20 kHz. This noise band generally extends throughout the region from near the plasmapause boundary to near the magnetopause boundary. The noise typically has a broadband field strength of about 5 microvolts/meter. The noise band often has a sharp lower cutoff frequency at about 5 to 10 kHz, and this cutoff has been identified as the local electron plasma frequency. Since the plasma frequency in the plasmasphere and solar wind is usually above 20 kHz, it is concluded that this noise must be trapped in the low-density region between the plasmapause and magnetopause boundaries. The noise bands often contain a harmonic frequency structure which suggests that the radiation is associated with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.

  3. Warning Method of Coal Bursting Failure Danger by Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (EMR can reflect the stress state and deformation level of coal, yet its warning indexes correlated with coal properties and roof caving is poorly understood. The laboratory observations of EMR effects of coal samples bursting failure and in situ investigations in the process of roof caving are presented in this paper. EMR peak with increasing stress is discussed when the failure of coal samples happens, which provides an explanation to EMR signals positively correlated well with the stress loaded. The linearly increasing relation is also found between EMR intensity and the uniaxial compressive strength, and EMR maximum amplitudes and pulses behave a logarithmic accretion tendency with bursting energy indexes of coal. By in situ investigations, it is well found that EMR amplitude can effectively warn coal deformation and failure based on the critical value 120 mV proposed from experiments.

  4. A metasurface for conversion of electromagnetic radiation to DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Badawe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a metasurface electromagnetic energy harvester based on electrically small resonators. An array of 8× 8 cross resonators was designed to operate at 3GHz. Unlike earlier designs of metasurface harvesters where each resonator was connected to a single rectifier or load, in this work the received power by all resonators is channeled to a single rectifier which in turn channels the DC energy to a single 50Ω resistive load. The critical advantage of the proposed structure is maximizing power density per diode which maximizes the diode turn-on time. We show through simulation and measurements that the proposed metasurface harvester provides Radiation to DC conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  5. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  6. The Characteristics of Frequency Spectrum of Radiated Electromagnetic Waves with AC Discharge Progress in Liquid Nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.S.; Yoon, D.H.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, K.S. [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea); Lee, H.D. [LG Industrial Systems Co., Ltd., Cheongju (Korea); Kim, C.M. [Kyungwoon University, Kumi (Korea); Choi, B.J. [Sorabol College, Gyeongju (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, a relationship between AC discharge progress and the radiated electromagnetic waves was investigated by measuring electromagnetic waves using a biconical antenna and a spectrum analyzer. The frequency spectrum of the radiated electromagnetic waves were measured at the atmospheric pressure in liquid nitrogen(LN{sub 2}) during partial discharges progressed by AC high voltage in nonuniform electric field. From the results of this study, a new method was introduced for measurement and analysis of the radiated electromagnetic waves with discharge progress in LN{sub 2}. Besides, according to the consideration of the mutual relation between frequency spectrum of the radiated electromagnetic waves and discharge progress, it was confirmed that detecting partial discharge and estimating discharge progress could be possible. It is considered that these results obtained from this investigation may be used as fundamental data for diagnosis and prediction of electric insulations about superconducting and cryogenic power equipments. (author). 14 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Rotation invariance of electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic particles in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, M N

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic particles in arbitrary planar magnetic field (in undulator for example). Magnetic system producing this field is assumed to be planar consisting of permanent magnets. It is shown that there is a special class of magnetic moment rotations in such system while magnetic field is varying but spontaneous radiation spectrum generated by relativistic particles remains the same. This property of electromagnetic radiation can be used in designing new undulators.

  8. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  9. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on health and immune function of operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-zhong; Chen, Shao-hua; Zhao, Ke-fu; Gui, Yun; Fang, Si-xin; Xu, Ying; Ma, Zi-jian

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the physiological indices and immune function of operators. The general conditions and electromagnetic radiation awareness rate of 205 operators under electromagnetic radiation were evaluated using a self-designed questionnaire. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and routine urine test were performed in these operators. Peripheral blood was collected from the operators under electromagnetic radiation for blood cell counting and biochemical testing, and their peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for determination of chromosomal aberrant frequency and micronucleus frequency. The data from these operators (exposure group) were compared with those of 95 ordinary individuals (control group). The chief complaint of giddiness, tiredness, dizziness, and amnesia showed significant differences between the exposure group and control group (P electromagnetic radiation damage was significantly higher in the exposure group than in the control group. The difference in bradycardia was significant between the two groups (P Electromagnetic radiation may lead to the changes in physiological indices, genetic effects, and immune function and affect the health and immune function in operators. The adverse effects are increased as the working years increase. So it is important to strengthen occupational protection of operators under electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Living Organisms Coupling to Electromagnetic Radiation Below Thermal Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Freund, Friedemann

    2013-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation is part of the natural environment. Prior to major earthquakes the local ULF and global ELF radiation field is often markedly perturbed. This has detrimental effects on living organisms. We are studying the mechanism of these effects on the biochemical, cellular and organismal levels. The transfer of electrons along the Electron Transfer Chain (ETC) controls the universal reduction-oxidation reactions that are essential for fundamental biochemical processes in living cells. In order for these processes to work properly, the ETC has to maintain some form of synchronization, or coherence with all biochemical reactions in the living cells, including energy production, RNA transcription, and DNA replication. As a consequence of this synchronization, harmful chemical conflict between the reductive and the oxidative partial reactions can be minimized or avoided. At the same time we note that the synchronization allows for a transfer of energy, coherent or interfering, via coupling to the natural ambient EM field. Extremely weak high frequency EM fields, well below the thermal noise level, tuned in frequency to the electron spins of certain steps in the ETC, have already been shown to cause aberrant cell growth and disorientation among plants and animals with respect to the magnetic and gravity vectors. We investigate EM fields over a much wider frequency range, including ULF known to be generated deep in the Earth prior to major earthquakes locally, and ELF known to be fed by lightning discharges, traveling around the globe in the cavity formed between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. This ULF/ELF radiation can control the timing of the biochemical redox cycle and thereby have a universal effect on physiology of organisms. The timing can even have a detrimental influence, via increased oxidative damage, on the DNA replication, which controls heredity.

  11. Specific electromagnetic effects of microwave radiation on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamis, Yury; Taube, Alex; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Croft, Rodney; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of microwave (MW) radiation applied under a sublethal temperature on Escherichia coli. The experiments were conducted at a frequency of 18 GHz and at a temperature below 40°C to avoid the thermal degradation of bacterial cells during exposure. The absorbed power was calculated to be 1,500 kW/m(3), and the electric field was determined to be 300 V/m. Both values were theoretically confirmed using CST Microwave Studio 3D Electromagnetic Simulation Software. As a negative control, E. coli cells were also thermally heated to temperatures up to 40°C using Peltier plate heating. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis performed immediately after MW exposure revealed that the E. coli cells exhibited a cell morphology significantly different from that of the negative controls. This MW effect, however, appeared to be temporary, as following a further 10-min elapsed period, the cell morphology appeared to revert to a state that was identical to that of the untreated controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed that fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran (150 kDa) was taken up by the MW-treated cells, suggesting that pores had formed within the cell membrane. Cell viability experiments revealed that the MW treatment was not bactericidal, since 88% of the cells were recovered after radiation. It is proposed that one of the effects of exposing E. coli cells to MW radiation under sublethal temperature conditions is that the cell surface undergoes a modification that is electrokinetic in nature, resulting in a reversible MW-induced poration of the cell membrane.

  12. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  13. A Route to Chaotic Behavior of Single Neuron Exposed to External Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peihua; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2017-01-01

    Non-linear behaviors of a single neuron described by Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model, with external electromagnetic radiation considered, is investigated. It is discovered that with external electromagnetic radiation in form of a cosine function, the mode selection of membrane potential occurs among periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions as increasing the frequency of external transmembrane current, which is selected as a sinusoidal function. When the frequency is small or large enough, periodic, and quasi-periodic motions are captured alternatively. Otherwise, when frequency is in interval 0.778 electromagnetic radiation. The frequency apparently plays a more important role in determining the system behavior.

  14. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  15. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  16. [Fundamentally new electromagnetic pollution and the lack of adequate regulatory framework--on the risk assessment (analysis of modern domestic and foreign data)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, Yu G

    2014-01-01

    On the base of the study of the numerous experimental and epidemiological studies electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of mobile communications were found to adversely affect on the health of the population. Analysis of the influence of radio frequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones (MPs) on the brain of users showed that this organ body is most exposed to this radiation, especially in children. As a result of the performed research there were recorded functional changes in children--MPs users: undue fatiguability (39.7%), decreased performance in the school and at home (50.7%), weakening of the stability of voluntary attention (productivity--14.3%, accuracy 19.4%) and semantic memory (accuracy--19.4% increase in the time--30.1%). In addition, a marked change in the rate of auditory- motor response (55.5%), and disturbances of phonemic perception have been noted. The existing legal framework on the influence of EMR on human health was shown not fully to meet the hygiene requirements in connection with the absence of her normative parameters which determine the impact of complicately modulated radiation from MPs and base stations. The need for additional research on the influence of the modulated RF EMR on the human body and creation of a regulatory framework taking into account the sum of biological effects, especially on the critical organ of human--brain is substantiated by the author. When creating a regulatory framework it must be taken into account the scientific beliefs on the possible development of long-term brain pathologies under the combined effect of EMF, especially in children.

  17. Remarks on the Radiative Transfer Approach to Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RY-HS-TR-2010-0029 REMARKS ON THE RADIATIVE TRANSFER APPROACH TO SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN LAYERED RANDOM MEDIA...TRANSFER APPROACH TO SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN LAYERED RANDOM MEDIA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Beckmann and A. Spizzichino. The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces. Artech House, Norwood, Massachusetts, 1987. [3] G. S. Brown. A

  18. Channeling and electromagnetic radiation of relativistic charged particles in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevago, N. K.; Glebov, V. I.

    2017-06-01

    We have developed the theory of electromagnetic interaction of relativistic charged particles with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The electrostatic potential and electron number density distribution in MOFs were calculated using the most accurate data for the atomic form factors. Peculiarities of axial channeling of fast charged particles and various types of electromagnetic radiation from relativistic particles has been discussed.

  19. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were exposed to these physical agents and 0.9% NaCl (negative control and SnCl2 (positive control solutions. Aliquots of the cultures were diluted and spread onto a solidified rich medium. The colony-forming units were counted after overnight incubation and the survival fraction was calculated. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to visualise and quantify the plasmid topological forms. The results suggest that these agents do not alter the survival of E. coli cells or plasmid DNA electrophoresis mobility. Moreover, they do not protect against the lesive action of SnCl2. These physical agents therefore had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects under the conditions studied.

  20. Changes in Frequency of Electromagnetic Radiation from Loaded Coal Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dazhao; Wang, Enyuan; Song, Xiaoyan; Jin, Peijian; Qiu, Liming

    2016-01-01

    To understand the relationship between the frequency of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from loaded coal rock and the micro-crack structures inside it, and assess the stress state and the stability of coal rock by analyzing frequency changes in characteristics of its emitted EMR, we first experimentally studied the changes in time sequence and the frequency spectrum characteristics of EMR during uniaxial compression, then theoretically derived the relationship between the principal frequency of EMR signals and the mechanical parameters of coal crack and analyzed the major factors causing the changes in the principal frequency, and lastly verified the results at Nuodong Coal Mine, Guizhou Province, China. The experimental results showed that (1) EMR intensity increased with the applied stress on loaded coal rock during its deformation and failure and could qualitatively reflect the coal's stress status; (2) with the applied stress increasing, the principal frequency gradually increased from near zero to about 60 kHz and then dropped to less than 20 kHz. During this period, coal rock first stepped into the linearly and elastically deformed stage and then ruptured around the peak load. Theoretical analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between the principle frequency and the size of internal cracks. Field detection showed that a lower principle frequency was generated from coal rock applied by a greater load, while a higher principal frequency was generated from coal rocks suffering a weaker load.

  1. The effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, Ayper; Emre, Mustafa; Sertdemir, Yasar; Akillioglu, Kubra; Binokay, Secil; Demirhan, Osman

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) and nicotine sulfate (NS) exposure on Xenopus embryonic development.The developmental effects of GSM-like RF-EMR (900-1800 MHz, at a SAR value of 1W/kg and NS on Xenopus laevis embryos were investigated). Following the application of radiofrequency radiation and/or NS administration, the embryos were closely examined in order to determine their possible teratogenic effects. Xenopus frogs obtained from the Department of Physiology of the Cukurova University, in accordance described by the Standard Guide of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Following the exposure of Xenopus embryos to RF-EMR at 900 and 1800 MHz (1.0W/kg) for 4, 6 and 8h; the whole body specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of the embryos was calculated. With the exception of irradiation at 1800 MHz no dramatic developmental anomalies were observed in the Xenopus embryos in association with RF-EMR applications. Combined RF-EMR and NS applications resulted in dramatic abnormalities and death among the Xenopus embryos. The study results indicated that GSM-like RF-EMR (e.g. radiation from cell phones) was not as harmful to Xenopus embryos as might have been expected. However, the combined effects of GSM-like RF-EMR and NS on Xenopus embryos were more severe than the effect of RF-EMR or NS alone. In conclusion, the study results appear to suggest that the combined use of nicotine and cell phones might result in more pronounced detrimental effects on the health of smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of electromagnetic radiation on discharge activity of neurons in the hippocampus CA1 in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Chen, Su; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Hao, Dong-Mei

    2013-09-01

    In order to explore effect of electromagnetic radiation on learning and memory ability of hippocampus neuron in rats, the changes in discharge patterns and overall electrical activity of hippocampus neuron after electromagnetic radiation were observed. Rat neurons discharge was recorded with glass electrode extracellular recording technology and a polygraph respectively. Radiation frequency of electromagnetic wave was 900 MHZ and the power was 10 W/m2. In glass electrode extracellular recording, the rats were separately irradiated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min, every points repeated 10 times and updated interval of 1h, observing the changes in neuron discharge and spontaneous discharge patterns after electromagnetic radiation. In polygraph recording experiments, irradiation group rats for five days a week, 6 hours per day, repeatedly for 10 weeks, memory electrical changes in control group and irradiation group rats when they were feeding were repeatedly monitored by the implanted electrodes, observing the changes in peak electric digits and the largest amplitude in hippocampal CA1 area, and taking some electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence for correlation analysis. (1) Electromagnetic radiation had an inhibitory role on discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons. After electromagnetic radiation, discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons was reduced, but the changes in scale was not obvious. (2) Electromagnetic radiation might change the spontaneous discharge patterns of hippocampus CA1 region neurons, which made the explosive discharge pattern increased obviously. (3) Peak potential total number within 5 min in irradiation group was significantly reduced, the largest amplitude was less than that of control group. (4) Using mathematical method to make the correlation analysis of the electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence, that of irradiation group was less than that of control group, indicating that there was a tending

  3. Computational Electromagnetic Studies for Low-Frequency Compensation of the Reflector Impulse-radiating Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    realized as constant- angular structures, such as biconical and bowtie antennas . Inevitably, the ge- ometry must be truncated at some point, so physical...COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC STUDIES FOR LOW-FREQUENCY COMPENSATION OF THE REFLECTOR IMPULSE-RADIATING ANTENNA THESIS Casey E. Fillmore, Capt, USAF...ELECTROMAGNETIC STUDIES FOR LOW-FREQUENCY COMPENSATION OF THE REFLECTOR IMPULSE-RADIATING ANTENNA THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and

  4. Electromagnetic crystal based terahertz thermal radiators and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziran

    This dissertation presents the investigation of thermal radiation from three-dimensional electromagnetic crystals (EMXT), as well as the development of a THz rapid prototyping fabrication technique and its application in THz EMXT components and micro-system fabrication and integration. First, it is proposed that thermal radiation from a 3-D EMXT would be greatly enhanced at the band gap edge frequency due to the redistribution of photon density of states (DOS) within the crystal. A THz thermal radiator could thus be built upon a THz EMXT by utilizing the exceptional emission peak(s) around its band gap frequency. The thermal radiation enhancement effects of various THz EMXT including both silicon and tungsten woodpile structures (WPS) and cubic photonic cavity (CPC) array are explored. The DOS of all three structures are calculated, and their thermal radiation intensities are predicted using Planck's Equation. These calculations show that the DOS of the silicon and tungsten WPS can be enhanced by a factor of 11.8 around 364 GHz and 2.6 around 406 GHz respectively, in comparison to the normal blackbody radiation at same frequencies. An enhancement factor of more than 100 is obtained in calculation from the CPC array. A silicon WPS with a band gap around 200 GHz has been designed and fabricated. Thermal emissivity of the silicon WPS sample is measured with a control blackbody as reference. And enhancements of the emission from the WPS over the control blackbody are observed at several frequencies quite consistent with the theoretical predictions. Second, the practical challenge of THz EMXT component and system fabrication is met by a THz rapid prototyping technique developed by us. Using this technique, the fabrications of several EMXTs with 3D electromagnetic band gaps in the 100-400 GHz range are demonstrated. Characterization of the samples via THz Time-domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) shows very good agreement with simulation, confirming the build accuracy of this

  5. Methods of evaluating human exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated from operating base stations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chan; Choi, Hyung-Do; Park, Seong-Ook

    2008-10-01

    This article presents measurement methods used to determine the human exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated from operating base stations. In Korea, when evaluating the human exposure to electromagnetic fields from operating base stations, the measurement procedure is different between the following cases: in situ measurement and electromagnetic environment measurement. When performing an in situ measurement, compliance with human exposure limits is determined by the spatially averaged field value obtained within the space occupied by humans at one arbitrary position, but when performing an electromagnetic environment measurement, it is determined by the maximum value at the highest field position selected from several places.

  6. Expanding the use of real-time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Kupelian, Patrick A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Meeks, Sanford L

    2011-11-15

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter- and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery.

  7. PWO crystals for CMS electromagnetic calorimeter studies of the radiation damage kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Drobychev, G Yu; Dormenev, V; Korzhik, M; Lecoq, P; Lopatic, A; Nédélec, P; Peigneux, J P; Sillou, D

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of radiation damage of the PWO crystals under irradiation and recovery were studied. Crystals were irradiated with dose corresponding to average one expected in the electromagnetic calorimeter (working dose irradiation). Radiation damage and recovery were monitored through measurements of PWO optical transmission. An approach is proposed which allows evaluating the influence of the PWO crystals properties on the statistical term in the energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The analysis also gives important information about the nature of the radiation damage mechanism in scintillation crystals. The method was used during development of technology of the mass production of radiation hard crystals and during development of methods for crystals certification

  8. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation related to dislocation dynamics in a seismic preparation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ernst

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic emission is observed frequently before earthquakes as high noise level in VLF and ULF bands. We present theoretical considerations on electromagnetic radiation caused by dislocation dynamics in the preseismic micro-sources (micro-crackings located in an earthquake preparation zone. Some of these micro-sources could be located near the ground surface and their electromagnetic signals could be accesible in some recording stations. The examples of the numerically simulated induction and radiation fields are given and one example of the observed radio-noise recording is shown.

  10. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in rats hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hong-yan; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Shui-ming; Gao, Ya-bing; Xu, Xin-ping; Ma, Jun-Jie

    2009-05-01

    To study the development of changes for signaling molecules related to Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in hippocampus of rats after electromagnetic radiation, and investigate the mechanisms of radiation injury. Rats were exposed to X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP radiation source respectively, and animal model of electromagnetic radiation was established. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Raf-1, phosphorylated Raf-1 and phospholylated ERK. The expression of Raf-1 down-regulated during 6 h-14 d after radiation, most significantly at 7 d, and recovered at 28 d. There was no significant difference between the radiation groups. The expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 and phosphorylated ERK both up-regulated at 6 h and 7 d after radiation, more significantly at 6 h, and the two microwave groups were more serious for phosphorylated ERK. During 6 h-14 d after S-HPM radiation, the expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 increased continuously, but phosphorylated ERK changed wavily, 6 h and 7 d were expression peak. Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway participates in the hippocampus injury induced by electromagnetic radiation. The excessive activation of ERK pathway may result in the apoptosis and death of neurons, which is the important mechanism of recognition disfunction caused by electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Electromagnetic Radiation Influence With Molecular Spectrum Absorption and Nitric Oxide Radiation Frequency on Superoxide Dismutase Bacteria Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shub

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of superoxide dismutase activity level under the influence of electromagnetic radiation with spectrum absorption and nitric oxide radiation frequency in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been described. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Saratov Central Scientific Research Institute of Measuring Equipment Public Corporation has been used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies stimulated in this complex imitate the structure of molecular spectrum absorption and nitric oxide radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase has been detected. The most significant changes have been observed under 45 and 60-minute exposition.

  12. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  13. Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Introductory concepts Notation, conventions, and symbology The field concept of electromagneticsThe sources of the electromagnetic field Problems Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism The postulate Maxwell's equations in moving frames The Maxwell-Boffi equations Large-scale form of Maxwell's equationsThe nature of the four field quantities Maxwell's equations with magnetic sources Boundary (jump) conditions Fundamental theorems The wave nature of the electromagnetic field ProblemsThe static electromagnetic field Static fields and steady currents ElectrostaticsMagnetostatics Static field theorem

  14. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  16. Explicit symmetry breaking in electrodynamic systems and electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.

  17. [Fluorescence used to investigate the sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gang; Yang, Yun-Jing; Lu, Hong

    2009-07-01

    A system for studying biological effect of radio frequency electromagnetic field was developed. The system can form an area where electromagnetic wave with large frequency range is well distributed. The strength of electromagnetic wave was measured easily. Electromagnetic wave in the system did not have effect on environment. The sensitivity of spinach chloroplast membrane to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of 300 MHz under power density of 5 mW x cm(-2) was studied by the spectral analysis method of fluorescence of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) and the changes in chlorophyll a (Chla) fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane. The result showed that the position of spectrum of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane did not change, but the intensity of ANS fluorescence was obviously increased under the action of electromagnetic radiation with power density of 1-5 mW x cm(-2). There was an increase in the intensity of ANS fluorescence with the increase in electromagnetic radiation. The increase of ANS fluorescence of spinach chloroplast membrane showed that low level electromagnetic field induced the decrease in fluidity of chloroplast membrane compared with control experiment. The cause of the change in the fluidity could be related to the polarization of chloroplast membrane under the electromagnetic field. The analysis of Chla fluorescence parameters of spinach chloroplast membrane indicated that low level electromagnetic field of 300 MHz made the fluorescence parameters F0 and F(VI/)F(V) decrease, and F(V)/Fo, Fv/F(m) and deltaF(V)/T increase. It was showed that low level electromagnetic field caused the change of non-active center of photosystem II of spinach chloroplast membrane to active center and the increase in potential active and photochemical efficiency of PSII, and promoted the transmit process of electron in photosynthesis of chloroplast membrane of photosynthesis cell in spinach leaf. The study confirmed

  18. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Hui-Rong; Ma, Xue-Lian; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL. Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic

  19. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  20. Electromagnetic Radiation Disturbed the Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at the Proteomics Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Yang, Chuanjun; Yu, Hui; Tian, Shen; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiyi; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-11

    Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa under Electromagnetic Radiation (1.8 GHz, 40 V/m) was studied by using the proteomics. A total of 30 differentially expressed proteins, including 15 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated proteins, were obtained in this study. The differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in the photosynthesis pathway, in which the protein expression levels of photosystems II cytochrome b559 α subunit, cytochrome C550, PsbY, and F-type ATP synthase (a, b) decreased. Our results indicated that electromagnetic radiation altered the photosynthesis-related protein expression levels, and aimed at the function of photosynthetic pigments, photosystems II potential activity, photosynthetic electron transport process, and photosynthetic phosphorylation process of M. aeruginosa. Based on the above evidence, that photoreaction system may be deduced as a target of electromagnetic radiation on the photosynthesis in cyanobacteria; the photoreaction system of cyanobacteria is a hypothetical "shared target effector" that responds to light and electromagnetic radiation; moreover, electromagnetic radiation does not act on the functional proteins themselves but their expression processes.

  1. [Morphological structure of rat epiphysis exposed to electromagnetic radiation from communication devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, S G; Rybalko, S Yu

    Pineal gland is one of the most important components of homeostasis - the supporting system of the body. It participates in the launch of stress responses, restriction of their development, prevention of adverse effects on the body. There was proved an impact of electromagnetic radiation on the epiphysis. However, morphological changes in the epiphysis under exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modern communication devices are studied not sufficiently. For the time present the population is daily exposed to electromagnetic radiation, including local irradiation on the brain. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. Performed transmission electron microscopy revealed signs of degeneration of dark and light pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the development of a complex of general and specific morphological changes. There was revealed the appearance of signs of aging and depletion transmission electron microscopy both in light and dark pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the accumulation of lipofuscin granules and electron-dense "brain sand", the disappearance of nucleoli, cytoplasm vacuolization and mitochondrial cristae enlightenment.

  2. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  3. Electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength-hole array excited by an electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenggang; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Yuebao; Zhong, Renbin

    2009-09-01

    This paper explores the physics of the electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength holes array excited by a set of evanescent waves generated by a line charge of electron beam moving parallel to the array. Activated by a uniformly moving line charge, numerous physical phenomena occur such as the diffraction radiation on both sides of the array as well as the electromagnetic penetration or transmission below or above the cut-off through the holes. As a result the subwavelength holes array becomes a radiation array. Making use of the integral equation with relevant Green's functions, an analytical theory for such a radiation system is built up. The results of the numerical calculations based on the theory agree well with that obtained by the computer simulation. The relation among the effective surface plasmon wave, the electromagnetic penetration or transmission of the holes and the diffraction radiation is revealed. The energy dependence of and the influence of the hole thickness on the diffraction radiation and the electromagnetic penetration or transmission are investigated in detail. Therefore, a distinct diffraction radiation phenomenon is discovered.

  4. On board electronic devices safety subject to high frequency electromagnetic radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Smirnova, M. N.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spacecraft on board electronic devices are subjected to the effects of Space environment, in particular, electromagnetic radiation. The weight limitations for spacecraft pose an important material and structures problem: developing effective protection for on board electronic devices from high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the present paper the problem of the effect of external high frequency electromagnetic field on electronic devices shielding located on orbital platforms is investigated theoretically. It is demonstrated that the characteristic time for the unsteady stage of the process is negligibly small as compared with characteristic time of electromagnetic field diffusion into a conductor for the studied range of governing parameters. A system of governing material parameters is distinguished, which contribute to protecting electronic devices from induced electrical currents.

  5. Metronidazole as a protector of cells from electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Malinina, Ulia A.; Popyhova, Era B.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Somov, Alexander U.

    2006-08-01

    It is well known that weak electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies cause significant modification of the functional status of biological objects of different levels of organization. The aim of the work was to study the combinatory effect of metronidazole - the drug form of 1-(2'hydroxiethil)-2-methil-5-nitroimidazole - and electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (52...75 GHz) on the hemolytic stability of erythrocytes and hemotaxis activity of Infusoria Paramecium caudatum.

  6. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-shui LUO; Wei-hua CHU; Zi-bing WAN; Sheng-li HU; Rong HU; Nan WU; Bo HU; Hua FENG; Gang ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 g...

  7. Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivachenko, I B; Medvedev, D S; Molodtsova, I D; Panteleev, S S; Sokolov, A Yu; Lyubashina, O A

    2016-02-01

    Effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation (40 GHz frequency, 0.01 mW power) on the spontaneous fi ring of convergent neurons of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and their responses to electrical stimulation of the dura mater were studied in neurophysiological experiments on rats. Irradiation of the area of cutaneous receptive fields of spinal trigeminal nucleus reversibly inhibited both spontaneous discharges and activity induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater. The second and third exposures to electromagnetic radiation with an interval of 10 min were ineffective. These results suggest that suppression of neuronal excitability in the spinal trigeminal ganglion can be a mechanism of the anti-migraine effects of electromagnetic radiation observed in clinical practice.

  8. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Radiation with MPI-CUDA Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using parallel computation can enhance the performance of numerical simulation of electromagnetic radiation and get great runtime reduction. We simulate the electromagnetic radiation calculation based on the multicore CPU and GPU Parallel Architecture Clusters by using MPI-OpenMP and MPI-CUDA hybrid parallel algorithm. This is an effective solution comparing to the traditional finite-difference time-domain method which has a shortage in the calculation of the electromagnetic radiation on the problem of inadequate large data space and time. What is more, we use regional segmentation, subregional data communications, consolidation, and other methods to improve procedures nested parallelism and finally verify the correctness of the calculation results. Studying these two hybrid models of parallel algorithms run on the high-performance cluster computer, we draw the conclusion that both models are suitable for large-scale numerical calculations, and MPI-CUDA hybrid model can achieve higher speedup.

  9. A Study on the Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation on Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Being applied widely, electromagnetic wave is closely related with our life. But this material has brought pollutions to the environment as well as influences on functions of organisms. In order to explore the influence of electromagnetic radiation on nervous system, this paper takes adult mice on 35th day as research objects, designs a water maze experiment and explores features of escaping latency of mice in the control group and in the group with radiation. In this research, methods of building a GHz TEM cell and a simulation model of mouse head with AutoCAD 2010 and XFDTD are provided, verifying that the simulation model meets the needs of the experiment. It concludes that the electromagnetic radiation causes memory deterioration of mice, and exerts its certain influence on nervous system.

  10. A Route to Chaotic Behavior of Single Neuron Exposed to External Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear behaviors of a single neuron described by Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron model, with external electromagnetic radiation considered, is investigated. It is discovered that with external electromagnetic radiation in form of a cosine function, the mode selection of membrane potential occurs among periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions as increasing the frequency of external transmembrane current, which is selected as a sinusoidal function. When the frequency is small or large enough, periodic, and quasi-periodic motions are captured alternatively. Otherwise, when frequency is in interval 0.778 < ω < 2.208, chaotic motion characterizes the main behavior type. The mechanism of mode transition from quasi-periodic to chaotic motion is also observed when varying the amplitude of external electromagnetic radiation. The frequency apparently plays a more important role in determining the system behavior.

  11. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. Objectives: It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a ...

  12. Gutenberg-Richter-type relation for laboratory fracture-induced electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A; Frid, V; Bahat, D

    2002-01-01

    The fractal nature of electromagnetic radiation induced by uniaxial and triaxial rock fracture is considered. Both the well-known Gutenberg-Richter-type and the Benioff strain-release relationship, for earthquakes and starquakes, are shown to extend to the microscale (millimeters-centimeters). Results show that both the b value of the Gutenberg-Richter-type law and the slope of the Benioff strain-release relationship of the electromagnetic radiation signals are similar to values known for earthquakes. These results imply that a common mechanism is acting at all scales.

  13. Generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by superconducting films at nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lykov, A N

    2001-01-01

    One detected generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by GdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x superconducting films within 1-10 MHz range at temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling. This type generation is caused by synchronization realized due to the feedback of abrupt changes of the Abrikosov's vortices produced by the external low-frequency magnetic field. Possibility to reach more intensive radiation due to increase of the area of superconducting film, as well as, via increase of amplitude and of frequency of electromagnetic field exciting a vortex system in films is the most important advantage of the given technique of generation

  14. The effect of electromagnetic radiation (550-850 nm) on 1-lactate dehydrogenase kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, Elena; Cosic, Irena

    2007-04-01

    This work is based on our earlier research of the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM), where we have proposed that protein activation is electromagnetic in its nature. In this study we investigated experimentally the possibility of modulating the protein activity by the electromagnetic radiation of the specific frequency. The concept is studied here by applying a visible light radiation to example of 1-Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH). The selected LDH example is radiated by monochromatic visible light in a frequency range predicted computationally by the RRM. The kinetics of the irradiated LDH is measured by continuous monitoring of the NADH absorption at 340 nm. A comparative analysis of the LDH enzyme activity before and after the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures is performed. It was found that the LDH activity is selectively increased only by the radiation at the particular wavelengths of 595 nm and 828 nm. These experimentally determined wavelengths of the applied EMF are within the range predicted by the RRM. Results reveal the LDH activity was modulated by the EMF exposures at the computationally predicted frequencies. The RRM concept presented provides new insights into proteins susceptibility to perturbation by electromagnetic radiation and possibility to program, predict, design and modify proteins and their bioactivity.

  15. Correction of stress-depended changes of glucoproteid platelet receptors activity by electromagnetic radiation of terahertz range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Kirichuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is correction of stress-depended changes of glucoproteid (Gp platelet receptors activity by electromagnetic radiation of terahertz range. Influence of electromagnetic waves of terahertz range at the frequency of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitrogen oxide on lectin-induced platelet aggregation of white rats in the stressed condition was investigated

  16. INFORMATION-MEASURING SYSTEM FOR EVALUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POWER LEVELS INFLUENCE TO ITS WEAKENED BY PROTECTIVE SHIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Boiprav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An information-measuring system and realized on the basis of its methodology used for evaluation of electromagnetic radiation power levels passing via the protective shielding construction are described. It’s proposed to use the developed methodology for the testing of electromagnetic radiation shields for anechoic chambers

  17. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, O.V., E-mail: bov@tpu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kazinski, P.O., E-mail: kpo@phys.tsu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lazarenko, G.Yu., E-mail: lazarenko.georgijj@icloud.com [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing the initial energy of a charged particle, while the maximum value of this distribution remains the same at the fixed photon observation angle and entrance angle of a charged particle. The ultraviolet and infrared asymptotics of the total radiation are also described. - Highlights: • Properties of an electron radiation in a crossed electromagnetic field are studied. • Spectral angular distribution of the synchrotron entrance radiation is described. • Spectral angular distribution of the de-excited radiation is described. • De-excited radiation is almost completely circularly polarized. • Photon energy at the maximum of the de-excited radiation decreases with increasing the initial energy of an electron.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation in a medium with a velocity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Tereshin, A. A.; Bazleva, D. D.

    2016-04-01

    A relativistic expression has been obtained for the curvature of trajectory of the wave vector of an electromagnetic wave in a moving optically transparent medium. It has been shown that the curvature of the trajectory and angular deviation of rays appear in a homogeneous isotropic medium if the gradient of the velocity field in the medium is nonzero. The bending of the trajectory in the medium with the velocity gradient is a firstorder effect in the ratio u/ c.

  19. The property of universality for wigglers and invariance of electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, M N

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic radiation generated in any planar pure permanent magnet wiggler. The following mental modification of the wiggler magnetic system is theoretically investigated: the easy axis of all magnetic blocks, which compose the wiggler, are rotated by the special low, while the wiggler geometry remains intact. This evidently causes the wiggler magnetic field to change in shape and amplitude. However it can be proved that the total power of wiggler radiation along with the wavelengths of radiated harmonics is invariant under this transformation. The change of magnetic field involves a variation in intensities of the radiation harmonics.

  20. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  1. Numerical Calculation of Electric Fields in Housing Spaces due to Electromagnetic Radiation from Antennas for Mobile Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Geromiller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic radiation from mobile antennas on humans is under discussion in various group of scientists. This paper deals with the impact of electromagnetic radiation in housing spaces. The space is assumed to be bordered by 5 walls of ferroconcrete and a door-window combination on the 6th side, the latter to be electromagnetic transparent. The transparent side of the housing is exposed to an electromagnetic wave. As the source of radiation is considered to be far away from the housing, the radiation is regarded as a plane wave. Due to the high signal frequency and the ferroconcrete walls, 5 sides of the housing space are considered to be perfect conductors. The electric field inside the housing is calculated numerically by the method of finite differences for different angles of incidence of the radiated electromagnetic wave. The maximum value of the calculated electric field is outlined in a diagram.

  2. Review of studies on modulating enzyme activity by low intensity electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, Elena; Cosic, Irena

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a compilation of our findings on non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the molecular level. The outcomes of our studies revealed that that enzymes' activity can be modulated by external electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of selected frequencies. Here, we discuss the possibility of modulating protein activity using visible and infrared light based on the concepts of protein activation outlined in the resonant recognition model (RRM), and by low intensity microwaves. The theoretical basis behind the RRM model expounds a potential interaction mechanism between electromagnetic radiation and proteins as well as protein-protein interactions. Possibility of modulating protein activity by external EMR is experimentally validated by irradiation of the L-lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme.

  3. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  4. Military Handbook: Management and Design Guidance Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness for Air Launched Ordnance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    system is attacted to the delivery aircraft until it Impacto a target, it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from emitters aboard the delivery...homogeneous, isotropic, ambient medium may be a lossy dielectric. Antenna computations include cur- rent distribution, input impedance, radiation...permissible ambient interference level in the system, and when determining the expected signal-to-inter- ference ratio of the signal transmission circuits

  5. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, P; Andelin, D; Anicin, I; Antunovic, Z; Arcidiacono, R; Arenton, M W; Auffray, E; Argiro, S; Askew, A; Baccaro, S; Baffioni, S; Balazs, M; Bandurin, D; Barney, D; Barone, L M; Bartoloni, A; Baty, C; Beauceron, S; Bell, K W; Bernet, C; Besancon, M; Betev, B; Beuselinck, R; Biino, C; Blaha, J; Bloch, P; Borisevitch, A; Bornheim, A; Bourotte, J; Brown, R M; Buehler, M; Busson, P; Camanzi, B; Camporesi, T; Cartiglia, N; Cavallari, F; Cecilia, A; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Charlot, C; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Chen, Z; Chipaux, R; Choudhary, B C; Choudhury, R K; Cockerill, D J A; Conetti, S; Cooper, S; Cossutti, F; Cox, B; Cussans, D G; Dafinei, I; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D R; Daskalakis, G; David, A; Deiters, K; Dejardin, M; De Benedetti, A; Della Ricca, G; Del Re, D; Denegri, D; Depasse, P; Descamps, J; Diemoz, M; Di Marco, E; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Djambazov, L; Djordjevic, M; Dobrzynski, L; Dolgopolov, A; Drndarevic, S; Drobychev, G; Dutta, D; Dzelalija, M; Elliott-Peisert, A; El Mamouni, H; Evangelou, I; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Fay, J; Fedorov, A; Ferri, F; Franci, D; Franzoni, G; Freudenreich, K; Funk, W; Ganjour, S; Gascon, S; Gataullin, M; Gentit, F X; Ghezzi, A; Givernaud, A; Gninenko, S; Go, A; Gobbo, B; Godinovic, N; Golubev, N; Govoni, P; Grant, N; Gras, P; Haguenauer, M; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hansen, M; Haupt, J; Heath, H F; Heltsley, B; Hintz, W; Hirosky, R; Hobson, P R; Honma, A; Hou, G W S; Hsiung, Y; Huhtinen, M; Ille, B; Ingram, Q; Inyakin, A; Jarry, P; Jessop, C; Jovanovic, D; Kaadze, K; Kachanov, V; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Kennedy, B W; Kokkas, P; Kolberg, T; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, N; Krpic, D; Kubota, Y; Kuo, C M; Kyberd, P; Kyriakis, A; Lebeau, M; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Ledovskoy, A; Lethuillier, M; Lin, S W; Lin, W; Litvine, V; Locci, E; Longo, E; Loukas, D; Luckey, P D; Lustermann, W; Ma, Y; Malberti, M; Malclès, J; Maletic, D; Manthos, N; Maravin, Y; Marchica, C; Marinelli, N; Markou, A; Markou, C; Marone, M; Matveev, V; Mavrommatis, C; Meridiani, P; Milenovic, P; Miné, P; Missevitch, O; Mohanty, A K; Moortgat, F; Musella, P; Musienko, Y; Nardulli, A; Nash, J; Nedelec, P; Negri, P; Newman, H B; Nikitenko, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Obertino, M M; Organtini, G; Orimoto, T; Paganoni, M; Paganini, P; Palma, A; Pant, L; Papadakis, A; Papadakis, I; Papadopoulos, I; Paramatti, R; Parracho, P; Pastrone, N; Patterson, J R; Pauss, F; Peigneux, J-P; Petrakou, E; Phillips II, D G; Piroué, P; Ptochos, F; Puljak, I; Pullia, A; Punz, T; Puzovic, J; Ragazzi, S; Rahatlou, S; Rander, J; Razis, P A; Redaelli, N; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Ribeiro, P; Rogan, C; Ronquest, M; Rosowsky, A; Rovelli, C; Rumerio, P; Rusack, R; Rusakov, S V; Ryan, M J; Sala, L; Salerno, R; Schneegans, M; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Shiu, J G; Shivpuri, R K; Shukla, P; Siamitros, C; Sillou, D; Silva, J; Silva, P; Singovsky, A; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, A; Smith, V J; Stöckli, F; Swain, J; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Takahashi, M; Tancini, V; Teller, O; Theofilatos, K; Thiebaux, C; Timciuc, V; Timlin, C; Titov, M; Topkar, A; Triantis, F A; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Ueno, K; Uzunian, A; Varela, J; Verrecchia, P; Veverka, J; Virdee, T; Wang, M; Wardrope, D; Weber, M; Weng, J; Williams, J H; Yang, Y; Yaselli, I; Yohay, R; Zabi, A; Zelepoukine, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  6. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume 7, Number 2-4, July thru December 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    saccharomyces cerevisae tions), breaks and subsequent repair of DNA and ;A 10 V.. 7 Biological Effects of Nonioriztng Eectromagnetic Radiation VI(2-). July �...physical characteristics and posium Chairman, Max-Planck-Institut fur Festkorper- field measurement, dosimetry, electrical properties forschung, 7000...effect of millimeter- The observed characteristics of the effect of mill- band radiation of nonthermal intensity were used as imeter-band electromagnetic

  7. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  8. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  9. The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Crichton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available We show how the angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation may be decomposed into spin and orbital parts, of which the spin part is measurable in terms of Stokes parameters, thereby providing an unambiguous, gauge-invariant, distinction between the two parts.

  10. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  11. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  12. Quantum radiation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field in nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum radiation properties of nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole is investigated using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The locations of horizons and the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the nonthermal radiation are derived. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations which is absent in the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the nonthermal radiation for KdS black hole. It is also shown that the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation produces a constant term in the expression of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature.

  13. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  14. The Influence of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation on the Platelet Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzoda M. Khamidova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs on platelet aggregation (PA in individuals working for a long time under a direct and continuous RF-EMF exposure. We examined 119 persons aged from 22 to 65 years. In individuals working under the direct and constant exposure to RF-EMFs, the various changes of PA with a predominance of hyperaggregation are detected. The dependence of the changes in the indicators of PA on length of work in conditions of RF-EMF exposure is determined.

  15. Cometary dust dynamics and polarization in electromagnetic radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, J.; Markkanen, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-09-01

    In our work, we apply a fast solution of electromagnetic scattering to determine the induced spin and movement of a dust particle in a cometary coma. The resulted aligned spinning state is then used to determine the observable polarization of the dust, and compared against the randomly averaged polarization of the same particle. We find that measurable effects arise due to the alignment. In the future, similar methods can be used to model the dynamics and in turn the polarization of the whole coma.

  16. Electromagnetic radiation from vortex flow in Type-II superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaevskii, L N; Chudnovsky, E M

    2006-11-10

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, omega(0)=2pi v/a, up to a superconducting gap, Delta/variant Planck's over 2pi. Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.

  17. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bogolubov, N. N.; Prykarpatsky, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well ...

  18. Does Electromagnetic Radiation Generate Entropy? The Carnot Cycle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Bernard R.

    2010-06-01

    The Thermodynamics of radiation is to be found in some textbooks which portray the entropy of radiation as 4/3aT3V, where T and V, respectively are the temperature and volume of a cavity at equilibrium with the radiation. Poynting and Thomson (1911) go through the exercise of putting a "photon gas" through a Carnot Cycle,—the only book I have found to do so, but there is an error in their calculation. One purpose of this paper is to correct that mistake, and in extension, rigorously work through the Carnot Cycle because present day students and scientists wanting to study the Carnot Cycle are unlikely to find that textbook. Feynman also dealt with the Thermodynamics of radiation, but his approach is different from that of other authors. Although the Thermodynamics of radiation superficially appears to be self-consistent, there are some queries, which need to be exposed. Firstly, the unit of entropy of radiation is Joule/K which is different from the usual unit of entropy, namely Joule/mole-K. Secondly, entropy in matter relates to atoms and molecules exchanging energy endlessly and randomly, but this is not true for photons. Thirdly, it is possible to do practical experiments in order to estimate numerically the entropy of substances or entropy changes in reactions, but for radiation, are there any experiments which can produce numerical values for the entropy? The importance of this study is that some cosmologists state that, according to the Hot Big Bang Theory, the Universe expanded isentropically and that radiation went through this isentropic process. Objections are raised against this part of the theory.

  19. [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-yu; Song, Chun-xiao; Yu, Duo; Liu, Xiao-liang; Guo, Jian-qiu; Wang, Chuan; Ding, Yuan-wei; Zhou, Hong-xia; Ma, Shu-mei; Liu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Xin

    2012-03-01

    To observe the exposure levels of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in workplaces and to analyze the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of occupationally exposed people. Intensity of electromagnetic fields in two workplaces (control and exposure groups) was detected with EFA-300 frequency electromagnetic field strength tester, and intensity of the noise was detected with AWA5610D integral sound level. The information of health physical indicators of 188 controls and 642 occupationally exposed workers was collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS17.0 statistic software. The intensity of electric fields and the magnetic fields in exposure groups was significantly higher than that in control group (P 0.05). The results of physical examination showed that the abnormal rates of HCY, ALT, AST, GGT, ECG in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in control group (P 0.05). Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation may have some effects on the cardiovascular system of workers.

  20. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  1. Electromagnetic fields radiated from a lightning return stroke - Application of an exact solution to Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution is presented for the electromagnetic fields radiated by an arbitrarily oriented current filament over a conducting ground plane in the case where the current propagates along the filament at the speed of light, and this solution is interpreted in terms of radiation from lightning return strokes. The solution is exact in the fullest sense; no mathematical approximations are made, and the governing differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied. The solution has the additional attribute of being specified in closed form in terms of elementary functions. This solution is discussed from the point of view of deducing lightning current wave forms from measurements of the electromagnetic fields and understanding the effects of channel tortuosity on the radiated fields. In addition, it is compared with two approximate solutions, the traditional moment approximation and the Fraunhofer approximation, and a set of criteria describing their applicability are presented and interpreted.

  2. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  3. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; Wu, Zhongxue; Li, Youxiang

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. Faraday's electromagnetic induction principle was applied to analyze the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. To induce a current of 0.5mA in less than 5 mm platinum coils required to stimulate peripheral nerves, the minimum magnetic field will be 0.86 μT. To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a hair dryer, the minimum aneurysm radius is 2.5 mm (5 mm aneurysm). To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a computer or TV, the minimum aneurysm radius is 8.6 mm (approximate 17 mm aneurysm). The minimum magnetic field is much larger than the flux densities produced by computer and TV, while the minimum aneurysm radius is much larger than most aneurysm sizes to levels produced by computer and TV. At present, the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on intracranial coils do not produce a harmful reaction. Patients with coiled aneurysm are advised to avoid using hair dryers. This theory needs to be proved by further detailed complex investigations. Doctors should give patients additional instructions before the procedure, depending on this study.

  4. Mobile phone electromagnetic radiation activates MAPK signaling and regulates viability in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Sun; Choi, Jong-Soon; Hong, Sae-Yong; Son, Tae-Ho; Yu, Kweon

    2008-07-01

    Mobile phones are widely used in the modern world. However, biological effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones are largely unknown. In this report, we show biological effects of the mobile phone 835 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) in the Drosophila model system. When flies were exposed to the specific absorption rate (SAR) 1.6 W/kg, which is the proposed exposure limit by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), more than 90% of the flies were viable even after the 30 h exposure. However, in the SAR 4.0 W/kg strong EMF exposure, viability dropped from the 12 h exposure. These EMF exposures triggered stress response and increased the production of reactive oxygen species. The EMF exposures also activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, but not p38 kinase signaling. Interestingly, SAR 1.6 W/kg activated mainly ERK signaling and expression of an anti-apoptotic gene, whereas SAR 4.0 W/kg strongly activated JNK signaling and expression of apoptotic genes. In addition, SAR 4.0 W/kg amplified the number of apoptotic cells in the fly brain. These findings demonstrate that the exposure limit on electromagnetic radiation proposed by ANSI triggered ERK-survival signaling but the strong electromagnetic radiation activated JNK-apoptotic signaling in Drosophila.

  5. Radiation Protection of New Lightweight Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Materials Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved by simply switching from aluminum electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding covers for spacecraft power systems to EMI covers made from intercalated graphite fiber composites. Because EMI covers typically make up about one-fifth of the power system mass, this change would decrease the mass of a spacecraft power system by more than 15 percent. Intercalated graphite fibers are made by diffusing guest atoms or molecules, such as bromine, between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. The resulting bromine-intercalated fibers have mechanical and thermal properties nearly identical to pristine graphite fibers, but their resistivity is lower by a factor of 5, giving them better electrical conductivity than stainless steel and making these composites suitable for EMI shielding.

  6. Electromagnetic radiations from laser interaction with gas-filled Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Yang, Yongmei; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    The emission of intensive electromagnetic pulse (EMP) due to laser-target interactions at the ShenGuang-III laser facility has been evaluated by probes. EMP signals measured using the small discone antennas demonstrated two variation trends including a bilateral oscillation wave and a unilateral oscillation wave. The new trend of unilateral oscillation could be attributed to the hohlraum structure and low-Z gas in the hohlraum. The EMP waveform showed multiple peaks when the gas-filled hohlraum was shot by the high-power laser. Comparing the EMP signals with the verification of stimulated Raman scattering energy and hard x-ray energy spectrum, we found that the intensity of EMP signals decreased with the increase of the hohlraum size. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physical processes on laser injecting gas-filled hohlraums in the National Ignition Facility implementation.

  7. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  8. Soft-photon emission effects and radiative corrections for electromagnetic processes at very high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Higher-order electromagnetic processes involving particles at ultrahigh energies are discussed, with particular attention given to Compton scattering with the emission of an additional photon (double Compton scattering). Double Compton scattering may have significance in the interaction of a high-energy electron with the cosmic blackbody photon gas. At high energies the cross section for double Compton scattering is large, though this effect is largely canceled by the effects of radiative corrections to ordinary Compton scattering. A similar cancellation takes place for radiative pair production and the associated radiative corrections to the radiationless process. This cancellation is related to the well-known cancellation of the infrared divergence in electrodynamics.

  9. Influence of electromagnetic radiation of industrial frequency on the peripheral blood hematological parameters of the rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovyev Vladimir Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the hematological parameters of peripheral blood in outbred white mice, which were exposed to electromagnetic radiation of industrial frequency. It was shown that the long-term staying in the zone affected by this factor causes the shift in an erythron system and the change in the total number of leucocytes in animals’ blood. The effects caused by electromagnetic action are not specific and can reflect the general reaction of an organism to the extreme physical and chemical influence. Sensitivity to the studied factor depends on animal’s sex.

  10. Explosive electromagnetic radiation by the relaxation of a multimode magnon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyuchka, V I; Serga, A A; Sandweg, C W; Slobodianiuk, D V; Melkov, G A; Hillebrands, B

    2013-11-01

    Microwave emission from a parametrically pumped ferrimagnetic film of yttrium iron garnet was studied versus the magnon density evolution, which was detected by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. It has been found that the shutdown of external microwave pumping leads to an unexpected effect: The conventional monotonic decrease of the population of parametrically injected magnons is accompanied by an explosive behavior of electromagnetic radiation at the magnon frequency. The developed theory shows that this explosion is caused by a nonlinear energy transfer from parametrically driven short-wavelength dipolar-exchange magnons to a long-wavelength dipolar magnon mode effectively coupled to an electromagnetic wave.

  11. Apparatus and method for the simultaneous detection of neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.

    2000-01-01

    A sensor for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising: a sensor for the detection of gamma radiation, the sensor defining a sensing head; the sensor further defining an output end in communication with the sensing head; and an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head; wherein the neutron-sensitive material, subsequent to the capture of the neutron, fissions into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the first excited state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV which can in turn be detected by the sensing head; and wherein the sensing head can also detect the ionizing electromagnetic radiation from an incident radiation field without significant interference from the neutron-sensitive material. A method for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising the steps of: providing a gamma ray sensitive detector comprising a sensing head and an output end; conforming an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head of the detector; capturing neutrons by the sensing head causing the neutron-sensitive material to fission into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV; sensing gamma rays entering the detector through the neutron-sensitive material; and producing an output through a readout device coupled to the output end; wherein the detector provides an output which is proportional to the energy of the absorbed ionizing electromagnetic radiation.

  12. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  13. The impact of electromagnetic radiation of different parameters on platelet oxygen metabolism - in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela A; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Szczęsny, Artur; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a variety of devices, e.g. cell phones, computers and microwaves, interacts with the human body in many ways. Research studies carried out in the last few decades have not yet resolved the issue of the effect of this factor on the human body and many questions are left without an unequivocal answer. Various biological and health-related effects have not been fully recognized. Thus further studies in this area are justified. A comparison of changes within catalase enzymatic activity and malondialdehyde concentration arising under the influence of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by car electronics, equipment used in physiotherapy and LCD monitors. The suspension of human blood platelets at a concentration of 1 × 109/0.001 dm 3, obtained from whole blood by manual apheresis, was the study material. Blood platelets were exposed to an electromagnetic field for 30 min in a laboratory stand designed for the reconstruction of the electromagnetic radiation generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors. The changes in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were investigated after the exposure and compared to the control values (unexposed material). An increase in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration was observed after 30 min exposure of platelets to EMF regardless of the radiation source. The most significant changes determining the degree of oxidative stress were observed after exposure to the EMF generated by car electronics. The low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors may be a cause of oxidative stress in the human body and may lead to free radical diseases.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  15. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  16. Cardiovascular Responses to Electromagnetic Radiation | Hänninen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also Faraday cages permit cleaning of the extra radiation. We have used both these methods and shown that people sense those maxima and minima. Their hands move involuntarily when they cross these. People can also become sensitive to irradiation, and their finger temperatures cool down when blood flow lessens ...

  17. Effect of visible range electromagnetic radiations on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of ...

  18. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...

  19. Base-Level Guide for Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    situations per AFOSH 48-9, Section 2.6. (10) Inductive Capacitive Coupling: Capacitive (electric) fields are voltage fields. The effects depend upon the... inductive coupling, capacitive coupling and by radiation. Some frequencies are transmitted predominately by one form of coupling and some frequencies by...81 H-2. AN/TPS-75 Search Radar at Keesler AFB

  20. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    frying, meat cooking, pasta drying, fish thawing, microwave ovens in the United Kingdom. Two of the poultry cooking, and vacuum drying. Non-food ap...of somatic mutations for microwave radiation caused the SMR values of mice eye pigmentation . Embryos 1- to 2-hr old were ex- to be higher than the

  1. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  2. A Determination of the Risk of Intentional and Unintentional Electromagnetic Radiation Emitters Degrading Installed Components in Closed Electromagnetic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    shielding and low power technologies is recommended. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Systems engineering, wireless, risk, electromagnetic, enclosed 15. NUMBER...properly determine the overall risk to at-risk equipment. Until that occurs, incorporating new methods of shielding and low power technologies is...electromagnetic EMC electromagnetic compatibility EMI electromagnetic interference FFBD functional flow block diagram FM frequency modulation LAN local

  3. Bio-Soliton Model that predicts Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency Bands, that either Stabilize or Destabilize Life Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Geesink, J H

    2016-01-01

    Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organisation. Soliton models are able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic radiation. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells. The particular effects are exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz, that show a pattern of twelve bands, if positioned on an acoustic frequency scale. The model was substantiated by a meta-analysis of 240 published papers of biological radiation experiments, in which a spectrum of non-thermal electromagnetic waves were exposed to living cells and intact organisms. These data support the concept of coherent quantized electromagnet...

  4. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermodynamics applied to the damage mechanics reveals that the damage evolution produces the variations in charge, dipole and electromagnetic signals in addition to mechanical energy release, and yields the time-scale invariant patterns of Benioff electromagnetic radiation and cumulative Benioff strain-release. The irreversible thermodynamic framework of damage mechanics is also applicable to the seismo-magnetic effect, and the time-scale invariance is recognized in the remanent magnetization change associated with damage evolution prior to a rock failure.

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation in Multiply Connected Robertson-Walker Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1993-01-01

    Maxwell's equations on a topologically nontrivial cosmological background are studied. The cosmology is locally determined by a Robertson-Walker line element, but the spacelike slices are open hyperbolic manifolds, whose topology and geometry may vary in time. In this context the spectral resolution of Maxwell's equations in terms of horospherical elementary waves generated at infinity of hyperbolic space is given. The wave fronts are orthogonal to bundles of unstable geodesic rays, and the eikonal of geometric optics appears just as the phase of the horospherical waves. This fact is used to attach to the unstable geodesic rays a quantum mechanical momentum. In doing so the quantized energy-momentum tensor of the radiation field is constructed in a geometrically and dynamically transparent way, without appealing to the intricacies of the second quantization. In particular Planck's radiation formula, and the bearing of the multiply connected topology on the fluctuations in the temperature of the background rad...

  6. Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

    2014-09-30

    An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

  7. Convective vaporization of particles in an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Kurochkin, V. I.

    1987-03-01

    The heating and vaporization of spherical particles in the case of the arbitrary relative concentration of vapor and gas are studied on the basis of the exact equations of multicomponent gas dynamics with allowance for the temperature dependence of the transport coefficients. The proposed method makes possible an easy computation of the vaporization rate and temperature in a wide range of particle sizes and radiation flux densities. The results obtained can be used to calculate laser-induced breakdown in metal vapors.

  8. Electromagnetic Radiation in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.

  9. Ion Acceleration by the Radiation Pressure of Slow Electromagnetic Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S S; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C; Esarey, E; Leemans, W

    2012-01-01

    When the ions are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser pulse, their velocity can not exceed the laser group velocity, in the case when it is less than the speed of light in vacuum. This is demonstrated in two cases corresponding to the thin foil target irradiated by a high intensity laser light and to the hole boring by the laser pulse in the extended plasma accompanied by the collisionless shock wave formation. It is found that the beams of accelerated at the collisionless shock wave front ions are unstable against the Buneman-lke and the Weibel-like instabilities which result in the ion energy spectrum broadening.

  10. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  11. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpf, M.; de Hoop, A. T.; Lager, I. E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave constituents are constructed with the aid of the modified Cagniard method (Cagniard?DeHoop method). Numerical results are presented for vanishing slot width and field pulse shapes at the dielectric/free s...

  13. Acousto-optic modulation and deflection of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in nonpolar liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. A.; Voloshinov, V. B.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of a series of experiments on controlled deflection of electromagnetic radiation of a free-electron laser upon diffraction by an acoustic wave in nonpolar liquids are presented. Acoustic and optical properties of liquids that are transparent in the terahertz range are discussed. It is demonstrated that nonpolar liquids may turn out to be a more efficient acousto-optic interaction medium than dielectric crystals or semiconductors.

  14. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on le...

  15. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  16. Numerical Calculation of Electric Fields in Housing Spaces Due to Electromagnetic Radiation from Antennas for Mobile Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Geromiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electromagnetic radiation from mobile antennas on humans is under discussion in va'rious groups ofscientists, This paper deals with the impact ofelectromagnetic radiation in a housing space. The space is assumedto be bordered by 5 walls of ferroconcrete and a door-window combination on the 6th side, the latter to be electromagnetically transparent. The transparent side of the housing is exposed to an electromagnetic wave. As the source ofradiation is considered to be far away from the housing, the radiation is regarded to be from a plane wave. Due to the high signal frequency and ferroconcrete walls, 5 sides ofthe housing space are considered to be perfect conductors. The electric field inside the housing is calculated numerically by the method of finite differences for different angles of incidence of the radiated electromagnetic wave. The maximum value of the calculated electric field is outlined in a diagram.

  17. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  18. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Yin, Yanchun; Xiao, Fukun; Tan, Yunliang; Zou, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster. PMID:25054186

  19. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ON TESTICULAR STRUCTURE AND STEROIDOGENESIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Almášiová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the new era of intensive usage of modern electronic devices everybody is influenced by an accumulating effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR more widely than ever in the past. EMR is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components and is physically classed as non-ionising radiation. The immediate whole body electromagnetic radiation – EMR was used to investigate testicular structure and testosterone synthesis of the Wistar rats. Sexually mature (48 days old rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic fields at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h per 3 weeks. Histological structure of the testicular parenchyma and plasma testosterone concentrations were evaluated in 21 days post irradiation. The light microscopy revealed moderate degenerative changes in testicular parenchyma as well as decreased plasma testosterone levels in experimental animals compared to the control counterpart which indicate an adverse effect of EMR on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats. These findings confirmed the evidence, that the testes are amongst the most susceptible organs to the EMR. Next studies are required for elucidation of relation between the EMR and widely debated disorders of fertility and fecundity not only in the human population.

  20. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongbin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation from nuclear collisions at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Turbide, Simon; Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The hot and dense strongly interacting matter created in collisions of heavy nuclei at RHIC energies is modeled with relativistic hydrodynamics, and the spectra of real and virtual photons produced at mid-rapidity in these events are calculated. Several different sources are considered, and their relative importance is compared. Specifically, we include jet fragmentation, jet-plasma interactions, the emission of radiation from the thermal medium and from primordial hard collisions. Our calculations consistently take into account jet energy loss, as evaluated in the AMY formalism. We obtain results for the spectra, the nuclear modification factor (R_AA), and the azimuthal anisotropy (v_2) that agree with the photon measurements performed by the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC.

  2. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  3. Research on Automatic Measurement of Impulse Electromagnetic Noise (II) : Radiation from Digital IC

    OpenAIRE

    佐野, 博也; 杉之原, 広次郎; サノ, ヒロヤ; スギノハラ, コジロウ; Hiroya, SANO; Kozirou, SUGINOHARA

    1993-01-01

    Experimental investigation was made on electromagnetic noise radiated from a digital IC package on a printed circuit board with a ground plane, which simulates a multi-layer printed circuit board. We found that the principal radiation source on a printed circuit board with a ground plane is a loop composed of pins of an IC package, Vcc-pin and GND-pin, and the ground plane on the board. The loop stand out perpendicular from the board. It was also shown that the use of surface mounted devices ...

  4. Spin-one-half particles in strong electromagnetic fields: Spin effects and radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Meng; Keitel, Christoph H.; Bauke, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    Various classical models of electrons including their spin degrees of freedom are commonly applied to describe the electron dynamics in strong electromagnetic fields. We demonstrate that different models can lead to different or even contradicting predictions regarding how the spin degree of freedom modifies the electron's orbital motion when the electron moves in strong electromagnetic fields. This discrepancy is rooted in the model-specific energy dependency of the spin-induced Stern-Gerlach force acting on the electron. The Frenkel model and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model are compared exemplarily in the nonrelativistic and the relativistic limits in order to identify parameter regimes where these classical models make different predictions. This allows for experimental tests of these models. In ultrastrong laser setups in parameter regimes where effects of the Stern-Gerlach force become relevant, radiation-reaction effects are also expected to set in. We incorporate the radiation reaction classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation and demonstrate that although radiation-reaction effects can have a significant effect on the electron trajectory, the Frenkel model and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model remain distinguishable also if radiation-reaction effects are taken into account. Our calculations are also suitable to verify the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the radiation reaction of electrons and other spin-1/2 particles.

  5. Radiation force of scalar and electromagnetic twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga

    2009-11-23

    Radiation force of a focused scalar twisted Gaussian Schell-model (TGSM) beam on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere is investigated. It is found that the twist phase affects the radiation force and by raising the absolute value of the twist factor it is possible to increase both transverse and longitudinal trapping ranges at the real focus where the maximum on-axis intensity is located. Numerical calculations of radiation forces induced by a focused electromagnetic TGSM beam on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere are carried out. It is found that radiation force is closely related to the twist phase, degree of polarization and correlation factors of the initial beam. The trapping stability is also discussed.

  6. Electromagnetic and radiation environments: effects on pacemakers; Environnements electromagnetiques et radiatifs: effets sur les stimulateurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, J.; Trochet, R.; Vicrey, J.; Sauvage, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Chauvenet, B.; Ostrovski, A.; Leroy, E. [Bureau National de Metrologie, LPRI, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Haug, R. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Physique des Gaz et des Plasma, SUPELEC, 91 - Orsay (France); Dodinot, B. [Centre de Stimulation Cardiaque, CHU de Brabois, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Joffre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, medical care development allows many people to share the benefits of implanted pacemakers (PM). PM can be perturbed and even fall in complete breakdowns in an electromagnetic and radiation environment. A stimuli-dependent patient can thus be seriously in danger. This article presents the effect of ionizing radiation from either a cobalt-60 source or from a linear accelerator (Saturne 43) on 12 pacemakers. It seems that technological progress make electronic circuits more sensitive to the cumulated dose of radiation. This survey shows that pacemakers have great difficulties to sustain ionizing radiation doses that are commonly delivered to patients during therapies. Usually perturbed functioning appears suddenly and means a strong shift of stimuli that might lead to heart failure.

  7. Electromagnetic radiation and scattering from small canonical structures of double-negative metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2007-01-01

    aspects associated with DNG materials, and was subsequently extended to investigations of the radiation and scattering from two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) MTM-based canonical problems in electromagnetic theory. As to the theoretical aspects of DNG materials, the sign, or more generally the branch......, of the free-space wavelength. The enhancement of e.g., the total radiated power, as compared to the power radiated by the respective sources alone in free space, is found to be of the order of 55 dB, for cylindrical, and 93 dB, for spherical structures. These resonant effects, not present in the corresponding...... investigated. It is demonstrated that the resonant effects of the electrically small MTM-based structures, and thus the resulting enhancements of e.g., the total radiated power, are diminished as the losses are included, while being confined, but still present, to very narrow bands of frequency upon inclusion...

  8. On the long-range detection of radioactivity using electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Peurrung, A J

    2002-01-01

    A series of recent publications (Tech. Phys. Lett. 19 (1993) 184; Atom. Ener. 80 (1996) 47; Atom. Ener. 80 (1996) 135; Physics-Uspekhi 168 (1998) 515; Izvestiya 28 (1992) 262; Geomagn. Aeron. 34 (1994) 229; J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys. 59 (1997) 961; Stud. Geophs. Geod. 42 (1998) 197; Adv. Space Res. 20 (1997) 2173) has provided experimental evidence that radiation fields can be detected well beyond the 10-100-m limit that holds for conventional (direct) approaches for detecting radiation. The techniques that are claimed to provide this capability use remote electromagnetic interrogation to record changes atmospheric electrostatic parameters arising from elevated radiation levels. This paper examines the physics that underlies these proposed new approaches for detecting radiation. If found to be viable for applications, the proposed techniques would be highly significant as they directly address a variety of problems in national security and environmental monitoring.

  9. COMBINED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, DNA-INTERCALATORS, C60-FULLERENE AND CAFFEINE ON HUMAN BUCCAL EPITHELIUM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Skamrova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Now the number of physical and chemical biologically active damage factors dramatically increased. The ways to neutralize such effects have not been studied enough. In this work the techniques of visual assessment of chromatin granulation and of electronegativity of human buccal epithelium cell nuclei were used in order to study the combined effects of the exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range electromagnetic radiation and to the DNA-binding compounds, such as: antibiotic doxorubicin, mutagens ethidium bromide and proflavine, as well as to caffeine and C60 -fullerene which are not directly interact with DNA. When the action of electromagnetic radiation and DNA-binding compounds is combined, a synergistic effect of reducing the cell response was observed in contrast to the effects caused by electromagnetic radiation and drugs separately. When cells were irradiated in the presence of C60 -fullerene or caffeine, a protective effect of compounds against electromagnetic radiation influence was observed. The obtained results may provide perspectives in the use of the C60 fullerene and caffeine as DNA-protectors under the action of electromagnetic radiation.

  10. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-12-01

    During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human ex- posure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors) while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors). Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless) position. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head) during the calls.

  11. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  12. Terahertz electromagnetic radiation based on the interaction between a self-modulated electron beam and plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengpeng; Zhou, Qing; Tang, Changjian; Chen, Shaoyong

    2017-12-01

    This particle-in-cell simulation study finds that the system of a long relativistic electron beam passing through an overdense plasma can produce high harmonic terahertz electromagnetic radiation. In this process, the electron beam is self-modulated to create a periodic electromagnetic structure which will resonate with the plasma wakefield and excite the electromagnetic instability in the nonlinear stage of the self-modulation. The study also finds that when the radiation is achieved, the self-modulated electron beam will be destroyed due to the self-consistent interaction among the radiation, the electron beam, and the plasma. Meanwhile, the radiation will gradually attenuate, which also coincides with the physical explanation of the radiation.

  13. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  14. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons. PMID:29209192

  15. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  16. Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping, E-mail: liping.wang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

  17. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or...

  18. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  19. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-shui LUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 group were sub-grouped according to the way radiation was given: continuous irradiation, in which cells were exposed on the second day after culture for 2h per day for 6 consecutive days; single exposure to irradiation, in which cells were exposed for 12h on the sixth day after the culture. The ultrastructural changes on the surface of the cells were observed with atomic force microscope (AFM, whereas the ultrastructural changes in the cells were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results After 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation, when compared with the sham group (0mW/cm2, it was shown that the surface of neural stem cells in the exposure groups (1 and 3mW/cm2 became rough, and there were some changes such as "cavitation" and "fissure formation" in the membrane. The intracellular ultrastructure was found to have obviously disrupted in the exposure groups, such as homogenization of cytoplasm, obvious change organelle structure, morphological damage of structure of nucleus, nuclear membrane disappearance, and chromatin pyknosis, and the changes were more obvious in Radi2 group. Compared with the sham group, the surface roughness (Ra of cells in the exposure group was significantly intensified (P < 0.05, and it was higher in Radi2 group than that in Radi1 group (P < 0.05. Conclusion A 900MHz electromagnetic radiation may cause injury changes in NSCs membrane and ultrastructure in vitro, and the extent of injury may be related to the

  20. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. There was no significant change (p < .05) in cross-sectional diameter of all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Group D rats showed a significant decrease (p ˂ .05) in lumen diameter compared with group B rats. There was an uneven distribution of germinal epithelial cells in groups B, C and D. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased

  1. Impact of electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAEED H Alchalabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the teratogenic effect of mobile phone radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development at the common used mobile phone frequency in our environment. Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three experiment groups; control and two exposed groups (1 h/day, 2 h/day exposure groups (n=20/ each group and exposed to whole body radiation during gestation period from day 1- day 20. Electromagnetic radiofrequency signal generator was used to generate 1 800 MHz GSM-like signals at specific absorption rate value 0.974 W/kg. Animals were exposed during experiment in an especial designed Plexiglas box (60 cm × 40 cm × 30 cm. At the end of exposure duration at day 20 of pregnancy animals were sacrificed and foetuses were removed, washed with normal saline and processed to Alizarin red and Alcian blue stain. Skeleton specimens were examined under a stereo microscope and skeleton's snaps were being carefully captured by built in camera fixed on the stereo microscope. Results: Intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic radiation lead to variation in degree of ossification, mineralization, formation of certain parts of the skeleton majorly in head and lesser in other parts. Deformity and absence of formation of certain bones in the head, ribs, and coccygeal vertebrae were recorded in skeleton of foetuses from exposed dams compare to control group. Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy alter the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes, and thus impact embryonic skeleton formation and development directly.

  2. The Schrödinger Equation, the Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation, and the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, H. M.; Kamimura, A.; Barreto, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    A Schrödinger type equation for a mathematical probability amplitude Ψ( x, t) is derived from the generalized phase space Liouville equation valid for the motion of a microscopic particle, with mass M and charge e, moving in a potential V( x). The particle phase space probability density is denoted Q( x, p, t), and the entire system is immersed in the "vacuum" zero-point electromagnetic radiation. We show, in the first part of the paper, that the generalized Liouville equation is reduced to a simpler Liouville equation in the equilibrium limit where the small radiative corrections cancel each other approximately. This leads us to a simpler Liouville equation that will facilitate the calculations in the second part of the paper. Within this second part, we address ourselves to the following task: Since the Schrödinger equation depends on hbar , and the zero-point electromagnetic spectral distribution, given by ρ 0{(ω )} = hbar ω 3/2 π 2 c3, also depends on hbar , it is interesting to verify the possible dynamical connection between ρ 0( ω) and the Schrödinger equation. We shall prove that the Planck's constant, present in the momentum operator of the Schrödinger equation, is deeply related with the ubiquitous zero-point electromagnetic radiation with spectral distribution ρ 0( ω). For simplicity, we do not use the hypothesis of the existence of the L. de Broglie matter-waves. The implications of our study for the standard interpretation of the photoelectric effect are discussed by considering the main characteristics of the phenomenon. We also mention, briefly, the effects of the zero-point radiation in the tunneling phenomenon and the Compton's effect.

  3. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating polar entities inside the biological cells, most notably microtubules, are bound to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses have not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. It is demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of a numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which was shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. Possible consequences for the cell physiology are suggested.

  4. Subluminal and superluminal terahertz radiation in metamaterials with electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-07-29

    We propose a scheme to design a new type of optical metamaterial that can mimic the functionality of four-state atomic systems of N-type energy-level configuration with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that in such metamaterial a transition from a single EIT to a double EIT of terahertz radiation may be easily achieved by actively tuning the intensity of the infrared pump field or passively tuning the geometrical parameters of resonator structures. In addition, the group velocity of the terahertz radiation can be varied from subluminal to superluminal by changing the pump field intensity. The scheme suggested here may be used to construct chip-scale slow and fast light devices and to realize rapidly responded switching of terahertz radiation at room temperature.

  5. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  6. Low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santosuosso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques have been used in some rheumatic diseases to induce a therapeutic effect by heating deep tissues. These techniques are commonly known as ‘thermotherapy’ (1-4. It should be observed that adequate heating of deep tissues cannot be obtained by conduction or convection of heat because the skin and subcutaneous fat are good thermal insulators and because heating is reduced by blood flow in superficial vessels. Heating of deep tissues can instead be obtained by conversion of other forms of energy into heat. Conversion heat is generated by different types of radiations absorbed by deep tissues: when radiation interacts with tissues, some energy is converted into heat. High power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF, which produces strong thermal energy, has been widely applied in medicine for ablative procedures (5-7.

  7. Primordial Gravitational Waves and Rescattered Electromagnetic Radiation in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an effect apparently overlooked as yet. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this pol...

  8. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  9. The impact of electromagnetic radiation on the degradation of magnetic ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with magnetic nano-fluids, which are the part of transformer oil ITO 100 and their behavior is influenced by a permanent magnetic field. We performed an IRC analysis in the time domain on the three different samples. Measurements were made before and after radiation of an electromagnetic field. The main objective was to examine changes in the properties of the samples due to the influence of the electromagnetic field. The measurements depend on the orientation of the external magnetic field. This behavior occurs especially during the structuring of the nanoparticles in the sample exposed to the magnetic field. These processes change the polarization of the liquid because the nanoparticles concentration is contained in the fluid.

  10. Beam characteristics of short-pulse radiation with electromagnetic missile effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Wen Bing; Liang, Chang Hong

    1998-05-01

    Beam characteristics such as beamwidth and beam intensity of short-pulse radiation with electromagnetic missile effect, not restricted to the electromagnetic missile, are generally range dependent in pulse propagation. An effective measure to study such beam characteristics is to investigate the local drop rate of the energy pattern in the beam profile and the local decay rate of energy in the pulse beam. It is shown that both the energy decay rate and the energy drop rate are definitely determined by the time-space source parameters so that the beam characteristics can be readily evaluated and properly controlled. Moreover, the underlying relation between the slow decay rate and the energy drop rate are constructed, which shows perfect harmony in achieving slower-energy decay and higher-energy concentration in the beam.

  11. 1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Yun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun-Ye; Gao, Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Qi-Yan; Yuan, Meng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-12-23

    More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

  12. Research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of the gas main switch of a capacitive intense electron-beam accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongfeng; Liu, Jinliang; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Li, Guolin

    2017-11-01

    Strong electromagnetic fields are radiated during the operation of the intense electron-beam accelerator (IEBA), which may lead to the nearby electronic devices out of order. In this paper, the research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristic of the gas main switch of a capacitive IEBA is carried out by the methods of theory analysis and experiment investigation. It is obtained that the gas main switch is the dominating radiation resource. In the absence of electromagnetic shielding for the gas main switch, when the pulse forming line of the IEBA is charged to 700 kV, the radiation field with amplitude of 3280 V/m, dominant frequency of 84 MHz and high frequency 100 MHz is obtained at a distance of 10 meters away from the gas main switch. The experimental results of the radiation field agree with the theoretical calculations. We analyze the achievements of several research groups and find that there is a relationship between the rise time (T) of the transient current of the gas main switch and the dominant frequency (F) of the radiation field, namely, F*T=1. Contrast experiment is carried out with a metal shield cover for the gas main switch. Experimental results show that for the shielded setup the radiation field reduces to 115 V/m, the dominant frequency increases to 86.5 MHz at a distance of 10 away meters from the gas main switch. These conclusions are beneficial for further research on the electromagnetic radiation and protection of the IEBA.

  13. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic pulses radiated from a charged copper pipe. Taidendo pipe kara hoshasareru denji pulse no sokutei to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugi, M.; Murakawa, K.; Kuwabara, N.; Amemiya, F. (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of electromagnetic wave accompanied with the electrostatic discharge. Experimental and analytical results on electromagnetic pulses radiated from a charged copper pipe are described. The electromagnetic pulses radiated from the copper pipe were measured by using electromagnetic field measuring antennas, such as loop antenna, biconical antenna, and double ridged guide antenna. Electromagnetic energy of the electromagnetic pulses was analyzed by integrating energy spectrums of three frequency domains of 1 to 30MHz, 30 to 300MHz, and 300 to 750MHz. Consequently, it was found that the radiated electromagnetic energy by discharge does not always increase in proportion to charging voltage. In addition, it was shown that high speed touch discharges by charging voltage of 7 or 10kV increase electromagnetic energy especially in the frequency region of 300 to 750MHz. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Changing of Bacteria Catalase Activity Under the Influence of Electro-Magnetic Radiation on a Frequency of Nitric Oxide Absorption and Radiation Molecular Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shub

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of catalase activity degree changing in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described under the influence of electro-magnetic radiation on a frequency of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Central Scientific Research Institute of measuring equipment Public corporation, Saratov, was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the structure of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The growth of activity of the mentioned enzyme of the strains under research was detected. The most significant changes were observed under 60-minutes exposure.

  15. The Study on the Conductivity Performance and Shielding Effectiveness of Electro-magnetic Radiation of Polyethylene Film with Different Content of Carbon Black Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Run-jun; LAI Kan; ZHANG Jian-chun; HUO Yan

    2004-01-01

    With the help of the testing apparatus made by ourselves for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene film contained different content of carbon particles was systematically studied in this paper. The results indicate that the electric conductivity and shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic radiation of polyethylene /carbon film have closely relations with content of carbon black particles, which exists a critical content value as 14%~30% and its properties will have a tremendous change.

  16. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  17. Generating surface states in a Weyl semimetal by applying electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sen, Diptiman

    2017-04-01

    We show that the application of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation on the surface of a Weyl semimetal can generate states at that surface. These states can be characterized by their surface momentum. The Floquet eigenvalues ei θ of these states come in complex conjugate pairs rather than being equal to ±1 . If the amplitude of the radiation is small, we find some unusual bulk-boundary relations: the values of θ of the surface states lie at the extrema of the θ 's of the bulk system, and the peaks of the Fourier transforms of the surface state wave functions lie at the momenta where the bulk θ 's have extrema. For the case of zero surface momentum, we can analytically derive scaling relations between the decay length of the surface states and the amplitude and penetration length of the radiation. For topological insulators, we again find that circularly polarized radiation can generate states on the top surface; these states have much larger decay lengths than the surface states which are present even in the absence of radiation. Finally, we show that radiation can generate surface states for trivial insulators also.

  18. Spectral and angular radiation characteristics of a charged particle in the plane monochromatic electromagnetic wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Akintsov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relying upon the solution of the relativistic equation of charged-particle motion that was obtained by Rukhadze et al., the spectral and angular characteristics of ultra-relativistic intensive radiation of a relativistic charged particle have been studied, the particle being linearly accelerated by a superpower laser pulse. The case where the particle propagates in vacuum without brake light was examined. The interaction of the charged particle with the large-amplitude ultra-short laser pulse was analyzed in details using the relativistic consideration. Formulae for the average radiated power of the relativistic charged particle, depending on the initial conditions, the electromagnetic-wave amplitude, intensity and polarization were obtained. For the case where the laser pulse can be represented by a monochromatic plane wave, analytical expressions for the radiation characteristics were put forward and the phase-angular distributions of relativistic radiated power and intensity were found. The Fourier transform of the electric-intensity radiation field of the charged particle and the particle's spectral density radiation in the field of a plane monochromatic wave for different types of polarization (linear and circular ones were determined.

  19. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  20. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  1. Solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems using a spectral domain approach - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of some recent developments on the use of the spectral-domain approach for deriving high-frequency solutions to electromagnetics scattering and radiation problems. The spectral approach is not only useful for interpreting the well-known Keller formulas based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), it can also be employed for verifying the accuracy of GTD and other asymptotic solutions and systematically improving the results when such improvements are needed. The problem of plane wave diffraction by a finite screen or a strip is presented as an example of the application of the spectral-domain approach.

  2. The effect of electromagnetic radiation emitted by display screens on cell oxygen metabolism - in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela A; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-12-10

    Research studies carried out for decades have not solved the problem of the effect of electromagnetic radiation of various frequency and strength on the human organism. Due to this fact, we decided to investigate the changes taking place in human blood platelets under the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by LCD monitors. The changes of selected parameters of oxygen metabolism were measured, i.e. reactive oxygen species concentration, enzymatic activity of antioxidant defence proteins - superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and catalase (CAT) - and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA). A suspension of human blood platelets was exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity for 30 and 60 min. The level of changes of the selected parameters of oxidative stress was determined after the exposure and compared to the control samples (not exposed). The measurements revealed an increase of the concentration of reactive oxygen species. The largest increase of ROS concentration vs. the control sample was observed after exposure to EMF of 220 V/m intensity for 60 min (from x = 54.64 to x = 72.92). The measurement of MDA concentration demonstrated a statistically significant increase after 30-min exposure to an EMF of 220 V/m intensity in relation to the initial values (from x = 3.18 to x = 4.41). The enzymatic activity of SOD-1 decreased after exposure (the most prominent change was observed after 60-min and 220 V/m intensity from x = 3556.41 to x = 1084.83). The most significant change in activity of catalase was observed after 60 min and 220 v/m exposure (from x = 6.28 to x = 4.15). The findings indicate that exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity may cause adverse effects within blood platelets' oxygen metabolism and thus may lead to physiological dysfunction of the organism.

  3. Propolis Supplementation and the Changes in the Oxidative Metabolism of Blood Platelets Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrykowska Gabriela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Electromagnetic radiation (EMR that has an effect on living organisms may be a source of oxidative stress. A lack of proper compensation by antioxidant defences on the part of proteins leading to an uncontrolled growth of reactive forms of oxygen, which may give rise to numerous health conditions. Various scientific studies have indicated that propolis has multiple valuable medicinal properties: antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protective - in relation to liver parenchyma, as well as anti-cancer. Nonetheless, the results of studies concerned with its antioxidant capabilities are not explicit and require further tests and analyses.

  4. Electromagnetic Radiation from Arbitrarily Shaped Microstrip Antenna Using the Equivalent Dipole-Moment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiade Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent dipole-moment method (EDM is extended and applied in the analysis of electromagnetic (EM radiation by arbitrarily shaped microstrip antenna in this paper. The method of moments (MoM is used to solve the volume-surface integral equation (VSIE. A strip model is applied in the treatment of the feeding probe of the microstrip antenna, in which the discretized triangular elements of the excitation source are equivalent as dipole models. The proposed approach is sufficiently versatile in handling arbitrarily shaped microstrip antenna and is easily constructed through a simple procedure. Numerical results are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  5. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with magnetically functionalized CNT nanocomposite in the subterahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atdaev, A.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Labunov, V. A.; Prischepa, S. L., E-mail: prischepa@bsuir.by [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Basaev, A. S.; Shaman, Yu. P. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetically functionalized nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is considered using the model of random distribution of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the carbon matrix characterized by the presence of resistive–inductive–capacitive coupling (contours). The model is based on the representation of the nanocomposite as a system consisting of the CNT matrix, ferromagnetic nanoparticles, and the interfaces between CNTs and nanoparticles. The wide range of possible resonant phenomena caused both by the presence of contours and the properties of the CNT nanocomposite is shown.

  6. Controlling multipolar radiation with symmetries for electromagnetic bound states in the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2014-12-01

    Interferences in open systems embedded in a continuum can lead to states that are bound within the continuum itself. An electromagnetic state that naturally decays becomes bound at a unique point in phase space. We demonstrate the striking occurrence of multiple such peculiar states in coupled deep subwavelength resonators. The bound states in the continuum originate from the control of multipolar radiation and their symmetries. The architectures investigated here, using all-dielectric resonators, constitute a flexible and readily achievable platform for applications requiring strong light-matter interaction and light localization.

  7. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE HAZARDS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TO ORDNANCE: STATISTICAL TOLERANCE LIMIT CALCULATIONS WITH AND WITHOUT CENSORING OF THE DATA,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, PROBABILITY, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, MODEL TESTS, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , AIRCRAFT ANTENNAS, FLIGHT DECKS, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIO FIELDS, RADIO BEAMS, RANGE(DISTANCE), EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS.

  8. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE HAZARD OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TO ORDNANCE: CONSTRUCTION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS REQUIRED IN A PROBABILITY APPROACH--GROUND PLANE NUMBER ONE EXAMPLE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, PROBABILITY, AIRCRAFT ANTENNAS, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , FLIGHT DECKS, EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS, SHIPBOARD, ANGLE OF ATTACK, VOLTAGE, RADIOFREQUENCY, RANGE(DISTANCE), HANGARS.

  9. GLOBAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POLLUTION: RISK ASSESSMENT FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkopoulou, A. F.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    The extended use of wireless technology throughout the globe in almost all developed and non-developed countries has forced a large number of scientists to get involved in the investigation of the effects. The major issue is that unlike other forms of radiation exposure, this “non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation” was not present throughout the evolution of life in earth and therefore there are no adaptive mechanisms evolved. All organisms are vulnerable to the possible effects of radiation depending on the actual exposure level. “Safety limits” on the power density have been proposed but ongoing research has shown that these limits are not really safe for humans, not mentioning the entire population of living creatures on earth. The so called “Electrosmog Pollution” originating from the numerous radio and TV stations, communication satellite emission, but most importantly from mobile phone mast antennas, are of major concern, because it is gradually increasing at exponential rate. Therefore the key question is, do living organisms react upon their exposure to fields of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation? To have this question answered extensive research is being performed in various laboratories. One approach of our research includes field measurements within houses and classrooms, since a considerable proportion of the population in each country is exposed to the radiation coming from the nearby mast stations, in order to make a risk assessment. The measurements showed that in many cases the actual radiation present was potentially harmful. In other words, although the measured values were below the national safety levels, nevertheless they were above the levels of other countries. Therefore it has been suggested that a new cellular network should be constructed in order to minimize radiation levels in living areas and schools. Our experimental work is focusing on the elucidation of the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on mice exposed to mobile

  10. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  11. A New Agile Radiating System Called Electromagnetic Band Gap Matrix Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abou Taam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil and military applications are increasingly in need for agile antenna devices which respond to wireless telecommunications, radars, and electronic warfare requirements. The objective of this paper is to design a new agile antenna system called electromagnetic band gap (EBG matrix. The working principle of this antenna is based on the radiating aperture theory and constitutes the subject of an accepted CNRS patent. In order to highlight the interest and the originality of this antenna, we present a comparison between it and a classical patch array only for the (one-dimensional 1D configuration by using a rigorous full wave simulation (CST Microwave software. In addition, EBG matrix antenna can be controlled by specific synthesis algorithms. These algorithms use inside their; optimization loop an analysis procedure to evaluate the radiation pattern. The analysis procedure is described and validated at the end of this paper.

  12. Measurement Of Electromagnetic Field Radiation In The Internet Halls And Educational Computer Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Thiab Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     There are more concerns about possible health effects related to electromagnetic fields from computer monitors and other video display terminals because of the widespread using of computers in laboratories ,offices and internet halls. This research aims to detect the effect of electromagnetic field radiations in these halls and laboratories and study the successful ways of minimizing its negative  health  effect on human health. The research has been performed on both the mathematical calculations and practical measurements. The obtaining results show that the practical measurements are consistent with the  mathematical calculations results. Comparison of  these results with the safety standard guideline  limits shows that they are within the acceptable exposuring limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection  (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is within the acceptable limits.     

  13. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  14. A Hybrid Solvers Enhanced Integral Equation Domain Decomposition Method for Modeling of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid solvers based on integral equation domain decomposition method (HS-DDM are developed for modeling of electromagnetic radiation. Based on the philosophy of “divide and conquer,” the IE-DDM divides the original multiscale problem into many closed nonoverlapping subdomains. For adjacent subdomains, the Robin transmission conditions ensure the continuity of currents, so the meshes of different subdomains can be allowed to be nonconformal. It also allows different fast solvers to be used in different subdomains based on the property of different subdomains to reduce the time and memory consumption. Here, the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA and hierarchical (H- matrices method are combined in the framework of IE-DDM to enhance the capability of IE-DDM and realize efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic radiating problems. The MLFMA is used to capture propagating wave physics in large, smooth regions, while H-matrices are used to capture evanescent wave physics in small regions which are discretized with dense meshes. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the HS-DDM.

  15. Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Several publications in the scientific literature have raised concern about the individual and public health impact of adverse non-ionizing radiation (a-NIR) from electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure emanating from certain power, electrical and wireless devices commonly found in the home, workplace, school and community. Despite the many challenges in establishing irrefutable scientific proof of harm and the various gaps in elucidating the precise mechanisms of harm, epidemiological analyses continue to suggest considerable potential for injury and affliction as a result of a-NIR exposure. As environmental health has not been emphasized in medical education, some clinicians are not fully aware of possible EMF-related health problems and, as a result, manifestations of a-NIR may remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually managed. It is important for physicians and public health officials to be aware of the fundamental science and clinical implications of EMF exposure. A review of the scientific literature relating to the link between electromagnetic radiation and human health, several public health recommendations, and four case histories are presented for consideration.

  16. Disordered redox metabolism of brain cells in rats exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation or UHF electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, A P; Druzhyna, M O; Vovk, A V; Lukin, S М

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the changes of redox-state of mammalian brain cells as the critical factor of initiation and formation of radiation damage of biological structures in setting of continuous exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation or fractionated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) at non-thermal levels. The influence of low-intensity ionizing radiation was studied on outbred female rats kept for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl accident zone. The effects of total EMR in the UHF band of non-thermal spectrum were investigated on Wistar rats. The rate of formation of superoxide radicals and the rate of NO synthesis in mitochondria were determined by the EPR. After exposure to ionizing or UHF radiation, the levels of ubisemiquinone in brain tissue of rats decreased by 3 and 1.8 times, respectively. The content of NO-FeS-protein complexes in both groups increased significantly (р < 0.05). In the conditions of ionizing or EMR the rates of superoxide radical generation in electron-transport chain of brain cell mitochondria increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively (р < 0.05). In brain tissue of rats kept in the Chernobyl zone, significant increase of NO content was registered; similar effect was observed in rats treated with UHFR (р < 0.05). The detected changes in the electron transport chain of mitochondria of brain cells upon low-intensity irradiation or UHF EMR cause the metabolic reprogramming of cell mitochondria that increases the rate of superoxide radical generation and nitric oxide, which may initiate the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  17. Application of «Sensor signal analysis network» complex for distributed, time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Vladimir; Mochalova, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers a developing software-hardware complex «Sensor signal analysis network» for distributed and time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiations. The areas of application and the main features of the complex are described. An example of application of the complex to monitor natural electromagnetic radiation sources is considered based on the data recorded in VLF range. A generalized functional scheme of stream analysis of signals by a complex functional node is suggested and its application for stream detection of atmospherics, whistlers and tweaks is considered.

  18. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel due to the scattering of electrons by impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpunin, V. V.; Margulis, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    We have found an analytical expression for the absorption coefficient of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum channel with a parabolic confinement potential. The calculation has been performed using the second-order perturbation theory taking into account the scattering of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas by ionized impurities. We have analyzed the dependences of the absorption coefficient on the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and the magnetic field. The appearance of additional resonant peaks, which are caused by scattering by impurities, has been found.

  19. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20-200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atdayev, Agylych; Danilyuk, Alexander L; Prischepa, Serghej L

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive-inductive-capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Application of «Sensor signal analysis network» complex for distributed, time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochalov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a developing software-hardware complex «Sensor signal analysis network» for distributed and time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiations. The areas of application and the main features of the complex are described. An example of application of the complex to monitor natural electromagnetic radiation sources is considered based on the data recorded in VLF range. A generalized functional scheme of stream analysis of signals by a complex functional node is suggested and its application for stream detection of atmospherics, whistlers and tweaks is considered.

  1. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the 20–200 GHz frequency range with arrays of carbon nanotubes with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agylych Atdayev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNT is considered within the model of distributed random nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology. The approach is based on a system composed of a CNT conducting resistive matrix, ferromagnetic inductive nanoparticles and the capacitive interface between the CNT matrix and the nanoparticles, which form resonance resistive–inductive–capacitive circuits. It is shown that the influence of the resonant circuits leads to the emergence of specific resonances, namely peaks and valleys in the frequency dependence of the permeability of the nanocomposite, and in the frequency dependence of the reflection and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary sources in the presence of axially magnetized cylindrical plasma scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es’kin, V. A.; Ivoninsky, A. V.; Kudrin, A. V., E-mail: kud@rf.unn.ru; Popova, L. L. [Lobachevsky University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Electromagnetic radiation from filamentary electric-dipole and magnetic-current sources of infinite length in the presence of gyrotropic cylindrical scatterers in the surrounding free space is studied. The scatterers are assumed to be infinitely long, axially magnetized circular plasma columns parallel to the axis of the filamentary source. The field and the radiation pattern of each source are calculated in the case where the source frequency is equal to one of the surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown that the presence of even a single resonant magnetized plasma scatterer of small electrical radius or a few such scatterers significantly affects the total fields of the filamentary sources, so that their radiation patterns become essentially different from those in the absence of scatterers or the presence of isotropic scatterers of the same shape and size. It is concluded that the radiation characteristics of the considered sources can efficiently be controlled using their resonance interaction with the neighboring gyrotropic scatterers.

  3. Extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation enhances neutrophil response to particulate agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Gusev, Alexandr A; Balabushevich, Nadezhda G; Gusev, Sergey A; Kazarinov, Konstantin D

    2018-02-01

    The growing use of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in information and communication technology and in biomedical applications has raised concerns regarding the potential biological impact of millimeter waves (MMWs). Here, we elucidated the effects of MMW radiation on neutrophil activation induced by opsonized zymosan or E. coli in whole blood ex vivo. After agonist addition to blood, two samples were prepared. A control sample was incubated at ambient conditions without any treatment, and a test sample was exposed to EHF EMR (32.9-39.6 GHz, 100 W/m 2 ). We used methods that allowed us to assess the functional status of neutrophils immediately after exposure: oxidant production levels were measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and morphofunctional changes to neutrophils were observed in blood smears. Results revealed that the response of neutrophils to both agonists was intensified if blood was exposed to MMW radiation for 15 min. Neutrophils were intact in both the control and irradiated samples if no agonist was added to blood before incubation. Similarly, exposing suspensions of isolated neutrophils in plasma to MMW radiation enhanced cell response to both zymosan and E. coli. Heating blood samples was shown to be the primary mechanism underlying enhanced EHF EMR-induced oxidant production by neutrophils in response to particulate agonists. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:144-155, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  5. Electrons in strong electromagnetic fields: spin effects and radiation reaction (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Heiko; Wen, Meng; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2017-05-01

    Various different classical models of electrons including their spin degree of freedom are commonly applied to describe the coupled dynamics of relativistic electron motion and spin precession in strong electromagnetic fields. The spin dynamics is usually governed by the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation [1, 2] in these models, while the electron's orbital motion follows the (modified) Lorentz force and a spin-dependent Stern-Gerlach force. Various classical models can lead to different or even contradicting predictions how the spin degree of freedom modifies the electron's orbital motion when the electron moves in strong electromagnetic fields. This discrepancy is rooted in the model-specific energy dependency of the spin induced relativistic Stern-Gerlach force acting on the electron. The Frenkel model [3, 4] and the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model 5 are compared exemplarily against each other and against the quantum mechanical Dirac equation in order to identify parameter regimes where these classical models make different predictions [6, 7]. Our theoretical results allow for experimental tests of these models. In the setup of the longitudinal Stern-Gerlach effect, the Frenkel model and classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model lead in the relativistic limit to qualitatively different spin effects on the electron trajectory. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that in tightly focused beams in the near infrared the effect of the Stern-Gerlach force of the Frenkel model becomes sufficiently large to be potentially detectable in an experiment. Among the classical spin models, the Frenkel model is certainly prominent for its long history and its wide application. Our results, however, suggest that the classical Foldy-Wouthuysen model is superior as it is qualitatively in better agreement with the quantum mechanical Dirac equation. In ultra strong laser setups at parameter regimes where effects of the Stern-Gerlach force become relevant also radiation reaction effects are

  6. Electromagnetic radiation and health risks: Cell phones and microwave radiation in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.

    1996-07-01

    Presently the public is concerned over the proliferation of cellphone repeater sites around the cities of New Zealand and whether they pose a risk to health. The debate continued for some weeks over the proposal to erect a cellphone repeater in a school yard. The issues that came out of that debate are profiled in this paper -- environmental health professionals need to be able to communicate well-judged advice to their employers. Cellular phone networks use relatively low-powered transmitters to restrict coverage to a circumscribed locality and thereby enable particular carrier frequencies to be used simultaneously at different cell sites in the same general area. Compared with TV and radio broadcasting, the radiation power levels near cell sites are therefore relatively small. Broadcast transmission antennae are designed to confine the radiation so that it doesn`t go in directions where it is not required or not wanted.

  7. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  8. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  9. Electromagnetic malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters caused by access control systems for radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Ariga, Eiji; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hirota, Masahiro; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2006-08-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields in the 120 kHz band emitted from card readers for access control systems in radiation control areas cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs). All SEPDs malfunctioned but recovered their normal performance by resetting after the exposure ceased. The minimum distances required to prevent electromagnetic interference varied from 5.0 to 38.0 cm. The electric and magnetic immunity levels ranged from 35.1 to 267.6 V m(-1) and from 1.0 to 16.6 A m(-1), respectively. Electromagnetic immunity levels of SEPDs should be strengthened from the standpoint of radiation protection.

  10. A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering using an on-surface radiation boundary condition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Gregory A.; Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Koradar R.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering by convex, two-dimensional conducting bodies is reported. This formulation, called the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) approach, is based upon an expansion of the radiation condition applied directly on the surface of a scatterer. It is now shown that application of a suitable radiation condition directly on the surface of a convex conducting scatterer can lead to substantial simplification of the frequency-domain integral equation for the scattered field, which is reduced to just a line integral. For the transverse magnetic case, the integrand is known explicitly. For the transverse electric case, the integrand can be easily constructed by solving an ordinary differential equation around the scatterer surface contour. Examples are provided which show that OSRC yields computed near and far fields which approach the exact results for canonical shapes such as the circular cylinder, square cylinder, and strip. Electrical sizes for the examples are ka = 5 and ka = 10. The new OSRC formulation of scattering may present a useful alternative to present integral equation and uniform high-frequency approaches for convex cylinders larger than ka = 1. Structures with edges or corners can also be analyzed, although more work is needed to incorporate the physics of singular currents at these discontinuities. Convex dielectric structures can also be treated using OSRC.

  11. REBAL '92-A Cooperative Radiation and Energy Balance Field Study for Imagery and Electromagnetic Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold; Rachele, Henry; Hansen, Frank V.; Howell, Terry A.; Steiner, Jean L.; Schneider, Ariand D.; Evett, Steve R.

    1994-03-01

    The surface energy balance directly affects vertical gradients in temperature and specific humidity within the atmospheric surface layer, and these gradients influence optical turbulence. This study was conducted to improve current understanding of the partitioning of energy at the ground surface of a bare soil field and its influence on the character and intensity of optical turbulence as represented by the refractive index structure parameter, Cn2 and to improve micrometeorological models of the surface energy balance. The field study entitled "Radiation Energy Balance Experiment for Imagery and Electromagnetic Propagation" was conducted by the United States Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, at Bushland, Texas, during May and July 1992. The following were collected: diurnal radiation: evaporation (directly measured by large weighing lysimeters); five-level micrormeteorological profiles of windspeed, air temperature, and relative humility; soil temperature and volumetric water content; soil heat flux; optical turbulence (scintillometer); and near-and far-field infrared imager data over wet and dry bare soil for clear and cloudy sky conditions. Initial results from the modeling efforts indicate excellent agreement between measured and modeled values of radiation energy balance fluxes and Cn2 for one day. Future model evaluation will extend over the wide range of conditions encountered during the field study.

  12. Controlled formation of gold nanostructures on biopolymer films upon electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescola, Andrea; Canale, Claudio; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-10-01

    The localized formation of gold nanostructures with controlled size and shape on chitosan films doped with gold precursor upon electromagnetic irradiation of various types is demonstrated here. Such controlled formation is achieved by tuning the wavelength, the energy and the interaction time of the radiation with the composite films. In particular, the use of a single UV nanosecond laser pulse results in the formation of gold sub-micron platelets with specific crystal structure, while increasing the number of pulses, further precursor reduction and photofragmentation induce the formation of gold nanoparticles. Using x-ray radiation as an alternative energy source, the reduction of the gold precursor and the subsequent formation of particles follow a different pathway. Specifically, x-ray-induced photo-reduction triggers the selective formation of gold sub-micron platelets with a very well defined {111} crystal phase. In this case, the density of crystal platelets increases by increasing the irradiation time of the films, while no photofragmentation process is observed. The gold structures pre-formed by x-ray radiation can be fragmented by subsequent pulsed UV laser irradiation forming nanoparticles with much narrower size distribution compared to that obtained via exclusive UV irradiation. Thanks to the perfect coupling between the natural polymeric matrix and gold nanostructures, the bionanocomposite systems developed could find various applications in biomaterial science and in biosensors field.

  13. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  14. Polarization of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the lobes of Jupiter's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, S. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    The plasma wave instruments on the Voyager spacecraft have detected intense electromagnetic radiation within the lobes of Jupiter's magnetic tail down to the lowest frequency of the detector (10 Hz). During a yaw maneuver performed by Voyager 1 in the lobe of the Jovian magnetotail, a modulation appeared in the amplitudes of waves detected in the 10-, 17.8- and 31.1-Hz channels of the plasma wave analyzer, well below the local electron cyclotron frequency of 260 Hz. The lowest amplitudes occurred when the antenna axis was most nearly parallel to the magnetic field. Wave amplitudes in the 56.2-Hz and higher frequency channels remained nearly constant during the maneuver. From the cold-plasma theory of electromagnetic waves, it is concluded that the plasma frequency was between the 56.2- and 31.1-Hz channels where the parallel-polarized component of the spectrum cuts off. This implies a tail-lobe density between 0.000032 and 0.000015/cu cm. The left-hand cutoff frequency would then be below 10 Hz, consistent with either the Z-mode (L, X) or whistlers (R-mode) in the modulated channels.

  15. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Willie M U; Pitout, Ianthe L; Afullo, Thomas J O; Mabandla, Musa V

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is emitted from electromagnetic fields that surround power lines, household appliances and mobile phones. Research has shown that there are connections between EMR exposure and cancer and also that exposure to EMR may result in structural damage to neurons. In a study by Salford et al. (Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883, 2003) the authors demonstrated the presence of strongly stained areas in the brains of rats that were exposed to mobile phone EMR. These darker neurons were particularly prevalent in the hippocampal area of the brain. The aim of our study was to further investigate the effects of EMR. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and emotional states, we hypothesised that EMR will have a negative impact on the subject's mood and ability to learn. We subsequently performed behavioural, histological and biochemical tests on exposed and unexposed male and female rats to determine the effects of EMR on learning and memory, emotional states and corticosterone levels. We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggested that EMR exposure may lead to abnormal brain functioning.

  16. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  17. A critical discussion of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR method to determine stress orientations within the crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krumbholz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the electromagnetic radiation (EMR method has been used to detect faults and to determine main horizontal stress directions from variations in intensities and directional properties of electromagnetic emissions, which are assumed to be generated during micro-cracking. Based on a large data set taken from an area of about 250 000 km2 in Northern Germany, Denmark, and southern Sweden with repeated measurements at one location during a time span of about 1.5 yr, the method was systematically tested. Reproducible observations of temporary changes in the signal patterns, as well as a strongly concentric spatial pattern of the main directions of the magnetic component of the EMR point to very low frequency (VLF transmitters as the main source and hence raise serious concerns about the applicability of the method to determine recent crustal stresses. We conclude that the EMR method, at its current stage of development, does not allow determination of the main horizontal stress directions.

  18. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  19. Analytic solution for electrons and holes in graphene under electromagnetic radiation: gap appearance and non-linear current effects

    OpenAIRE

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Lopez-Rodriguez, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    We find the exact solution of graphene s carriers under electromagnetic radiation. To obtain such solution, we combine Floquet theory with a trial solution. Then the energy spectrum is obtained without using any approximation. Using such results, we prove that the energy spectrum presents a gap opening which depends on de radiation frequency and electric wave intensity, whereas the current shows a strongly non-linear behaviour.

  20. Research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of the gas main switch of a capacitive intense electron-beam accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Qiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Strong electromagnetic fields are radiated during the operation of the intense electron-beam accelerator (IEBA, which may lead to the nearby electronic devices out of order. In this paper, the research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristic of the gas main switch of a capacitive IEBA is carried out by the methods of theory analysis and experiment investigation. It is obtained that the gas main switch is the dominating radiation resource. In the absence of electromagnetic shielding for the gas main switch, when the pulse forming line of the IEBA is charged to 700 kV, the radiation field with amplitude of 3280 V/m, dominant frequency of 84 MHz and high frequency 100 MHz is obtained at a distance of 10 meters away from the gas main switch. The experimental results of the radiation field agree with the theoretical calculations. We analyze the achievements of several research groups and find that there is a relationship between the rise time (T of the transient current of the gas main switch and the dominant frequency (F of the radiation field, namely, F*T=1. Contrast experiment is carried out with a metal shield cover for the gas main switch. Experimental results show that for the shielded setup the radiation field reduces to 115 V/m, the dominant frequency increases to 86.5 MHz at a distance of 10 away meters from the gas main switch. These conclusions are beneficial for further research on the electromagnetic radiation and protection of the IEBA.

  1. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  2. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  3. The Spectral Statistical Method for Determining the Location Parameters of a Dipole Source of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyukov, A. V.; Bogushov, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Using the measured horizontal and vertical components of the magnetic and electric fields, respectively, we solve the problem of determining the location of a dipole source of electromagnetic radiation, which is equivalent to the lightning discharge, at the specified point of an infinitely conducting plane. The proposed method, which is based on the analysis of the measured-signal spectra, allows one to develop many estimates of the source location, choose the final estimate on the basis of the results of analysis of the entire totality of these estimates, and, therefore, reach stability in determining the source location. The spectral method makes it possible to obtain more stable solutions at a lower computation cost compared with the previously developed parametric extremum method. The spectral-method algorithm can be naturally parallelized. The results of the analytical and numerical studies of the accuracy and stability of the proposed method are presented.

  4. Active control of electromagnetic radiation through an enhanced thermo-optic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A

    2015-03-09

    The control of electromagnetic radiation in transformation optical metamaterials brings the development of vast variety of optical devices. Of a particular importance is the possibility to control the propagation of light with light. In this work, we use a structured planar cavity to enhance the thermo-optic effect in a transformation optical waveguide. In the process, a control laser produces apparent inhomogeneous refractive index change inside the waveguides. The trajectory of a second probe laser beam is then continuously tuned in the experiment. The experimental results agree well with the developed theory. The reported method can provide a new approach toward development of transformation optical devices where active all-optical control of the impinging light can be achieved.

  5. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  6. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. How to Explain the Non-Zero Mass of Electromagnetic Radiation Consisting of Zero-Mass Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Gabovich, Nadezhda A.

    2007-01-01

    The mass of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity is considered using the correct relativistic approach based on the concept of a scalar mass not dependent on the particle (system) velocity. It is shown that due to the non-additivity of mass in the special theory of relativity the ensemble of chaotically propagating mass-less photons in the cavity…

  8. Prostate tumor alignment and continuous, real-time adaptive radiation therapy using electromagnetic fiducials: clinical and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Martin M; Mate, Timothy P; Sylvester, John E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy, utility, and cost effectiveness of a new electromagnetic patient positioning and continuous, real-time monitoring system, which uses permanently implanted resonant transponders in the target (Calypso 4D Localization System and Beacon transponders, Seattle, WA) to continuously monitor tumor location and movement during external beam radiation therapy of the prostate. This clinical trial studied 43 patients at 5 sites. All patients were implanted with 3 transponders each. In 41 patients, the system was used for initial alignment at each therapy session. Thirty-five patients had continuous monitoring during their radiation treatment. Over 1,000 alignment comparisons were made to a commercially available kV X-ray positioning system (BrainLAB ExacTrac, Munich, Germany). Using decision analysis and Markov processes, the outcomes of patients were simulated over a 5-year period and measured in terms of costs from a payer's perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All patients had satisfactory transponder implantations for monitoring purposes. In over 75% of the treatment sessions, the correction to conventional positioning (laser and tattoos) directed by an electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system was greater than 5 mm. Ninety-seven percent (34/35) of the patients who underwent continuous monitoring had target motion that exceeded preset limits at some point during the course of their radiation therapy. Exceeding preset thresholds resulted in user intervention at least once during the therapy in 80% of the patients (28/35). Compared with localization using ultrasound, electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), or computed tomography (CT), localization with the electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system yielded superior gains in QALYs at comparable costs. Most patients positioned with conventional tattoos and lasers for prostate radiation therapy were found by use of the electromagnetic patient positioning

  9. Scattering and Diffraction of Electromagnetic Radiation: An Effective Probe to Material Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Scattered electromagnetic waves from material bodies of different forms contain, in an intricate way, precise information on the intrinsic, geometrical and physical properties of the objects. Scattering theories, ever deepening, aim to provide dependable interpretation and prediction to the complicated interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are well-established multiple-scattering formulations based on classical electromagnetic theories. An example is the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM), which has recently been extended to a special version ? the GMM-PA approach, applicable to finite periodic arrays consisting of a huge number (e.g., >>106) of identical scattering centers [1]. The framework of the GMM-PA is nearly complete. When the size of the constituent unit scatterers becomes considerably small in comparison with incident wavelength, an appropriate array of such small element volumes may well be a satisfactory representation of a material entity having an arbitrary structure. X-ray diffraction is a powerful characterization tool used in a variety of scientific and technical fields, including material science. A diffraction pattern is nothing more than the spatial distribution of scattered intensity, determined by the distribution of scattering matter by way of its Fourier transform [1]. Since all linear dimensions entered into Maxwell's equations are normalized by wavelength, an analogy exists between optical and X-ray diffraction patterns. A large set of optical diffraction patterns experimentally obtained can be found in the literature [e.g., 2,3]. Theoretical results from the GMM-PA have been scrutinized using a large collection of publically accessible, experimentally obtained Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. As far as characteristic structures of the patterns are concerned, theoretical and experimental results are in uniform agreement; no exception has been found so far. Closely connected with the spatial distribution of

  10. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  11. Effect of Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation (Electromagnetic Fields on Human System: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rubya Souza C and acirc;mara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate presence of radio base stations, which emit non-ionizing radiation (NIR, as well as the frequent use of mobile phones, can cause increased susceptibility of populations to the emergence of diseases such as cancers of the head and neck, biochemical, hematopoietic and hepatic changes, among others. Exposure to physical contamination, including NIR, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread sources of exposure to this type of radiation. This paper reviews studies that have assessed associations between likely exposure to electromagnetic fields, such as radiofrequency transmissions, and many kinds of human diseases including cancer, as well as alerts to the current knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to NIR and the risk of development of adverse human health effects. This way, there appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 187-190

  12. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and radiation belt relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are long suggested to account for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. Here we perform both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to comprehensively investigate the nonlinear interaction between EMIC wave and relativistic electrons. In particular, we emphasize the dependence of nonlinear processes on the electron initial latitude. The nonlinear phase trapping yields negative equatorial pitch angle transport, with efficiency varying over the electron initial latitude, implying that it can increase the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear channel effect phase bunching produces positive equatorial pitch angle transport, less dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can decrease the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear cluster effect phase bunching alternately causes positive and negative equatorial pitch angle transport, quasi-periodically dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can either decrease or increase the loss rate predicted by the quasilinear theory. Such latitudinal dependence of nonlinear processes should be taken into account in the evaluation of radiation belt electron loss rate driven by EMIC waves.

  13. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  14. The concept of apparent polarizability for calculating the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by porous aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, C.; Adler, G.

    2017-04-01

    In the current study, the electromagnetic properties of porous aerosol particles are calculated in two ways. In the first, a porous target input file is generated by carving out voids in an otherwise homogeneous particle, and the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is used to compute the extinction efficiency of the particle assuming that the voids are near vacuum dielectrics and assuming random particle orientation. In the second, an effective medium approximation (EMA) style approach is employed in which an apparent polarizability of the voids is defined based on the well-known solution to the problem in classical electrostatics of a spherical cavity within a dielectric. It is found that for porous particles with smaller overall diameter with respect to the wavelength of incident radiation, describing the voids as near vacuum dielectrics within the DDA sufficiently reproduces measured values of extinction efficiency, whereas for porous particles with moderate to larger overall diameters with respect to the wavelength of the radiation, the apparent polarizability EMA approach better reproduces the measured values of extinction efficiency.

  15. Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Takashi, Asaeda; Kimura, Yuichi

    2014-12-01

    Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8 GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30 min, 1 h and 24 h durations with electric field strength of 45-50 V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal.

  16. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill G.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration self-organization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods. The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results. UHF-Radiation (1GHz, 0,1 uW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion. 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the lipopolysaccharide structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  17. Immune responses of a wall lizard to whole-body exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Despoina; Sagonas, Kostas; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Margaritis, Lukas H; Tsitsilonis, Ourania E; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2016-01-01

    During the last three decades, the number of devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the wireless communication spectrum has rapidly increased and possible effects on living organisms have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency EMR emitted by a widely used wireless communication device, namely the Digital Enhanced Communication Telephony (DECT) base, on the immune responses of the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii). Adult male lizards were exposed 24 h/day for 8 weeks to 1880-1900 MHz DECT base radiation at average electric field intensity of 3.2 V/m. Immune reactivity was assessed using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin swelling and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) tests. Our results revealed a noticeable suppression (approximately 45%) of inflammatory responses in EMR-exposed lizards compared to sham-exposed animals. T cell-mediated responses were marginally affected. Daily radiofrequency EMR exposure seems to affect, at least partially, the immunocompetence of the Aegean wall lizard.

  18. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory E. Brill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration selforganization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Material and Methods — The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial LPS. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results — Low-intensity ultra high frequency (UHF radiation (1 GHz, 0.1 μW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion — 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the LPS structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  19. Quantum solid state mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation with emphasis on local superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achimowicz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to review quantum solid state mechanisms of nonthermal (specific) bioeffects of nonionizing radiation and to present the author's own hypothesis concerning mechanisms based on biological superconductivity. Classical and quantum mechanisms of bioeffects are compared stressing the necessity of not only considering quantum absorption, transfer, and conversion of radiation energy in biological systems, but also of appropriate systems modeling. The need is stressed for developing quantum models of the biological solid state on the supramolecular level to fill the gap between molecular and cell biology. The supramolecular models of macromolecules and enzyme complexes will be reviewed. The high-temperature superconductivity problem in organic systems will be discussed with stress on the importance of system structure and the excitation quasi-particle (phonon and electron) spectra relationship. New mechanisms of enzymatic activity assuming enzyme-substrate complex electron spectrum instability induced by electron- and phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction are proposed. Since this quantum cooperative phenomenon is the possible origin of specificity and efficiency of enzyme action it is extremely sensitive to system-generated electromagnetic fields, which gives the possibility of enzymatic regulation and also may explain some nonthermal resonant bioeffects. Local superconductivity (coherent electron states) and Josephson effects as the possible mechanisms of bioeffects are discussed.

  20. Cell phone electromagnetic field radiations affect rhizogenesis through impairment of biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Sharma, Ved Parkash; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Indiscriminate adoption and use of cell phone technology has tremendously increased the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMFr) in the natural environment. It has raised the concerns among the scientists regarding the possible risks of EMFr to living organisms. However, not much has been done to assess the damage caused to plants that are continuously exposed to EMFr present in the environment. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanism of interference of 900 MHz cell phone EMFr with root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata syn. Phaseolus aureus) hypocotyls, a model system to study rhizogenesis in plants. Cell phone EMFr enhanced the activities of proteases (by 1.52 to 2.33 times), polyphenol oxidases (by 1.5 to 4.3 times), and peroxidases (by 1.5 to 2.0 times) in mung bean hypocotyls over control. Further, EMFr enhanced malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation), hydrogen peroxide, and proline content, indicating a reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative damage in hypocotyls. It was confirmed by the upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) suggesting their possible role in providing protection against EMFr-induced oxidative damage. The study concluded that cell phone radiations affect the process of rhizogenesis through biochemical alterations that manifest as oxidative damage resulting in root impairment.

  1. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed

    2014-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic field (EMF) generating apparatuses such as cell phones is increasing, and has caused an interest in the investigations of its effects on human health. We analyzed proteome in preparations from the whole testis in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days, simulating a range of possible human cell phone use. Subjects were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment and testes fractions were solubilized and separated via high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, and gel patterns were scanned, digitized, and processed. Thirteen proteins, which were found only in sham or in exposure groups, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among them, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency modulated EMFs exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30-day exposure to EMF radiation induces nonthermal stress in testicular tissue. The functional implication of the identified proteins was discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Coherent THz electromagnetic radiation emission as a diagnostic of ultrafast phase transformations in shocked CdSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan; Armstrong, Michael; Kim, Kiyong; Glownia, James; Howard, William; Piner, Edwin; Roberts, John

    2009-06-01

    We review our experimental observations of THz radiation from shocked piezoelectric materials. Using molecular dynamics simulations coupled to Maxwell's equations, we show that the ultrafast transformation of wurtzite CdSe to high pressure phases under shock compression is accompanied by detectable electromagnetic radiation emission. The radiation is in the 100 GHz frequency range, corresponding to the timescale of the onset of the phase transformation. The sign of the electric field contains information about the atomic transformation pathway. This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  4. Adaptive radiation therapy for postprostatectomy patients using real-time electromagnetic target motion tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-03-15

    Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: -0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  6. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring during stereotactic liver radiation therapy: First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Worm, Esben Schjødt; Hansen, Rune; Larsen, Lars Peter; Grau, Cai; Høyer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction motion may compromise the target dose in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of tumors in the liver. Respiratory gating can improve the treatment delivery, but gating based on an external surrogate signal may be inaccurate. This is the first paper reporting on respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic monitoring during liver SBRT. Two patients with solitary liver metastases were treated with respiratory-gated SBRT guided by three implanted electromagnetic transponders. The treatment was delivered in end-exhale with beam-on when the centroid of the three transponders deviated less than 3 mm [left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions] and 4mm [cranio-caudal (CC)] from the planned position. For each treatment fraction, log files were used to determine the transponder motion during beam-on in the actual gated treatments and in simulated treatments without gating. The motion was used to reconstruct the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) with and without gating. The reduction in D95 (minimum dose to 95% of the CTV) relative to the plan was calculated for both treatment courses. With gating the maximum course mean (standard deviation) geometrical error in any direction was 1.2 mm (1.8 mm). Without gating the course mean error would mainly increase for Patient 1 [to -2.8 mm (1.6 mm) (LR), 7.1 mm (5.8 mm) (CC), -2.6 mm (2.8mm) (AP)] due to a large systematic cranial baseline drift at each fraction. The errors without gating increased only slightly for Patient 2. The reduction in CTV D95 was 0.5% (gating) and 12.1% (non-gating) for Patient 1 and 0.3% (gating) and 1.7% (non-gating) for Patient 2. The mean duty cycle was 55%. Respiratory gating based on internal electromagnetic motion monitoring was performed for two liver SBRT patients. The gating added robustness to the dose delivery and ensured a high CTV dose even in the presence of large intrafraction motion.

  7. [Measurement and study report as a part of the control system for human safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation (0 Hz-300 GHz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2007-01-01

    The National Control System for safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (0 Hz-300 GHz) is constantly analyzed in view of Directive 2004/40/EC. Reports on the effects of investments (at the designing stage or at the stage of looking for their localization) on the environment and measurement and study reports on the objects already existing or being put into operation are important elements of this system. These documents should meet both national and European Union's legislation requirements. The overriding goal of the control system is safety and health protection of humans against electromagnetic fields in the environment and in occupational settings. The author pays a particular attention to provisions made in directives issued by relevant ministers and to Polish standards, which should be documented in measurement and study reports published by the accredited laboratories and relating to the problems of human safety and health protection. Similar requirements are valid for the Reports. Therefore, along with measurement outcomes, the reports should include data on the EMF exposure classification at work-posts and the assessment of occupational risk resulting from EMF exposure or at least thorough data facilitating such a classification.

  8. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF MIXED EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND LOW POSITIVE TEMPERATURE ON ANIMALS’ ORGANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovchenko O.L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, biochemical mechanisms of mixed effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR and cold on the body are not adequately studied, so this problem is urgent for modern medicine. Purpose of study. Establishing pathognomonic criteria and biochemical mechanisms of adverse effect of EMR on the organism of laboratory animals in conditions of cold stress. Materials and methods. The laboratory subacute experiment was carried out on mature white male rats of WAG line, weighing 190-220 g for 1 month. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals in each group. The first group was subjected to the isolated action of electromagnetic radiation (frequency 70 kHz, tension 600 V/m at a comfortable air temperature of 25 ± 2 ° C. The second group was subjected to the mixed action of EMR and low temperature 4 ± 2°C. The third group served as a control with regard to the first group, and the fourth group - with regard to the second, at air temperature of 25 ± 2°C. Expositions were carried out 5 times a week (for 4:00 every day. To identify changes in biochemical parameters studied during the experiments, blood sampling was performed at the stages of 5, 15, 30 days and urine sampling – at the stages of 15, 30 days in dynamics. Blood serum was used as biomaterial. It was determined the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated diene, content of SH-groups, superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, triglycerides, atherogenic index was determined, the level of urea, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, content of chlorides, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, glucose, and catalase activity. Renal function was studied by the content of creatinine, cholinesterase, urea, uric acid, chlorides, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and glucose in urine. Results and discussion. The findings showed that the isolated action of EMR only led to a

  9. A numerical coefficient for evaluation of the environmental impact of electromagnetic fields radiated by base stations for mobile communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Cerri, G; Vespasiani, V

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is the development of an Electromagnetic Environmental Impact Factor (EEIF). This is a global parameter that represents the level of electromagnetic impact on a specific area due to the presence of radiating systems, such as base station (BS) antennas for mobile communications. The numerical value of the EEIF depends only on the electromagnetic field intensity, a well-defined physical quantity that can easily be measured or computed. The paper describes the significant parameters of the field distribution adopted to evaluate the EEIF, and the assumptions used to develop a proper scale of values. Finally, some examples of application of the EEIF method are analyzed for real situations in a typical urban area. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  11. Influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like electromagnetic radiation exposure on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet; Kırdemır, Vecihi; Kocak, Ahmet; Atay, Tolga; Baydar, Metin Lütfi; Özerdemoglu, Remzi Arif; Aydogan, Nevres Hürriyet

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether 1800 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has an effect on bone healing. A total of 30 Wistar albino rats were divided into two equal groups. Fractures were created in the right tibias of all rats; next, intramedullary fixations with K-wire were performed. A control group (Group I) was kept under the same experimental conditions except without EMR exposure. Rats in Group II were exposed to an 1800 MHz frequency EMR for 30 min a day for 5 days a week. Next, radiological, mechanical, and histological examinations were performed to evaluate tibial fracture healing. Radiological, histological and mechanical scores were not significantly different between groups (respectively, p = 0.114, p = 0.184 and p = 0.083), and all of these scores were lower than those of the controls. EMR at 1800 MHz frequency emitted from cellular phones has no effect on bone fracture healing. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the characteristics of coal rock electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and the main influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Zhang, Zhibo; Cheng, Fuqi; Chen, Peng; Liu, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Coal rock would produce electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the loading process, but study on the influence factors influence on the coal rock EMR characteristics in the mesoscopic level is not insufficient. In the paper, the EMR characteristics of coal and rock samples under uniaxial loading are studied. Several typical microcosmic mechanisms affecting the characteristics of EMR are discussed, such as strength, composition and microstructure of the samples. Results show that the macroscopic structure of the outburst coal is soft, the corresponding EMR signal increases slowly with the loading increase and the EMR peak is smaller. The rockburst coal has a strong brittleness, the EMR signal increases quickly and EMR peak appears while the coal breaks is larger than the outburst coal. The EMR characteristics of rock samples are similar to the rockburst coal, but the EMR peak is the largest. When the coal rock microstructure is complete, the coal rock block is larger and the brittleness is stronger, then the corresponding strength would be larger. And the free charge generated by thermal excitation, field emission and intergranular chemical bond breakage would also be more. In the meantime, the crack propagation rate becomes greater, therefore the EMR is more stronger. The piezoelectric effect is mainly caused by the linear elastic stage of the specimen deformation and rupture, which contributes less to the EMR signals. This study is of great theoretical and practical value for assessing the mechanical state of coal rock through EMR technology, and accurately monitoring and predicting the coal rock dynamic disasters.

  13. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  14. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  15. Stress and Fatigue in Operators Under Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR on stress indices, health complaints and fatigue of operators working fast-rotating extended shifts. Working conditions, job content, job control, social support, health complaints and fatigue were followed in 220 operators, 110 exposed to EMR and 110 control operators, matched by age and sex. The EMR was measured and time-weighted average (TWA was calculated. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the extended shifts in 36 operators, working at different levels of exposure and 24-hour exposure was calculated. The exposed group pointed more problems with the working conditions, including EMR, noise, currents and risk of accidents, more health complaints and higher level of fatigue. The most common health complaints were mental and physical exhaustion after work, pains in the chest, musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and apathy. High level EMR exposure (TWAmean = 3.10 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 μW/cm2 significantly increased the 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline, whereas the increase of adrenaline excretion did not reach significance, as well as hormone excretion rates under low level exposure (TWAmean = 1.89 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 μW/cm2. In conclusion, higher number of health complaints, higher stress hormone excretion rates and fatigue were found in operators under EMR.

  16. Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) characteristics of cracked rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Cheng, Fuqi; Zhang, Zhibo; Niu, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Coal rock would emit the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) while deformation and fracture, and there exists structural body in the coal rock because of mining and geological structure. In this paper, we conducted an experimental test the EMR characteristics of cracked rock under loading. Results show that crack appears firstly in the prefabricated crack tip then grows stably parallel to the maximum principal stress, and the coal rock buckling failure is caused by the wing crack tension. Besides, the compressive strength significantly decreases because of the precrack, and the compressive strength increases with the crack angle. Intact rock EMR increases with the loading, and the cracked rock EMR shows stage and fluctuant characteristics. The bigger the angle, the more obvious the stage and fluctuant characteristics, that is EMR becomes richer. While the cracked angle is little, EMR is mainly caused by the electric charge rapid separates because of friction sliding. While the cracked angle is big, there is another significant contribution to EMR, which is caused by the electric dipole transient of crack expansion. Through this, we can know more clear about the crack extends route and the corresponding influence on the EMR characteristic and mechanism, which has important theoretical and practical significance to monitor the coal rock dynamical disasters.

  17. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in asthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hagras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NAD+-IDH could be one of the cell phone radiation targets. Enzyme activity alteration may lead to decline in sperm motility during radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW exposure. The current case control study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between mitochondrial NAD+-IDH activity in human seminal plasma and sperm motility among asthenozoospermic cellular phone users. A total number of ninety idiopathic infertile males referred from the Department of Dermatology and Andrology, were enrolled in this study. NAD+-IDH activity was measured in human seminal plasma by spectrophotometer. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA following WHO criteria has been used for semen analyses. The results showed that IDH activity was increased in patients with prolonged cell phone daily use ≥4 h/day. Its level, correlated negatively with either the motility ratio percentages (r = −0.46, p < 0.001 or the progressive motility percentages (r = −0.50, p < 0.001 in the study groups. The current study suggests that NAD+-IDH in human seminal plasma could be one of seminal plasma biomarkers reflecting the mitochondrial function of spermatozoa. Alteration of its level could reflect the defective motility of sperms among some cases of cellular phone users.

  19. Miscarriages among female physical therapists who report using radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Stewart, W F

    1993-11-15

    Physical therapists are exposed to radio- and microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation by operating shortwave and microwave diathermy units. Recent studies suggest that use of shortwave diathermy is associated with an excess risk of birth defects, perinatal deaths, and late spontaneous abortions among the offspring of exposed female therapists. To assess the impact of occupational use of microwave and shortwave diathermy at the time of conception, the authors mailed questionnaires to 42,403 physical therapists in 1989. Both occupational and reproductive histories were obtained. Exposures to shortwave and microwave diathermy were both assessed in the same fashion and were examined in relation to early recognized fetal loss in a nested case-control design. A total of 1,753 case pregnancies (miscarriages) were matched to 1,753 incidence density control pregnancies (other pregnancies except ectopic pregnancies). A pregnancy was considered "exposed" if the mother reported using microwave or shortwave diathermy anytime during the 6 months prior to the first trimester or during the first trimester. Pregnancies of mothers reporting microwave use 6 months prior to the pregnancy or during the first trimester were more likely to result in miscarriage (odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.59). The odds ratio increased with increasing level of exposure (chi 2 = 7.25, p shortwave diathermy equipment (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91-1.24). The odds ratio in the highest exposure group was 0.87.

  20. Mathematical model of biological order state or syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine: based on electromagnetic radiation within the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinxiang; Huang, Jinzhao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, based on the resonator model and exciplex model of electromagnetic radiation within the human body, mathematical model of biological order state, also referred to as syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine, was established and expressed as: "Sy = v/ 1n(6I + 1)". This model provides the theoretical foundation for experimental research addressing the order state of living system, especially the quantitative research syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. [The specific features of the development of metabolic and regenerative processes under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in radiation exposure conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Mihajlik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Geniatulina, M S

    2017-01-01

    The experiments on male white rats with the use of biochemical, photo-optical, and electron-microscopic techniques have demonstrated that the use of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultrahigh frequency (EMR UHF) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF) during the post-irradiation period (within 21 days after exposure to radiation) enhanced the metabolic and regenerative processes in the testes and liver. It was shown that the application of MF largely intensified the antioxidant activity whereas EMR UHF preferentially stimulated the biosynthetic processes as well as the processes of cellular and intracellular regeneration.

  2. The technology of electromagnetic radiation danger estimation using the hardware-software module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principles of functioning of the hardware-software module, whose purpose is the estimation of a danger level of the combined electromagnetic field influence on a human organism. The module consists of the hardware and the software parts. The hardware part is an array of electromagnetic parameter detectors; the software part is an electromagnetic field modelling program based on OpenEMS. The module creates so-called images of electromagnetic environment danger. The results show practical applicability of the technological module for the stated purpose.

  3. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J. [Laboratoire d' Immunologie et Parasitologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Youbicier-Simo, B.J. [Tecnolab, Chateau de l' Orbize, Dracy-le-Fort (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  4. Intense Interactions of Molecules with a Short-Wavelength Electromagnetic Radiation Field: I. The Fundamentals of the Nonadiabatic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegarkov, A. I.

    2001-07-01

    The intense interactions between short-wavelength (SW) electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength λ ≥ 1 Å and intensity up to 1014 W/cm2 and simple and polyatomic molecules are studied with the coherent excitations of high-lying Rydberg and autoionizing states taken into account. The Hamiltonian of a system "molecule + SW radiation" is obtained by using the methods of quantum electrodynamics. Conditions for the applicability of the dipole approximation to describe the interactions of molecules with radiation of the UV, VUV, XUV, and soft X-ray range are found. The fundamentals of the theory of resonance scattering of SW radiation from diatomic, triatomic, and symmetric-and asymmetric-top polyatomic molecules are outlined.

  5. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day. All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  6. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  7. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  8. THE IMPACT OF SUPERHIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ON THREONINE PRODUCER Brevibacterium flavum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Marynchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the impact of non-thermal electromagnetic radiation of superhigh frequencies with waves of millimeter range on threonine amino acid synthesis by bacteria Brevibacterium flavum for ordinary (not mutant and mutant strains. The frequencies of millimeter range waves were selected according to previous works as 41.76; 42.2 and 61.0 GHz. The exposition was 10 min. The control samples of bacterial suspension in the flasks were kept under the same conditions as the test ones. Irradiated suspensions were used as inoculum for fermentation on molasses wort at t = +30 ºC with aeration. After cultivation for 3 days the samples irradiated with frequency 42.2 and 61.0 GHz gave an increase in colonies forming units, respectively, 1.4 and 1.9 times compared to the control for the non-mutant strain. The quantity of synthesized threonine was determined by thin-layer chromatography on the plates of ciluprevir. A significant increase of the threonine content in the culture fluid was observed for the non-mutant strain (70% compared to control after the irradiation with frequency 61.0 GHz. The splitting of the colonies planted pigmentation was observed: the control samples were mostly pigmentated, and irradiated bacteria lost this ability immediately after exposure, but after the culturing the irradiated samples restored pigmentation. The pigmentation ability was confirmed by the data on the accumulation threonine in the culture fluid. The Brevibacterium flavum mutant strain did not respond to the irradiation, this influence was negative for generative abilities and accumulation of threonine in the culture fluid.

  9. An Enhancing Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on the Lethal Action of 2450 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation in Microwave Oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, Kamyar; Moradi, Bardia Varasteh; Dolatabadi-Bazaz, Reza; Shakibae, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2011-10-01

    Today, there is an increasing interest in the use of metal nanoparticles in health sciences. Amongst all nanoparticles, the gold nanoparticles have been known to kill the cancer cells under hyperthermic condition by near-infrared frequency electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, although there are different physiochemical methods for disinfection of microbial pollution, however applications of irradiated gold nanoparticles against microorganisms have not yet been investigated. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared using D-glucose and characterized (particle size electromagnetic radiation generated at a microwave oven operated at low power (100 W), was investigated by time-kill course assay against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) ATCC 29737. The results showed that application of gold nanoparticles can enhance the lethal effect of low power microwave in a very short exposure time (5 s).

  10. Expanding the use of real‐time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shah, Amish P; Kupelian, Patrick A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Meeks, Sanford L

    2011-01-01

    ...‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image‐guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter‐ and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT...

  11. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  12. THE EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ON THE LUMINESCENCE INTENSITY OF PHOTOBACTERIUM PHOSPHOREUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Rozhko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For an objective assessment of environment pollution by physical factors the adequate test systems and bio-indicators are necessary. It is used bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum as indicator of exposure to low-intensity microwave electromagnetic field. Registration of the bacteria physiological activity changes was carried out by luminescence intensity. It has been shown that Ph. phosphoreum have sensitive to the effects of low-intensity microwave electromagnetic field (1 GHz, 70 mW / cm2.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ON THE LUMINESCENCE INTENSITY OF PHOTOBACTERIUM PHOSPHOREUM

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Vladimirovna Rozhko; Vladimir Fedorovich Pyankov; Olga Vitalevna Kryukova

    2017-01-01

    For an objective assessment of environment pollution by physical factors the adequate test systems and bio-indicators are necessary. It is used bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum as indicator of exposure to low-intensity microwave electromagnetic field. Registration of the bacteria physiological activity changes was carried out by luminescence intensity. It has been shown that Ph. phosphoreum have sensitive to the effects of low-intensity microwave electromagnetic field (1 GHz, 70 mW / cm2).

  14. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Min Kyung; Choi, Joon Yul; Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins...

  15. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  16. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  17. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  18. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  19. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  20. The effect of electromagnetic radiation emitted by display screens on cell oxygen metabolism – in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrykowska, Gabriela A.; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research studies carried out for decades have not solved the problem of the effect of electromagnetic radiation of various frequency and strength on the human organism. Due to this fact, we decided to investigate the changes taking place in human blood platelets under the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by LCD monitors. Material and methods The changes of selected parameters of oxygen metabolism were measured, i.e. reactive oxygen species concentration, enzymatic activity of antioxidant defence proteins – superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and catalase (CAT) – and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA). A suspension of human blood platelets was exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity for 30 and 60 min. The level of changes of the selected parameters of oxidative stress was determined after the exposure and compared to the control samples (not exposed). Results The measurements revealed an increase of the concentration of reactive oxygen species. The largest increase of ROS concentration vs. the control sample was observed after exposure to EMF of 220 V/m intensity for 60 min (from x = 54.64 to x = 72.92). The measurement of MDA concentration demonstrated a statistically significant increase after 30-min exposure to an EMF of 220 V/m intensity in relation to the initial values (from x = 3.18 to x = 4.41). The enzymatic activity of SOD-1 decreased after exposure (the most prominent change was observed after 60-min and 220 V/m intensity from x = 3556.41 to x = 1084.83). The most significant change in activity of catalase was observed after 60 min and 220 v/m exposure (from x = 6.28 to x = 4.15). Conclusions The findings indicate that exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity may cause adverse effects within blood platelets’ oxygen metabolism and thus may lead to physiological dysfunction of the organism. PMID:26788099

  1. Generation and application of ultrashort coherent mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Scott

    Particle accelerators are useful instruments that help address critical issues for the future development of nuclear energy. Current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency (rf) cavities are too large and expensive for widespread commercial use, and alternative designs must be considered for supplying relativistic beams to small-scale applications, including medical imaging, secu- rity screening, and scientific research in a university-scale laboratory. Laser-driven acceleration using micro-fabricated dielectric photonic structures is an attractive approach because such photonic microstructures can support accelerating fields that are 10 to 100 times higher than that of rf cavity-based accelerators. Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) use commercial lasers as a driving source, which are smaller and less expensive than the klystrons used to drive current rf-based accelerators. Despite the apparent need for compact and economical laser sources for laser-driven acceleration, the availability of suitable high-peak-power lasers that cover a broad spectral range is currently limited. To address the needs of several innovative acceleration mechanisms like DLA, it is proposed to develop a coherent source of mid-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation that can be implemented as a driving source of laser accelerators. The use of ultrashort mid-IR high peak power laser systems in various laser-driven acceleration schemes has shown the potential to greatly reduce the optical pump intensities needed to realize high acceleration gradients. The optical intensity needed to achieve a given ponderomotive potential is 25 times less when using a 5-mum mid-IR laser as compared to using a 1-mum near-IR solid-state laser. In addition, dielectric structure breakdown caused by multiphoton ionization can be avoided by using longer-wavelength driving lasers. Current mid-IR laser sources do not produce sufficiently short pulse durations, broad spectral bandwidths

  2. Electromagnetic transponders indicate prostate size increase followed by decrease during the course of external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benjamin L; Butler, Wayne M; Merrick, Gregory S; Kurko, Brian S; Reed, Joshua L; Murray, Brian C; Wallner, Kent E

    2011-04-01

    Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [A Compact Source of Terahertz Radiation Based on Interaction of Electrons in à Quantum Well with an Electromagnetic Wave of a Corrugated Waveguide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchurova, L Yu; Namiot, V A; Sarkisyan, D R

    2015-01-01

    Coherent sources of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range are very promising for various applications, including biology and medicine. In this paper we propose a scheme of a compact terahertz source, in which terahertz radiation is generated due to effective interaction of electrons in a quantum well with an electromagnetic wave of a corrugated waveguide. We have shown that the generation of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 1012 sec(-1) and an output power of up to 25. mW is possible in the proposed scheme.

  4. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-01

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  6. Electromagnetic Field Interaction With Transmission Lines From Classical Theory to HF Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Sergey V

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of the electromagnetic field coupling to transmission lines is an important problem in electromagnetic compatibility. The unabated increase in the operating frequency of electronic products and the emergence of sources of disturbances with higher frequency content (such as High Power Microwave and Ultra-Wide Band systems) have led to a breakdown of the TL approximation's basic assumptions for a number of applications. In the last decade or so, the generalization of the TL theory to take into account high frequency effects has emerged as an important topic of study in electromagn

  7. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  9. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  10. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Stepan S

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  11. An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2010-01-01

    The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. The influence of electromagnetic radiation generated by a mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Teister, Łukasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Dominik; Śliwinski, Zbigniew; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline) markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture), it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  13. The Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by a Mobile Phone on the Skeletal System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture, it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  14. [Corrective effects of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range on the parameters of oxidative stress after standard anti-helicobacterial therapy in patients with ulcer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanishkina, E V; Podoprigorova, V G

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the possibilities of correction of oxidative stress parameters in the serum and gastroduodenal mucosa using electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range in 127 patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer after eradication therapy. Control group included 230 healthy subjects. Parameter of lipid oxidation by free radicals were measured by direct methods (hemiluminescence and EPR-spectroscopy). The results show that standard eradication therapy does not influence parameters of oxidative stress. More pronounced effect of electromagnetic radiation in a millimeter wavelength range may be due to the correction of prooxidant-antioxidant and antioxidant disbalance. This observation provides pathogenetic substantiation for the inclusion of this physical method in modern therapeutic modalities.

  15. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  17. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  18. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  19. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, Eunmi

    2017-05-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  20. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  1. Gain of electromagnetic radiation traveling in a semiconductor subjected to magnetic and ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanyan, A.G.; Boyakhchyan, G.P.; Mirzabekyan, E.G.

    1979-08-01

    A calculation is made of the gain experienced by an electromagnetic wave in a semiconductor subjected to magnetic field and ultrasonic fields. It is shown that the gain can be 1--500 for a wide range of the parameters. Analytic expressions are obtained for the frequency depencence of the real part of the high-frequency conductivity when the pump power, ultrasonic wavelength, and temperature of the semiconductor are varied.

  2. The effect of electrons surface scattering on fine metal particle electromagnetic radiation absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kuznetsova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dipole absorption cross section of spherical shaped metal particle was calculated in terms of kinetic approach. The particle considered was placed in the field of plane electromagnetic wave. The model of boundary conditions taking into account the dependence of the reflectivity coefficient both on the surface roughness parameter and on the electrons incidence angle was investigated. The results obtained were compared with theoretical computation results for model of combined diffusion-specular boundary conditions of Fuchs.

  3. Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. Studies in adults did not prove that EMF exposure causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...

  4. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  5. Potential of Glassy Carbon and Silicon Carbide Photonic Structures as Electromagnetic Radiation Shields for Atmospheric Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarevskiy,Nikolay; Shklover, Valery; Braginsky, Leonid; Hafner, Christian; Lawson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    During high-velocity atmospheric entries, space vehicles can be exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation from ionized gas in the shock layer. Glassy carbon (GC) and silicon carbide (SiC) are candidate thermal protection materials due to their high melting point and also their good thermal and mechanical properties. Based on data from shock tube experiments, a significant fraction of radiation at hypersonic entry conditions is in the frequency range from 215 to 415 THz. We propose and analyze SiC and GC photonic structures to increase the reflection of radiation in that range. For this purpose, we performed numerical optimizations of various structures using an evolutionary strategy. Among the considered structures are layered, porous, woodpile, inverse opal and guided-mode resonance structures. In order to estimate the impact of fabrication inaccuracies, the sensitivity of the reflectivity to structural imperfections is analyzed. We estimate that the reflectivity of GC photonic structures is limited to 38% in the aforementioned range, due to material absorption. However, GC material can be effective for photonic reflection of individual, strong spectral line. SiC on the other hand can be used to design a good reflector for the entire frequency range.

  6. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  7. Identification of positrons and electrons in the cosmic radiation with the electromagnetic calorimeter ECAL for the AMS-02 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080883

    2011-07-19

    In May 2011 AMS-02 detector has been successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS), where it will take data on cosmic radiation from 1 to 1000 GeV for at least 10 years. Among all scientific objectives of the experiment, one of the most important is the search for Dark Matter (DM), which constitutes 80% of the Universe matter, but its nature is still unknown. A DM signal can be identified by studying the combined fluxes of positrons, photons, antiprotons and antideuterium. Thanks to its high acceptance and its performances, AMS-02 detector can extend primary cosmic ray physics search to a new energy range with high accuracy. A key role for these measurements, in particular for the electromagnetic channels, is played by ECAL calorimeter. This subdetector has been developed to measure e− and e+ energy with an accuracy of few %. Thanks to its 3D shower reconstruction imaging capabilities, it also has a high separation power between electromagnetic and hadronic showers (e/p rejection), essent...

  8. Mixed Stimulus-Induced Mode Selection in Neural Activity Driven by High and Low Frequency Current under Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activities of neurons are dependent on the complex electrophysiological condition in neuronal system, the three-variable Hindmarsh-Rose (HR neuron model is improved to describe the dynamical behaviors of neuronal activities with electromagnetic induction being considered, and the mode transition of electrical activities in neuron is detected when external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the neuron. In this paper, different types of electrical stimulus impended with a high-low frequency current are imposed on new HR neuron model, and mixed stimulus-induced mode selection in neural activity is discussed in detail. It is found that mode selection of electrical activities stimulated by high-low frequency current, which also changes the excitability of neuron, can be triggered owing to adding the Gaussian white noise. Meanwhile, the mode selection of the neuron electrical activity is much dependent on the amplitude B of the high frequency current under the same noise intensity, and the high frequency response is selected preferentially by applying appropriate parameters and noise intensity. Our results provide insights into the transmission of complex signals in nerve system, which is valuable in engineering prospective applications such as information encoding.

  9. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra–wideband (UWB technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05 dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  10. The effect of electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station on Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magone, I. [Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    1996-02-11

    The effect of electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station was studied on the vegetative growth and morphology of the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden plant in the next generation. The impact of plant development stage and length of the exposure period were examined. The effect of short-term (5-day) exposures of Spirodela cultures depended on the stage of development at the time of exposure. Generally, the vegetative reproduction rate was accelerated in the first 20 days after the end of exposure. Exposure of plants just beginning formation lowered the vegetative growth rate. Eighty-eight-hour exposure caused the appearance of some abnormal individuals after 30 days of growth. At 55 days, various morphological and developmental abnormalities appeared in 6-10 daughter plants from 10 exposed mother plants, compared with 0.1 plants per 10 in the control condition. Plants developed completely to daughter fronds under exposure from the electromagnetic field had a shorter life-span (67 days compared to 87 days in the control) and fewer subsequent daughters (total eight compared to 10 in the control group)

  11. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  12. Non-thermal influence of the mm-range electromagnetic radiation on the peroxide oxidation of egg yolk lipoproteins (in English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabolotna, N. M.

    The effect of weak electromagnetic radiation in the millimetre range upon the chemiluminescence intensity accompanying the process of peroxide oxidization of lipoproteins was studied. It is shown that in the temperature range of 35div 43°C the intensity is independent of the temperature up to the experimental errors. It is though strongly dependent on the composition of the buffer solution and radiation frequency. The results are explained using a modified Onsager model.

  13. Analysis of the numerical results of the melting paraffin corks, ensuring the safe operation of the pipeline using a mobile source of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titarenko Vera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the safe operation of the pipeline, ensuring its smooth operation was conducted analysis of the results of numerical simulation of melting of paraffin jams with using a mobile source of electromagnetic radiation. Carried out varying different parameters of the radiation source, the peculiarities of its movement, the nature of the change of geometry of the boundary of melting of paraffin plugs under different external conditions

  14. Ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation does not affect UV-induced recombination and mutagenesis in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, O N; Belt, M L; Mathur, S P; Lee, J C; Akyel, Y

    1998-01-01

    Cell samples of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were exposed to 100 J/m2 of 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation followed by a 30 min treatment with ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses. The UWB pulses (101-104 kV/m, 1.0 ns width, 165 ps rise time) were applied at the repetition rates of 0 Hz (sham), 16 Hz, or 600 Hz. The effect of exposures was evaluated from the colony-forming ability of the cells on complete and selective media and the number of aberrant colonies. The experiments established no effect of UWB exposure on the UV-induced reciprocal and non-reciprocal recombination, mutagenesis, or cell survival.

  15. Force, torque, and absorbed energy for a body of arbitrary shape and constitution in an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsund, Ø.; Felderhof, B. U.

    1996-02-01

    The force and torque exerted on a body of arbitrary shape and constitution by a stationary radiation field are in principle given by integrals of Minkowski's stress tensor over a surface surrounding the body. Similarly the absorbed energy is given by an integral of the Poynting vector. These integrals are notoriously difficult to evaluate, and so far only spherical bodies have been considered. It is shown here that the integrals may be cast into a simpler form by use of Debye potentials. General expressions for the integrals are derived as sums of bilinear expressions in the coefficients of the expansion of the incident and scattered waves in terms of vector spherical waves. The expressions are simplified for small particles, such as atoms, for which the electric dipole approximation may be used. It is shown that the calculation is also relevant for bodies with nonlinear electromagnetic response.

  16. [The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniatulina, M S; Korolev, Yu N; Nikulina, L A

    The objective of the present study was elucidate the peculiar features of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI EMR) and mineral water (MW) on the ultrastructure of rat Leydig cells under conditions of immobilization stress. The experiments were carried out on outbred male rats with the use of electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the prophylactic consumption of drinking sulfate-containing mineral water and the application low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (with the flow power density of 1 mcW/cm2 and frequency around 1,000 Hz) or the combination of these two modalities under conditions of immobilization stress reduced the degree of ultrastructural derangement in the rat Leydig cells and stimulated the development of regenerative processes. In the cases of the single-factor impact, drinking mineral water exerted more pronounced action than low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on mitochondrial regeneration. In case of the simultaneous application of the two factors their protective action on the Leydig cells was much more conspicuous than that of either of them applied alone. It is concluded that drinking sulfate-containing mineral water in combination with the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation enhances resistance of the rat Leydig cells to stress.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  18. Solvent injection and radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the fractured well: Numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletbaev, Alfred; Kovaleva, Liana; Kireev, Victor; Zainullin, Aleksey; Myasnikov, Artem

    2017-11-01

    The paper analysis the dynamics of temperature, pressure, solvent concentration, the flow rate in the well by a multistage injection of a low-viscosity solvent and electromagnetic irradiation in a well with a fracture. The results of modeling, a significant difference in the concentration of the solvent in the well and at the end of the fracture was obtained, an increase in temperature and a decrease in the pressure difference between well and end of fracture in the period of the combined influence.

  19. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  20. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation of germanium crystals in magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Milenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron radiation of plasma of thermal carriers of germanium crystals, which is not in the state of thermodynamic equilibrium with semiconductor, has been experimentally confirmed.

  1. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Aktas, Cevat; Karavelioglu, Ergun; Caglar, Veli; Aylak, Firdevs; Ozguner, Fehmi; Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the structural changes of electromagnetic waves in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. 24 Wistar Albino adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group I consisted of control rats, and groups II-IV comprised electromagnetically irradiated (EMR) with 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. The heads of the rats were exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz microwaves irradiation for 1h per day for 2 months. While the histopathological changes in the frontal cortex and brain stem were normal in the control group, there were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei in the EMR groups. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the Total Antioxidative Capacity level was significantly decreased in the EMR groups and also Total Oxidative Capacity and Oxidative Stress Index levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. IL-1β level was significantly increased in the EMR groups in the brain stem. EMR causes to structural changes in the frontal cortex, brain stem and cerebellum and impair the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development.

  3. Investigation of the Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Sub-GeV Electrons in a Bent Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, L; Bagli, E; Germogli, G; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Backe, H; Lauth, W; Berra, A; Lietti, D; Prest, M; De Salvador, D; Vallazza, E; Tikhomirov, V

    2015-07-10

    The radiation emitted by 855 MeV electrons via planar channeling and volume reflection in a 30.5-μm-thick bent Si crystal has been investigated at the MAMI (Mainzer Mikrotron) accelerator. The spectral intensity was much more intense than for an equivalent amorphous material, and peaked in the MeV range in the case of channeling radiation. Differently from a straight crystal, also for an incidence angle larger than the Lindhard angle, the spectral intensity remains nearly as high as for channeling. This is due to volume reflection, for which the intensity remains high at a large incidence angle over the whole angular acceptance, which is equal to the bending angle of the crystal. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that incoherent scattering significantly influences both the radiation spectrum and intensity, either for channeling or volume reflection. In the latter case, it has been shown that incoherent scattering increases the radiation intensity due to the contribution of volume-captured particles. As a consequence, the experimental spectrum becomes a mixture of channeling and pure volume reflection radiations. These results allow a better understanding of the radiation emitted by electrons subjected to coherent interactions in bent crystals within a still-unexplored energy range, which is relevant for possible applications for innovative and compact x-ray or γ-ray sources.

  4. Minimally invasive percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation: increased accuracy and reduced radiation exposure by means of a novel electromagnetic navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jako, Ron; Finn, Michael A; Yonemura, Kenneth S; Araghi, Ali; Khoo, Larry T; Carrino, John A; Perez-Cruet, Mick

    2011-03-01

    Minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation methods may increase the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy, resulting in excessive radiation exposure for the patient, surgeon, and support staff. Electromagnetic field (EMF)-based navigation may aid more accurate placement of percutaneous pedicle screws while reducing fluoroscopic exposure. We compared the accuracy, time of insertion, and radiation exposure of EMF with traditional fluoroscopic percutaneous pedicle screw placement. Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement in T8 to S1 pedicles of eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric torsos was guided with EMF or standard fluoroscopy. Set-up, insertion, and fluoroscopic times and radiation exposure and accuracy (measured with post-procedural computed tomography) were analyzed in each group. Sixty-two pedicle screws were placed under fluoroscopic guidance and 60 under EMF guidance. Ideal trajectories were achieved more frequently with EMF over all segments (62.7% vs. 40%; p = 0.01). Greatest EMF accuracy was achieved in the lumbar spine, with significant improvements in both ideal trajectory and reduction of pedicle breaches over fluoroscopically guided placement (64.9% vs. 40%, p = 0.03, and 16.2% vs. 42.5%, p = 0.01, respectively). Fluoroscopy time was reduced 77% with the use of EMF (22 s vs. 5 s per level; p Radiation exposure at the hand and body was reduced 60% (p = 0.058) and 32% (p = 0.073), respectively. Time for insertion did not vary between the two techniques. Minimally invasive pedicle screw placement with the aid of EMF image guidance reduces fluoroscopy time and increases placement accuracy when compared with traditional fluoroscopic guidance while adding no additional time to the procedure.

  5. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  6. Biomolecular structure manipulation using tailored electromagnetic radiation: a proof of concept on a simplified model of the active site of bacterial DNA topoisomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarukanont, Daungruthai; Coimbra, João T S; Bauerhenne, Bernd; Fernandes, Pedro A; Patel, Shekhar; Ramos, Maria J; Garcia, Martin E

    2014-10-21

    We report on the viability of breaking selected bonds in biological systems using tailored electromagnetic radiation. We first demonstrate, by performing large-scale simulations, that pulsed electric fields cannot produce selective bond breaking. Then, we present a theoretical framework for describing selective energy concentration on particular bonds of biomolecules upon application of tailored electromagnetic radiation. The theory is based on the mapping of biomolecules to a set of coupled harmonic oscillators and on optimal control schemes to describe optimization of temporal shape, the phase and polarization of the external radiation. We have applied this theory to demonstrate the possibility of selective bond breaking in the active site of bacterial DNA topoisomerase. For this purpose, we have focused on a model that was built based on a case study. Results are given as a proof of concept.

  7. Changes in mitochondrial functioning with electromagnetic radiation of ultra high frequency as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Anatoly; Selyuk, Marina; Gafurov, Marat; Lukin, Sergei; Potaskalova, Viktoria; Sidorik, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of ultra high frequency (UHF) in the doses equivalent to the maximal permitted energy load for the staffs of the radar stations on the biochemical processes that occur in the cell organelles. Liver, cardiac and aorta tissues from the male rats exposed to non-thermal UHF EMR in pulsed and continuous modes were studied during 28 days after the irradiation by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods including a spin trapping of superoxide radicals. The qualitative and quantitative disturbances in electron transport chain (ETC) of mitochondria are registered. A formation of the iron-nitrosyl complexes of nitric oxide (NO) radicals with the iron-sulphide (FeS) proteins, the decreased activity of FeS-protein N2 of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex and flavo-ubisemiquinone growth combined with the increased rates of superoxide production are obtained. (i) Abnormalities in the mitochondrial ETC of liver and aorta cells are more pronounced for animals radiated in a pulsed mode; (ii) the alterations in the functioning of the mitochondrial ETC cause increase of superoxide radicals generation rate in all samples, formation of cellular hypoxia, and intensification of the oxide-initiated metabolic changes; and (iii) electron paramagnetic resonance methods could be used to track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the mitochondrial ETC caused by the UHF EMR.

  8. Characterization of porous glass-ceramic material as absorber of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmina, O.; Suslyaev, V.; Dushkina, M.; Semukhin, B.

    2015-04-01

    Investigations of a foam glass-ceramic material synthesized from raw siliceous earth material by the two-stage method at temperatures below 950°C have demonstrated the improvement of its physic mechanical properties in comparison with foam glass synthesized from glass cullet. This material actively interacts with microwaves and can be used for the development of protective screens reducing the adverse effect of microwaves on biological objects, anechoic chambers, and rooms with low level of electromagnetic background noise. Spectra of the transmission and absorption coefficients and of the complex dielectric permittivity for frequencies in the range 26-260 GHz are presented. The observed effects demonstrate the existence of regions with partial and total reflection arising on the glass-pore boundary and of the microwave interaction with ultradisperse carbon particles that remain after foaming with incomplete frothier transition from the soot to the gas phase.

  9. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation by laser interaction with a solid H.sub.2./sub. ribbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Marco, Massimo; Krása, Josef; Cikhardt, J.; Velyhan, Andriy; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Dudžák, Roman; Dostál, Jan; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Chatain, D.; Perin, J.P.; Margarone, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 083103. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA16-07036S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * electromagnetic pulse * solid hydrogen ribbon Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  10. Free electromagnetic radiation from the graphene monolayer with spatially modulated conductivity in THz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasik, Vladimir; Wartak, Marek S.; Zhukov, Alexander V.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2016-03-01

    An infinite graphene layer is known to support graphene surface plasmon polariton (GSP) confined at the interface between the two dielectric half-spaces. In the case of finite width graphene stripe, the termination of the graphene layer acts both as a scattering source and as a “mirror”, thus producing Fabry-Perot (FP)-type resonance. These resonant wavelengths in the presence of free-standing graphene stripe are investigated using the homogeneous convolution-type integral equation approach. The capabilities of the suggested numerical method are illustrated with the results for the transmission spectrum of TM electromagnetic waves travelling in the direction perpendicular to the graphene stripe. Special attention is paid to the case of spatially modulated conductivity of the graphene monolayer, and thus the feasibility of controlling the GSP response.

  11. The effect of electromagnetic radiation of wireless connections on morphology of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Vsevolod O.; Titova, Natalia; Azarhov, Olexand; Wójcik, Waldemar; GrÄ dz, Å.»aklin; Mussabekova, Assel

    2016-09-01

    The article considers the effect of wireless networks on the morphology of amniotic fluid (AF) to demonstrate possible risks involving pregnant women. The analysis of AF thesiograms after exposure of the model fluid to Wi-Fi, 3G and β- radiation was chosen as the research method. A comparative analysis of facies structures is carried out, and depth maps of the facies structure are created. This comparative analysis permits an evaluation of the efficiency of morphological changes. It is shown that AF control facies differ in the concentration of areas with a narrow peripheral area and ellipsoidal formations of crystalloids in circumferences center. After exposure of different types of radiation onto AF, the facies structures collapse and form their own conglomerates. The obtained results show that the considered types of radiation have a negative effect on AF.

  12. Change in the thermionic work function of semiconductor powders exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, S.; Martin, J. R.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The variations of the thermoelectronic work function of titanium dioxide, submitted to an ultraviolet or visible and infrared radiation, in the presence of oxygen, are studied by the vibrating condenser method. It is shown that during the ultraviolet irradiation, a desorption of a first species of oxygen simultaneously occurs with the adsorption of a second species of oxygen and that this phenomenon is found for any structure of TiO2 (anatase or rutile) any texture, oxygen pressure, radiation intensity, and nature of introduced dopes.

  13. Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Dimers of Two Finite Dielectric Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun-Kuzhel, V. A.; Ponyavina, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of the scattering phase function for scattering of light by dimers of dielectric cylinders of finite length, using the volume integral equation formalism. We have studied the dependence of the scattering phase function on the optical and geometric parameters of the individual cylinders and their relative positions. We show that electrodynamic interaction between the cylinders leads to a substantial difference between the angular distribution of radiation scattered by this system and the angular distribution of radiation scattered by two cylinders with no electrodynamic coupling.

  14. Coherent Thz Electromagnetic Radiation Emission as a Shock Wave Diagnostic and Probe of Ultrafast Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James H.; Howard, William M.; Piner, Edwin L.; Roberts, John C.

    2009-12-01

    We present the first experimental observations of terahertz frequency radiation emitted when a terahertz frequency acoustic wave propagates past an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric coefficients. We show that this fundamentally new phenomenon can be used to probe structural properties of thin films. Then, we present molecular dynamics simulations showing that detectable THz frequency radiation can be emitted when a wurtzite structure crystal transforms to a rocksalt structure under shock compression on picosecond timescales. We show that information about the kinetics of the transformation is contained in the time-dependence of the THz field.

  15. Intense Interactions of Molecules with a Short-Wavelength Electromagnetic Radiation Field: II. Resonance Scattering of Radiation and Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegarkov, A. I.

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nonadiabatic approach developed in the preceding paper, the resonance scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and resonance fluorescence are studied in detail for diatomic and triatomic molecules, and polyatomic symmetric and antisymmetric top molecules, which interact with the field of short-wavelength radiation with a wavelength λ ≥ Å and an intensity up to 1014 W/cm2. The coherent excitations of high-lying Rydberg and autoionizing states are taken into account. Analytical expressions for calculating the tensors and cross sections of the above processes are derived.

  16. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  18. Effects of short-duration electromagnetic radiation on early postnatal neurogenesis in rats: Fos and NADPH-d histochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendáčová, Judita; Orendáč, Martin; Mojžiš, Miroslav; Labun, Ján; Martončíková, Marcela; Saganová, Kamila; Lievajová, Kamila; Blaško, Juraj; Abdiová, Henrieta; Gálik, Ján; Račeková, Eniko

    2011-11-01

    The immediate effects of whole body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) were used to study postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS) of Wistar rats of both sexes. Newborn postnatal day 7 (P7) and young adult rats (P28) were exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMF) at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm(2) for 2 h. Post-irradiation changes were studied using immunohistochemical localization of Fos and NADPH-d. We found that short-duration exposure induces increased Fos immunoreactivity selectively in cells of the SVZ of P7 and P28 rats. There were no Fos positive cells visible within the RMS of irradiated rats. These findings indicate that some differences exist in prerequisites of proliferating cells between the SVZ and RMS regardless of the age of the rats. Short-duration exposure also caused praecox maturation of NADPH-d positive cells within the RMS of P7 rats. The NADPH-d positive cells appeared several days earlier than in age-matched controls, and their number and morphology showed characteristics of adult rats. On the other hand, in the young adult P28 rats, EMR induced morphological signs typical of early postnatal age. These findings indicate that EMR causes age-related changes in the production of nitric oxide (NO), which may lead to different courses of the proliferation cascade in newborn and young adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunt H

    2016-02-01

    destruction and led to a decrease in OPG levels and an increase in RANK and RANKL levels. In line with the previous studies, long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field causes disorders in many organs and systems. Thus, it is considered that long-term exposure to an electromagnetic field affects bone and thyroid metabolism and also increases OSI by increasing the TOS and decreasing the antioxidant status. Keywords: bone mineral density, electromagnetic radiation, electrical workers, thyroid, RANK, RANKL

  20. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A – In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lewicka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR in people’s everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA concentration – a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD monitors. Material and Methods: Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen. The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. Results: The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. Conclusions: The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:695–703

  1. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703.

  2. Variation in the thermionic work function of semiconductor powders exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, S.; Martin, J. R.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The study of the variation of thermoelectronic work function potential of TiO2 in the presence of isobutane shows that this gas is not adsorbed on this solid, in either the presence or the absence of ultraviolet radiation. These results, as well as those obtained in a previous work, lead to the mechanism of the photo-oxidation of isobutane at room temperature, in which excited atomic oxygen is the active species.

  3. Universal morphologies of fluid interfaces deformed by the radiation pressure of acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, N; Chraïbi, H; Wunenburger, R; Delville, J-P; Brasselet, E

    2012-12-14

    We unveil the generation of universal morphologies of fluid interfaces by radiation pressure regardless of the nature of the wave, whether acoustic or optical. Experimental observations reveal interface deformations endowed with steplike features that are shown to result from the interplay between the wave propagation and the shape of the interface. The results are supported by numerical simulations and a quantitative interpretation based on the waveguiding properties of the field is provided.

  4. Numerical compliance testing of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from smart-watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seon-Eui; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2016-10-07

    In this study, we investigated the electromagnetic dosimetry for smart-watches. At present, the standard for compliance testing of body-mounted and handheld devices specifies the use of a flat phantom to provide conservative estimates of the peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). This means that the estimated SAR using a flat phantom should be higher than the SAR in the exposure part of an anatomical human-body model. To verify this, we numerically calculated the SAR for a flat phantom and compared it with the numerical calculation of the SAR for four anatomical human-body models of different ages. The numerical analysis was performed using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The smart-watch models were used in the three antennas: the shorted planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), loop antenna, and monopole antenna. Numerical smart-watch models were implemented for cellular commutation and wireless local-area network operation at 835, 1850, and 2450 MHz. The peak spatial-averaged SARs of the smart-watch models are calculated for the flat phantom and anatomical human-body model for the wrist-worn and next to mouth positions. The results show that the flat phantom does not provide a consistent conservative SAR estimate. We concluded that the difference in the SAR results between an anatomical human-body model and a flat phantom can be attributed to the different phantom shapes and tissue structures.

  5. Nonlinear waves and coherent structures in quasi-neutral plasmas excited by external electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenov, Stephan I.

    2017-12-01

    Starting from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations describing the dynamics of various species in a quasi-neutral plasma, an exact relativistic hydrodynamic closure for a special type of water-bag distribution satisfying the Vlasov equation has been derived. It has been shown that the set of equations for the macroscopic hydrodynamic variables coupled to the wave equations for the self-consistent electromagnetic field is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system. Based on the method of multiple scales, a system comprising a vector nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the transverse envelopes of the self-consistent plasma wakefield, coupled to a scalar nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the electron current velocity envelope, has been derived. Using the method of formal series of Dubois-Violette, a traveling wave solution of the derived set of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations in the case of circular wave polarization has been obtained. This solution is represented as a ratio of two formal Volterra series. The terms of these series can be calculated explicitly to every desired order.

  6. Numerical compliance testing of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation from smart-watches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seon-Eui; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa; Pack, Jeong-Ki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the electromagnetic dosimetry for smart-watches. At present, the standard for compliance testing of body-mounted and handheld devices specifies the use of a flat phantom to provide conservative estimates of the peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). This means that the estimated SAR using a flat phantom should be higher than the SAR in the exposure part of an anatomical human-body model. To verify this, we numerically calculated the SAR for a flat phantom and compared it with the numerical calculation of the SAR for four anatomical human-body models of different ages. The numerical analysis was performed using the finite difference time domain method (FDTD). The smart-watch models were used in the three antennas: the shorted planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), loop antenna, and monopole antenna. Numerical smart-watch models were implemented for cellular commutation and wireless local-area network operation at 835, 1850, and 2450 MHz. The peak spatial-averaged SARs of the smart-watch models are calculated for the flat phantom and anatomical human-body model for the wrist-worn and next to mouth positions. The results show that the flat phantom does not provide a consistent conservative SAR estimate. We concluded that the difference in the SAR results between an anatomical human-body model and a flat phantom can be attributed to the different phantom shapes and tissue structures.

  7. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetkin, Murat; Demirel, Can; Kızılkan, Neşe; Aksoy, Nur; Erbağcı, Hülya

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model. A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks. No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (pEMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively.

  8. Electromagnetic cloak to restore the antenna radiation patterns affected by nearby scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teperik, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatiana.teperik@u-psud.fr [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Donostia International Physics Center, Aptdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lustrac, André de [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ. Paris-Ouest, 92410 Ville d’Avray (France)

    2015-12-15

    We have theoretically verified the feasibility of the concept of mantle cloak for very high frequency (VHF) antenna communications. While the applicability of the concept has been demonstrated for an infinitely long cylindrical obstacle and infinitely long electric source [Y.R. Padooru, A.B. Yakovlev, and P.-Y. Chen and Andrea Alù, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 104902, (2012)], the use of this cloak in realistic conditions is not straightforward. In this paper as an electric source we consider a typical VHF monopole antenna mounted on ground plane together with a metallic cylindrical obstacle. The both ground plane and obstacle affect the antenna radiation scattering. Nevertheless, we could show that the mantle cloak can bee successfully applied to restore the radiation patterns of antenna even when the source, the cylindrical metallic obstacle, and the ground plane have finite length. We have studied the antenna adaptation in the presence of the cloaked obstacle and found that the complete radiation system is still functional in the bandwidth that is reduced only by 11%.

  9. Decays of neutral pions: Electromagnetic transition form factor and radiative corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husek Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly summarize experimental and theoretical results on the rare decay π0 → e+e−. The notorious 3.3σ discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the experimental value provided by KTeV collaboration is discussed in the view of a complete set of next-to-leading-order QED radiative corrections. We also present the Two-Hadron Saturation (THS scenario for the PVV correlator and apply it to the decay under discussion. The discrepancy under discussion then reduces down to 1.8σ. Finally, we turn our attention the the Dalitz decay π0 → e+e−γ. We have recalculated the Mikaelian and Smith radiative corrections beyond the soft-photon approximation, i.e. over the whole range of the Dalitz plot and with no restrictions on the radiative photon. In contrast to the previous calculations, we also included the one-photon irreducible contribution at one-loop level. Our results can be also used for a further treatment of the processes with heavier particles in the final state.

  10. Implications of various intensities of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (462 MHz in the induction of oxidative stress during the germination of Hippophae rhamnoides seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin Lucian Maniu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The data accumulated by now shows that the topic of biological effects of electromagnetic radiation is far from being exhausted. Is undoubtedly that a non-ionizing radiation field maintained on a biological entity has some effects on it. To try shaping issues regarding this, this work aims to study the impact of radiation generated by an emission-reception radio station that emits on 462.6875 MHz frequency. For this purpose, were used Hippophae rhamnoides L. seeds which germinated in the laboratory, under controlled conditions, concentrically arranged around the radiation source, in which case electromagnetic radiation has a different impact. Seed germination lasted 35 days, while the device has continuously worked, and the seeds were constantly irradiated. It was precisely measured the intensity of the magnetic component of the field in all places where the seeds were placed for germination. It was calculated the percentage of germination and it was determined the enzyme activity involved in eliminating the oxidative stress effects. It was found significant variations of the parameters mentioned above in conjunction with the radiation intensity depending on the distance from the source.

  11. Electromagnetic on-aircraft antenna radiation in the presence of composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, S. H-T.; Rojas, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The UTD-based NEWAIR3 code is modified such that it can model modern aircraft by composite plates. One good model of conductor-backed composites is the impedance boundary condition where the composites are replaced by surfaces with complex impedances. This impedance-plate model is then used to model the composite plates in the NEWAIR3 code. In most applications, the aircraft distorts the desired radiation pattern of the antenna. However, test examples conducted in this report have shown that the undesired scattered fields are minimized if the right impedance values are chosen for the surface impedance plates.

  12. A low-power, radiation-hard gigabit serializer for use in the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Denes, P; Bussat, J M; Wixted, R

    2000-01-01

    An integrated fiber-optic bit serializer and VCSEL driver has been constructed in radiation-hard complementary heterostructure GaAs FET (CHFET) technology. The serializer, which converts 20 parallel inputs into a high-speed serial output, consumes 60 mW at nominal supply voltage when operating at the Large Hadron Collider word rate of 40 MHz (0.8-GB/s serial rate). The integrated driver directly drives a VCSEL and provides 10-mA switched current and 5 mA of prebias. The complete digital optical link thus consumes 90 mW. (6 refs).

  13. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  14. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ali-Ghanbari, A.; Sharifzadeh, S.; Ranjbaran, R.; Mostafavi-pour, Z.; Zal, F.; Haghani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated. PMID:26396966

  15. Interexaminer reliability of the electromagnetic radiation receiver for determining lumbar spinal joint dysfunction in subjects with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmell, H.A.; Jacobson, B.H.; Edwards, S.W.; Heng, B.J.

    1990-03-01

    Twenty subjects (6 male, 14 female) with low back pain were examined by two experienced and licensed chiropractic doctors (E1 and E2). Both examiners examined the patients using a Toftness Electromagnetic Radiation Receiver (EMRR) and by manual palpation (MP) of the spinous processes. Interexaminer reliability was calculated at three sites (L3, L4, L5) for the following combinations: (a) E1,MP--E2,MP; (b) E1,EMRR--E2,EMRR; (c) E1,MP--E2,EMRR; and (d) E2,MP--E1,EMRR, and intraexaminer reliability was calculated for the following variables: (e) E1,MP--E1,EMRR; and (f) E2,MP--E2,EMRR. Results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for interexaminer reliability of the stated combinations and at the specific sites were: (a) -0.071, 0.400, 0.200; (b) -0.013, 0.100, -0.120; (c) 0.286, 0.300, 0.200; (d) -0.081, 0.000, 0.048. These results predominantly indicate a poor to fair interexaminer reliability. The results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for intraexaminer reliability of the stated combinations were: (e) 0.111, 0.400, 0.737; (f) 0.000, 0.100, 0.368. These results indicate a poor to fair reliability. It was concluded that in subjects with low back pain the EMRR may not be a reliable indicator of spinal joint dysfunction.

  16. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  17. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E; Mortazavi, S M J; Ali-Ghanbari, A; Sharifzadeh, S; Ranjbaran, R; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Zal, F; Haghani, M

    2015-09-01

    Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  18. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective: Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method: 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old. Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results: Our results showed significant increase in ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  19. SAR and temperature distribution in the rat head model exposed to electromagnetic field radiation by 900 MHz dipole antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wu, Shuicai; Zhong, Rugang; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Rats are often used in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure experiments. In the study for the effect of 900 MHz EMF exposure on learning and memory in SD rats, the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the temperature rise in the rat head are numerically evaluated. The digital anatomical model of a SD rat is reconstructed with the MRI images. Numerical method as finite difference time domain has been applied to assess the SAR and the temperature rise during the exposure. Measurements and simulations are conducted to characterize the net radiated power of the dipole to provide a precise dosimetric result. The whole-body average SAR and the localized SAR averaging over 1, 0.5 and 0.05 g mass for different organs/tissues are given. It reveals that during the given exposure experiment setup, no significant temperature rise occurs. The reconstructed anatomical rat model could be used in the EMF simulation and the dosimetric result provides useful information for the biological effect studies.

  20. Consideration of radiated electromagnetic wave from partial discharge based on half-wave dipole antenna model; Hanhacho dipole ni motozuita bubun hoden ni yoru hosha denjiha no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, T.; Okubo, H. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hikita, M. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1997-07-20

    Partial discharge (PD) may take place due to residual defects like metallic particles in SF6 gas insulated power apparatus such as GIS. However, the signal of PD occurring in SF6 gas is very weak and susceptible to external noises in air. Moreover, because of the complicated mechanism of PD, the radiation property of electromagnetic wave from PD has not been clarified, yet. Therefore, it is hard to distinguish the PD signal in SF6 gas from the external noises. From the above points of view, we have been investigating the radiation mechanism of electromagnetic wave from PD. We measured the polarization characteristics of electromagnetic wave radiated from PD in comparison with that of half-wave dipole antennas. The polarization characteristics of PD was explained by the theory of half-wave dipole antenna, rather than that of an infinitesimal dipole antenna. Moreover, we compared the power spectrum received from PD measured by a biconical antenna with that received from the half-wave dipole antenna or infinitesimal dipole. It was found that the power spectrum for PD also corresponded to that for the half-wave dipole antenna with 50cm length. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Classical and quantal Lorentz covariant models of the electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberge, Terje

    2000-07-01

    We present Lorentz covariant models of the radiation field, i.e., plane wave solutions of the Maxwell equations satisfying the Coulomb gauge condition. The theory is constructed along traditional lines. We apply the interpretation of the field as a collection of photons and starts by constructing the state space of the photon. The novelty of this formulation is the use of a new action of the Lorentz group on the space of circular helicities of spin 1 which permits the construction of an action on the state space of the photon. Moreover, the generators of the action provide objects that can be used to construct the field observables both in the classical and quantum case. The result is a theory with a tight structure. It is a generalization of the standard theory, a covariant generalization, and it contains this as a special case.

  2. Second-order equation of motion for electromagnetic radiation back-reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolcsi, T.; Fülöp, T.; Weiner, M.

    2017-09-01

    We take the viewpoint that the physically acceptable solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation for radiation back-reaction are actually determined by a second-order equation of motion, the self-force being given as a function of spacetime location and velocity. We propose three different methods to obtain this self-force function. For two example systems, we determine the second-order equation of motion exactly in the non-relativistic regime via each of these three methods, leading to the same result. We reveal that, for both systems considered, back-reaction induces a damping proportional to velocity and, in addition, it decreases the effect of the external force.

  3. [Experimental justification of possible mechanisms of action of low intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on animals' behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, L N; Dubrovik, B V; Zhavoronkov, l P; Glushakova, V S

    2012-01-01

    Effects of EMR on the behavior of Wistar rats (196 males, 180-240 g of mass) under the conflict of opposed motivations: strong positive, drinking, motivation, and strong negative, pain, motivation were studied. The animals were exposed to low intensity EMR (40 microW/cm2) produced by two independent sources, 475 MHz (Albatross) with two orthogonal E vectors, and synchronization of rhythm modulation in the range of electroencephalography (EEG) frequency. The effect on behavior was observed during 10 min: 1) following the 5-minute exposure to EMR and 2) during the 10-minute exposure. Low intensity EMR of the above mentioned parameters and pulse modulation of 4, 8, 10 and 13 Hz was found to inhibit development of phobia to pain, increase the number of punishable contacts. It testifies to the existence of a weak anxiolytic effect which is similar to the effect of tranquilizers. If animals were exposed to EMR following administration of phenazepam, the radiation was shown to produce potentiation of the anxiolytic effect ofphenazepam. Effect of phenazepam is associated with activation ofbenzdiazipine receptors in the structure ofGABA-ergic receptor complex, which regulates neural membrane chloride channel conductance. We can suggest that anxiolytic and neurodepressive effects of EMR are realized to some extent at the level of ionophore and regulatory receptor complexes.

  4. The influence of collective effects on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in dense ultracold atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraptsev, A. S.; Sokolov, I. M.; Fofanov, Ya. A.

    2012-03-01

    Based on the already-developed general theory (I.M. Sokolov, D.V. Kupriyanov, and M.D. Havey, JETP 112 (2), 246 (2011)), we have studied the spatial distribution of excited atoms and of the atomic polarization that a weak monochromatic field creates in a dense ultracold atomic medium. We show that, in the case of a homogeneous random spatial distribution of atoms, the amplitude of atomic polarization averaged over spatial configurations decreases outside boundary regions according to an exponential law, while its phase linearly increases. Based on this, we have numerically determined the extinction coefficient and the light wavelength in the medium, as well as its dielectric permittivity. The dispersion of the permittivity at different concentrations has been studied. We show that, for dense clouds, the real part of the dielectric permittivity acquires negative values in a certain frequency range. Based on the calculation of the spatial distribution of excited atoms, we have analyzed the character of the transfer and trapping of quasi-resonant radiation in atomic clouds of differing density.

  5. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION OF COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William M; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-21

    Numerical simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. Orders of magnitude speedup has been demonstrated for simulations from first principles of laser-plasma accelerator, free electron laser, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Here we address the application of the Lorentz-boosted frame approach to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can be strongly present in bunch compressor chicanes. CSR is particularly relevant to the next generation of x-ray light sources and is simultaneously difficult to simulate in the lab frame because of the large ratio of scale lengths. It can increase both the incoherent and coherent longitudinal energy spread, effects that often lead to an increase in transverse emittance. We have adapted the WARP code to simulate CSR emission along a simple dipole bend. We present some scaling arguments for the possible computational speed up factor in the boosted frame and initial 3D simulation results.

  6. Characteristics of the Electromagnetic Fields Radiated from Stepped Leaders Just Prior to Lightning Return Strokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H.; Chang, K.C. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Lee, D.M.; Jeong, D.C.; Lee, S.C. [Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Jeong, K.H. [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper statistics on the radiation field waveforms produced by stepped leaders just prior to lightning return strokes were described. As a parameter of stepped leader pulse characteristics, the time interval between the final leader pulse and return stroke peak, the pause time between stepped leaders, the ratio of the final leader peak to the return stroke peak and the stepped leader pulse width at half maximum were examined. The average time intervals between the final leader pulse and return stroke peak were about 16.2 and 14.8{mu}s for the positive and negative polarities, respectively. When the stepped leader approaches closely to ground, the time interval between leader steps was decreased and the mean value was about 17{mu}s, and the present results were in reasonable agreement with the data observed in Florida and Japan. The large fraction of the ratios of the final stepped leader pulse to the lightning return stroke peak were distributed over the range from 5 to 35% and in average the ratio of the final leader pulse to the return stroke peak was 17.4{+-}11.9% for the positive and 18.5{+-}9.4% for the negative electric field waveforms. In addition, the mean pulse widths at half maximum of the stepped leaders are 1.4{mu}s with a standard deviation of 0.9 for the positive polarity and 2.2{mu}s with a standard deviation of 1.2 for the negative polarity, respectively. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  8. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  9. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  10. Electromagnetic radiation as a probe of the initial state and of viscous dynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-07-01

    The penetrating nature of electromagnetic signals makes them suitable probes to explore the properties of the strongly interacting medium created in relativistic nuclear collisions. We examine the effects of the initial conditions and shear relaxation time on the spectra and flow coefficients of electromagnetic probes, using an event-by-event 3+1-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic simulation (music).

  11. BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1988-01-01

    * Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A. Engineering Report: Electromagnetic Interface (EMI)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), for the METSAT/METOP AMSU-A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the procedure and the test results of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Susceptibility, and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) qualification test for the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) and the Meteorological Operation Platform (METOP) projects. The test was conducted in accordance with the approved EMI/EMC Test Plan/Procedure, Specification number AE-26151/5D. This document describes the EMI/EMC test performed by Aerojet and it is presented in the following manner: Section-1 contains introductory material and a brief summary of the test results. Section 2 contains more detailed descriptions of the test plan, test procedure, and test results for each type of EMI/EMC test conducted. Section 3 contains supplementary information that includes test data sheets, plots, and calculations collected during the qualification testing.

  13. IMPACT OF ATHERMIC PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MICROWAVE RADIATION ON THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF DAIRY WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Szwarc

    2017-04-01

    The studies showed that the use of microwave electromagnetic field might influence on the biogas production. Furthermore, microwave treatment of anaerobic sludge enhanced the removal of organic compounds in the methane fermentation process.

  14. Effect of UV-C Radiation, Ultra-Sonication Electromagnetic Field and Microwaves on Changes in Polyphenolic Compounds in Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cebulak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chokeberry fruits are highly valued for their high content of polyphenolic compounds. The use of such abiotic stress factors as UV-C radiation, an electromagnetic field, microwave radiation, and ultrasound, at different operation times, caused differentiation in the contents of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Samples were analyzed for contents of polyphenolics with ultra-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode detector-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS. The analysis showed that after exposure to abiotic stress factors, the concentration of anthocyanins ranged from 3587 to 6316 mg/100 g dry matter (dm that constituted, on average, 67.6% of all identified polyphenolic compounds. The second investigated group included phenolic acids with the contents ranging between 1480 and 2444 mg/100 g dm (26.5%; then flavonols within the range of 133 to 243 mg/100 g dm (3.7%, and finally flavan-3-ols fluctuated between 191 and 369 mg/100 g dm (2.2%. The use of abiotic stress factors such as UV-C radiation, microwaves and ultrasound field, in most cases contributed to an increase in the content of the particular polyphenolic compounds in black chokeberry. Under the influence of these factors, increases were observed: in anthocyanin content, of 22%; in phenolic acids, of 20%; in flavonols, of 43%; and in flavan-3-ols, of 30%. Only the use of the electromagnetic field caused a decrease in the content of the examined polyphenolic compounds.

  15. The radiative potential method for calculations of QED radiative corrections to energy levels and electromagnetic amplitudes in many-electron atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2005-01-01

    We derive an approximate expression for a "radiative potential" which can be used to calculate QED strong Coulomb field radiative corrections to energies and electric dipole (E1) transition amplitudes in many-electron atoms with an accuracy of a few percent. The expectation value of the radiative potential gives radiative corrections to the energies. Radiative corrections to E1 amplitudes can be expressed in terms of the radiative potential and its energy derivative (the low-energy theorem): ...

  16. Physics-based modeling of power system components for the evaluation of low-frequency radiated electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegaranbaboli, Mohammadreza

    The low-frequency electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is an increasingly important aspect in the design of practical systems to ensure the functional safety and reliability of complex products. The opportunities for using numerical techniques to predict and analyze system's EMC are therefore of considerable interest in many industries. As the first phase of study, a proper model, including all the details of the component, was required. Therefore, the advances in EMC modeling were studied with classifying analytical and numerical models. The selected model was finite element (FE) modeling, coupled with the distributed network method, to generate the model of the converter's components and obtain the frequency behavioral model of the converter. The method has the ability to reveal the behavior of parasitic elements and higher resonances, which have critical impacts in studying EMI problems. For the EMC and signature studies of the machine drives, the equivalent source modeling was studied. Considering the details of the multi-machine environment, including actual models, some innovation in equivalent source modeling was performed to decrease the simulation time dramatically. Several models were designed in this study and the voltage current cube model and wire model have the best result. The GA-based PSO method is used as the optimization process. Superposition and suppression of the fields in coupling the components were also studied and verified. The simulation time of the equivalent model is 80-100 times lower than the detailed model. All tests were verified experimentally. As the application of EMC and signature study, the fault diagnosis and condition monitoring of an induction motor drive was developed using radiated fields. In addition to experimental tests, the 3DFE analysis was coupled with circuit-based software to implement the incipient fault cases. The identification was implemented using ANN for seventy various faulty cases. The simulation results were

  17. Motion of dust in a planetary magnetosphere - Orbit-averaged equations for oblateness, electromagnetic, and radiation forces with application to Saturn's E ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1993-01-01

    The orbital dynamics of micrometer-sized dust grains is explored numerically and analytically, treating the strongest perturbation forces acting on close circumplanetary dust grains: higher-order gravity, radiation pressure, and the electromagnetic force. The appropriate orbit-average equations are derived and applied to the E ring. Arguments are made for the existence of azimuthal and vertical asymmetries in the E ring. New understanding of the dynamics of E ring dust grains is applied to problems of the ring's breadth and height. The possibility for further ground-based and spacecraft observations is considered.

  18. Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Study for Solar Cycle 22: Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance, 120 to 300 NM: Report of Working Groups 2 and 3 of SOLERS 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, G. J.; Cebula, R. P.; Gillotay, D.; Simon, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of Working Group 2 and Working Group 3 of the SOLax Electromagnetic Radiation Study for Solar Cycle 22 (SOLERS22) Program. The international (SOLERS22) is Project 1.2 of the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP) sponsored by SCOSTEP, a committee of the International Council of Scientific Unions). SOLERS22 is comprised of five Working Groups, each concentrating on a specific wave-length range: WG-1 - visible and infrared, WG-2 - mid-ultraviolet (200 solar irradiance values in the specified wavelength ranges, 2) consider the evolving solar structures as the cause of temporal variations, and 3) understand the underlying physical processes driving these changes.

  19. [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Sirota, N P; Sadovnikov, V B; Chemeris, N K

    2003-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, it was shown for the first time that low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in vivo causes oppositely directed effects on spatial organization of chromatin in cells of lymphoid organs. In 3 hrs after single whole-body exposure of NMRI mice for 20 min at 42.0 GHz and 0.15 mW/cm2, an increase by 16% (p system cells are realized with the participation of neuroendocrine and central nervous systems.

  20. Microprocessors as a tool in determining correlation between sferics and tornado genesis. [Sferics = atmospheric electromagnetic radiation in the kilohertz to UHF range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, D.R.

    1978-11-01

    It is believed that sferics, a word that stands for atmospheric electromagnetic radiation, can be correlated to the genesis of tornadoes and severe weather. Sferics are generated by lightning and other atmospheric disturbances that are not yet entirely understood. The recording and analysis of the patterns in which sferic events occur, it is hoped, will lead to accurate real-time prediction of tornadoes and other severe weather. Collection of this data becomes cumbersome when correlation between at least two stations is necessary for triangulation; however, the advent of microprocessors has made the task of data collection and massaging inexpensive and manageable.