WorldWideScience

Sample records for electromagnetic radiation produced

  1. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  2. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  3. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  4. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Whelan, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter investigates the mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of an electron-beam plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation arises from both natural beam-plasma systems (e.g., type III solar bursts and kilometric radiation), and from man-made electron beams injected from rockets and spacecraft. A pulsed magnetized discharge plasma is produced with a 1 m diam. oxide-coated cathode and the discussed experiment is performed in the quiescent afterglow. The primary beam-plasma instability involves the excitation of electrostatic plasma waves. Electromagnetic radiation from the beam-plasma system is observed with microwave antennas outside the plasma (all probes removed) or with coax-fed dipoles which can be inserted radially and axially into the plasma. The physical process of mode coupling by which electromagnetic radiation is generated in an electrostatic beam-plasma instability is identified. The results are relevant to beam injection experiments from rockets or satellites into space plasmas. The limited penetration of the beam current into the plasma due to instabilities is demonstrated

  6. Emission of electromagnetic radiation from beam driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two production mechanisms for electromagnetic radiation from a plasma containing electron-beam-driven weak Langmuir turbulence are studied: induced Compton conversion and two-Langmuir-wave coalescence. Induced Compton conversion in which a Langmuir wave scatters off a relativistic electron while converting into a transversely polarized electromagnetic wave is considered as a means for producing amplified electromagnetic radiation from a beam-plasma system at frequencies well above the electron plasma frequency. The induced emission growth rates of the radiation produced by a monoenergetic ultrarelativistic electron beam are determined as a function of the Langmuir turbulence spectrum in the background plasma and are numerically evaluated for a range of model Langmuir spectra. Induced Compton conversion can play a role in emission from astrophysical beam-plasma systems if the electron beam is highly relativistic and sufficiently narrow. However, it is found that the growth rates for this process are too small in all cases studied to account for the intense high-frequency radiation observed in laboratory experiments. Two-Langmuir-wave coalescence as a means of producing radiation at 2omega/sub p/ is investigated in the setting of the earth's foreshock

  7. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium single crystals when excess carriers were generated by bombardment with α particles, protons, or x rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. The source of α particles and protons was a cyclotron and x rays were provided by a tube with a copper anode. The radiation-electromagnetic emf increased linearly on increase in the magnetic field and was directly proportional to the flux of charged particles at low values of the flux, reaching saturation at high values of the flux (approx.5 x 10 11 particles .cm -2 .sec -1 ). In the energy range 4--40 MeV the emf was practically independent of the α-particle energy. The sign of the emf was reversed when samples with a ground front surface were irradiated. Measurements of the photoelectromagnetic and Hall effects in the α-particle-irradiated samples showed that a p-n junction was produced by these particles and its presence should be allowed for in investigations of the radiation-electromagnetic effect. The measured even radiation-electromagnetic emf increased quadratically on increase in the magnetic field. An investigation was made of the barrier radiation-voltaic effect (when the emf was measured between the irradiated and unirradiated surfaces). Special masks were used to produce a set of consecutive p-n junctions in germanium crystals irradiated with α particles. A study of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects in such samples showed that the method could be used to increase the efficiency of devices utilizing the photoelectromagnetic effect

  8. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  9. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  10. Cooling of ions trapped in potential wells produced by electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The probability distributions for the ground state and the excited state of a two-level ion trapped in an harmonic potential well are studied. The ion is excited by electromagnetic radiation and relaxes back due to either spontaneous or stimulated emission. The photon statistics is considered Poissonian and the momentum transfer between the electromagnetic field and the ion is assumed discrete. The present results are closely related to the quantum treatment in the heavy particle limit as well as to those derived from previous semiclassical models. (Author) [es

  11. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  12. Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, D.

    1977-01-01

    The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.

  13. Interactions of electromagnetic radiations and reactive oxygen species on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferramola de Sancovich, A.M.; Sancovich, H.A. . E- mail: ferramol@qb.fcen.uba.ar

    2006-01-01

    The energy of electromagnetic radiation is derived from the fusion in the sun of four hydrogen nuclei to form a helium nucleus. The sun radiates energy representing the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation: all electromagnetic radiation has wave characteristics and travels at the same speed (c: speed of light). But radiations differ in wavelength (λ). Light energy is transmitted not in a continuum stream but only in individual units or photons: E = h c / λ. Short wave light is more energetic than photons of light of longer wavelength. Ultraviolet radiations (UV) (λ s 200- 400 nm) can be classified in UV A (λ s 315 - 400 nm.); UV B (λ s 280 - 315 nm) and UV C (λ s 2 content in biological systems promotes ROS synthesis. If ROS are not controlled by endogenous antioxidants, cell redox status is affected and tissue damage is produced ('oxidative stress'). ROS induce lipid peroxidation, protein cross-linking, enzyme inhibition, loss of integrity and function of plasmatic and mitochondrial membranes conducing to inflammation, aging, carcinogenesis and cell death. While infra-red radiations lead to noticeable tissue temperature conducing to severe burns, UV A and UV B undercover react with skin chromophores producing photochemical alterations involved in cellular aging and cancer induction. As UV radiations can reach cellular nucleus, DNA can be damage. Human beings need protection from the damaging sunbeams. This is a very important concern of public health. While humans need to protect their skin with appropriate clothing and/or by use of skin sun blocks of broad spectrum, some bacteria that are extensively exposed to sunlight have developed genomic evolution (plasmid-encoded DNA repair system) which confers protection from the damaging effect of UV radiation. (author) [es

  14. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  15. [Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, A; Steciwko, A

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's, when Adey discovered that extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) may affect the calcium ions efflux from various cells, bioeffects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) have become the subject of growing interest and numerous research projects. At present, the fact that NIR exerts both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on different physiological cellular parameters is rather unquestionable. At the same time, some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to EMF is potentially harmful even if its intensity is very low. It has been proved that thermal factors are not responsible for these effects, therefore nowadays, they are called 'non-thermal effects'. Our paper deals with three different aspects of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation, bioelectromagnetism, electromagnetobiology and electromagnetic bioinformation. Firstly, we describe how EMF and photons can be produced within a living cell, how biological cycles are controlled, and what are the features of endogenous electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, we discuss various facets of external EMF interactions with living matter, focusing on extremely-low-frequencies, radio- and microwaves. Possible mechanisms of these interactions are also mentioned. Finally, we present a short overview of current theories which explain how electromagnetic couplings may control an open and dissipative structure, namely the living organism. The theory of electromagnetic bioinformation seems to explain how different physiological processes are triggered and controlled, as well as how long-range interactions may possibly occur within the complex biological system. The review points out that the presented research data must be assessed very carefully since its evaluation is crucial to set the proper limits of EMF exposure, both occupational and environmental. The study of biological effects of non-ioinizing radiation may also contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic

  16. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; Wu, Zhongxue; Li, Youxiang

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. Faraday's electromagnetic induction principle was applied to analyze the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the coils used in aneurysm embolization. To induce a current of 0.5mA in less than 5 mm platinum coils required to stimulate peripheral nerves, the minimum magnetic field will be 0.86 μT. To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a hair dryer, the minimum aneurysm radius is 2.5 mm (5 mm aneurysm). To induce a current of 0.5 mA in platinum coils by a computer or TV, the minimum aneurysm radius is 8.6 mm (approximate 17 mm aneurysm). The minimum magnetic field is much larger than the flux densities produced by computer and TV, while the minimum aneurysm radius is much larger than most aneurysm sizes to levels produced by computer and TV. At present, the effects of electromagnetic radiation in our daily lives on intracranial coils do not produce a harmful reaction. Patients with coiled aneurysm are advised to avoid using hair dryers. This theory needs to be proved by further detailed complex investigations. Doctors should give patients additional instructions before the procedure, depending on this study.

  17. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  18. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  19. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a modulated beam of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G [The State Committee of Standards of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-12-27

    The intensity of electromagnetic radiation produced by a modulated beam of charged particles is estimated. The coherence effect is due to the modulation, i.e. to periodicity in the particles distribution.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation due to spacetime oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitre, D.M.; Price, R.H.; Sandberg, V.D.

    1975-01-01

    Wave equations are derived in the Newman-Penrose formalism for mixed electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations on both a flat spacetime background and a slightly charged (Q 2 very-much-less-than GM 2 ) Reissner-Nordstroem background. The physical meaning of these equations is discussed and analytical results are derived for nonrelativistic sources and for ultrarelativistic particle motions. The relationship between even-parity (TM) electromagnetic radiation multipoles in the long-wavelength approximation and static multipoles is shown to be the same as for classical radiation, suggesting a simple picture for electromagnetic radiation induced by gravitational perturbations

  1. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Rowland, H.L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of computer simulations is reported showing the generation of electromagnetic radiation by strong Langmuir turbulence. The simulations were carried out with a fully electromagnetic 2 1/2 -dimensional fluid code. The radiation process takes place in two stages that reflect the evolution of the electrostatic turbulence. During the first stage while the electrostatic turbulence is evolving from an initial linear wave packet into a planar soliton, the radiation is primarily at ω/sub e/. During the second stage when transverse instabilities lead to the collapse and dissipation of the solitons, 2ω/sub e/ and ω/sub e/ radiation are comparable, and 3ω/sub e/ is also present. The radiation power at ω = 2ω/sub e/ is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for electromagnetic emissions by collapsing solitons

  3. Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)

  4. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  5. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Why does gravitational radiation produce vorticity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L; Barreto, W; Carot, J; Prisco, A Di

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the vorticity of worldlines of observers at rest in a Bondi-Sachs frame, produced by gravitational radiation, in a general Sachs metric. We claim that such an effect is related to the super-Poynting vector, in a similar way as the existence of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is related to the vorticity in stationary electrovacuum spacetimes

  7. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  8. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the release of tritium from a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation may play an important role in determining the amount of tritium that passes through the first wall of a fusion reactor. Photons enhance the outgassing of hydrogen from metal surfaces and therefore lower the surface concentration. The diffusion coefficient for hydrogen in metals is also increased by photon interactions. The importance of these processes on the tritium release depends on the actual conditions that will exist in the fusion reactor. Because electromagnetic radiation stimulates the release of tritium from traps, it could also affect the tritium inventory in the first wall. The effects of electromagnetic radiation on hydrogen in metals have been reviewed. Because electrons are produced by high energy photons, the effect of electrons on hydrogen has also been included

  9. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a plasma produced in air by laser pulses with lambda = 10.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilychev, V.A.; Zvorykin, V.D.; Kholin, I.V.; Chugunov, A.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrum, brightness, and energy have been measured for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a plasma produced in air near a solid surface by pulses from a high-power CO 2 laser. The air pressure was varied over the range p 0 = 0.1--760 torr, and the laser power density was varied over the range q = 5 x 10 6 --10 8 W/cm 2 . At p 0 > or approx. =2--5 torr the radiation properties of the plasma are determined by a laser-beam absorption wave which arises in the gas. The maximum brightness temperature, T/sub b/approx. =50 000 K (lambda = 400 +- 20 nm), is reached at p 0 = 25 torr. The emission spectrum is quite different from an equilibrium spectrum, consisting primarily of NII, OII, and NIII lines. The total energy radiation by the plasma in the wavelength interval 360--2600 nm into a solid angle of 4π sr reaches 2.3% of the laser pulse energy

  11. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  12. Electromagnetic radiation properties of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsenin, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In this book, the author examines the effects of the various regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum on foods and agricultural products. Among the regions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum covered are high-energy beta and neutron particles, gamma-rays and X-rays, to lower-energy visible, near infrared, infrared, microwave and low-energy radiowaves and electric currents. Dr. Mohsenin applies these electromagnetic phenomena to food products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, dairy products, meat and processed foods. Contents: Some Basic Concepts of Electromagnetic Radiation. Basic Instruments for Measurement of Optical Properties. Applications of Radiation in the Visible Spectrum. Color and its Measurement. Sorting for Color and Appearance. Near-Infrared and Infrared Radiation Applications. Applications of High-Energy Radiation. Related Concepts of Microwaves, Radiowaves, and Electric Currents. Measurement of Electrical Properties of Foods and Agricultural Products. Applications of Electrical Properties. Appendix, Cited References. Subject Index

  13. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  14. Generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by superconducting films at nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lykov, A N

    2001-01-01

    One detected generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by GdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x superconducting films within 1-10 MHz range at temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling. This type generation is caused by synchronization realized due to the feedback of abrupt changes of the Abrikosov's vortices produced by the external low-frequency magnetic field. Possibility to reach more intensive radiation due to increase of the area of superconducting film, as well as, via increase of amplitude and of frequency of electromagnetic field exciting a vortex system in films is the most important advantage of the given technique of generation

  15. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  16. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation of electrons in periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation and the Smith-Purcell effect. Characteristics of such radiation sources and perspectives of their usage are discussed. The recent experimental results as well as their interpretation are presented. (orig.)

  19. What is radiation and how is it produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.

    1984-01-01

    In summary, a short answer to the question posed by the title of this chapter may be attempted in the following manner. Radiation is electromagnetic or particulate energy emitted or produced as the consequence of electron motion, radioactive decay, or atomic and nuclear interactions. Ionizing radiation is that radiation having sufficient energy to produce positive and negative charges directly or indirectly when it interacts with matter. As with many ''simple'' definitions of complex subjects, this definition contains many terms equally, if not more, complex than the one it purports to define. Like the aroma a good meal, it conveys a feeling for the subject that should stimulate, rather than satisfy, the appetite

  20. [Influence of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiev, G A; Babaev, E I; Topchieva, Sh A; Chumburidze, T B; Nemsitsveridze, N G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation on toxicity of Vipera lebetina obtusa venom. It was found that mice intoxicated with snake venom, with moderate to high exposure to electromagnetic radiation and mice intoxicated with venom, which had not been exposed to the radiation showed the same symptoms of intoxication and death. At the same time, the longevity of mice intoxicated with venom exposed to electromagnetic radiation was higher. The longevity of mice in control group was 25+/-5 min. The longevity of mice intoxicated with exposed to electromagnetic radiation snake venom was from 29 to 60 min. The research showed that the longevity of mice intoxicated with snake venom rose with the level of electromagnetic radiation intensity the snake was exposed to. Accordingly, snake venom, with exposure to high intensity electromagnetic radiation is less toxic.

  1. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  2. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  3. Generating a heated fluid using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2018-01-09

    A vessel including a concentrator configured to concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source and a complex configured to absorb EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel is configured to receive a cool fluid from the cool fluid source, concentrate the EM radiation using the concentrator, apply the EM radiation to the complex, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the cool fluid to the heated fluid. The complex is at least one of consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures. Further, the EM radiation is at least one of EM radiation in an ultraviolet region of an electromagnetic spectrum, in a visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and in an infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  4. Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.

  5. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  6. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on health and immune function of operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-zhong; Chen, Shao-hua; Zhao, Ke-fu; Gui, Yun; Fang, Si-xin; Xu, Ying; Ma, Zi-jian

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the physiological indices and immune function of operators. The general conditions and electromagnetic radiation awareness rate of 205 operators under electromagnetic radiation were evaluated using a self-designed questionnaire. Physical examination, electrocardiography, and routine urine test were performed in these operators. Peripheral blood was collected from the operators under electromagnetic radiation for blood cell counting and biochemical testing, and their peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for determination of chromosomal aberrant frequency and micronucleus frequency. The data from these operators (exposure group) were compared with those of 95 ordinary individuals (control group). The chief complaint of giddiness, tiredness, dizziness, and amnesia showed significant differences between the exposure group and control group (P electromagnetic radiation damage was significantly higher in the exposure group than in the control group. The difference in bradycardia was significant between the two groups (P Electromagnetic radiation may lead to the changes in physiological indices, genetic effects, and immune function and affect the health and immune function in operators. The adverse effects are increased as the working years increase. So it is important to strengthen occupational protection of operators under electromagnetic radiation.

  7. [Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłowska, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2014-05-08

    Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  8. Applications of electromagnetic radiation in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Miłowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have been devoted to the intense search for the response to questions related to the impact of radiation on the human body. Due to the growing fashion for a healthy lifestyle, increasing numbers of works about the alleged dangers of electromagnetic waves and diseases that they cause appeared. However, the discoveries of 20th century, and knowledge of the properties of electromagnetic radiation have allowed to broaden the horizons of the use of artificial sources of radiation in many fields of science and especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show that although excessive radiation or high doses are dangerous to the human body, its careful and controlled use, does not pose a threat, and it is often necessary in therapy. The possibility of using ionizing radiation in radiotherapy, isotope diagnostics or medical imaging, and non-ionizing radiation in the treatment for dermatological disorders and cancers will be presented. The unique properties of synchrotron radiation result in using it on a large scale in the diagnosis of pathological states by imaging methods.

  9. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed

  10. Fast Atom Ionization in Strong Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Goeppert-Mayer and Kramers-Henneberger transformations are examined for bound charges placed in electromagnetic radiation in the non-relativistic approximation. The consistent inclusion of the interaction with the radiation field provides the time evolution of the wavefunction with both structural interaction (which ensures the bound state) and electromagnetic interaction. It is shown that in a short time after switching on the high-intensity radiation the bound charges are set free. In these conditions, a statistical criterion is used to estimate the rate of atom ionization. The results correspond to a sudden application of the electromagnetic interaction, in contrast with the well-known ionization probability obtained by quasi-classical tunneling through classically unavailable non-stationary states, or other equivalent methods, where the interaction is introduced adiabatically. For low-intensity radiation the charges oscillate and emit higher-order harmonics, the charge configuration is re-arranged and the process is resumed. Tunneling ionization may appear in these circumstances. Extension of the approach to other applications involving radiation-induced charge emission from bound states is discussed, like ionization of molecules, atomic clusters or proton emission from atomic nuclei. Also, results for a static electric field are included.

  11. Electromagnetic Radiation from QCD Matter: Theory Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chun

    2016-12-15

    Recent theory developments in electromagnetic radiation from relativistic heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. Electromagnetic observables can serve as a thermometer, a viscometer, and tomographic probes to the collision system. The current status of the “direct photon flow puzzle” is highlighted.

  12. Expanding the use of real-time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amish P; Kupelian, Patrick A; Willoughby, Twyla R; Meeks, Sanford L

    2011-11-15

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter- and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery.

  13. [Reparative Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in Low Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation of Ultra-High Frequency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iryanov, Y M; Kiryanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    Non-drug correction of reparative bone tissue regeneration in different pathological states - one of the most actual problems of modern medicine. Our aim was to conduct morphological analysis of the influence of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency and low intensity on reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis in fracture treatment under transosseous osteosynthesis. A controlled nonrandomized study was carried out. In the experiment conducted on rats we modeled tibial fracture with reposition and fixation of the bone fragments both in control and experimental groups. In the animals of the experimental group the fracture zone was exposed to low intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency. Exposure simulation was performed in the control group. The operated bones were examined using radiography, light and electronic microscopy, X-ray electronic probe microanalysis. It has been established that electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency sessions in fracture treatment stimulate secretory activity and degranulation of mast cells, produce microcirculatory bed vascular permeability increase, endotheliocyte migration phenotype expression, provide endovascular endothelial outgrowth formation, activate reparative osteogenesis and angiogenesis while fracture reparation becomes the one of the primary type. The full periosteal, intermediary and intraosteal bone union was defined in 28 days. Among the therapeutic benefits of electromagnetic radiation of ultra-high frequency in fracture treatment we can detect mast cell secretorv activity stimulation and endovascular anziozenesis activation.

  14. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding.

  15. A study on the apron shielding ratio according to electromagnetic radiation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Son, Joo Chul; Yoon, Chang Yong; Ji, Yung Sik; Cho, Yong In; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh

    2014-01-01

    The medical institution has been used electromagnetic radiation of various energy. But researchers are divided on whether using apron for radiation shielding will be effective or not. The purpose of present study was to analyze electromagnetic radiation shielding effect of apron by using Monte Carlo simulation. 1 MBq electromagnetic radiation was emitted from 10-500 keV at 10 keV increments in Monte Carlo simulation. Then shielded radiation dose difference was confirmed, when 0.25 mmPb shield use for shielding. As a results, shielding ratio was markedly decreased in high energy electromagnetic radiation. The radiation dose was inversely increased with 0.25 mmPb shielding

  16. Electromagnetic radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation emitted from a laser wakefield accelerator is calculated based on Lienard-Wiechert potentials. It is found that at wavelengths longer than the bunch length, the radiation is coherent. The coherent radiation, which typically lies in the infrared

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  18. Electromagnetic field, excited by monodirected X-radiation pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemerov, A.V.; Metelkin, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic field, generated in the atmosphere by monodirected pulse source of X radiation located at the altitude of approximately several kilometers have been estimated by the method of delayed potentials. The source radiation is directed towards the Earth surface. The conclusion was made that restricted areas of approximately 1 km with considerable pulse electromagnetic fields can be created on the Earth surface

  19. Expanding the use of real‐time electromagnetic tracking in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years, techniques to improve radiotherapy delivery, such as intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image‐guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for both inter‐ and intrafraction tumor localization, and hypofractionated delivery techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have evolved tremendously. This review article focuses on only one part of that evolution, electromagnetic tracking in radiation therapy. Electromagnetic tracking is still a growing technology in radiation oncology and, as such, the clinical applications are limited, the expense is high, and the reimbursement is insufficient to cover these costs. At the same time, current experience with electromagnetic tracking applied to various clinical tumor sites indicates that the potential benefits of electromagnetic tracking could be significant for patients receiving radiation therapy. Daily use of these tracking systems is minimally invasive and delivers no additional ionizing radiation to the patient, and these systems can provide explicit tumor motion data. Although there are a number of technical and fiscal issues that need to be addressed, electromagnetic tracking systems are expected to play a continued role in improving the precision of radiation delivery. PACS number: 87.63.‐d PMID:22089017

  20. The analysis of environmental impact in electromagnetic radiation of melting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozeng; Xia Zitong

    2012-01-01

    High or medium-frequency electromagnetic melting equipment is always used in metals refining, but it will creates electromagnetic fields of powerful high-frequency in operation. With the development of our national economy and the raising of environmental awareness among the people, the electromagnetic pollution of industrial electromagnetic has aroused great concern in administrative department, analyzing the effects scope and influencing depth of electromagnetic radiation by field monitoring for the electromagnetic melting equipment in a steel mills, this paper discussed the protective key for this project on radiation and putforward some corresponding preventive measures. (authors)

  1. Apparatus and method for the simultaneous detection of neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.

    2000-01-01

    A sensor for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising: a sensor for the detection of gamma radiation, the sensor defining a sensing head; the sensor further defining an output end in communication with the sensing head; and an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head; wherein the neutron-sensitive material, subsequent to the capture of the neutron, fissions into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the first excited state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV which can in turn be detected by the sensing head; and wherein the sensing head can also detect the ionizing electromagnetic radiation from an incident radiation field without significant interference from the neutron-sensitive material. A method for simultaneously detecting neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation comprising the steps of: providing a gamma ray sensitive detector comprising a sensing head and an output end; conforming an exterior neutron-sensitive material configured to form around the sensing head of the detector; capturing neutrons by the sensing head causing the neutron-sensitive material to fission into an alpha-particle and a .sup.7 Li ion that is in a first excited state in a majority of the fissions, the state decaying via the emission of a single gamma ray at 478 keV; sensing gamma rays entering the detector through the neutron-sensitive material; and producing an output through a readout device coupled to the output end; wherein the detector provides an output which is proportional to the energy of the absorbed ionizing electromagnetic radiation.

  2. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  3. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  4. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in Jalandhar city, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basandrai, D.; Dhami, A. K.; Bedi, R. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Environment pollution from electromagnetic radiations emitted from cell phone towers is a new kind of health hazard, which has increase the public concern regarding the health implications of electromagnetic radiations on humans and animals. Long term consequences of these radiations are still unknown. So it become important to measure and maps the electromagnetic radiation level to analyze potential risk. The present study has been taken to estimate the RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities level near school, hospitals and old age home of Jalandhar City, India. The radiation exposure was measured using a handheld portable electrosmog meter. Results were compared with the safety guidelines issued by ICNIRP (International commission on non ionizing radiation protection) and Bio-initiative report, 2012. It has been found that the radiation exposure level in terms of power densities and corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR) are much below than ICNIRP guidelines for all schools, hospitals and old age home. But in the case of 3 schools, the results are quite alarming where the power density and SAR was found to be 79.6% and 4%, respectively higher in comparisons with safe biological limit.

  5. Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollick, Dan N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/ρ, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E 2 =B 2 in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 +αF 4 have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F 4 term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E 2 ≅B 2 in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 -μ 8 /F 2 , which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E 2 2 .

  6. Correlation of electromagnetic radiation emitted from coal or rock to supporting resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hui-lin; Wang, En-yuan; Song, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Hong-jie; Li, Zhong-hui [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-05-15

    More accurate forecasting of rock burst might be possible from observations of electromagnetic radiation emitted in the mine. We analyzed experimental observations and field data from the Muchengjian coal mine to study the relationship between electromagnetic radiation signal intensity and stress during the fracturing of coal, or rock, and samples under load. The results show that the signal intensity is positively correlated with stress. In addition, we investigated the change in the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the supporting resistance in a real coal mine environment, and the coal or rock stress in the mining area. The data analysis indicates that: (1) electromagnetic radiation intensity can accurately reflect the distribution of stress in the mining area; and, (2) there is a correlation between electromagnetic radiation intensity and supporting resistance. The research has some practical guiding significance for rock burst forecasting and for the prevention of accidents in coal mines. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Mode selection in electrical activities of myocardial cell exposed to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ya; Wang, Chunni; Xu, Ying; Ren, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuronal model under electromagnetic induction and radiation is set up; • The transition of electrical activities under electromagnetic radiation is discussed; • Dynamical response of encoding of neuron is discussed for possible mechanism of heart disease. - Abstract: Based on the Fitzhugh–Nagumo neuron model, the effect of electromagnetic induction is considered and external electromagnetic radiation is imposed to detect the mode transition of electrical activities in a myocardial cell. Appropriate dynamical and functional responses can be observed in the sampled series for membrane potentials by setting different feedback modulation on the membrane potential in presence of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation is described by a periodical forcing on the magnetic flux, and it is found that the response frequency can keep pace with the frequency of external forcing. However, mismatch of frequency occurs by further increasing the frequency of external forcing, it could account for the information encoding of neuron. The dynamical response could be associated with the magnetization and polarization of the media, thus the outputs of membrane potential can become quiescent and/or bursting as well.

  8. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on ...

  9. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  10. Radiation protection problems by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1984-03-01

    Since about one year an interdisciplinary study group has been established to investigate possible radiation protection problems caused by nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in this country. The aim of this project is to identify major fields of concern, to establish appropriate techniques of measurement and control and eventually develop a sound basis for future legislation. The paper gives a summary on the present results of this study. (Author)

  11. Electromagnetic signatures of far-field gravitational radiation in the 1 + 3 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Alvin J K; Cañizares, Priscilla; Gair, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources can interact with background electromagnetic fields, giving rise to distinctive and potentially detectable electromagnetic signatures. In this paper, we study such interactions for far-field gravitational radiation using the 1 + 3 approach to relativity. Linearized equations for the electromagnetic field on perturbed Minkowski space are derived and solved analytically. The inverse Gertsenshteĭn conversion of GWs in a static electromagnetic field is rederived, and the resultant electromagnetic radiation is shown to be significant for highly magnetized pulsars in compact binary systems. We also obtain a variety of nonlinear interference effects for interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves, although wave–wave resonances previously described in the literature are absent when the electric–magnetic self-interaction is taken into account. The fluctuation and amplification of electromagnetic energy flux as the GW strength increases towards the gravitational–electromagnetic frequency ratio is a possible signature of gravitational radiation from extended astrophysical sources. (paper)

  12. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  13. Low-frequency electromagnetic radiation field interaction with cerebral nervous MT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Zhou Yi; Xiao Detao; Zhang Dengyu

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the interaction characteristics and mechanism of electromagnetic radiation field and cerebral nervous system. When the electromagnetic radiation is non-ionization low-frequency electromagnetic field, the two-state physical system in the cytoskeletal microtubule (MT) can be quantized. The state of information bits in cerebral neurons system is described by density matrix, and the system dynamics equation is established and solved. It indicates that when the brain is exposed to non-ionization low-frequency electromagnetic field, the density matrix non-opposite angle element of cerebral nervous qubit will never be zero, its quantum coherence characteristic can keep well, and the brain function will also be not damaged. (authors)

  14. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  15. Study on electromagnetic radiation and mechanical characteristics of coal during an SHPB test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengwu, Li; Qifei, Wang; Pingyang, Lyu

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic loads provided by a Split Hopkinson pressure bar are applied in the impact failure experiment on coal with an impact velocity of 4.174-17.652 m s-1. The mechanical property characteristics of coal and an electromagnetic radiation signal can be detected and measured during the experiment. The variation of coal stress, strain, incident energy, dissipated energy and other mechanical parameters are analyzed by the unidimensional stress wave theory. It suggests that with an increase of the impact velocity, the mechanical parameters and electromagnetic radiation increased significantly and the dissipated energy of the coal sample has a high discrete growing trend during the failure process of coal impact. Combined with the received energy of the electromagnetic radiation signal, the relationship between these mechanical parameters and electromagnetic radiation during the failure process of coal burst could be analyzed by the grey correlation model. The results show that the descending order of the gray correlation degree between the mechanical characteristics and electromagnetic radiation energy are impact velocity, maximum stress, the average stress, incident energy, the average strain, maximum strain, the average strain rate and dissipation energy. Due to the correlation degree, the impact velocity and incident energy are relatively large, and the main factor affecting the electromagnetic radiation energy of coal is the energy magnitude. While the relationship between extreme stress and the radiation energy change trend is closed, the stress state of coal has a greater impact on electromagnetic radiation than the strain and destruction which can deepen the research of the coal-rock dynamic disaster electromagnetic monitoring technique.

  16. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  17. Parametric excitation electromagnetic radiation in a bounded non-equilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakirev, V.A.; Tolstoluzhskij, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    An excitation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation in a bounded plasma-beam system which is based on the process of induced scattering of electron beam-strengthened high-frequency wave (HF) of a plasma waveguide with an ion-sound wave, is investigated. It is shown that the process under investigation is an effective mechanism of electromagnetic radiation production. Up to 73 % of the beam power is trabsformed to the electromagnetic radiation under the conditions considered. As the frequency of the irradiated wave is close to the plasma frequency it can vary within wide limits by the change in plasma density. It is noted that the necessary condition of electromagnetic radiation production in the mechanism under consideration has the form of inequality ωsub(l)-ωsub(s)/(ksub(l)-ksub(s)>c (ωsub(l) - frequency of HF wave, ωsub(s)- frequency of ion-sound wave) and is less rigid as compared with the synchronism conditions for three-wave resonant interaction of proper oscillations. Therefore, the considered induced scattering process is less sensitive to a possible inhomogeneity of plasma density [ru

  18. Techniques for predicting environment electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Peiji

    1987-01-01

    The measurement theories, techniques, and calculation methods on public exposure level of electromagnetic radiation at satellite ground station are described for the purpose of enviroment protection and research of EM compatibility. According to the results of the measurement and calculation, it is possible to predict the effects of electromagnetic radiation to environment at satellite ground station

  19. Principles of electromagnetic radiation interaction with matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, T C

    1981-01-01

    In the use of nuclear techniques, one of safety problems is the protection of personnel and delicate instruments against harmful radiation. It is therefore of prime importance that the designer of nuclear experiments have a basic understanding of how radiation behaves when it passes through matter. This is a tutorial paper that presents the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation with respect to its interaction and absorption in matter.

  20. Combination transition radiation in a medium excited by an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation emitted by a uniformly moving charged particle in a medium excited by an electromagnetic field is considered by taking into account the interaction between the electromagnetic waves and optical phonon wave. The frequencies are found, in the vicinity of which the two-wave approximation should be applied in order to determine the radiation field. It is shown that in the vicinity of these frequencies the radiation considerably differs from the Cherenkov radiation

  1. Does the cellphone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debate regarding the biological effect of electromagnetic radiation has been recently raised. The effects of this radiation on locomotor activity are not well known. Hence, in this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to investigate the possible effects of short-term exposure to ringing or talking ...

  2. Electromagnetic Radiation Disturbed the Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at the Proteomics Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao; Yang, Chuanjun; Yu, Hui; Tian, Shen; Huang, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiyi; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-11

    Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa under Electromagnetic Radiation (1.8 GHz, 40 V/m) was studied by using the proteomics. A total of 30 differentially expressed proteins, including 15 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated proteins, were obtained in this study. The differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in the photosynthesis pathway, in which the protein expression levels of photosystems II cytochrome b559 α subunit, cytochrome C550, PsbY, and F-type ATP synthase (a, b) decreased. Our results indicated that electromagnetic radiation altered the photosynthesis-related protein expression levels, and aimed at the function of photosynthetic pigments, photosystems II potential activity, photosynthetic electron transport process, and photosynthetic phosphorylation process of M. aeruginosa. Based on the above evidence, that photoreaction system may be deduced as a target of electromagnetic radiation on the photosynthesis in cyanobacteria; the photoreaction system of cyanobacteria is a hypothetical "shared target effector" that responds to light and electromagnetic radiation; moreover, electromagnetic radiation does not act on the functional proteins themselves but their expression processes.

  3. Present status and legal countermeasures of electromagnetic radiation pollution in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qiu

    2007-01-01

    With the wide utilization of electronic technology, electromagnetic radiation has rapidly been one of the most serious pollution sources, causing corresponding disputes of pollution on the rise and the contradictions sharp increasingly because of the limited supply and research of law. The article analyses the characters and present status of electromagnetic radiation pollution, points out the inadequacy supply of relevant law and its reasons and presents legal countermeasures, that is: complying with present laws, establishing national standard systems, strengthening local legislation. The paper also presents the basic idea and principle of making 'Prevention Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution'. (authors)

  4. Radiation. It is all one and the same. Psychological aspects of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    It is clear that the effects of electromagnetic radiation from power transmission lines and radio/TV-towers on public health are minor. Compared to those minor effects the attention from the media and the public anxiety for this subject is out of all proportions. However, this is understandable while the reaction to the complaints often is inadequate. There appears to be a large difference between the official risk assessment and the public perception of the risks of electromagnetic radiation. 1 fig., 12 refs

  5. Chaotic characteristic of electromagnetic radiation time series of coal or rock under different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-Tang Liu; En-Lai Zhao; En-Yuan Wang; Jing Wang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-02-15

    Based on chaos theory, the chaotic characteristics of electromagnetic radiation time series of coal or rock under different loads was studied. The results show that the correlation of electromagnetic radiation time series of small-scale coal or rock and coal mine converges to a stable saturation value, which shows that these electromagnetic radiation time series have chaos characteristics. When there is danger of coal seam burst, the value of the saturation correlation dimension D{sub 2} of the electromagnetic radiation time series is bigger and it changes greatly; when there is no danger, its value is smaller and changes smoothly. The change of saturation correlation of electromagnetic radiation time series can be used to forecast coal or rock dynamic disasters. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Principles of electromagnetic radiation interaction with matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Ching

    1981-01-01

    In the use of nuclear techniques, one of the safety problems is the protection of personnel and delicate instruments against harmful radiation. It is therefore of prime importance that the designer of nuclear experiments have a basic understanding of how radiation behaves when it passes through matter. This is a tutorial paper that presents the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation with respect to its interaction and absorption in matter.

  7. Principles of electromagnetic radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Ching Ping

    1981-01-01

    In the use of nuclear techniques, one of the safety problems is the protection of personnel and delicate instruments against harmful radiation. It is therefore of prime importance that the designer of nuclear experiments have a basic understanding of how radiation behaves when it passes through matter. This is a tutorial paper that presents the fundamentals of electromagnetic radiation with respect to its interaction and absorption in matter. (author)

  8. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  9. Stochastic electromagnetic radiation of complex sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2007-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by localized complex electric charge and current distributions is studied. A statistical formalism in terms of general dynamical multipole fields is developed. The appearing coefficients are treated as stochastic variables. Hereby as much as possible a

  10. Electromagnetic radiation in a time-varying background medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented for the electromagnetic radiation by an arbitrary pulsed source into a homogeneous time-varying background medium. In the constant-impedance case an explicit radiation formula is obtained for the synchronous permittivity and permeability described by any positive

  11. PERCEPTION LEVEL EVALUATION OF RADIO ELECTRONIC MEANS TO A PULSE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is consid- ered in this article. The electromagnetic wave penetration mechanism towards the elements of electronic systems and the impact on them are determined by the intensity of the radiation field on the elements of electronic systems. The impact of electromagnetic radiation pulses to the electronic systems refers to physical and analytical parameters of the relationship between exposure to pulses of electromagnetic radiation and the sample parameters of electronic systems. A physical and mathematical model of evaluating the perception level of electronic means to pulsed electromagnetic radiation is given. The developed model was based on the physics of electronics means failure which represents the description of electro- magnetic, electric and thermal processes that lead to the degradation of the original structure of the apparatus elements. The conditions that lead to the total equation electronic systems functional destruction when exposed to electromagnetic radia- tion pulses are described. The internal characteristics of the component elements that respond to the damaging effects are considered. The ratio for the power failure is determined. A thermal breakdown temperature versus pulse duration of expo- sure at various power levels is obtained. The way of evaluation the reliability of electronic systems when exposed to pulses of electromagnetic radiation as a destructive factor is obtained.

  12. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.

    1976-08-01

    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin

  13. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  14. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  15. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  16. Exploiting Novel Radiation-Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting Novel Radiation -Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report Distribution...assess the effects of ionizing radiation on at least three classes of electromagnetic materials. The proposed approach for radiation detection was...that was desired to be monitored remotely. Microwave or low millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation would be used to interrogate the device

  17. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  19. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  20. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  1. A numerical analytic method for electromagnetic radiation accompanying with fracture of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Chen; Ka-Ma, Huang

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies Rabinovitch's compression experiments on granite and chalk and proposes an oscillating dipole model to analyse and simulate the electromagnetic radiation phenomenon caused by fracture of rocks. Our model assumes that the electromagnetic radiation pulses are initiated by vibrations of the charged rock grains on the tips of the crack. The vibrations of the rock grains are stimulated by the pulses of the cracks. Our simulations show comparable results with Rabinovitch's compression experiments. From the simulation results, it verifies an assumption that the crack width is inversely proportional to the circular frequency electromagnetic radiation, which is presented by Rabinovitch et al. The simulation results also imply that, by using our oscillating dipole model together with Rabinovitch's two equations about the crack length and crack width, we can quantitatively analyse and simulate the electromagnetic radiation phenomenon, which is induced from the fracture of the rocks. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  2. Applications of first order matricial theory to the calculation of storage ring designed for producing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of first order matrix theory (linear approximation) used for calculating component elements of a particle accelerator employing the synchrotron principle of alternated gradient, is presented. Based on this theory, criteria for dimensioning synchrotron designed, exclusively for producing electromagnetic radiation, are established. The problem to find out optimum disposition of elements (straight line sections, quadrupolar magnetic lens, etc.) which take advantages of deflector magnets of the DCI synchrotron (Orsay Linear Accelerator Laboratory, French) aiming to construct a synchrotron designed to operate as electromagnetic radiation source, is solved. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Histopathological changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Skin before and after Silymarin and Vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.F.; Elkady, A.

    2013-01-01

    People in industrial and developing countries are exposed to large variety of environmental influencing agents including chemical, air, water and food pollution. Also physical harmful agents such as ultraviolet radiation, and electromagnetic radiation especially by cell phones. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on the skin of male albino rats and the role of silymarin and Vitamin E as skin protectors. The male rats were grouped into 8 groups :1-Control group, 2-Irradiated group, groups 3,4,5 are irradiated with silymarin administration, irradiated with Vitamin E administration, irradiated with silymarin and Vitamin E administration groups respectively. The remaining three groups (6, 7, 8) served as healthy control with antioxidants administration. Paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for showing microscopic changes. Following irradiation, the results showed dystrophic changes in the skin represented by atrophy of epidermal layers with absence of stratum corneum and epidermal vesicles formation. Collagen fibres were disorganized and appeared more eosinophilic and homogenous. Loss of skin appendages, lysis of collagen and edematous tissues were also observed in the dermal layer. Following administration of silymarin and Vitamin E the results showed improvement of the skin texture, while edema was still observed. conclusion: Treatment by silymarin alone or Vitamin E alone did not restore the damaging effect of electromagnetic radiation on rat skin. But when both antioxidants were given following radiation-exposure there were marked improvements on morphological structure of rat skin. These results indicate the importance of both silymarin and Vitamin E as protectors from the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation on skin.

  4. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in rats hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hong-yan; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Shui-ming; Gao, Ya-bing; Xu, Xin-ping; Ma, Jun-Jie

    2009-05-01

    To study the development of changes for signaling molecules related to Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in hippocampus of rats after electromagnetic radiation, and investigate the mechanisms of radiation injury. Rats were exposed to X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP radiation source respectively, and animal model of electromagnetic radiation was established. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Raf-1, phosphorylated Raf-1 and phospholylated ERK. The expression of Raf-1 down-regulated during 6 h-14 d after radiation, most significantly at 7 d, and recovered at 28 d. There was no significant difference between the radiation groups. The expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 and phosphorylated ERK both up-regulated at 6 h and 7 d after radiation, more significantly at 6 h, and the two microwave groups were more serious for phosphorylated ERK. During 6 h-14 d after S-HPM radiation, the expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 increased continuously, but phosphorylated ERK changed wavily, 6 h and 7 d were expression peak. Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway participates in the hippocampus injury induced by electromagnetic radiation. The excessive activation of ERK pathway may result in the apoptosis and death of neurons, which is the important mechanism of recognition disfunction caused by electromagnetic radiation.

  5. Effect of a gravitational wave on electromagnetic radiation confined in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourrenc, P.

    1978-01-01

    Gravitational radiation is considered within the first-order approximation. A pattern of an electromagnetic cavity is studied: Gravitational waves give rise to a deformation of the planes limiting the cavity. This deformation alters the electromagnetic radiation. Several cases are studied and orders of magnitude are put forward. (author)

  6. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  7. [Morphological structure of rat epiphysis exposed to electromagnetic radiation from communication devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, S G; Rybalko, S Yu

    Pineal gland is one of the most important components of homeostasis - the supporting system of the body. It participates in the launch of stress responses, restriction of their development, prevention of adverse effects on the body. There was proved an impact of electromagnetic radiation on the epiphysis. However, morphological changes in the epiphysis under exposure to electromagnetic radiation of modern communication devices are studied not sufficiently. For the time present the population is daily exposed to electromagnetic radiation, including local irradiation on the brain. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. These date determined the task of this research - the study of the structure of rat pineal gland under the exposure to electromagnetic radiation from personal computers and mobile phones. Performed transmission electron microscopy revealed signs of degeneration of dark and light pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the development of a complex of general and specific morphological changes. There was revealed the appearance of signs of aging and depletion transmission electron microscopy both in light and dark pinealocytes. These signs were manifested in the accumulation of lipofuscin granules and electron-dense "brain sand", the disappearance of nucleoli, cytoplasm vacuolization and mitochondrial cristae enlightenment.

  8. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermodynamics applied to the damage mechanics reveals that the damage evolution produces the variations in charge, dipole and electromagnetic signals in addition to mechanical energy release, and yields the time-scale invariant patterns of Benioff electromagnetic radiation and cumulative Benioff strain-release. The irreversible thermodynamic framework of damage mechanics is also applicable to the seismo-magnetic effect, and the time-scale invariance is recognized in the remanent magnetization change associated with damage evolution prior to a rock failure.

  9. Correlation of plastic deformation induced intermittent electromagnetic radiation characteristics with mechanical properties of Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjana; Lal, Shree P.; Misra, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on intermittent electromagnetic radiation during plastic deformation of Cu-Ni alloys under tension and compression modes of deformation. On the basis of the nature of electromagnetic radiation signals, oscillatory or exponential, results show that the compression increases the viscous coefficient of Cu-Ni alloys during plastic deformation. Increasing the percentage of solute atoms in Cu-Ni alloys makes electromagnetic radiation strength higher under tension. The electromagnetic radiation emission occurs at smaller strains under compression showing early onset of plastic deformation. This is attributed to the role of high core region tensile residual stresses in the rolled Cu-Ni alloy specimens in accordance with the Bauschinger effect. The distance between the apexes of the dead metal cones during compression plays a significant role in electromagnetic radiation parameters. The dissociation of edge dislocations into partials and increase in internal stresses with increase in solute percentage in Cu-Ni alloys under compression considerably influences the electromagnetic radiation frequency.

  10. A Study on the Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation on Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Being applied widely, electromagnetic wave is closely related with our life. But this material has brought pollutions to the environment as well as influences on functions of organisms. In order to explore the influence of electromagnetic radiation on nervous system, this paper takes adult mice on 35th day as research objects, designs a water maze experiment and explores features of escaping latency of mice in the control group and in the group with radiation. In this research, methods of building a GHz TEM cell and a simulation model of mouse head with AutoCAD 2010 and XFDTD are provided, verifying that the simulation model meets the needs of the experiment. It concludes that the electromagnetic radiation causes memory deterioration of mice, and exerts its certain influence on nervous system.

  11. On quantization of the electromagnetic field in radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed description of quantization of the electromagnetic field (in radiation gauge) and quantization of some basic physical variables connected with radiation field as energy, momentum and spin. The dynamics of the free quantum radiation field and the field interacting with external classical sources is described. The canonical formalism is not used explicity. (author)

  12. New theory of radiative energy transfer in free electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.

    1976-01-01

    A new theory of radiative energy transfer in free, statistically stationary electromagnetic fields is presented. It provides a model for energy transport that is rigorous both within the framework of the stochastic theory of the classical field as well as within the framework of the theory of the quantized field. Unlike the usual phenomenological model of radiative energy transfer that centers around a single scalar quantity (the specific intensity of radiation), our theory brings into evidence the need for characterizing the energy transport by means of two (related) quantities: a scalar and a vector that may be identified, in a well-defined sense, with ''angular components'' of the average electromagnetic energy density and of the average Poynting vector, respectively. Both of them are defined in terms of invariants of certain new electromagnetic correlation tensors. In the special case when the field is statistically homogeneous, our model reduces to the usual one and our angular component of the average electromagnetic energy density, when multiplied by the vacuum speed of light, then acquires all the properties of the specific intensity of radiation. When the field is not statistically homogeneous our model approximates to the usual phenomenological one, provided that the angular correlations between plane wave modes of the field extend over a sufficiently small solid angle of directions about the direction of propagation of each mode. It is tentatively suggested that, when suitably normalized, our angular component of the average electromagnetic energy density may be interpreted as a quasi-probability (general quantum-mechancial phase-space distribution function, such as Wigner's) for the position and the momentum of a photon

  13. On electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic electrons in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgoretskij, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is considered caused by ultrarelativistic channeling electrons moving inside cylindrical regions formed with nuclear heat oscillations of a crystal lattice. An energy asymmetry is predicted for electrons and positrons, generated by γ-quanta falling to a crystal along the crystallographic axes. A possible connection of the above mentioned radiation with the anomalous multiphoton Schein showers is discussed

  14. Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivachenko, I B; Medvedev, D S; Molodtsova, I D; Panteleev, S S; Sokolov, A Yu; Lyubashina, O A

    2016-02-01

    Effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation (40 GHz frequency, 0.01 mW power) on the spontaneous fi ring of convergent neurons of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and their responses to electrical stimulation of the dura mater were studied in neurophysiological experiments on rats. Irradiation of the area of cutaneous receptive fields of spinal trigeminal nucleus reversibly inhibited both spontaneous discharges and activity induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater. The second and third exposures to electromagnetic radiation with an interval of 10 min were ineffective. These results suggest that suppression of neuronal excitability in the spinal trigeminal ganglion can be a mechanism of the anti-migraine effects of electromagnetic radiation observed in clinical practice.

  15. [Effect of electromagnetic radiation on discharge activity of neurons in the hippocampus CA1 in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Chen, Su; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Hao, Dong-Mei

    2013-09-01

    In order to explore effect of electromagnetic radiation on learning and memory ability of hippocampus neuron in rats, the changes in discharge patterns and overall electrical activity of hippocampus neuron after electromagnetic radiation were observed. Rat neurons discharge was recorded with glass electrode extracellular recording technology and a polygraph respectively. Radiation frequency of electromagnetic wave was 900 MHZ and the power was 10 W/m2. In glass electrode extracellular recording, the rats were separately irradiated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min, every points repeated 10 times and updated interval of 1h, observing the changes in neuron discharge and spontaneous discharge patterns after electromagnetic radiation. In polygraph recording experiments, irradiation group rats for five days a week, 6 hours per day, repeatedly for 10 weeks, memory electrical changes in control group and irradiation group rats when they were feeding were repeatedly monitored by the implanted electrodes, observing the changes in peak electric digits and the largest amplitude in hippocampal CA1 area, and taking some electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence for correlation analysis. (1) Electromagnetic radiation had an inhibitory role on discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons. After electromagnetic radiation, discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons was reduced, but the changes in scale was not obvious. (2) Electromagnetic radiation might change the spontaneous discharge patterns of hippocampus CA1 region neurons, which made the explosive discharge pattern increased obviously. (3) Peak potential total number within 5 min in irradiation group was significantly reduced, the largest amplitude was less than that of control group. (4) Using mathematical method to make the correlation analysis of the electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence, that of irradiation group was less than that of control group, indicating that there was a tending

  16. A Route to Chaotic Behavior of Single Neuron Exposed to External Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peihua; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2017-01-01

    Non-linear behaviors of a single neuron described by Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model, with external electromagnetic radiation considered, is investigated. It is discovered that with external electromagnetic radiation in form of a cosine function, the mode selection of membrane potential occurs among periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions as increasing the frequency of external transmembrane current, which is selected as a sinusoidal function. When the frequency is small or large enough, periodic, and quasi-periodic motions are captured alternatively. Otherwise, when frequency is in interval 0.778 electromagnetic radiation. The frequency apparently plays a more important role in determining the system behavior.

  17. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  18. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  19. What can we Learn from the Electromagnetic Spectrum?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electromagnetic radiation is all around us, and essential for the survival ... light that enters through the irises of our eyes, falls on our retina, interacts with ... tions of an electric charge produce an electromagnetic field that radiates ... induction of current in a coil. ... techniques showed that the violet end of visible spectrum oc-.

  20. A Study of Electromagnetic Radiation of Corona Discharge Near 500-Kv Electric Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhov, A. V.; Okrainskaya, I. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Kufel'd, V. D.

    2004-01-01

    Data on the spectral composition and intensity of electromagnetic radiation of corona discharge are obtained in an experimental study performed on the outdoor switchgear of the Shagol 500-kV substation of the Chelyabinsk Enterprise of Trunk Transmission Grids and under a 500-kV Shagol - Kozyrevo overhead transmission line. The electromagnetic environment on the territory of the 500-kV outdoor switchgear is shown to be determined by narrow-band radiations (harmonics of the frequency of electric supply) and wide-band radiations due to corona discharges of high-voltage sources. This means that the personnel experience the action of a commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation of a quite wide range, which is not allowed for by the existing guidelines. It is recommended to continue the study in cooperation with medical institutions in order to create guidelines that would allow for the joint action of commercial-frequency electric field and electromagnetic radiation and for the voltage in the line, the current load, the meteorological situation, and other factors

  1. Influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a general helicity-rotation coupling is demonstrated for electromagnetic waves propagating in the field of a slowly rotating body and in the Goedel universe. This coupling leads to differential focusing of circularly polarized radiation by a gravitational field which is detectable for a rapidly rotating collapsed body. The electromagnetic perturbations and their frequency spectrum are given for the Goedel universe. The spectrum of frequencies is bounded from below by the characteristic rotation frequency of the Goedel universe. If the universe were rotating, the differential focusing effect would be extremely small due to the present upper limit on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation.

  2. Urban pollution by electromagnetic radiation. What risk for human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines, domestic appliances, radios, TV sets, cell-phones, radar, etc., they are all instruments which, entering our everyday life, cause electromagnetic pollution. The risks for human health as a consequence of being exposed to this kind of radiation haven't been clearly ascertained yet, even if there is proof of the connection between the onset of some tumoral forms and exposure to electromagnetic fields. Many countries, among which Italy, are tackling the problem of safety distances, necessary to reduce exposure to non-ionising radiation, by issuing bills suitable for human health protection [it

  3. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  4. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  5. Experimental research on electromagnetic radiation in inductive energy storage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jianzhong; Liu Lie; Li Limin; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    There exists strong electromagnetic radiation in inductive energy storage accelerators. In can destroy a measuring device at a distance. By repeated experiments, we found that it is a wide-spectrum electromagnetic wave with a main frequency of 75 MHz. The effector such as coaxial transmission line is effected strongly in short distance. The current in the coaxial transmission line can be measured in Rogowski coils. The strength of field in it is about 500 V/m and the peak current is 217 mA. The radiation source may be LC oscillating or electric exploding opening switch. Through the experimental research, we think it probably may be caused by the LC oscillating in the circuit when the switches conduct. And its strength is correlated to current change ratio. The change rate in secondary circuit is stronger than in primary circuit. So the radiation generated in secondary circuit is stronger than in primary circuit. It may be a reference for further research in inductive energy storage accelerators and shielding electromagnetic disturbing. (authors)

  6. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  7. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat liver influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovská, K; Almášiová, V; Cigánková, V; Beňová, K; Račeková, E; Martončíková, M

    2015-01-01

    Mobile communication systems are undoubtedly an environmental source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). There is an increasing concern regarding the interactions of EMR with the humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of EMR on Wistar rat liver. Mature rats were exposed to electromagnetic field of frequency 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h/d for 3 wk. Samples of the liver were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed histologically for light and transmission electron microscopy. Data demonstrated the presence of moderate hyperemia, dilatation of liver sinusoids, and small inflammatory foci in the center of liver lobules. Structure of hepatocytes was not altered and all described changes were classified as moderate. Electron microscopy of hepatocytes revealed vesicles of different sizes and shapes, lipid droplets, and proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally necrotizing hepatocytes were observed. Our observations demonstrate that EMR exposure produced adverse effects on rat liver.

  8. Spontaneous electromagnetic radiation caused by binary ion-atom collisions in the quasiresonant case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlov, A.A.; Popovic, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The process of spontaneous electromagnetic radiation in the reaction A + + B → A + B + + hω is studied. Here A and B are the same kind of atoms or atoms with small differences in ionization potentials (quasiresonant case). Differential cross section, energy spectrum of the emitted photons, and total intensity of electromagnetic radiation are determined for thermal velocities of relative motion. Results are applicable in a wide range of temperatures: 500< or = T< or = 50,000 K. It is shown that the radiation spectrum is very broad and the radiation intensity is considerable

  9. [Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-yu; Song, Chun-xiao; Yu, Duo; Liu, Xiao-liang; Guo, Jian-qiu; Wang, Chuan; Ding, Yuan-wei; Zhou, Hong-xia; Ma, Shu-mei; Liu, Xiao-dong; Liu, Xin

    2012-03-01

    To observe the exposure levels of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in workplaces and to analyze the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation on cardiovascular system of occupationally exposed people. Intensity of electromagnetic fields in two workplaces (control and exposure groups) was detected with EFA-300 frequency electromagnetic field strength tester, and intensity of the noise was detected with AWA5610D integral sound level. The information of health physical indicators of 188 controls and 642 occupationally exposed workers was collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS17.0 statistic software. The intensity of electric fields and the magnetic fields in exposure groups was significantly higher than that in control group (P 0.05). The results of physical examination showed that the abnormal rates of HCY, ALT, AST, GGT, ECG in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in control group (P 0.05). Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation may have some effects on the cardiovascular system of workers.

  10. Electromagnetic and radiation environments: effects on pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, J.; Trochet, R.; Vicrey, J.; Sauvage, M.; Chauvenet, B.; Ostrovski, A.; Leroy, E.; Haug, R.; Dodinot, B.; Joffre, F.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, medical care development allows many people to share the benefits of implanted pacemakers (PM). PM can be perturbed and even fall in complete breakdowns in an electromagnetic and radiation environment. A stimuli-dependent patient can thus be seriously in danger. This article presents the effect of ionizing radiation from either a cobalt-60 source or from a linear accelerator (Saturne 43) on 12 pacemakers. It seems that technological progress make electronic circuits more sensitive to the cumulated dose of radiation. This survey shows that pacemakers have great difficulties to sustain ionizing radiation doses that are commonly delivered to patients during therapies. Usually perturbed functioning appears suddenly and means a strong shift of stimuli that might lead to heart failure

  11. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2006-01-01

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality

  12. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: vfrid@bgu.ac.il; Rabinovitch, A. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2006-07-31

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality.

  13. Gold Nanocluster-Mediated Cellular Death under Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Rius, Anna; Ivask, Angela; Das, Shreya; Penya-Auladell, Nuria; Fabregas, Laura; Fletcher, Nicholas L; Houston, Zachary H; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2017-11-29

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have become a promising nanomaterial for cancer therapy because of their biocompatibility and fluorescent properties. In this study, the effect of ultrasmall protein-stabilized 2 nm Au NCs on six types of mammalian cells (fibroblasts, B-lymphocytes, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and two types of prostate cancer cells) under electromagnetic radiation is investigated. Cellular association of Au NCs in vitro is concentration-dependent, and Au NCs have low intrinsic toxicity. However, when Au NC-incubated cells are exposed to a 1 GHz electromagnetic field (microwave radiation), cell viability significantly decreases, thus demonstrating that Au NCs exhibit specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity, likely resulting from localized heating. Upon i.v. injection in mice, Au NCs are still present at 24 h post administration. Considering the specific microwave-dependent cytotoxicity and low intrinsic toxicity, our work suggests the potential of Au NCs as effective and safe nanomedicines for cancer therapy.

  14. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  16. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation field level in the vicinity of Damascus international airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the electromagnetic radiation exposure of Damascus international airport workers.Different kinds of electromagnetic wave sources exist in the vicinity of the airport, for example, mobile phone base stations. It was found that the exposure level in all studied points (offices, halls, traffic control tour, etc) is lower than the international restriction levels. Few recommendations were given for some work situation or places where the measured electromagnetic radiation levels were relatively high.(author)

  17. Method of neutralising the effects of electromagnetic radiation in a radiation detector and a radiation detector applying the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripentog, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Circuitry is described by means of which radiation detectors of the Neher-White type, employing ionisation chambers can be unaffected by electromagnetic radiation which would otherwise cause inductive effects leading to erroneous signals. It is therefore unnecessary to use shielded cables for these instruments. (JIW)

  18. Generation of electromagnetic radiation in laser action with solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, K.P.; Vorob'ev, S.A.; Kuznetsov, M.F.; Mastov, Sh.R.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new effect of electromagnetic pulse generation in solids, exposed to laser irradiation was revealed experimentally. The ruby laser with 694.36 nm wave length was used in the experiments. Monocrystals of Si, GaAs, KCl, LiF, polycrystals of Cu, Al, metals, the rocks-calcite, marble, natural quartz, feldspar - were used as samples. The effect of electromagnetic pulse generation, which is characterized by sharp threshold dependence on the density of laser radiation power, as well as on the type of material and its characteristics was observed for each material. The possibility of using the method of electromagnetic pulse detection during laser irradiation for evaluation of defectiveness degree and strength characteristics of investigated materials was shown

  19. Human reactions to electromagnetic radiation in millimeter range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, E.A.; Belyy, M.U.; Sit' ko, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The article deals with a problem that is on the boundary of different disciplines. The authors discovered previously unknown effects of low-energy electromagnetic radiation on the human body. A total of 188 subjects, both healthy and sick in terms of medical diagnosis, were submitted to sensory tests. The vast majority of healthy subjects did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz and power density of up to 10 mW/cm/sup 2/. The same situation was also observed in many cases with patients. However, exposure of very specific parts of the body of sick subjects to electromagnetic waves at a fixed frequency in the range of 45-65 GHz elicited a sensory reaction in the region of the organ with a marked impairment, and this was an organ that was spatially remote from the irradiated region. It was established that the zones on the surface of the body that are the most sensitive to radiation coincide with acupuncture zones that are known in reflex acupuncture therapy. In addition to presentation of experimental results, the authors also propose a theoretical interpretation of the demonstrated effects.

  20. Energy and thermodynamic considerations involving electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    There has been recent speculation and controversy regarding whether electromagnetic zero-point radiation might be the next candidate in the progression of plentiful energy sources, ranging, for example, from hydrodynamic, chemical, and nuclear energy sources. Certainly, however, extracting energy from the vacuum seems counter intuitive to most people. Here, these ideas are clarified, drawing on simple and common examples. Known properties of electromagnetic zero-point energy are qualitatively discussed. An outlook on the success of utilizing this energy source is then discussed

  1. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation in a semi-compact space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yokoo, Sumito

    2018-02-01

    In this note, we investigate the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a revolving point charge in a compact space. If the point charge is circulating with an angular frequency ω0 on the (x , y)-plane at z = 0 with boundary conditions, x ∼ x + 2 πR and y ∼ y + 2 πR, it emits radiation into the z-direction of z ∈ [ - ∞ , + ∞ ]. We find that the radiation shows discontinuities as a function of ω0 R at which a new propagating mode with a different Fourier component appears. For a small radius limit ω0 R ≪ 1, all the Fourier modes except the zero mode on (x , y)-plane are killed, but an effect of squeezing the electric field totally enhances the radiation. In the large volume limit ω0 R → ∞, the energy flux of the radiation reduces to the expected Larmor formula.

  3. Estimation of radiation effects in the front-end electronics of an ILC electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, V.; Postranecky, M.; Targett-Adams, C.; Warren, M.; Wing, M.

    2008-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of an International Linear Collider detector are situated in a radiation environment. This requires the effect of the radiation on the performance of the electronics, specifically FPGAs, to be examined. In this paper we study the flux, particle spectra and deposited doses at the front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of a detector at the ILC. We also study the occupancy of the electromagnetic calorimeter. These estimates are compared with measurements, e.g. of the radiation damage of FPGAs, done elsewhere. The outcome of the study shows that the radiation doses and the annual flux is low enough to allow today's FPGAs to operate. The Single Event Upset rate, however, lies between 14 min and 12 h depending on the FPGA used and therefore needs to be considered in the design of the data acquisition system of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The occupancy is about 0.002 per bunch train not taking into account the effect of noise which depends on the choice of the detector

  4. Anisotropic instability of the photoelectrons generated by soft x-ray radiation of the laser-produced plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumov, B.A.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    The electron field with the anisotropic distribution function is being formed when the gas is being affected with ionizing radiation. The anisotropy of the distribution function occurs due to the fact that photoelectrons fly mainly in the direction perpendicular to that of ionizing radiation quantum propagation. In order to emphasize the most typical features of the developed anisotropic instability, photoelectrons were believed to fly strictly across the photon propagation direction. Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations have been carried out to study high-frequency disturbances in the plasma produced by ionizing radiation. Elastic processes were taken into account. It has been shown, in particular, that the energy of anisotropic electrons transforms mainly into that of magnetic pulsations (approximately 7% of the energy transforms into that of magnetic pulsations). Development of the anisotropic instability result in a space stratification into current filaments. The anisotropic instability study can be important for an interpretation of electromagnetic emission spectra for a plasma disturbed by radiation

  5. Comparative analysis of three approaches to the study of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Moreno, A.

    1992-01-01

    A model for electromagnetic radiation formed by photons in a cavity is considered, such that the density of photons, m, is taken as a birth and death stochastic process. The main thermodynamical properties of electromagnetic radiation and expression for statistical moments (m k ) are obtained. The probability distribution of photons in a unit of volume found in this paper is equal to the average probability to find m photodetections in a finite interval time given by A. M. Cetto and L. de la Pena. I conclude that further investigation for the concept of photon is needed (Author)

  6. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  7. Random electrodynamics: the theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and distinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory. (U.S.)

  8. Biological effects from electromagnetic fields: Research progress and exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, F.; Lovisolo, G.A.; Raganella, L.

    1992-01-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that exposure to high levels of electromagnetic, micro- and radiofrequency waves produces harmful effects to the health of man, the formulation of exposure limits is still an open process and dependent upon the evolving level of knowledge in this field. This paper surveys the current level of knowledge gained through 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' radiological and epidemiological studies on different types of electromagnetic radiation derived effects - chromosomal, mutagenic, carcinogenic. It then reviews efforts by international organizations, e. g., the International Radiation Protection Association, to establish exposure limits for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Brief notes are given on the electromagnetic radiation monitoring campaign being performed by public health authorities in the Lazio Region of Italy

  9. Combined Effect of Ambient Temperature with Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Choi, Dae Seong; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in synergistic effects observed after combined action of various agents. Many studies have shown that numerous physical and chemical agents combined with hyperthermia can interact in a synergistic manner when the effect produced by both agents used in combination exceeded the expected results from simple summation of the every effect produced by heat and the particular agent. I t was found that ambient temperature had a profound effect on the thermoregulatory responses to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) in various animals and humans. An extensive quantitative investigation of synergistic interaction of ambient temperature and microwaves has been published for rabbit heating. I t would be of interest to estimate whether or not the general features of the combined action revealed with unicellular organisms can be expressed for animals exposed to microwave power combined with a higher environmental temperature.

  10. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P; Emmert, S; Gulich, R; Köhler, M; Wolf, M; Schwab, M; Loidl, A

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  11. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Köhler, M.; Wolf, M.; Schwab, M.; Loidl, A.

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  12. Radiating Frohlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2015), s. 355-360 ISSN 1536-8378 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : electromagnetic radiation * Fröhlich systems * cell physiology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2015

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation: Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    typically include residential, commercial, industrial , agricultural, military, and recreational. Land use also includes areas set aside for...procedures, controls, shielding standards, nominal ocular hazard distance, protective eyewear verification, radiation footprint determination, and...from human activities. An example of these activities includes using the electromagnetic (EM) energy spectrum for communications and industrial

  14. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a combined electron-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G; Samoshenkov, Yu K [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Optiko-Fizicheskikh Izmerenij, Moscow (USSR)

    1977-07-01

    The intensity of coherent electromagnetic radiation due to interaction of a modulated electron beam with a modulated ion beam is calculated. It is shown that the radiation intensity has a sharp maximum at the frequency equal to the difference of the modulation frequency of the electron and ion beams. The results obtained are compared with those corresponding to the scattering of a modulated electron beam on randomly distributed gas ions.

  15. Integrating electromagnetic radiation hazard info the unique occupational risk assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaret, P.; Donati, P.

    2011-01-01

    The number of industrial applications involving electromagnetic waves has significantly increased in recent years. These applications are likely to expose operators to electromagnetic fields exceeding the limits laid down by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/CE of 29 April 2004. A survey has identified the equipment emitting the most radiation and this has been classified into 8 families: resistance welding, magnetization, induction heating, magneto-scopy, dielectric loss welding, electrolysis, magnetic resonance imagery, microwaves. The equipment numbers per family was estimated by a market surveys, which specifically identified several tens of thousands of resistance welding- or magnetization-type machines. This survey enabled us to deduce that at least 100,000 operators in France would be at risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields. An assessment of exposure levels for operators at their workstations was undertaken for each equipment family. A group comprising specialists from INRS and the 9 CARSAT/CRAM Physical Measurement Centres measured electromagnetic fields at 635 workstations fitted with radiation emitting machinery. For each measurement, a severity index corresponding to the ratio of the measured value to the action-triggering value (ATV) recommended by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/CE of 29 April 2004 was calculated. The results show that, for 7 equipment families out of the 8 retained, 25 - 50% of measurements gave electromagnetic field values exceeding the corresponding ATV. These results demonstrate the need for prevention means. In most cases, exposure reduction is achieved by moving the workstation away from the radiation source. Technical solutions do exist for certain equipments, such as shielding for microwave ovens and high-frequency presses, a grounding pad for tarpaulin welding, etc. (authors)

  16. Interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in the radiation-dominated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    2004-01-01

    A study is made of the main regimes of interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with plasma under conditions in which the radiation from particles plays a dominant role. The discussion is focused on such issues as the generation of short electromagnetic pulses in the interaction of laser light with clusters and highly efficient ion acceleration in a thin plasma slab under the action of the ponderomotive pressure of the wave. An approach is developed for generating superintense electromagnetic pulses by means of up-to-date laser devices

  17. Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in turbulent plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, South Korea and University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Simões, F. J. R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Known radiation emission mechanisms in plasmas include bremmstrahlung (or free-free emission), gyro- and synchrotron radiation, cyclotron maser, and plasma emission. For unmagnetized plasmas, only bremmstrahlung and plasma emissions are viable. Of these, bremmstrahlung becomes inoperative in the absence of collisions, and the plasma emission requires the presence of electron beam, followed by various scattering and conversion processes. The present Letter proposes a new type of radiation emission process for plasmas in a state of thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between particles and enhanced Langmuir turbulence. The radiation emission mechanism proposed in the present Letter is not predicted by the linear theory of thermal plasmas, but it relies on nonlinear wave-particle resonance processes. The electromagnetic particle-in-cell numerical simulation supports the new mechanism.

  18. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  19. [Seasonal changes in tumor necrosis factor production in hibernating animals in normal conditions and under the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogaĭ, V B; Novoselova, E G; Makar, V R; Kolaeva, S G

    2002-01-01

    Production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been investigated in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells of Arctic Yakutian ground squirrel (Citellus Undulatus Pallas) upon in vitro action of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation during annual cycle. The significant activation of TNF production in the cells of awaken ground squirrels in winter and increasing level of the lymphokine production at spring-summer period has been indicated. The level of TNF production in splenic T cells was not changed during whole year. The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of low intensity (8.15-18 GHz, 1 microW/cm2) induced an augmentation of both secretory and proliferative activity in TNF-producing cells. Ionizing radiation suppressed T cell proliferation, but the doses 2 and 5 Gy resulted in a significant stimulation of TNF production in T cells and macrophages.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic particles at scattering in excited medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshevskij, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between relativistic particles and a gaseous or condensed medium with a high density of nondegenerate excited quantum states involves the coherent conversion of atomic or molecular excitations into electromagnetic radiation

  1. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  2. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the kinetics of grinding a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    In this study the effect of kinetic grinding of a mineral was investigated when is pre treated with ionizing electromagnetic radiation. This radiation is with 15 MeV photons produced by a Linac for Radiotherapy. The results for the irradiated sample with respect to the non-irradiated indicate that there were changes in the structure of the minerals in the sample under study. Changes were observed through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, combined with the refinement of the diffraction profiles by the Rietveld method using the software Maud Program. The grinding kinetics shows a constant distribution of slightly greater size through time used for the irradiated sample. A reduction of 11.2% of the Bond (Wi) work index was reached, going from 10.91 to 9.69 kw h/t for the irradiated sample. This parameter represents the fracture toughness of a mineral. The results indicate greater efficiency of energy applied to the grinding of the irradiated sample with respect to the non-irradiated. (Author)

  3. On the continuous spectrum electromagnetic radiation in electron-fullerene collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the electromagnetic radiation spectrum in electron-fullerene collisions is dominated by a huge maximum of multielectron nature, similar to that already predicted and observed in photoabsorption. Due to coherence, the intensity of this radiation is much stronger than the sum of the intensities of isolated atoms. Experimental detection of such radiation would be of great importance for understanding the mechanism of its formation and for investigating fullerene structures. A paper describing these results was published

  4. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  6. Vacuum amplification of the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vilkovisky, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    When an electrically charged source is capable of both emitting the electromagnetic waves and creating charged particles from the vacuum, its radiation gets so much amplified that only the backreaction of the vacuum makes it finite. The released energy and charge are calculated in the high-frequency approximation. The technique of expectation values is advanced and employed.

  7. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  8. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  9. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for studying the carcinogenicity of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voĭchuk, S I

    2014-01-01

    Medical and biological aspects of the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields and radiation on human health are the important issues that have arisen as a result of anthropogenic impact on the biosphere. Safe use of man-made sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation in a broad range of frequencies--static, radio-frequency and microwave--is a subject of discussions and speculations. The main problem is the lack of understanding of the mechanism(s) of reception of EMFs by living organisms. In this review we have analyzed the existing literature data regarding the effects of the electromagnetic radiation on the model eukaryotic organism--yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An attempt was made to estimate the probability of induction of carcinogenesis in humans under the influence of magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation of extremely low frequency, radio frequency and microwave ranges.

  10. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed

  11. On multipole expansions in the theory of electromagnetic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.; Casimir, H.B.G.

    1954-01-01

    A new method is developed for expanding the electromagnetic field of radiating charges and currents in multipole components. Outside a sphere enclosing all sources, the field is represented in terms of Debye potentials which are shown to be closely related to the radial components of the electric

  12. Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed

  13. Polymers and electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnabel, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.

  14. Parametric instability producing broad symmetrical structure in the spectrum of ionospheric heating-induced radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A four-wave interaction process in which an O-mode electromagnetic pump decays parametrically into a lower hybrid decay mode and two-electron Bernstein sidebands is analyzed. It is shown that the instability can be excited in a spatial region near the electron Bernstein/upper hybrid double resonance and in a narrow pump frequency range slightly below the third harmonic electron cyclotron resonance. The two electron Bernstein sidebands have about the same intensity and thus, produce Broad Symmetrical Structure (BSS) in the emission spectrum after being converted into electromagnetic radiation by scattering off background field-aligned density irregularities. The results also show that the size of the instability zone becomes very small as the pump frequency operates near a cyclotron harmonic higher than the third. Thus, the converted emission will be too weak to be detected. This explains why the BSS feature in the spectrum of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEEs) has only been observed in the third harmonic case. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Active control of electromagnetic radiation through an enhanced thermo-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chong; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Genov, Dentcho A.

    2015-01-01

    The control of electromagnetic radiation in transformation optical metamaterials brings the development of vast variety of optical devices. Of a particular importance is the possibility to control the propagation of light with light. In this work, we use a structured planar cavity to enhance the thermo-optic effect in a transformation optical waveguide. In the process, a control laser produces apparent inhomogeneous refractive index change inside the waveguides. The trajectory of a second probe laser beam is then continuously tuned in the experiment. The experimental results agree well with the developed theory. The reported method can provide a new approach toward development of transformation optical devices where active all-optical control of the impinging light can be achieved. PMID:25746689

  16. Electromagnetic radiation reaction force and radiation potential in general five-dimensional relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.Y.; Goldstein, G.R.; Napier, A.

    1989-01-01

    A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics to account for the radiation reaction force. A conjecture that the radiation reaction force and the Lorentz force should be distinct, but in unified forms, results in a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. It is found that a semicylindrical condition can reconcile the apparent differences between a five-dimensional physical space and our four-dimensional perceptions. Analysis of the geodesic equations results in the notion of gauge dynamics which manifests the influence of the unrestricted fifth variable. The element g 55 of the five-dimensional metric is identified as the radiation potential, which can directly determine the radiation reaction force. This gives a distinct physical origin for the radiation process in classical theory. The potential suggests that the electron can have excited states in quantum electrodynamics. This theory is supported with calculations which demonstrate that the motion of the fifth variable directly causes physical changes in the four-dimensional subspace

  17. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  18. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimentally investigated is the radiation-electromagnetic effect (REM) in germanium monocrystals on excitation of excess current carriers by α particles, protons and X-rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. A cyclotron was used as an α particle source, and a standard X-ray tube with a copper anode - as an X-ray source. The e.m.f. of the REM effect linearly increases with the increase of the magnetic field and is proportional to the charged particle flux at small flux values, saturation occurs at great flux values (approximately 5x10 11 part./cm 2 xs). In the 4-40 MeV energy range the e.m.f. of the REM effect practically does not depend on the α particle energy. On irradiation of the samples with a grinding front surface the REM e.m.f. changes its sign. The REM and Hall effect measurement on α particle irradiated samples has shown that during irradiation a p-n transition is formed in the samples, which must be taken into account while studying the REM effect. The e.m.f. measured for the even REM effect quadratically increases with the magnetic field increase. The barrier radiation-voltaic effect (the effect e.m.f. is measured between the irradiated and nonirradiated sample faces) is studied. Using special masks the samples with a set of consecutive p-n transitions are produced by irradiation of germanium crystals by α particles. Investigation of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects on such samples has shown that using this method the efficiency of the REM devices can be increased

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation of protons in edge fields of synchrotron dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of the edge shape of magnetic field of a dipole on the short-wave part of electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a proton beam is investigated. In some cases short-wave photons are shown to be shaped in the ranges of largest edge curvature of the magnetic field. Universality of edge radiation spectrum is proved. Spectral characteristics of proton edge radiation in a superconducting magnetic dipole of the storage-accelerator complex are obtained

  1. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  2. Low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santosuosso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques have been used in some rheumatic diseases to induce a therapeutic effect by heating deep tissues. These techniques are commonly known as ‘thermotherapy’ (1-4. It should be observed that adequate heating of deep tissues cannot be obtained by conduction or convection of heat because the skin and subcutaneous fat are good thermal insulators and because heating is reduced by blood flow in superficial vessels. Heating of deep tissues can instead be obtained by conversion of other forms of energy into heat. Conversion heat is generated by different types of radiations absorbed by deep tissues: when radiation interacts with tissues, some energy is converted into heat. High power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF, which produces strong thermal energy, has been widely applied in medicine for ablative procedures (5-7.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  4. Composite materials for protection against electromagnetic microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyk, IV; Barsukov, VZ; Savchenko, BM; Shevchenko, KL; Plavan, VP; Shpak, Yu V; Kruykova, OA

    2016-01-01

    A fairly wide range of carbon-polymer composite materials was synthesized and studied in terms of their potential to protect people and electronic equipment from exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The materials studied included three main groups: (1) PVC polymer composites filled with various carbon-containing fillers (colloidal graphite, thermally expanded graphite, acetylene black, graphitized carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphene) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20%; (2) carbon cloth - commercial and modified with nanometal additives (e.g., nanoparticles of Cu, TiN, etc.); (3) highly-filled polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint. The transmission rate a of electromagnetic radiation was investigated for such materials in the frequency range of 10 GHz as well as their electrical conductivity. The results showed that the shielding ability of the materials of group (2) is significantly higher than that of the materials of group (1), which is probably due to the presence of strong internal skeleton of conductivity. Nevertheless, some highly-filled mixed polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint demonstrate even more shielding ability than carbon cloth and could be used for the defense against EMR. (paper)

  5. On electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath produced by a moving ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the interaction of electromagnetic waves are considered with a nonstationary plasma layer of a finite thickness, produced in an immovable gas by a movable ionization source. It is shown that a static magnetic field excited on the ionization front in build-up of electrons produced in the incident wave field reemits the energy to the electromagnetic wave during the plasma relaxation caused by recombination processes. As a result the electromagnetic wave of a finite amplitude may propagate behind the nonstationary layer of an ''opaque'' (ωsub(p)sup(2)>>ωsub(urc)sup((0))sup(2)) plasma as distinct from the layer of a movable stationary plasma with the same parameters

  6. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  7. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  8. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  9. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  10. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  11. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Yin, Yanchun; Xiao, Fukun; Tan, Yunliang; Zou, Jianchao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster. PMID:25054186

  12. Rockburst Disaster Prediction of Isolated Coal Pillar by Electromagnetic Radiation Based on Frictional Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongbin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding that charges generated during coal cracking are due to coal particle friction, a microstructure model was developed by considering four different variation laws of friction coefficient. Firstly, the frictional energy release of coal sample during uniaxial compressive tests was investigated and discussed. Then electromagnetic radiation method was used to predict the potential rockburst disaster in isolated coal pillar mining face, Muchengjian Colliery. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of coal particles decreases linearly with the increase of axial loading force. In predicting the strain-type rockburst, the high stress state of coal must be closely monitored. Field monitoring shows that electromagnetic radiation signal became abnormal before the occurrence of rockburst during isolated coal pillar mining. Furthermore, rockburst tends to occur at the early and ending stages of isolated coal pillar extraction. Mine-site investigation shows the occurrence zone of rockburst is consistent with the prediction, proving the reliability of the electromagnetic radiation method to predict strain-type rockburst disaster.

  13. Derivation of the blackbody radiation spectrum from the equivalence principle in classical physics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    A derivation of Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation is given within classical physics from recent results involving the thermal effects of acceleration through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. A harmonic electric-dipole oscillator undergoing a uniform acceleration a through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation responds as would the same oscillator in an inertial frame when not in zero-point radiation but in a different spectrum of random classical radiation. Since the equivalence principle tells us that the oscillator supported in a gravitational field g = -a will respond in the same way, we see that in a gravitational field we can construct a perpetual-motion machine based on this different spectrum unless the different spectrum corresponds to that of thermal equilibrium at a finite temperature. Therefore, assuming the absence of perpetual-motion machines of the first kind in a gravitational field, we conclude that the response of an oscillator accelerating through classical zero-point radiation must be that of a thermal system. This then determines the blackbody radiation spectrum in an inertial frame which turns out to be exactly Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation

  14. On the mechanism of cytogenetic effect of electromagnetic radiation: role of oxidation homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezitskaya, N.V.; Timchenko, O.I.

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of the role of changes in oxidation homeostasis in developing the cytogenetic effects arising by the electromagnetic irradiation impact is carried out. The experiments were performed on white male rats. The animals were subjected to impact of the nonionizing radiations in the microwave range during 40 days by 7 hours a day. It is established that changes in the free-radical oxidation by the impact of nonionizing radiation of the electromagnetic fields have a wave-like character. It is established that changes in the oxidation homeostasis proceed the development of cytogenetic effects and may be the cause thereof [ru

  15. Reception of low-intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation by the electroreceptors in skates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoev, G.N.; Avelev, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    Low intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of less than 10 mW cm -2 power intensity has a nonthermal effect on the body and it is widely used in medical practice for treatment of various diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of EMR on biological tissues is not understood. The skin and its sensory receptors are considered to be responsible for EMR reception, but this has yet to be confirmed. The present experiments were designed to study the effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the ampullae of Lorenzini in skates, which are very sensitive to weak electrical stimuli at low frequency. (author)

  16. Interactions of free electrons with an electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zel' dovich, Ya B [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Prikladnoj Matematiki

    1975-02-01

    The interaction of a chaotic field of electromagnetic radiation with free electrons in plasma is considered as applied to astrophysical problems, in particular, to the theory of establishing thermodynamic equilibrium of radiation in the hot universe. The kinetic equation describes a change in the spectrum; particular attention is paid to the induced scattering and to the classical interpretation of the induced transfer of energy and momentum. In spectra of radiosources with a high brightness temperature the induced scattering may lead to the Bose condensation of photons, shock wave and appearance of solutions. The scattering of strong low-frequency waves is considered as applied to pulsars and laboratory coherent generators.

  17. The influence of electromagnetic interference and ionizing radiation on cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, J.; Malmivuo, J.A.V.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse effects of the ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on five pacemaker models have been tested. The study consisted of three parts: 1. measurement of magnetic fields in a radiotherapy room (microtron MM14), 2. the application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on pacemakers in a test laboratory (1 ... 1000 μT, 10 ... 10 000 Hz), and 3. the application of ionizing radiation of different types of radiotherapy devices on the pacemakers. The magnetic field strength in the microtron treatment room was found to be under 7.5 μT, which is one order of magnitude lower than the tolerance level obtained for the pacemakers in the test laboratory. All the tested pacemakers tolerated the ionizing radiation dose levels (less than 60 Gy) which are used in the radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  18. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from...

  19. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  20. The impact of electromagnetic radiation of different parameters on platelet oxygen metabolism - in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela A; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Szczęsny, Artur; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by a variety of devices, e.g. cell phones, computers and microwaves, interacts with the human body in many ways. Research studies carried out in the last few decades have not yet resolved the issue of the effect of this factor on the human body and many questions are left without an unequivocal answer. Various biological and health-related effects have not been fully recognized. Thus further studies in this area are justified. A comparison of changes within catalase enzymatic activity and malondialdehyde concentration arising under the influence of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by car electronics, equipment used in physiotherapy and LCD monitors. The suspension of human blood platelets at a concentration of 1 × 109/0.001 dm 3, obtained from whole blood by manual apheresis, was the study material. Blood platelets were exposed to an electromagnetic field for 30 min in a laboratory stand designed for the reconstruction of the electromagnetic radiation generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors. The changes in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration were investigated after the exposure and compared to the control values (unexposed material). An increase in catalase activity and malondialdehyde concentration was observed after 30 min exposure of platelets to EMF regardless of the radiation source. The most significant changes determining the degree of oxidative stress were observed after exposure to the EMF generated by car electronics. The low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by car electronics, physiotherapy equipment and LCD monitors may be a cause of oxidative stress in the human body and may lead to free radical diseases.

  1. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S B

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Modeling of the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the Earth’s magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, N. V.; Rudenko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for solving the set of differential equations describing the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in the magnetospheric plasma, including in the presence of geomagnetic waveguides in the form of large-scale plasma density inhomogeneities stretched along the Earth’s magnetic field, has been developed. Calculations of three-dimensional ray trajectories in the magnetosphere and geomagnetic waveguide with allowance for radiation polarization have revealed characteristic tendencies in the behavior of electromagnetic parameters along the ray trajectory. The results of calculations can be used for magnetospheric plasma diagnostics

  3. Effects of Electromagnetic Perturbations on Particles Trapped in the Radiation Belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dungey, J. W. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1965-06-15

    Since the radiation belts were discovered by Van Allen in 1958, observations of trapped particles have rapidly built up a large body of information. Knowledge of the neutral atmosphere as well as the ionosphere shows that for energetic particles the probable time before colliding with another particle of any kind may be extremely long. Then the only feature known to affect the motion of the particle is the electromagnetic field and, conversely, over a long time even weak electromagnetic disturbances can be important. Consequently, electromagnetic disturbances should be important in determining the form of the radiation belts, and it will be seen that certain features encourage an interpretation of this kind. The physics of the radiation belts may be regarded as a part of plasma physics, namely the realm in which collisions are negligible. This needs qualifying in that there is a boundary layer (the ionosphere) where collisions are important, and this is analogous to laboratory plasma containment devices. The energy range of trapped particles is wide, but includes the energy range required for fusion reactors. The mean free time in the radiation belts is extreme, but the neglect of collisions yields a great simplification in theoretical work, and an understanding of collision-free plasmas is expected to be useful. Observations in space have great advantages. The quantity measured by a particle-detector sensitive to a limited range of energy and with a limited cone of acceptance is the velocity distribution function, which is fundamental in theoretical work. Local electric and magnetic measurements are also made with very little disturbance by the spacecraft. The disadvantage is that simultaneous measurements cannot be made at many different points.

  4. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Illusion optics: Optically transforming the nature and the location of electromagnetic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianjia; Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André

    2015-02-01

    Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by using the powerful concept of transformation electromagnetics. In this study, we define a spatial coordinate transformation that shows the possibility of designing a device capable of producing an illusion on an antenna radiation pattern. Indeed, by compressing the space containing a radiating element, we show that it is able to change the radiation pattern and to make the radiation location appear outside the latter space. Both continuous and discretized models with calculated electromagnetic parameter values are presented. A reduction of the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for a possible physical fabrication of the device with achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained from existing well-known metamaterials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. Full wave numerical simulations using Finite Element Method are performed to demonstrate the performances of such a device.

  7. Illusion optics: Optically transforming the nature and the location of electromagnetic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Lustrac, André de

    2015-01-01

    Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by using the powerful concept of transformation electromagnetics. In this study, we define a spatial coordinate transformation that shows the possibility of designing a device capable of producing an illusion on an antenna radiation pattern. Indeed, by compressing the space containing a radiating element, we show that it is able to change the radiation pattern and to make the radiation location appear outside the latter space. Both continuous and discretized models with calculated electromagnetic parameter values are presented. A reduction of the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for a possible physical fabrication of the device with achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained from existing well-known metamaterials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. Full wave numerical simulations using Finite Element Method are performed to demonstrate the performances of such a device

  8. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation of the mobile phones and smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Dolina, L. F.; Kozachyna, V. A.; Savina, O. P.

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields have a strong influence on the human body in all its frequency bands. Moreover, the high-frequency radiation occurs thermal effects on the human body, and at the low-frequency arises nonthermal or informational influence. Informational influence how would impose a rhythm oscillatory process of a particular functional system of the human body. If the frequency of information influencing factor synchronized with the normal rhythm of the wave matrix homeostasis personal, h...

  10. Standards for Measurements in the Field of High Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation for the Purpose of Protection Against Adverse Health Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatarec, B.; Nikolic, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper standards for measurements in the field of high frequency electromagnetic radiation are described with a view to protection from its hazardous action. Beside the standards which directly deal with high frequency electromagnetic radiation measurements, guidelines which describe hazardous influences of high frequency electromagnetic radiation on human body in the form of specific absorption rate (SAR) are given. Special attention is dedicated to standards and regulations, which are dealing with social responsibility, as well as with social responsibility in the field of high frequency radiation. This area is new and insufficiently known, rarely extended in everyday life. (author)

  11. Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2017-11-01

    The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.

  12. Interacciones de las radiaciones electromagnéticas y especies reactivas del oxígeno sobre la piel Interactions of electromagnetic radiations and reactive oxygen species on skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Ferramola de Sancovich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La energía radiante abarca todo el espectro electromagnético y proviene de la fusión en el sol, de 4 núcleos de hidrógeno en uno de helio. Las radiaciones electromagnéticas tienen características de ondas, con la velocidad de la luz (c y difieren en sus longitudes de ondas (λ. La energía lumínica es transmitida en unidades individuales o fotones: E = h c/λ así, los fotones de menores λs son los de mayor energía. Las radiaciones ultravioletas (UV (λs de 200 - 400 nm pueden dividirse: UVA (λs 315 - 400 nm; UVB (λs 280 - 315 nm y UVC (λs The energy of electromagnetic radiation is derived from the fusion in the sun of four hydrogen nuclei to form a helium nucleus. The sun radiates energy representing the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. All electromagnetic radiation has wave characteristics and travels at the same speed (c: speed of light. But radiations differ in wavelength (λ. Light energy is transmitted not in a continuum stream but only in individual units or photons: E = h c/λ. Short wave light is more energetic than photons of light of longer wavelength. Ultraviolet radiations (UV (λs 200 - 400 nm can be classified in UVA (λs 315 - 400 nm.; UVB (λs 280 - 315 nm and UVC (λs < 280 nm. UVB and UVC are the most significant UV radiations to induce biological responses. Electromagnetic radiations on molecular oxygen lead to several reactive products known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. High O2 content in biological systems promotes ROS synthesis. If ROS are not controlled by endogenous antioxidants, cell redox status is affected and tissue damage is produced ("oxidative stress". ROS induce lipid peroxidation, protein cross-linking, enzyme inhibition, loss of integrity and function of plasmatic and mitochondrial membranes conducing to inflammation, aging, carcinogenesis and cell death. While infra-red radiations lead to noticeable tissue temperature conducing to severe burns, UVA

  13. Electromagnetic radiation screening of semiconductor devices for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. C.; Brammer, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    A review is presented of the mechanism of interaction of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges, with various semiconductor device defects. Previous work conducted in this area was analyzed as to its pertinence to the current problem. The task was studied of implementing electromagnetic screening methods in the wavelength region determined to be most effective. Both scanning and flooding type stimulation techniques are discussed. While the scanning technique offers a considerably higher yield of useful information, a preliminary investigation utilizing the flooding approach is first recommended because of the ease of implementation, lower cost and ability to provide go-no-go information in semiconductor screening.

  14. Theoretical and practical investigation of the electromagnetic radiation fields from the Sabborah radio broadcasting station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Abo Kasem, I.; Kattab, A.

    2008-01-01

    This work has special importance as it aims at the investigation of the electromagnetic radiation from the Sabborah radio broadcasting station. The report includes general introduction to the physics of the electromagnetic fields and the biological effects of these fields and consequently its health effects. The bases of the recommended exposure limits according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) have been discussed in addition to the theoretical and practical investigations. This report summarizes the results of this study and the final recommendations. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  16. Radiation reaction force and unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.Y.; Goldstein, G.R.; Napier, A.

    1981-04-01

    A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics such that the radiation reaction force is accounted for. The analysis leads to a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. The theory is supported by showing that, for the case of a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field, the radiation reaction force is indeed included. Moreover, this example shows explicitly that physical changes are associated with the fifth variable. Thus, the notion of a physical five-dimensional space should be seriously taken into consideration

  17. Effects of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The general intent of this essay is to discuss the effect of solar electromagnetic radiation on the terrestrial environment. Instead of giving a systematic approach considering all environment processes where solar emission is the primary energy source and all important materials which have been generated by solar driven processes, the author sketches an impression of the range of the effects of solar radiation on the environment by surveying a number of topics of particular current interest, in varying levels of detail. These include atmospheric chemistry, some aspects of the transfer of radiation within the atmosphere, global energy balance and climate feedbacks, especially those due to clouds, impacts of fossil fuel energy use, evolution of early life processes, photosynthesis and plant productivity as it relates to photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle. (Auth.)

  18. PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND RESCATTERED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon [Basic Science Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Trippe, Sascha, E-mail: ki13130@gmail.com, E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-20

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.

  19. Explosive electromagnetic radiation by the relaxation of a multimode magnon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyuchka, V I; Serga, A A; Sandweg, C W; Slobodianiuk, D V; Melkov, G A; Hillebrands, B

    2013-11-01

    Microwave emission from a parametrically pumped ferrimagnetic film of yttrium iron garnet was studied versus the magnon density evolution, which was detected by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. It has been found that the shutdown of external microwave pumping leads to an unexpected effect: The conventional monotonic decrease of the population of parametrically injected magnons is accompanied by an explosive behavior of electromagnetic radiation at the magnon frequency. The developed theory shows that this explosion is caused by a nonlinear energy transfer from parametrically driven short-wavelength dipolar-exchange magnons to a long-wavelength dipolar magnon mode effectively coupled to an electromagnetic wave.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, Blažena; Majláth, Igor; Kurimský, Juraj; Cimbala, Roman; Kosterec, Michal; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Raši, Tomáš; Majláthová, Viktória

    2018-05-01

    Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation by parametric decay of upper hybrid waves in ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyser, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear dispersion relation for the parametric decay of an electrostatic upper hybrid wave into an ordinary mode electromagnetic wave, propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and an electrostatic low frequency wave, being either a lower hybrid wave or a high harmonic ion Bernstein wave, is derived. The coherent and resonant wave interaction is considered to take place in a weakly magnetized and collisionless Vlasov plasma. The instability growth rate is computed for parameter values typical of ionospheric modification experiments, in which a powerful high frequency electromagnetic pump wave is injected into the ionospheric F-region from ground-based transmitters. The electromagnetic radiation which is excited by the decaying upper hybrid wave is found to be consistent with the prominent and commonly observed downshifted maximum (DM) emission in the spectrum of stimulated electromagnetic emission

  2. Changing of Bacteria Catalase Activity Under the Influence of Electro-Magnetic Radiation on a Frequency of Nitric Oxide Absorption and Radiation Molecular Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shub

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of catalase activity degree changing in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described under the influence of electro-magnetic radiation on a frequency of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Central Scientific Research Institute of measuring equipment Public corporation, Saratov, was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the structure of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The growth of activity of the mentioned enzyme of the strains under research was detected. The most significant changes were observed under 60-minutes exposure.

  3. [The application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Nikoulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V; Geniatulina, M S; Bobkova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The experiments carried out on outbred male white rats with the use of optical, electron-microscopic, biochemical, and radioimmunological methods have demonstrated that the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI-EMR) with a flow density of 1 mcW/cm2 and a frequency of around 1,000 MHz both in the primary prophylaxis regime and as the therapeuticpreventive modality arrested the development of post-stress disorders in the rat testicles, liver, and thymus; moreover, it promoted activation of the adaptive, preventive, and compensatory processes. The data obtained provide a rationale for the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation to protect the organism from negative effects of stressful factors.

  4. Research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of the gas main switch of a capacitive intense electron-beam accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Qiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Strong electromagnetic fields are radiated during the operation of the intense electron-beam accelerator (IEBA, which may lead to the nearby electronic devices out of order. In this paper, the research on the electromagnetic radiation characteristic of the gas main switch of a capacitive IEBA is carried out by the methods of theory analysis and experiment investigation. It is obtained that the gas main switch is the dominating radiation resource. In the absence of electromagnetic shielding for the gas main switch, when the pulse forming line of the IEBA is charged to 700 kV, the radiation field with amplitude of 3280 V/m, dominant frequency of 84 MHz and high frequency 100 MHz is obtained at a distance of 10 meters away from the gas main switch. The experimental results of the radiation field agree with the theoretical calculations. We analyze the achievements of several research groups and find that there is a relationship between the rise time (T of the transient current of the gas main switch and the dominant frequency (F of the radiation field, namely, F*T=1. Contrast experiment is carried out with a metal shield cover for the gas main switch. Experimental results show that for the shielded setup the radiation field reduces to 115 V/m, the dominant frequency increases to 86.5 MHz at a distance of 10 away meters from the gas main switch. These conclusions are beneficial for further research on the electromagnetic radiation and protection of the IEBA.

  5. Out of time: a possible link between mirror neurons, autism and electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ian M

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a link between autism and the human mirror neuron system. In this paper, I argue that temporal disruption from the environment may play an important role in the observed mirror neuron dysfunction, leading in turn to the pattern of deficits associated with autism. I suggest that the developing nervous system of an infant may be particularly prone to temporal noise that can interfere with the initial calibration of brain networks such as the mirror neuron system. The most likely source of temporal noise in the environment is artificially generated electromagnetic radiation. To date, there has been little evidence that electromagnetic radiation poses a direct biological hazard. It is clear, however, that time-varying electromagnetic waves have the potential to temporally modulate the nervous system, particularly when populations of neurons are required to act together. This modulation may be completely harmless for the fully developed nervous system of an adult. For an infant, this same temporal disruption might act to severely delay or disrupt vital calibration processes.

  6. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  7. Discrimination between preseismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouras, Gr; Balasis, G.; Kontakos, K.; Ruzhin, Y.; Avgoustis, G.; Kavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kHz to very high MHz frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only at laboratory but also at geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated to earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to related to a few sources, i.e., they might be atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the herein presented set of criteria these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  8. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  9. Radiation: Basic life for human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Basically, radiation is sources for everything in this world. From radiation, many reactions and activities can be done by organisms. The tree can do photosynthesis and at the same time can give oxygen to human and others. In Quran, radiation was mentioned almost 41 times and from that, 12 are preferred to sun, moon, and stars. Radiation can be classified into two groups, mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical radiations are produced from vibration process. For example, when we are talking, sound radiation will be produced from vibration of sounds box. The guitar will sounded when we pluck it. Generally, mechanical radiation needs medium for its propagation and the velocity of wave can change and it cannot propagate in vacuum states. Meanwhile, electromagnetic radiations are energy that emitted in wave produced by propagation of electrical charges. This will produce magnetic fields and then if these fields changed, electrical fields will produce. There are two types of radiation in human life, natural radiation and artificially radiation. Radiation can be applied in medical and defend sector. Radiation also can be misuse by some people that want it for other purpose in intention to do something wrong, such as in making bomb and others weapons. In Malaysia, there are one act to control the imports, exports, licensing, transferring and application of ionizing radiation but not for non-ionizing radiation. In future, laser radiations have their own potential to become one of the most important radiations in renewable energy sector, medical and defend.

  10. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  11. Impact of electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAEED H Alchalabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the teratogenic effect of mobile phone radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development at the common used mobile phone frequency in our environment. Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three experiment groups; control and two exposed groups (1 h/day, 2 h/day exposure groups (n=20/ each group and exposed to whole body radiation during gestation period from day 1- day 20. Electromagnetic radiofrequency signal generator was used to generate 1 800 MHz GSM-like signals at specific absorption rate value 0.974 W/kg. Animals were exposed during experiment in an especial designed Plexiglas box (60 cm × 40 cm × 30 cm. At the end of exposure duration at day 20 of pregnancy animals were sacrificed and foetuses were removed, washed with normal saline and processed to Alizarin red and Alcian blue stain. Skeleton specimens were examined under a stereo microscope and skeleton's snaps were being carefully captured by built in camera fixed on the stereo microscope. Results: Intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic radiation lead to variation in degree of ossification, mineralization, formation of certain parts of the skeleton majorly in head and lesser in other parts. Deformity and absence of formation of certain bones in the head, ribs, and coccygeal vertebrae were recorded in skeleton of foetuses from exposed dams compare to control group. Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy alter the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes, and thus impact embryonic skeleton formation and development directly.

  12. Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Rand, William Lee; Schwartz, Gary E

    2013-06-01

    The study objective was to determine whether Reiki practice increases the electromagnetic field strength from the heart and hands of Reiki practitioners. This study repeated experiments performed 20 years ago that detected exceptionally high-strength electromagnetic fields (100 nT) from the hands of several energy healers. The equipment used was far more sensitive than in the original studies. Using a Magnes 2500 WH SQUID, the electromagnetic field from the hands and heart of each of 3 Reiki masters was measured when they were (1) not practicing Reiki, (2) sending Reiki to a distant person, and (3) sending Reiki to a person in the room. Similar measurements were made on 4 Reiki-naïve volunteers before and after they received a Reiki training/attunement enabling them to self-administer Reiki. The study setting was the Scripps Institute, San Diego, CA. Magnetic field intensity of hands and heart recorded over 5-minute sessions with corresponding frequency spectra. For all subjects, under all conditions, sensors closest to the heart and the hands produced spikes of 2 pT corresponding to the heartbeat. Recordings from 2 Masters and 1 volunteer showed a low-intensity sine wave oscillation of 0.25-0.3 Hz (intensity 0.1-0.5 pT) whether or not they were practicing Reiki. This oscillation probably reflected respiratory sinus arrhythmia, judged by comparison with recent previous studies. These signals were not detected in the original studies. In the current study, no electromagnetic field intensities greater than 3 pT were observed in any of the recordings. Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands. Alternatively, it is possible that energy healing is stimulated by tuning into an external environmental radiation, such as the Schumann resonance, which was blocked in the present study by the strong magnetic shielding surrounding the SQUID.

  13. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  14. [The ultrastructure of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the rats exposed to radiation under conditions of therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity electromagnetic emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Y N; Bobrovnitskii, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhailik, L V

    2018-04-09

    it has been demonstrated in various experimental studies that radiation exposure produces a negative impact on the processes of spermatogenesis associated with the disturbances of the microcirculation processes in the testes and the development of cellular and intracellular disintegration expressed as destructive changes in the cells leading to their death. The objective of the present study was to detect the ultrastructural abnormalities in the cells of Sertoli and spermatogonia under conditions of their exposure to radiation and to identify the peculiarities of their regeneration under the influence of the therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF). The experiments were carried out on 28 non-pedigree mature male rats with the body weight 180-220 g that were divided into four groups. The first study group was comprised of the animals exposed to radiation followed by the application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency UHF electromagnetic radiation EMR. The rats in the second study group experienced effects of radiation and low-intensity low-frequency MF. The animals of the third (control) group were exposed to radiation alone, and those comprising the fourth group 1 (only radiation exposure) were considered to be intact. The studies with the use of electron microscopy showed that the therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field caused the decrease in the number and the severity of post-radiation defects in the treated cells together with the increase of the number and size of mitochondria as well as hyperplasia of ribosomes; moreover, it promoted cellular and intracellular regeneration. UHF electromagnetic radiation had a more pronounced stimulating effect on the regeneration processes as compared with low-frequency MF

  15. On the Intensity of Radiation of an Electromagnetic Field by a Rotating Ferroelectric Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkov, S. O.; Bogdanova, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that in the case when the spontaneous polarization vector P 0 and the rotational frequency vector ω of a ferroelectric sphere do not coincide, electromagnetic waves will be radiated. The intensity of the radiation is calculated as a function of the coordinates and time, and the anisotropy of this radiation is proven. The distribution of the intensity of radiation is graphically illustrated in the form of a function of the central distance r.

  16. System and method for extracting physiological information from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and a method for extracting physiological information indicative of at least one health symptom from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation. The device comprises an interface (20) for receiving a data stream comprising remotely detected image data

  17. System and method for extracting physiological information from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and a method for extracting physiological information indicative of at least one health symptom from remotely detected electromagnetic radiation. The device comprises an interface (20) for receiving a data stream comprising remotely detected image data

  18. Concerning the electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a hot plasma with Langmuir turbulence in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsky, V.V.; Ledenev, V.G.; Tomozov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the process of generation of electromagnetic waves as a consequence of the merging of two Langmuir plasmons. The case of a hot plasma in a magnetic field is investigated. It is shown that under such conditions the frequency of Langmuir plasmons can vary over the range from 0.8 to 1.1 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons. The spectrum and polarization of electromagnetic radiation are analyzed. It is shown that allowance for the thermal motion of plasma particles under the conditions involved permits electromagnetic waves in the range from 1.6 to 2.2 of the Langmuir frequency of electrons to be generated. The degree of circular polarization of the radiation can reach 50% even in the case of an isotropic spectrum of Langmuir turbulence. (orig.)

  19. Beech and spruce under the influence of electromagnetic radiation by radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, G.; Matyssek, R.; Käs, G.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout a three-year study period beech and spruce trees were examined for potential effects of electromagnetic radiation by radar on the morphological and physiological performance at the crown level. No effects of radar on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal regulation as well as twig and foliage differentiation were found in late summer after seasonal exposure to this kind of radiation, when comparing radar-exposed with shielded crown parts. Adverse effects caused by radar on forest trees appear to be unlikely on a short-term scale, given conditions similar to those of this case study [de

  20. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  1. Radiation corrections to quantum processes in an intense electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhny, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    A derivation of an asymptotic expression for the mass correction of order α to the electron propagator in an intense electromagnetic field is presented. It is used for the calculation of radiation corrections to the electron and photon elastic scattering amplitudes in the α 3 approximation. All proper diagrams contributing to the amplitudes and containing the above-mentioned correction to the propagator were considered, but not those which include vertex corrections. It is shown that the expansion parameter of the perturbation theory of quantum electrodynamics in intense fields grows not more slowly than αchi/sup 1/3/ at least for the electron amplitude, where chi = [(eF/sub μν/p/sub ν/) 2 ] 12 /m 3 , p is a momentum of the electron, and F is the electromagnetic field tensor

  2. Diffuse ions produced by electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of the electromagnetic ions beam instability driven by the reflected ion component backstreaming away from the earth's how shock into the foreshock region is studied by means computer simulation. The linear the quasi-linear states of the instability are found to be in good agreement with known results for the resonant model propagating parallel to the beam along the magnetic field and with theory developed in this paper for the nonresonant mode, which propagates antiparallel to the beam direction. The quasi-linear stage, which produces large amplitude 8Bapprox.B, sinusoidal transverse waves and ''intermediate'' ion distribution, is terminated by a nonlinear phase in which strongly nonlinear, compressive waves and ''diffuse'' ion distributions are produced. Additional processes by which the diffuse ions are accelerated to observed high energies are not addressed. The results are discussed in terms of the ion distributions and hydromagnetic waves observed in the foreshock of the earth's bow shock and of interplanetary shocks

  3. On the self-confinement of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1979-07-01

    A theoretical approach is outlined which attempts to explain elementary particles with a rest mass as eigenmodes of self-confined electromagnetic radiation. For this purpose an extended interpretation of Maxwell's equations is being suggested. The theory is illustrated by a simple special case where the particle interior contains a unipolar-like electric field having a non-vanishing divergence and being coupled to a poloidal dipole-like magnetic field having a non-vanishing curl. At large distances from the particle centre these fields approach their classical vacuum solutions. Numerical order-of-magnitude estimations being based on this model are at least consistent with the experimental data of the electron and the proton. (author)

  4. Active electromagnetic invisibility cloaking and radiation force cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    This investigation shows that an active emitting electromagnetic (EM) Dirichlet source (i.e., with axial polarization of the electric field) in a homogeneous non-dissipative/non-absorptive medium placed near a perfectly conducting boundary can render total invisibility (i.e. zero extinction cross-section or efficiency) in addition to a radiation force cancellation on its surface. Based upon the Poynting theorem, the mathematical expression for the extinction, radiation and amplification cross-sections (or efficiencies) are derived using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. Moreover, the analysis is extended to compute the self-induced EM radiation force on the active source, resulting from the waves reflected by the boundary. The numerical results predict the generation of a zero extinction efficiency, achieving total invisibility, in addition to a radiation force cancellation which depend on the source size, the distance from the boundary and the associated EM mode order of the active source. Furthermore, an attractive EM pushing force on the active source directed toward the boundary or a repulsive pulling one pointing away from it can arise accordingly. The numerical predictions and computational results find potential applications in the design and development of EM cloaking devices, invisibility and stealth technologies.

  5. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  6. Application of «Sensor signal analysis network» complex for distributed, time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Vladimir; Mochalova, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers a developing software-hardware complex «Sensor signal analysis network» for distributed and time synchronized analysis of electromagnetic radiations. The areas of application and the main features of the complex are described. An example of application of the complex to monitor natural electromagnetic radiation sources is considered based on the data recorded in VLF range. A generalized functional scheme of stream analysis of signals by a complex functional node is suggested and its application for stream detection of atmospherics, whistlers and tweaks is considered.

  7. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the physico-chemical properties of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The electromagnetic radiation effect represented by gamma rays was investigated through; chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and magnetization when applied at a dose of 0.5704 Gy (0.5704 J/ kg) at a feed relation of 18.40 ± 1.13 mGy/ h., in different minerals; in order to characterize the impact of the same from 137 Cs in the physicochemical properties of these minerals. All the irradiated samples showed chemical stability at this stage undetectable other both in the XRD study and in the images analysis obtained by Sem; and at present almost the same chemical composition as the non-irradiated samples. So the same patterns of X-ray diffraction thereof, show a tendency to slightly lower the intensity of the most representative peaks of each mineral phase, which may be due to a decrease in crystallinity or preferential crystallographic orientation in crystals. In the micrographs analysis obtained by Sem on the irradiated samples, some holes (open pores) present in the particles were observed, mainly chalcopyrite and sphalerite lesser extent, seen this fact may be due to Compton Effect, in the radiation process. In relation to the magnetization property, a variation is obtained in the saturation magnetization (Ms) for the irradiated samples containing iron and more significantly in the chalcopyrite case. Therefore, with the radiation level used; slight changes occurring in the physical properties of minerals, whereas they remained stable chemically. These small changes may represent a signal that electromagnetic radiation applied at higher doses, is a viable option for improving the mineral processing. (author)

  8. Military Handbook: Management and Design Guidance Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness for Air Launched Ordnance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    system is attacted to the delivery aircraft until it Impacto a target, it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from emitters aboard the delivery...homogeneous, isotropic, ambient medium may be a lossy dielectric. Antenna computations include cur- rent distribution, input impedance, radiation...permissible ambient interference level in the system, and when determining the expected signal-to-inter- ference ratio of the signal transmission circuits

  9. Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell's equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.

  10. Development of Spectrometer Software for Electromagnetic Radiation Measurement and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Noor Ezati Shuib; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet Spectrometer system. StellarNet Spectrometer was supplied with SpectraWiz operating software that can measure spectral data for real-time spectroscopy. This LabVIEW software was used to access real-time data from SpectraWiz dynamic link library as hardware interfacing. This software will acquire amplitude of every electromagnetic wavelength at periodic time. In addition to hardware interfacing, the user interface capabilities of software include plotting of spectral data in various mode including scope, absorbance, transmission and irradiance mode. This software surely can be used for research and development in application, utilization and safety of electromagnetic radiation, especially solar, laser and ultra violet. Of-line capabilities of this software are almost unlimited due to availability of mathematical and signal processing function in the LabVIEW add on library. (author)

  11. Device for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Device (10) for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy, comprising at least a photovoltaic element (11) with a radiation-sensitive surface, wherein a covering layer (12) of a material comprising a silicon compound, to which a rare earth element has been added, is present

  12. The ultra low frequency electromagnetic radiation observed in the topside ionosphere above boundaries of tectonic plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Athanasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present results of a comparison between ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM radiation, recorded by an electric field instrument onboard the satellite detection of electromagnetic emissions transmitted from earthquake regions in the topside ionosphere, and the seismicity of regions with high and low seismic activity. In particular, we evaluated the energy variations of the ULF Ezelectric field component during a period of four years (2006-2009, in order to examine the possible relation of ULF EM radiation with seismogenic regions located in Central America, Indonesia, the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and Greece. As a tool for evaluating the ULF Ez energy variations we used singular spectrum analysis techniques. The results of our analysis clearly show a significant increase of the ULF EM energy emitted from regions of highest seismic activity at the boundaries tectonic plates. Furthermore, we found that higher electromagnetic radiation was detected in a region above the northern- western Greek Arc (R1 than above the adjacent region including Athens and its urban area. We interpret these results of the present study as suggesting that: i the seismogenic regions at the boundary of tectonic plates radiate ULF EM emissions observed by satellites in the topside ionosphere; and ii that this EM radiation is not only related with the occurrence time of great (M≥5 earthquakes, but it is often present in intermediate times and it appears as a quasi-permanent phenomenon.

  13. The impact of electromagnetic radiation on the degradation of magnetic ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with magnetic nano-fluids, which are the part of transformer oil ITO 100 and their behavior is influenced by a permanent magnetic field. We performed an IRC analysis in the time domain on the three different samples. Measurements were made before and after radiation of an electromagnetic field. The main objective was to examine changes in the properties of the samples due to the influence of the electromagnetic field. The measurements depend on the orientation of the external magnetic field. This behavior occurs especially during the structuring of the nanoparticles in the sample exposed to the magnetic field. These processes change the polarization of the liquid because the nanoparticles concentration is contained in the fluid.

  14. Subluminal and superluminal terahertz radiation in metamaterials with electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-07-29

    We propose a scheme to design a new type of optical metamaterial that can mimic the functionality of four-state atomic systems of N-type energy-level configuration with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that in such metamaterial a transition from a single EIT to a double EIT of terahertz radiation may be easily achieved by actively tuning the intensity of the infrared pump field or passively tuning the geometrical parameters of resonator structures. In addition, the group velocity of the terahertz radiation can be varied from subluminal to superluminal by changing the pump field intensity. The scheme suggested here may be used to construct chip-scale slow and fast light devices and to realize rapidly responded switching of terahertz radiation at room temperature.

  15. Discrimination between pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouras, G.; Balasis, G.; Kiourktsidis, I.; Nannos, E.; Kontakos, K.; Stonham, J.; Ruzhin, Y.; Eftaxias, K.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kilohertz (kHz) to very high megahertz (MHz) frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only in the laboratory but also at a geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We should bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated with earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to be related to a few sources, including atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, the lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point in this paper. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the set of criteria presented herein, these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  16. Discrimination between pre-seismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulouras, G; Kiourktsidis, I; Stonham, J; Balasis, G; Nannos, E; Kontakos, K; Nomicos, C; Ruzhin, Y; Eftaxias, K; Cavouras, D

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kilohertz (kHz) to very high megahertz (MHz) frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only in the laboratory but also at a geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We should bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated with earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to be related to a few sources, including atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, the lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point in this paper. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the set of criteria presented herein, these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  17. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave

  18. Needle-Bonded Electromagnetic Shielding Thermally Insulating Nonwoven Composite Boards: Property Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complicated environmental problems inevitably arise when technology advances. One major environmental problem is the presence of electromagnetic radiation. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation can damage people’s health in many ways. Therefore, this study proposes producing composite boards with electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and thermal insulation by utilizing the structures and properties of materials. Different combinations of flame-retardant polyester fiber (FR fiber, recycled far-infrared polyester fiber (FI fiber, and 4D low-melting-point fibers (LM fiber were made into flame-retardant and thermally insulating matrices. The matrices and carbon fiber (CF woven fabric in a sandwich-structure were needle-punched in order to be tightly compact, and then circularly heat dried in order to have a heat set and reinforced structure. The test results indicate that Polyester (PET/CF composite boards are mechanically strong and have thermal insulation and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness at a frequency between 0.6 MHz and 3 GHz.

  19. 1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Yun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun-Ye; Gao, Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Qi-Yan; Yuan, Meng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-12-23

    More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

  20. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Memory Performance: Sources of Uncertainty in Epidemiological Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozek, Christopher; Benke, Kurt K; Zeleke, Berihun M; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2018-03-26

    Uncertainty in experimental studies of exposure to radiation from mobile phones has in the past only been framed within the context of statistical variability. It is now becoming more apparent to researchers that epistemic or reducible uncertainties can also affect the total error in results. These uncertainties are derived from a wide range of sources including human error, such as data transcription, model structure, measurement and linguistic errors in communication. The issue of epistemic uncertainty is reviewed and interpreted in the context of the MoRPhEUS, ExPOSURE and HERMES cohort studies which investigate the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on memory performance. Research into this field has found inconsistent results due to limitations from a range of epistemic sources. Potential analytic approaches are suggested based on quantification of epistemic error using Monte Carlo simulation. It is recommended that future studies investigating the relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and memory performance pay more attention to treatment of epistemic uncertainties as well as further research into improving exposure assessment. Use of directed acyclic graphs is also encouraged to display the assumed covariate relationship.

  1. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Memory Performance: Sources of Uncertainty in Epidemiological Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Brzozek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in experimental studies of exposure to radiation from mobile phones has in the past only been framed within the context of statistical variability. It is now becoming more apparent to researchers that epistemic or reducible uncertainties can also affect the total error in results. These uncertainties are derived from a wide range of sources including human error, such as data transcription, model structure, measurement and linguistic errors in communication. The issue of epistemic uncertainty is reviewed and interpreted in the context of the MoRPhEUS, ExPOSURE and HERMES cohort studies which investigate the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on memory performance. Research into this field has found inconsistent results due to limitations from a range of epistemic sources. Potential analytic approaches are suggested based on quantification of epistemic error using Monte Carlo simulation. It is recommended that future studies investigating the relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and memory performance pay more attention to treatment of epistemic uncertainties as well as further research into improving exposure assessment. Use of directed acyclic graphs is also encouraged to display the assumed covariate relationship.

  2. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V; Rabinovitch, A; Bahat, D

    2003-01-01

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  3. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Rabinovitch, A [Physics Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-07

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse.

  4. The Schrödinger Equation, the Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation, and the Photoelectric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, H. M.; Kamimura, A.; Barreto, G. A.

    2016-04-01

    A Schrödinger type equation for a mathematical probability amplitude Ψ( x, t) is derived from the generalized phase space Liouville equation valid for the motion of a microscopic particle, with mass M and charge e, moving in a potential V( x). The particle phase space probability density is denoted Q( x, p, t), and the entire system is immersed in the "vacuum" zero-point electromagnetic radiation. We show, in the first part of the paper, that the generalized Liouville equation is reduced to a simpler Liouville equation in the equilibrium limit where the small radiative corrections cancel each other approximately. This leads us to a simpler Liouville equation that will facilitate the calculations in the second part of the paper. Within this second part, we address ourselves to the following task: Since the Schrödinger equation depends on hbar , and the zero-point electromagnetic spectral distribution, given by ρ 0{(ω )} = hbar ω 3/2 π 2 c3, also depends on hbar , it is interesting to verify the possible dynamical connection between ρ 0( ω) and the Schrödinger equation. We shall prove that the Planck's constant, present in the momentum operator of the Schrödinger equation, is deeply related with the ubiquitous zero-point electromagnetic radiation with spectral distribution ρ 0( ω). For simplicity, we do not use the hypothesis of the existence of the L. de Broglie matter-waves. The implications of our study for the standard interpretation of the photoelectric effect are discussed by considering the main characteristics of the phenomenon. We also mention, briefly, the effects of the zero-point radiation in the tunneling phenomenon and the Compton's effect.

  5. Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun

    2010-01-01

    We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.

  6. Compilations and evaluations of data on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1978-05-01

    The material contained in this report deals with data on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, listing major compilations of X-ray, photon and gamma-ray cross sections and attentuation coefficients, as well as selected reports featuring data on compton scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production

  7. Effect of electromagnetic radiations on neurodegenerative diseases- technological revolution as a curse in disguise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Gulam M; Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Karim, Sajjad; Haque, Absarul; Kamal, Mohammad A; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Azhar, Essam; Mirza, Zeenat

    2014-01-01

    In the present developed world, all of us are flooded with electromagnetic radiations (EMR) emanating from generation and transmission of electricity, domestic appliances and industrial equipments, to telecommunications and broadcasting. We have been exposed to EMR for last many decades; however their recent steady increase from artificial sources has been reported as millions of antennas and satellites irradiate the global population round the clock, year round. Needless to say, these are so integral to modern life that interaction with them on a daily basis is seemingly inevitable; hence, the EMR exposure load has increased to a point where their health effects are becoming a major concern. Delicate and sensitive electrical system of human body is affected by consistent penetration of electromagnetic frequencies causing DNA breakages and chromosomal aberrations. Technological innovations came with Pandora's Box of hazardous consequences including neurodegenerative disorders, hearing disabilities, diabetes, congenital abnormalities, infertility, cardiovascular diseases and cancer to name few, all on a sharp rise. Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiations pose considerable health threat with prolonged exposure. Mobile phones are usually held near to the brain and manifest progressive structural or functional alterations in neurons leading to neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal death. This has provoked awareness among both the general public and scientific community and international bodies acknowledge that further systematic research is needed. The aim of the present review was to have an insight in whether and how cumulative electro-magnetic field exposure is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, P.; Andelin, D.; Anicin, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M.W.; Auffray, E.; Argiro, S.; Askew, A.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Balazs, M.; Bandurin, D.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.M.; Bartoloni, A.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Bell, K.W.; Bernet, C.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Beuselinck, R.; Biino, C.; Blaha, J.; Bloch, P.; Borisevitch, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bourotte, J.; Brown, R.M.; Buehler, M.; Busson, P.; Camanzi, B.; Camporesi, T.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Cecilia, A.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y.H.; Charlot, C.; Chen, E.A.; Chen, W.T.; Chen, Z.; Chipaux, R.; Choudhary, B.C.; Choudhury, R.K.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, S.I.; Cossutti, F.; Cox, B.; Cussans, D.G.; Dafinei, I.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D.R.; Daskalakis, G.; David, A.; Deiters, K.; Dejardin, M.; De Benedetti, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Del Re, D.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Descamps, J.; Diemoz, M.; Di Marco, E.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Djordjevic, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Drndarevic, S.; Drobychev, G.; Dutta, D.; Dzelalija, M.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Evangelou, I.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J.L.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Franci, D.; Franzoni, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gataullin, M.; Gentit, F.X.; Ghezzi, A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Go, A.; Gobbo, B.; Godinovic, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Grant, N.; Gras, P.; Haguenauer, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Haupt, J.; Heath, H.F.; Heltsley, B.; Cornell U., LNS.; Hintz, W.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P.R.; Honma, A.; Hou, G.W.S.; Hsiung, Y.; Huhtinen, M.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Inyakin, A.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kaadze, K.; Kachanov, V.; Kailas, S.; Kataria, S.K.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kokkas, P.; Kolberg, T.; Korjik, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Krpic, D.; Kubota, Y.; Kuo, C.M.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lethuillier, M.; Lin, S.W.; Lin, W.; Litvine, V.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Luckey, P.D.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, Y.; Malberti, M.; Malcles, J.; Maletic, D.; Manthos, N.; Maravin, Y.; Marchica, C.; Marinelli, N.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Marone, M.; Matveev, V.; Mavrommatis, C.; Meridiani, P.; Milenovic, P.; Mine, P.; Missevitch, O.; Mohanty, A.K.; Moortgat, F.; Musella, P.; Musienko, Y.; Nardulli, A.; Nash, J.; Nedelec, P.; Negri, P.; Newman, H.B.; Nikitenko, A.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Obertino, M.M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganoni, M.; Paganini, P.; Palma, A.; Pant, L.; Papadakis, A.; Papadakis, I.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Patterson, J.R.; Pauss, F.; Peigneux, J.P.; Petrakou, E.; Phillips, D.G.; Piroue, P.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Pullia, A.; Punz, T.; Puzovic, J.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Razis, P.A.; Redaelli, N.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Ribeiro, P.; Rogan, C.; Ronquest, M.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rumerio, P.; Rusack, R.; Rusakov, S.V.; Ryan, M.J.; Sala, L.; Salerno, R.; Schneegans, M.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Shiu, J.G.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Shukla, P.; Siamitros, C.; Sillou, D.; Silva, J.; Silva, P.; Singovsky, A.; Sirois, Y.; Sirunyan, A.; Smith, V.J.; Stockli, F.; Swain, J.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Takahashi, M.; Tancini, V.; Teller, O.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiebaux, C.; Timciuc, V.; Timlin, C.; Titov, Maxim P.; Topkar, A.; Triantis, F.A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Ueno, K.; Uzunian, A.; Varela, J.; Verrecchia, P.; Veverka, J.; Virdee, T.; Wang, M.; Wardrope, D.; Weber, M.; Weng, J.; Williams, J.H.; Yang, Y.; Yaselli, I.; Yohay, R.; Zabi, A.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  9. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  10. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar.

  11. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barellini, A.; Bogi, L.; Licitra, G.; Silvi, A. M.; Zari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. (authors)

  12. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  13. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susc...

  14. Electromagnetic engineering - from dc to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic engineering is of great importance to modern world. Some of its various applications can be found in communications science. There is little agreement between the East and West about electromagnetic radiation effects. Although the West believes that there is no danger in power frequency fields, standards for the maximum power densities to which humans may be exposed were laid down by various national and international bodies. Two other effects of electromagnetic energy include: a) The possible ignition of flammable vapours and gases by electromagnetic radiation and; b) the electromagnetic pulse. The application of radar is also discussed

  15. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  16. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, M.; Neskovic, N.; Neskovic, A.; Paunovic, G.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m -1 , which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were -1 , respectively. (authors)

  17. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  18. "Triple M" Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh; Mortazavi, S A R; Mehdizadeh, A R

    2018-03-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce "Triple M" effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some "hot spots" in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed.

  19. Elimination of electromagnetic radiation in plasma simulation: the Darwin or magnetoinductive approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    For many astrophysical and most magnetic fusion applications, the purely electromagnetic modes generated by real as well as simulation ''plasma'' fluctuations are a source of high frequency radiation that is often irrelevant to the physics of interest. Unfortunately, a numerical CFL stability limit prevents either making c infinite or deltat large while using the usual explicit Maxwell's equations for the fields. A modification of Maxwell's equations, which provides implicitly the field components, circumvents this problem. The solution is to neglect retardation effects so that the electromagnetic propagation speed is effectively infinite. The purely electromagnetic modes in this limit evolve ''instantly'' to a time-asymptotic configuration about the macroscopic plasma configuration at each new time level. The Darwin or magnetoinductive approximation effectively provides infinite propagation speeds for purely electromagnetic modes by converting Maxwell's equations from hyperbolic to elliptic in character. In practice, this is accomplished by neglecting the solenoidal part of the displacement current. The elimination of the CFL time step constraint more than offsets the substantially more complicated field solution that is required. The details of a numerical implementation of this model will be presented. Numerical examples will be given and extentions of the Darwin field solution to other plasma models also will be considered. 9 refs., 3 figs

  20. Radiation dose distributions close to the shower axis calculated for high energy electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.; Gsponer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses produced by 500, 1,000 and 10,000 MeV electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air have been calculated using a Monte Carlo program. The radial distributions of the absorbed dose near to the shower axis are found to be significantly narrower than predicted by simple analytical shower theory. For a 500 MeV, 10 kA, 100 ns electron beam pulse, the region in which the total dose is in excess of 1 krad and the dose rate in excess of 10 10 rad/s is a cigar-shaped envelope of radius 1 m and length 200 m. (orig.) [de

  1. Electromagnetic Radiation Efficiency of Body-Implanted Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayev, Denys; Zhadobov, Maxim; Karban, Pavel; Sauleau, Ronan

    2018-02-01

    Autonomous wireless body-implanted devices for biotelemetry, telemedicine, and neural interfacing constitute an emerging technology providing powerful capabilities for medicine and clinical research. We study the through-tissue electromagnetic propagation mechanisms, derive the optimal frequency range, and obtain the maximum achievable efficiency for radiative energy transfer from inside a body to free space. We analyze how polarization affects the efficiency by exciting TM and TE modes using a magnetic dipole and a magnetic current source, respectively. Four problem formulations are considered with increasing complexity and realism of anatomy. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency f for deep implantation (with a depth d ≳3 cm ) lies in the (108- 109 )-Hz range and can be approximated as f =2.2 ×107/d . For a subcutaneous case (d ≲3 cm ), the surface-wave-induced interference is significant: within the range of peak radiation efficiency (about 2 ×108 to 3 ×109 Hz ), the max-to-min ratio can reach a value of 6.5. For the studied frequency range, 80%-99% of radiation efficiency is lost due to the tissue-air wave-impedance mismatch. Parallel polarization reduces the losses by a few percent; this effect is inversely proportional to the frequency and depth. Considering the implantation depth, the operating frequency, the polarization, and the directivity, we show that about an order-of-magnitude efficiency improvement is achievable compared to existing devices.

  2. Generating high-power short terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a multifoil radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A; Jeong, Young Uk

    2013-02-08

    We describe a multifoil cone radiator capable of generating high-field short terahertz pulses using short electron bunches. Round flat conducting foil plates with successively decreasing radii are stacked, forming a truncated cone with the z axis. The gaps between the foil plates are equal and filled with some dielectric (or vacuum). A short relativistic electron bunch propagates along the z axis. At sufficiently high particle energy, the energy losses and multiple scattering do not change the bunch shape significantly. When passing by each gap between the foil plates, the electron bunch emits some energy into the gap. Then, the radiation pulses propagate radially outward. For transverse electromagnetic waves with a longitudinal (along the z axis) electric field and an azimuthal magnetic field, there is no dispersion in these radial lines; therefore, the radiation pulses conserve their shapes (time dependence). At the outer surface of the cone, we have synchronous circular radiators. Their radiation field forms a conical wave. Ultrashort terahertz pulses with gigawatt-level peak power can be generated with this device.

  3. The effect of extreme-low-frequency electromagnetic field on air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic fields produce alternating electric fields and modify static electric fields in the vicinity. These electric fields, if large enough, can alter the concentration or transport of airborne particles (including particles harmful to health). In this study, the concentration of radioactive materials (gamma radiation) was ...

  4. Thermal electromagnetic radiation in heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Hees, H. van [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We review the potential of precise measurements of electromagnetic probes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions for the theoretical understanding of strongly interacting matter. The penetrating nature of photons and dileptons implies that they can carry undistorted information about the hot and dense regions of the fireballs formed in these reactions and thus provide a unique opportunity to measure the electromagnetic spectral function of QCD matter as a function of both invariant mass and momentum. In particular we report on recent progress on how the medium modifications of the (dominant) isovector part of the vector current correlator (ρ channel) can shed light on the mechanism of chiral symmetry restoration in the hot and/or dense environment. In addition, thermal dilepton radiation enables novel access to (a) the fireball lifetime through the dilepton yield in the low invariant-mass window 0.3 GeV ≤ M ≤ 0.7 GeV, and (b) the early temperatures of the fireball through the slope of the invariant-mass spectrum in the intermediate-mass region (1.5 GeV < M < 2.5 GeV). The investigation of the pertinent excitation function suggests that the beam energies provided by the NICA and FAIR projects are in a promising range for a potential discovery of the onset of a first-order phase transition, as signaled by a non-monotonous behavior of both low-mass yields and temperature slopes. (orig.)

  5. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  6. Amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor was first discussed by Haken. The possibility of amplification of an electromagnetic wave under conditions of Bose condensation of biexcitons was considered in Ref. 2. However, the difficulties encountered in the creation of a Bose condensed state of biexcitons complicate greatly the performance of an experiment of this kind. The authors shall show that amplification is possible also in a gaseous mixture of excitons and biexcitons which is in thermal equilibrium and can be described by the Maxwellian distribution function of the velocities

  7. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  8. [The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniatulina, M S; Korolev, Yu N; Nikulina, L A

    The objective of the present study was elucidate the peculiar features of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI EMR) and mineral water (MW) on the ultrastructure of rat Leydig cells under conditions of immobilization stress. The experiments were carried out on outbred male rats with the use of electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the prophylactic consumption of drinking sulfate-containing mineral water and the application low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (with the flow power density of 1 mcW/cm2 and frequency around 1,000 Hz) or the combination of these two modalities under conditions of immobilization stress reduced the degree of ultrastructural derangement in the rat Leydig cells and stimulated the development of regenerative processes. In the cases of the single-factor impact, drinking mineral water exerted more pronounced action than low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on mitochondrial regeneration. In case of the simultaneous application of the two factors their protective action on the Leydig cells was much more conspicuous than that of either of them applied alone. It is concluded that drinking sulfate-containing mineral water in combination with the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation enhances resistance of the rat Leydig cells to stress.

  9. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  10. Investigation of the radiation level and electromagnetic field strength in sample of Damascus schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Abukassem, I.; Raja, G.; Algamdi, H.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine radon concentration and natural gamma dose rate, and to measure the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) level produced by electric power lines and also mobile phone base station inside some elementary and preparatory schools in old town during two terms (studding terms and summer break). Results showed that most of the obtained values were less than 200 Bq/m 3 the action levels, but there were some classrooms concentrations which are more than 200 Bq/m 3 . These high values may be due to building materials, radon concentration in the soil and poor ventilation. It has been noticed that radon concentrations during the second term (summer) were higher than the first term. This may be due to the poor ventilation as schools are closed during summer break. The results showed also decreasing in radon concentration with increasing height of the floor, and radon concentration in old schools is higher than modern ones. EMFs levels in ground and first floors were higher than second floor; the maximum detected values exceeded 50 V/m and 270 mA/m for electric and magnetic field strength respectively, and 0.5 μT for magnetic flux density. Mobile microwave radiation level was relatively low in all positions, and signal increases with floor height. Finally, no observable correlation between the measured electromagnetic fields and the radon concentration were established.

  11. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  12. Teaching Electromagnetic Waves in College Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Y.; Leng, L.

    2006-12-01

    One of the important educational advantages of the simultaneous study of the electromagnetic waves and light is to show that light and the electromagnetic radiation have the same properties so that the students can visualize the properties of the electromagnetic radiation through observation of light propagation. In our approach we are suggest to study the properties of a microwave radiation and light in parallel. The following experiments can be easily designed and they provide a methodical introduction to electromagnetic theory using the microwave radiation and light: the study of the inverse square law of the dependence of the intensity of radiation (microwave and light) on the distance, the law of reflection and refraction, investigation of the phenomenon of polarization and how a polarizer can be used to alter the polarization of microwave radiation and light, measuring the Brewster's angle, studying interference by performing double-slit experiment for microwave radiation and light. Finally students measure the wavelength of the laser light and microwave radiation using the corresponding versions the Michelson’s interferometer, and recognize that these two radiations only differ by the wavelength or frequency.

  13. Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr

  14. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using micromechanical multiple quantum wells structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis G [Knoxville, TN; Rajic, Slobodan [Knoxville, TN; Datskou, Irene [Knoxville, TN

    2007-07-17

    An apparatus and method for detecting electromagnetic radiation employs a deflectable micromechanical apparatus incorporating multiple quantum wells structures. When photons strike the quantum-well structure, physical stresses are created within the sensor, similar to a "bimetallic effect." The stresses cause the sensor to bend. The extent of deflection of the sensor can be measured through any of a variety of conventional means to provide a measurement of the photons striking the sensor. A large number of such sensors can be arranged in a two-dimensional array to provide imaging capability.

  15. Analysis of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a multipactor discharge occurring within a microwave passive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M; Quesada, F; Alvarez, A [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Gimeno, B [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Miquel-Espanya, C; Raboso, D [European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), Noordwijk (Netherlands); Anza, S; Vicente, C; Gil, J [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Taroncher, M; Reglero, M; Boria, V E, E-mail: benito.gimeno@uv.e [Departamento de Comunicaciones-ITEAM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-06

    Multipactoring is a non-linear phenomenon that appears in high-power microwave equipment operating under vacuum conditions and causes several undesirable effects. In this paper, a theoretical and experimental study of the RF spectrum radiated by a multipactor discharge, occurring within a realistic microwave component based on rectangular waveguides, is reported. The electromagnetic coupling of a multipactor current to the fundamental propagative mode of a uniform waveguide has been analysed in the context of the microwave network theory. The discharge produced under a single-carrier RF voltage regime has been approached as a shunt current source exciting such a mode in a transmission-line gap region. By means of a simple equivalent circuit, this model allows prediction of the harmonics generated by the discharge occurring in a realistic passive waveguide component. Power spectrum radiated by a third-order multipactor discharge has been measured in an E-plane silver-plated waveguide transformer, thus validating qualitatively the presented theory to simulate the noise generated by a single-carrier multipactor discharge.

  16. The effect of electromagnetic radiation emitted by display screens on cell oxygen metabolism - in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela A; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-12-10

    Research studies carried out for decades have not solved the problem of the effect of electromagnetic radiation of various frequency and strength on the human organism. Due to this fact, we decided to investigate the changes taking place in human blood platelets under the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by LCD monitors. The changes of selected parameters of oxygen metabolism were measured, i.e. reactive oxygen species concentration, enzymatic activity of antioxidant defence proteins - superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and catalase (CAT) - and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA). A suspension of human blood platelets was exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity for 30 and 60 min. The level of changes of the selected parameters of oxidative stress was determined after the exposure and compared to the control samples (not exposed). The measurements revealed an increase of the concentration of reactive oxygen species. The largest increase of ROS concentration vs. the control sample was observed after exposure to EMF of 220 V/m intensity for 60 min (from x = 54.64 to x = 72.92). The measurement of MDA concentration demonstrated a statistically significant increase after 30-min exposure to an EMF of 220 V/m intensity in relation to the initial values (from x = 3.18 to x = 4.41). The enzymatic activity of SOD-1 decreased after exposure (the most prominent change was observed after 60-min and 220 V/m intensity from x = 3556.41 to x = 1084.83). The most significant change in activity of catalase was observed after 60 min and 220 v/m exposure (from x = 6.28 to x = 4.15). The findings indicate that exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity may cause adverse effects within blood platelets' oxygen metabolism and thus may lead to physiological dysfunction of the organism.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation and scattering from small canonical structures of double-negative metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2007-01-01

    aspects associated with DNG materials, and was subsequently extended to investigations of the radiation and scattering from two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) MTM-based canonical problems in electromagnetic theory. As to the theoretical aspects of DNG materials, the sign, or more generally the branch......, cylindrical and spherical configurations to design electrically small, resonant structures such as cavities, waveguides, scatterers and radiators. These ideas are extended here to canonical antenna and scattering configurations which consist of electrically small resonant cylindrical and spherical MTM......-based structures excited by an arbitrarily located electric line source and an arbitrarily located and oriented electric Hertzian dipole, respectively. Exact analytical solutions, based on eigenfunction series, are derived and then numerically evaluated to study the radiation and scattering from these structures...

  18. “Triple M” Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mehdizadeh, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce “Triple M” effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some “hot spots” in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed. PMID:29732349

  19. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  20. Electromagnetic navigation-guided neuroendoscopic removal of radiation-induced intraforniceal cavernoma as a late complication of medulloblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liby, Petr; Zamecnik, J; Kyncl, M; Zackova, J; Tichy, M

    2017-11-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in children. Radiation-induced cavernous haemangiomas (RICHs) are a known late complication of radiation exposure, especially in young children. We present a patient who underwent subtotal resection of posterior fossa medulloblastoma with subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the age of 10 years. A new lesion in the region of the left foramen of Monro appeared 16 years later. Based on the imaging results, metastasis or radiation-induced cavernoma was considered. The lesion had the same appearance on imaging as a rarely published intraventricular cavernoma of the foramen of Monro. Unlike the cavernoma of the foramen of Monro, this lesion was subependymal and intraforniceal. Using electromagnetic navigation and neuroendoscopy, the lesion was completely removed. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous haemangioma. This is a unique case of intraforniceal paraforaminal cavernoma that was successfully removed endoscopically using electromagnetic neuronavigation and without neurological sequelae.

  1. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood cancer-illustrated with domestic radon and radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauri, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Background Children are exposed to many different environmental factors, including exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation and to non-ionizing radiation. Low-dose ionizing radiation comprises anthropogenic modified radiation and natural ionizing radiation from cosmic rays from the atmosphere, terrestrial gamma radiation from radionuclides in rocks and soils and radiation from radon. Non-ionizing radiation comprises optical radiation and radiation from electromagnetic fields. The la...

  2. Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)

    2017-03-15

    We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.

  3. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  4. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  5. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  6. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ... waves through a network of fixed antennas called base stations. Radiofrequency waves are electromagnetic fields, and unlike ionizing radiation ...

  7. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating polar entities inside the biological cells, most notably microtubules, are bound to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses have not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. It is demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of a numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which was shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. Possible consequences for the cell physiology are suggested.

  8. Internal electromagnetic pulse produced by the prompt-γ photons in the rectanglar cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taichun; Wang Yuzhi

    1986-01-01

    The internal electromagnetic pulses produced by the prompt-γ photons were calculated by self-consistent and non-self-consistent method respectively in the rectanglar cavity of the matel. The computational results were analyzed. Under the condition that the electric field is weak and the cavity is small, the results obtained by the self-consistent method is in agreement with the results by the non-self-consistent

  9. Sensor for electromagnetic waves caused by nuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    An electronic sensor is disclosed, having circuits for identifying electromagnetic radiation signals caused by nuclear detonations. Circuits also are provided for discriminating against false indications due to electromagnetic radiation caused by lightning

  10. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  11. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  12. Some radiation safety aspects of operating medical generators of VHF electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, V.; Radev, S.; Donev, Ch.

    1977-01-01

    The state of radiation safety in physiotherapy practice using very-high-frequency diathermy was studied with regard to personnel and patient protection. A specially devised shielding set to protect patients and personnel is offered for adoption, and the necessity is insistently stressed of prohibiting any patient head or gonad exposure. It is pointed out that the protective set developed may also be used at facilities employing other types of VHF electromagnetic energy sources. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic fields on a quantum scale. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A

    2002-10-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electro-magnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a non-local eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electro-magnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron non-locality and the standing electro-magnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of non-relativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.

  14. The influence of radiation therapy on cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, J.R.; Ciddor, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the influence on pacemaking of ionizing radiation and electromagnetic radiation from a number of radiotherapy machines are reported. In vitro tests were carried out on unipolar cardiac pacemakers of the ventricular inhibited type. The pacemakers were largely unaffected by the environment of clinical radiotherapy machines. Ionizing radiation had no detrimental effect on the pacemakers and electromagnetic interference caused only temporary single-beat inhibition at most. With the betatron used, malfunction of the pacemakers regularly occurred whilst in their inhibited made of operation. The demand function became disabled allowing competitive asynchronous pulses to be produced

  15. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1989-01-01

    This is a second year progress report which details the work on the generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators being carried out at UCLA. The status of the experimental work is described and the future directions are outlined. We have completed the first phase of experiments on the plasma wiggler generation and characterization. Suitability of a null-pinch as a plasma source was investigated in great detail. It is found that a w of a few percent can be excited but there are trapped magnetic fields within null-pinch plasma which hinder the injection of the electrons. A new more uniform and field-free plasma source is now being characterized

  16. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1989-01-01

    This is a second year progress report which details the work on the generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators being carried out at UCLA. The status of the experimental work is described and the future directions are outlined. We have completed the first phase of experiments on the plasma wiggler generation and characterization. Suitability of a θ-pinch as a plasma source was investigated in great detail. It is found that a w of a few percent can be excited but there are trapped magnetic fields within θ-pinch plasma which hinder the injection of the electrons. A few more uniform and field-free plasma source is now being characterized. 8 refs., 5 figs

  17. Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Tuchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~mπ2 at RHIC and ~10mπ2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J/ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.

  18. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  19. A Prospective Cohort Study of Gated Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Continuous Internal Electromagnetic Motion Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Esben S; Høyer, Morten; Hansen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal...... electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders. The planning target volume was created by a 5-mm axial and 7-mm (n = 12) or 10-mm (n = 3...

  20. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Abdullah Al-Damegh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day. All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  1. Morphological aspects of poly-organic impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiment

    OpenAIRE

    TASHPULATOVA GUZAL ALIEVNA; MAVLYAN-HODZHAEV RAVSHAN SHUKHRATOVICH

    2015-01-01

    The impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) on morphological responses of some organs of experimental animals has been studied. The RFEMR effect was shown to manifest itself by pathological changes in the structure of the majority of organs and tissues with the critical impact of the micro-vascular bed impairment on not only morphological, metabolic but also many other homeostasis shifts that occurred.

  2. Computational Electromagnetic Studies for Low-Frequency Compensation of the Reflector Impulse-radiating Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    like the “winner”. Now the time domain characteris- tics are compared for a full understanding of the antenna performance. The boresight impulse...radio frequency distinct native attributes 121 TD time domain TDR time domain reflectometry TEM transverse electromagnetic TRP total radiated power UHF...cies. These undesirable backlobes have never been hypothesized, predicted or mea- sured, likely due in part to their alignment outside the primary

  3. The effect of electromagnetic radiation emitted by display screens on cell oxygen metabolism – in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrykowska, Gabriela A.; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Maciej; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, Maria; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research studies carried out for decades have not solved the problem of the effect of electromagnetic radiation of various frequency and strength on the human organism. Due to this fact, we decided to investigate the changes taking place in human blood platelets under the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by LCD monitors. Material and methods The changes of selected parameters of oxygen metabolism were measured, i.e. reactive oxygen species concentration, enzymatic activity of antioxidant defence proteins – superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and catalase (CAT) – and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA). A suspension of human blood platelets was exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity for 30 and 60 min. The level of changes of the selected parameters of oxidative stress was determined after the exposure and compared to the control samples (not exposed). Results The measurements revealed an increase of the concentration of reactive oxygen species. The largest increase of ROS concentration vs. the control sample was observed after exposure to EMF of 220 V/m intensity for 60 min (from x = 54.64 to x = 72.92). The measurement of MDA concentration demonstrated a statistically significant increase after 30-min exposure to an EMF of 220 V/m intensity in relation to the initial values (from x = 3.18 to x = 4.41). The enzymatic activity of SOD-1 decreased after exposure (the most prominent change was observed after 60-min and 220 V/m intensity from x = 3556.41 to x = 1084.83). The most significant change in activity of catalase was observed after 60 min and 220 v/m exposure (from x = 6.28 to x = 4.15). Conclusions The findings indicate that exposure to electromagnetic radiation of 1 kHz frequency and 150 V/m and 220 V/m intensity may cause adverse effects within blood platelets’ oxygen metabolism and thus may lead to physiological dysfunction of the organism. PMID:26788099

  4. ITEM Project: Risk Communication on Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Correia, Luis M.; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Serralha, Afonso; Marques, Nuno

    2004-01-01

    The ITEM Project is a pioneer project in Portugal, providing public information on exposure to electromagnetic radiation, essentially due to mobile communication systems. The motivation, the main goals and the Project description are presented in this paper, as well as the website that provides the public dissemination of results and further significant information (www.lx.it.pt/item). This site provides information on different issues related to exposure to radiation, namely results of measurement campaigns conducted by a team on several locations in Portugal, and results of continuous measurements performed by autonomous stations located in public places in collaboration with municipal authorities. The global overview of the results from the measurement campaigns carried out up to present shows that all the analysed locations are in compliance with the radiation thresholds, i.e., all the electric field measured values are below the most restrictive threshold established at European level. (author)

  5. A comparison of the effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields and gamma ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savova, G.; Stankova, K. [Molecular Radiobiology and Prophylaxis Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kuzmanova, M. [Sofia University „St. Kl. Ohridski”, Faculty of Biology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The usage of mobile phones increased significantly in the last 15 years. The concerns about the potential negative health effects arise, because of the daily use of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. EMF, produced by cell phones may affect biological systems by increasing the production of free radicals, and even DNA damage. Other environmental factor, with an impact on humans’ life is the ionizing radiation. The main purpose of this work is to compare the effects of 900-MHz radiofrequency fields and gamma-ionizing radiation (γ-IR) on the levels of free radicals and DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The EMF generated, at a power of 2W used for cell phone applications, led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not in persisting DNA damage 2h post-exposure. In contrast, irradiation with 4Gy of gamma rays increased dramatically both - the intracellular ROS and the DNA damage compared to background. (author)

  6. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  7. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health.

  8. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The monograph is a small manual to get a knowledge of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations. The main chapters are: - Electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations - Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing electromagnetic radiation - Other ionizing radiations - Ionizing radiation effects - The Nuclear Safety Conseil

  9. Proposal to regulate human exposure limits to electromagnetic fields produced by cellular telephony systems in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Lizano, Cristian; Calvo Horth, Gustavo; Dompe Gamboa, Pablo; Ramirez Rodriguez, David; Retana Duran, Elias; Gutierrez Chinchilla, Jose Alcides

    2008-01-01

    Modern society has presented an epic technology development in recent years, driven strongly by communications networks: from micro environments such as personal area networks passing by cell phone to the global Internet network. The communications established in real-time are increasingly, a necessary input. However, the growing demand for communications services and in particularly mobile phone, has meant that the environment is altered by the large number of signals generated by electromagnetic fields that transmit high volumes of energy, which saturate the electromagnetic spectrum, these waves of energy called no ionizing energy. The World Health Organization, through the International Energy Agency Nonionizing (ICNIRP for its acronym in English), has conducted in recent years researches on the effects of the health of people exposed to nonionizing energy; also, have existed proposals regulating these exposure levels. Nonionizing electromagnetic fields are investigated, focusing on transmitting equipment for mobile phone systems in Costa Rica and electromagnetic safety criteria of exposure, both occupational as of general public. The electromagnetism basic concepts and parameters related with nonionizing radiations research are referenced, among them can be mentioned the relationship between the electric field E, the magnetic field H and the power density S. Other concepts such as near-field region, far-field region, exposure zones and specified absorption rate SAR, are also defined. A mathematical fundament is presented showing the relationships between the concepts explained. Guidelines for calculating the power density are provided by means of a theoretical estimate from parameters of transmitting equipment. Also, the procedures for calculating the spatial and temporal averaging are set out and a brief overview is made of epidemiological and biological effects caused by radio frequency radiation. The existing rules at the international level are analyzed to

  10. Control of Hazards to Health From Laser Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Medical guidance is limited to biological data available. This bulletin encompasses the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which laser radiation can be produced including: ultraviolet (UV...

  11. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  12. Radiation produced biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    radiation technique. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as modification of material surfaces to improve their biocompatibility and ability to bond antigens and antibodies have been the main subject of their investigations. The rising interest in the field of application of radiation to bioengineering was also recognized by the International Atoimc Energy Agency, which has initiated the international programs relating to those studies. In these lectures some directions of investigations on the formation of hydrogels and their applications for biomedical purposes have been specified. Also, some examples of commercialized products being produced by means of radiation technique have been presented

  13. Radiation-reaction electromagnetic fields in metasurfaces, a complete description of their optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Merano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    This paper derives the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields and the surface susceptibilities for a metasurface, starting from the microscopic scatterer distribution. It is assumed that these scatterers behave as electric and magnetic dipoles under the influence of the incident radiation. Interestingly not only the retarded electromagnetic fields from oscillating dipoles are relevant to pass from the microscopic to the macroscopic representation, but the advanced fields must be considered ...

  14. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  15. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  17. [Electromagnetic radiation of non-thermal intensity and short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk'ianova, S N

    2013-01-01

    This work represents generalization and the analysis of the long-term own materials characterizing reaction of the brain on electromagnetic radiation of low intensity (energy flow density in the continuous regime or in the impulse approximately 500 microW/sm2) and a short exposition (approximately 30 min). A set of the experimental results received on separate neurons, formations and brain as a whole give an idea about the reaction of the central nervous system to the studied influence. Comparison of these data with the corresponding responses to the known incentives (light, sound, electric current) testifies to the electromagnetic radiation of low energy flow density and a short exposition as a sub-threshold irritant for the central nervous system.

  18. The Effects of Perlite Concentration and Coating Thickness of the Polyester Nonwoven Structures on Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Also Electromagnetic Radiation Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda EYUPOGLU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the improvement of the thermal and acoustic insulation and also electromagnetic radiation properties of polyester (PET nonwoven fabric (NWF with 180 g/m2 weight was investigated. For this purpose, PET NWF was coated with perlite stone powder having 210 – 590 µm particle size using polyurethane (PU based coating. Five different concentrations from 1 to 5 % of perlite stone powder were applied to the surface of PET NWF having five different thicknesses. And then the effect of perlite concentration and its thickness to thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic radiation properties were studied. It was found that the addition of perlite stone powder increased the thermal and acoustic insulation properties of PET NWF. Furthermore, the addition of perlite stone powder does not affect the electromagnetic radiation properties of samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17562

  19. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  20. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, K. Yu.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function

  1. GLOBAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POLLUTION: RISK ASSESSMENT FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkopoulou, A. F.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2009-12-01

    The extended use of wireless technology throughout the globe in almost all developed and non-developed countries has forced a large number of scientists to get involved in the investigation of the effects. The major issue is that unlike other forms of radiation exposure, this “non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation” was not present throughout the evolution of life in earth and therefore there are no adaptive mechanisms evolved. All organisms are vulnerable to the possible effects of radiation depending on the actual exposure level. “Safety limits” on the power density have been proposed but ongoing research has shown that these limits are not really safe for humans, not mentioning the entire population of living creatures on earth. The so called “Electrosmog Pollution” originating from the numerous radio and TV stations, communication satellite emission, but most importantly from mobile phone mast antennas, are of major concern, because it is gradually increasing at exponential rate. Therefore the key question is, do living organisms react upon their exposure to fields of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation? To have this question answered extensive research is being performed in various laboratories. One approach of our research includes field measurements within houses and classrooms, since a considerable proportion of the population in each country is exposed to the radiation coming from the nearby mast stations, in order to make a risk assessment. The measurements showed that in many cases the actual radiation present was potentially harmful. In other words, although the measured values were below the national safety levels, nevertheless they were above the levels of other countries. Therefore it has been suggested that a new cellular network should be constructed in order to minimize radiation levels in living areas and schools. Our experimental work is focusing on the elucidation of the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on mice exposed to mobile

  2. Electromagnetic processes in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Campos, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    With the framework of the cluster model within the supermultiplet scheme is developed algebra for oscillator cluster configurations. With this algebra and the selection rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions we calculate transition matrix elements and radiative widths. The electromagnetic transition probabilities show big differences. Responsible for this are the exchange terms of the orbital partitions of our oscillator cluster configurations. Detailed calculations are presented for the case of γ-radiative capture transitions in 6 Li nucleus. (orig.) [de

  3. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  4. [Detection of endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of electromagnetic radiation frequency spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, V G; Kuleshova, N V; Sergieva, N V; Konev, Iu V; Trubnikova, I A; Sudzhian, E V

    2007-01-01

    Method of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins detection on the basis of their own spectrum of electromagnetic radiation frequency was developed. Frequency spectrum typical for chemotype Re glycolipid, which is a part of lypopolysaccharides in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, was used. Two devices--"Mini- Expert-DT" (manufactured by IMEDIS, Moscow) and "Bicom" (manufactured by Regumed, Germany)--were used as generators of electromagnetic radiation. Detection of endotoxin using these devices was performed by electropuncture vegetative resonance test. Immunoenzyme reaction with antibodies to chemotype Re glycolipid was used during analysis of preparations for assessment of resonance-frequency method specificity. The study showed that resonance-frequency method can detect lypopolysaccharides of different enterobacteria in quantities up to 0.1 pg as well as bacteria which contain lypopolysaccharides. At the same time, this method does not detect such bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Candida albicans. The method does not require preliminary processing of blood samples and can be used for diagnostics of endotoxinemia, and detection of endotoxins in blood samples or injection solutions.

  5. Breaking Newton’s third law: electromagnetic instances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneubil, Fabiana B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three instances are discussed within electromagnetism which highlight failures in the validity of Newton’s third law, all of them related to moving charged particles. It is well known that electromagnetic theory paved the way for relativity and that it disclosed new phenomena which were not compatible with the laws of mechanics. However, even if widely known in its generality, this issue is not clearly approached in introductory textbooks and it is difficult for students to perceive by themselves. Three explicit concrete situations involving the breaking of Newton’s third law are presented in this paper, together with a didactical procedure to construct graphically the configurations of electric field lines, which allow pictures produced by interactive radiation simulators available in websites to be better understood. (paper)

  6. A New Agile Radiating System Called Electromagnetic Band Gap Matrix Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abou Taam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil and military applications are increasingly in need for agile antenna devices which respond to wireless telecommunications, radars, and electronic warfare requirements. The objective of this paper is to design a new agile antenna system called electromagnetic band gap (EBG matrix. The working principle of this antenna is based on the radiating aperture theory and constitutes the subject of an accepted CNRS patent. In order to highlight the interest and the originality of this antenna, we present a comparison between it and a classical patch array only for the (one-dimensional 1D configuration by using a rigorous full wave simulation (CST Microwave software. In addition, EBG matrix antenna can be controlled by specific synthesis algorithms. These algorithms use inside their; optimization loop an analysis procedure to evaluate the radiation pattern. The analysis procedure is described and validated at the end of this paper.

  7. Radiation Damage in Silicon Detectors Caused by Hadronic and Electromagnetic Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fretwurst, E.; Stahl, J.; Pintilie, I.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains various aspects of radiation damage in silicon detectors subjected to high intensity hadron and electromagnetic irradiation. It focuses on improvements for the foreseen LHC applications, employing oxygenation of silicon wafers during detector processing (result from CERN-RD48). An updated survey on hadron induced damage is given in the first article. Several improvements are outlined especially with respect to antiannealing problems associated with detector storage during LHC maintenance periods. Open questions are outlined in the final section, among which are a full understanding of differences found between proton and neutron induced damage, process related effects changing the radiation tolerance in addition to the oxygen content and the lack of understanding the changed detector properties on the basis of damage induced point and cluster defects. In addition to float zone silicon, so far entirely used for detector fabrication,Czochralski silicon was also studied and first promising re...

  8. Descriptive study of electromagnetic wave distribution for various seating positions: using digital textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung

    2014-04-01

    To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in an elementary school that uses digital textbooks. Electric and magnetic fields from TPCs were measured using the HI-3603 Visual Display Terminal/ Very Low Frequency (VDT/VLF) radiation measurement system. Electromagnetic field values from TPCs measured at a student's seat and at a teacher's computer were deemed not harmful to health. However, electromagnetic field values varied based on the distance between students, other electronic devices such as a desktop computers, and student posture while using a TPC. Based on these results, it is necessary to guide students to observe proper posture and to arrange seats at an appropriate distance in the classroom.

  9. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  10. On the electromagnetic fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated by lightning return strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial radiation fields, Poynting vector, and total electromagnetic power that a vertical return stroke radiates into the upper half space have been computed when the speed of the stroke, nu, is a significant fraction of the speed of light, c, assuming that at large distances and early times the source is an infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also assumed to satisfy the transmission-line model with a constant nu and to be perpendicular to an infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect of a large nu is to increase the radiation fields by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -1, where beta = nu/c and theta is measured from the vertical, and the Poynting vector by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -2.

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  12. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  13. Flow produced by a free-moving floating magnet driven electromagnetically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Saúl; Román, Joel; Figueroa, Aldo; Cuevas, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    The flow generated by a free-moving magnet floating in a thin electrolyte layer is studied experimentally and numerically. The magnet is dragged by a traveling vortex dipole produced by a Lorentz force created when a uniform dc current injected in the electrolyte interacts with the magnetic field of the same magnet. The problem represents a typical case of fluid-solid interaction but with a localized electromagnetic force promoting the motion. Classical wake flow structures are observed when the applied current varies in the range of 0.2 to 10 A. Velocity fields at the surface of the electrolyte are obtained for different flow conditions through particle image velocimetry. Quasi-two-dimensional numerical simulations, based on the immersed boundary technique that incorporates the fluid-solid interaction, reproduce satisfactorily the dynamics observed in the experiments.

  14. Classical radiation theory of charged particles moving in electromagnetic fields in nonabsorbable isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinovich, A.V.; Melnychuk, S.V.; Konstantinovich, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of heterogeneous charged particles system moving on arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic media media with ε≠1 , μ≠1 are obtained using the Lorentz's self-interaction method. In this method a proper electromagnetic field, acting on electron, is defined as a semi difference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). The power spectrum of Cherenkov radiation for the linear uniformly moving heterogeneous system of charged particles are obtained. It is found that the expression for the radiation power of heterogeneous system of charged particles becomes simplified when a system of charged particles is homogeneous. In this case the radiation power includes the coherent factor. It is shown what the redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of the new harmonics for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the region of continuous radiation spectrum. (authors)

  15. Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E

    2010-07-01

    Intensive implementation of mobile telephony technology in everyday human life during last two decades has given a possibility for epidemiological estimation of long-term effects of chronic exposure of human organism to low-intensive microwave (MW) radiation. Latest epidemiological data reveal a significant increase in risk of development of some types of tumors in chronic (over 10 years) users of mobile phone. It was detected a significant increase in incidence of brain tumors (glioma, acoustic neuroma, meningioma), parotid gland tumor, seminoma in long-term users of mobile phone, especially in cases of ipsilateral use (case-control odds ratios from 1.3 up to 6.1). Two epidemiological studies have indicated a significant increase of cancer incidence in people living close to the mobile telephony base station as compared with the population from distant area. These data raise a question of adequacy of modern safety limits of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure for humans. For today the limits were based solely on the conception of thermal mechanism of biological effects of RF/MW radiation. Meantime the latest experimental data indicate the significant metabolic changes in living cell under the low-intensive (non-thermal) EMR exposure. Among reproducible biological effects of low-intensive MWs are reactive oxygen species overproduction, heat shock proteins expression, DNA damages, apoptosis. The lack of generally accepted mechanism of biological effects of low-intensive non-ionizing radiation doesn't permit to disregard the obvious epidemiological and experimental data of its biological activity. Practical steps must be done for reasonable limitation of excessive EMR exposure, along with the implementation of new safety limits of mobile telephony devices radiation, and new technological decisions, which would take out the source of radiation from human brain.

  16. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Si, Tianlei; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Fuqiang; Wang, Lufeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-08-04

    The decreased reproductive capacity of men is an important factor contributing to infertility. Accumulating evidence has shown that Electromagnetic radiation potentially has negative effects on human health. However, whether radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) affects the human reproductive system still requires further investigation. Therefore, The present study investigates whether RF-EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz can trigger sperm cell apoptosis and affect semen morphology, concentration, and microstructure. Twenty four rats were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation with a special absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. After 50d, the sperm count, morphology, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), representing the sum of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, were investigated. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and genes, including bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. In the present study, the percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased by 91.42% compared with the control group. Moreover, the ROS concentration in exposure group was increased by 46.21%, while the TAC was decreased by 28.01%. Radiation also dramatically decreased the protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased that of bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. RF-EMR increases the ROS level and decreases TAC in rat sperm. Excessive oxidative stress alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and triggers sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  17. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  18. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  19. Structural and ultrastructural study of rat testes influenced by electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almášiová, Viera; Holovská, Katarína; Cigánková, Viera; Račeková, Enikö; Fabianová, Kamila; Martončíková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of whole-body electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on testicular parenchyma of Wistar rats. Sexually mature rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic field at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density 2.8 mW/cm(2) by 3-h daily applications for 3 wk. Tissue samples were obtained 3 h after the last irradiation and processed by histological techniques for light and transmission electron microscopy. Testes showed apparent degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. The seminiferous tubules were mostly irregular in shape, and seminiferous epithelium contained a number of empty spaces of different size. Subsequently, groups of sloughed epithelial cells were often found inside the lumina of tubules. Except for relatively unchanged Sertoli cells, some locations of basal compartment of seminiferous epithelium contained shriveled Sertoli cells with dark cytoplasm. These areas showed degenerative features including necrotizing and shriveled spermatogonia surrounded by empty irregular spaces, and undulating basement membrane. The intertubular spaces were enlarged but interstitial Leydig cells did not show any marked morphological changes. Evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of EMR on testicular parenchyma in rats.

  20. [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimenko, I L; Sidorik, E P; Tsybulin, A S

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the analysis of biological effects of microwaves. The results of last years' researches indicated the potential risks of long-term low-level microwaves exposure for human health. The analysis of metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure of microwaves from mobile communication systems indicates that this factor is stressful for cells. Among the reproducible effects of low-level microwave radiation are overexpression of heat shock proteins, an increase of reactive oxygen species level, an increase of intracellular Ca2+, damage of DNA, inhibition of DNA reparation, and induction of apoptosis. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK and stress-related kinases p38MAPK are involved in metabolic changes. Analysis of current data suggests that the concept of exceptionally thermal mechanism of biological effects of microwaves is not correct. In turn, this raises the question of the need to revaluation of modern electromagnetic standards based on thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation on biological systems.

  1. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  2. On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadi, Sandro; Deckert, Dirk-André; Bassi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle’s state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013). -- Highlights: •We compute the electromagnetic radiation emission in collapse models. •Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion are solved exactly. •The electromagnetic interaction must be treated exactly. •In order to obtain the correct emission rate the particle must be bounded

  3. Particles in spherical electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, H.; Thaller, B.

    1984-03-01

    If the time-dependence of a Hamiltonian can be compensated by an appropriate symmetry transformation, the corresponding quantum mechanical problem can be reduced to an effectively stationary one. With this result we investigate the behavior of nonrelativistic particles in a spherical radiation field produced by a rotating source. Then the symmetry transformation corresponds to a rotation. We calculate the transition probabilities in Born approximation. The extension to problems involving an additional Coulomb potential is briefly discussed. (Author)

  4. Analytical model for electromagnetic radiation from a wakefield excited by intense short laser pulses in an unmagnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu; Chen Shi; Dan Jiakun; Li Jianfeng; Peng Qixian, E-mail: ziyuch@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2011-10-15

    A simple one-dimensional analytical model for electromagnetic emission from an unmagnetized wakefield excited by an intense short-pulse laser in the nonlinear regime has been developed in this paper. The expressions for the spectral and angular distributions of the radiation have been derived. The model suggests that the origin of the radiation can be attributed to the violent sudden acceleration of plasma electrons experiencing the accelerating potential of the laser wakefield. The radiation process could help to provide a qualitative interpretation of existing experimental results, and offers useful information for future laser wakefield experiments.

  5. Analytical model for electromagnetic radiation from a wakefield excited by intense short laser pulses in an unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziyu; Chen Shi; Dan Jiakun; Li Jianfeng; Peng Qixian

    2011-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional analytical model for electromagnetic emission from an unmagnetized wakefield excited by an intense short-pulse laser in the nonlinear regime has been developed in this paper. The expressions for the spectral and angular distributions of the radiation have been derived. The model suggests that the origin of the radiation can be attributed to the violent sudden acceleration of plasma electrons experiencing the accelerating potential of the laser wakefield. The radiation process could help to provide a qualitative interpretation of existing experimental results, and offers useful information for future laser wakefield experiments.

  6. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  7. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  8. The results of the pilot project in Georgia to install a network of electromagnetic radiation before the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machavariani, Kakhaber; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Turazashvili, Ioseb; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kachakhidze, Manana; Gogoberidze, Vitali

    2016-04-01

    The world's scientific literature recently published many very important and interesting works of VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions, which is observed in the process of earthquake preparation. This works reliable earthquake prediction in terms of trends. Because, Georgia is located in Trans Asian earthquake zone, VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions network are essential. In this regard, it was possible to take first steps. It is true that our university has Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation № DI / 21 / 9-140 / 13 grant, which included the installation of a receiver in Georgia, but failed due to lack of funds to buy this device. However, European friends helped us (Prof. Dr. PF Biagi and Prof. Dr. Aydın BÜYÜKSARAÇ) and made possible the installation of a receiver. Turkish scientists expedition in Georgia was organized in August 2015. They brought with them VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions receiver and together with Georgian scientists install near Tbilisi. The station was named GEO-TUR. It should be noted that Georgia was involved in the work of the European network. It is possible to completely control the earthquake in Georgia in terms of electromagnetic radiation. This enables scientists to obtain the relevant information not only on the territory of our country, but also on seismically active European countries as well. In order to maintain and develop our country in this new direction, it is necessary to keep independent group of scientists who will learn electromagnetic radiation ahead of an earthquake in Georgia. At this stage, we need to remedy this shortcoming, it is necessary and appropriate specialists to Georgia to engage in a joint international research. The work is carried out in the frame of grant (DI/21/9-140/13 „Pilot project of before earthquake detected Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency electromagnetic emission network installation in Georgia") by financial support of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

  9. Monitoring of electromagnetic pollution inside switchyard substation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    selected circuit of two 220Kv power lines inside El- Hadjar electrical post often requiring ... human body exposure to the electromagnetic radiation .... electromagnetic behavior at the industrial .... partnership with Algerian company of electricity.

  10. Electromagnetic Radiation Interface System and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbrecher, Donald H

    2005-01-01

    .... The termination section may comprise an electrical resistance for capturing substantially all the electromagnetic wave energy received by each respective bristle to thereby prevent reflections...

  11. Possible standoff detection of ionizing radiation using high-power THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sprangle, Phillip; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Rodgers, John; Pu, Ruifeng; Kashyn, Dmytro G.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Granatstein, Victor L.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a new method of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials was proposed. This method is based on focusing high-power short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in a small volume where the wave electric field exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons caused by ionizing radiation, in this volume an avalanche discharge can then be initiated. When the wavelength is short enough, the probability of having even one free electron in this small volume in the absence of additional sources of ionization is low. Hence, a high breakdown rate will indicate that in the vicinity of this volume there are some materials causing ionization of air. To prove this concept a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering 200-300 kW power in 10 microsecond pulses is under development. This method of standoff detection of concealed sources of ionizing radiation requires a wide range of studies, viz., evaluation of possible range, THz power and pulse duration, production of free electrons in air by gamma rays penetrating through container walls, statistical delay time in initiation of the breakdown in the case of low electron density, temporal evolution of plasma structure in the breakdown and scattering of THz radiation from small plasma objects. Most of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  12. Understanding the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism within classical electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetism is a relativistic theory, and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with nonrelativistic classical mechanics and with nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: (1) the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we review the treatment of classical blackbody radiation, and show that the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics is applied only in the low-frequency limit when zero-point energy makes no contribution. (paper)

  13. Theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radio frequency electromagnetic radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The continuation of a program of theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation is proposed. Funding for this project first began on September 3, 1981, and will expire on April 2, 1982. A summary of the principal accomplishments of the first five months of the project is presented. These include the acquisition of computer terminals and modems, the implementation of existing codes on the MFECC C Cray Computer, the extension of the LHTOR lower hybrid toroidal ray tracing code to the full electromagnetic dispersion relation, the implementation of graphic output from the code, the beginning of extensive parameter studies, the beginning of an analytical treatment of the mode conversion layer associated with singular harmonic absorption, and the introduction of a graduate student into the program

  14. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation fields from the Sabborah radio broadcasting station and comparing it with the ICNIRP recommended limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M.H.; AboKasem, I.

    2007-04-01

    This study concerns a radio emission base station which is located near Sabborah, about 20 Km in the west of Damascus. The aim of this study is to investigate the level and the distribution of electromagnetic field in the nearby of this station in order to determine the level of its hazardous biological effect on the worker and the people living nearby. This work is based on two main parts: First, a theoretical part which offer the concept of electromagnetic wave, the emission and measurement of electromagnetic field, the hazardous biological effects and the general guideline for limiting the exposure to electromagnetic field recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the would Health Organization. Finally, an Experimental part which presents the realized measurements of electric field using two electric field strength meters, the results and recommendations.(author)

  15. Natural and man-made terrestrial electromagnetic noise: an outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment is continuously exposed to electromagnetic radiations which set up a «background» electromagnetic noise. Within the Non Ionizing Radiation band (NIR, i.e. for frequencies lower than 300 GHz, this background can have a natural or an artificial origin. Natural origins of electromagnetic radiations are generally atmospheric or cosmic while artificial origins are technological applications, power transmission, communications, etc. This paper briefly describes the natural and man-made electromagnetic noise in the NIR band. Natural noise comes from a large variety of sources involving different physical phenomena and covering a wide range of frequencies and showing various propagation characteristics with an extremely broad range of power levels. Due to technological growth man-made electromagnetic noise is nowadays superimposed on natural noise almost everywhere on Earth. In the last decades man-made noise has increased dramatically over and above the natural noise in residential and business areas. This increase has led some scientists to consider possible negative effects of electromagnetic waves on human life and living systems in general. Accurate measurements of natural and man-made electromagnetic noise are necessary to understand the relative power levels in the different bands and their influence on life.

  16. Investigation of the use of Galena concrete in electromagnetic radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egwuonwu, G. N.; Bukar, P. H.; Avaa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Galena samples, collected from Ishiagu, south-eastern Nigeria, were used to make high density concretes for experimental radiation shielding. The concretes were molded into cylindrical tablets of various densities and volumes in order to ascertain their attenuation capability to some electromagnetic radiations. Blue visible light and gamma-ray sourced from cobalt-60, were transmitted through the concretes and detected with the aid of Op-Amp and digital Geiger-Muller Counter respectively. The absorption coefficients of the samples of thicknesses in the range of 1.00 - 5.00 cm were determined. Results show that for a typical galena concrete of average density 2.33gcm -3 , the absorption coefficient is about 1.186 cm -1 for the blue light and 0.495cm -1 for gamma-ray. For this density, 4.45cm of the galena concrete reduces the gamma-ray intensity by 90% and its half value layer thickness is 1.40cm. The investigation however, suggests the shielding properties of the galena sourced from Ishiagu. A database of shielding strength for the in situ galena was established hence, can serve as suitable platform for quality and quantity control in radiation shielding technology in radiotherapy treatment rooms and nuclear reactors.

  17. Explosive mechanism of metal destruction by intense electromagnetic radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynyuk, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The metal destruction by a powerful flux of electromagnetic radiation is considered on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the transition of molten metal to vapour during its rapid heating. The possibility is discussed of obtaining a metastable liquid-metal phase and of its explosion transition to a stable two-phase state (phase explosion of metastable liquid). It has been shown that at densities of radiation beam ensuring the heating of the metal to the spinodal point Tsub(s) during a time tsub(s)=10 -5 -10 -7 s the vaporization of the matter from the surface of the liquid is negligible, and the main mechanism of the metal destruction is the phase explosion of the metastable liquid-metal phase which originates in the Tsub(s) vicinity. The experimental data on the electric explosion of conductors for tsub(s)=10 -6 -10 -5 s has served as a basis for calculating the excess enthalpy and the proportion of the vapour phase formed in the phase explosion of Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Pb, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Pt and Re. The particularities of the phase explosion at flux densities corresponding to tsub(s)( -8 s are considered

  18. The electromagnetic Christodoulou memory effect and its application to neutron star binary mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, Lydia; Chen, PoNing; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational waves are predicted by the general theory of relativity. It has been shown that gravitational waves have a nonlinear memory, displacing test masses permanently. This is called the Christodoulou memory. We proved that the electromagnetic field contributes at highest order to the nonlinear memory effect of gravitational waves, enlarging the permanent displacement of test masses. In experiments like LISA or LIGO which measure distances of test masses, the Christodoulou memory will manifest itself as a permanent displacement of these objects. It has been suggested to detect the Christodoulou memory effect using radio telescopes investigating small changes in pulsar’s pulse arrival times. The latter experiments are based on present-day technology and measure changes in frequency. In the present paper, we study the electromagnetic Christodoulou memory effect and compute it for binary neutron star mergers. These are typical sources of gravitational radiation. During these processes, not only mass and momenta are radiated away in form of gravitational waves, but also very strong magnetic fields are produced and radiated away. Moreover, a large portion of the energy is carried away by neutrinos. We give constraints on the conditions, where the energy transported by electromagnetic radiation is of similar or slightly higher order than the energy radiated in gravitational waves or in form of neutrinos. We find that for coalescing neutron stars, large magnetic fields magnify the Christodoulou memory as long as the gaseous environment is sufficiently rarefied. Thus the observed effect on test masses of a laser interferometer gravitational wave detector will be enlarged by the contribution of the electromagnetic field. Therefore, the present results are important for the planned experiments. Looking at the null asymptotics of spacetimes, which are solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell equations, we derive the electromagnetic Christodoulou memory effect. We obtain

  19. Effects produced by nuclear radiation in powdery milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena N, F.; Reyes G, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical effects produced by the gamma rays and beta particles radiations on the powdery milk. This work treats on the Pre-dose analysis, sampling radiating, electron spin resonance, acidity, proteins, aminoacids, lactose, fatty acids, peroxides, as well as its experimental results. (Author)

  20. RADCHARM++: A C++ routine to compute the electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in crystals and complex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandiera, Laura; Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, Victor V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    The analytical theories of coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation well describe the process of radiation generation in crystals under some special cases. However, the treatment of complex situations requires the usage of a more general approach. In this report we present a C++ routine, named RADCHARM++, to compute the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons and positrons in crystals and complex structures. In the RADCHARM++ routine, the model for the computation of e.m. radiation generation is based on the direct integration of the quasiclassical formula of Baier and Katkov. This approach allows one taking into account real trajectories, and thereby the contribution of incoherent scattering. Such contribution can be very important in many cases, for instance for electron channeling. The generality of the Baier–Katkov operator method permits one to simulate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons/positrons in very different cases, e.g., in straight, bent and periodically bent crystals, and for different beam energy ranges, from sub-GeV to TeV and above. The RADCHARM++ routine has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code DYNECHARM++, which solves the classical equation of motion of charged particles traveling through a crystal under the continuum potential approximation. The code has proved to reproduce the results of experiments performed at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI) with 855 MeV electrons and has been used to predict the radiation spectrum generated by the same electron beam in a bent crystal.

  1. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Streamer Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Alejandro

    2017-10-16

    We present a full electromagnetic model of streamer propagation where the Maxwell equations are solved self-consistently together with electron transport and reactions including photoionization. We apply this model to the collision of counter-propagating streamers in gaps tens of centimeters wide and with large potential differences of hundreds of kilovolts. Our results show that streamer collisions emit electromagnetic pulses that, at atmospheric pressure, dominate the radio frequency spectrum of an extended corona in the range from about 100 MHz to a few gigahertz. We also investigate the fast penetration, after a collision, of electromagnetic fields into the streamer heads and show that these fields are capable of accelerating electrons up to about 100 keV. By substantiating the link between X-rays and high-frequency radio emissions and by describing a mechanism for the early acceleration of runaway electrons, our results support the hypothesis that streamer collisions are essential precursors of high-energy processes in electric discharges.

  2. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  3. Radiation condensation instability of compressional electromagnetic modes in magnetoplasmas containing charged dust impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Kopp, A

    2006-01-01

    We report on an investigation into the radiation condensation (RC) instability of low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) compressional electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma containing charged dust impurities. By using a two-fluid model, supplemented by the Faraday and Ampere laws, we derive a new dispersion relation. The latter is numerically analysed to examine the role of charged dust grains on the growth rate of the RC instability. The relevance of our investigation to density condensation in the next generation tokamak edges and on solar prominences is discussed

  4. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  5. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  6. Electromagnetic behaviour of the earth and planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Forecast problems of global warming, rising sea-levels, UV enhancement, and solar disruptions of power grids and satellite communications, have been widely discussed. Added to these calamities is the steady decay of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield against high energy particles. A system of solar-induced aperiodic electromagnetic resonances, referred to here as the Debye resonances, is resurrected as the preferred basis for describing the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets. Debye's two basic solutions to the spherical vector wave equation provide foundations for electromagnetic modes of the terrestrial and gaseous planets respectively in contrast with the separate electric and magnetic approaches usually taken. For those engaged in radiation protection issues, this paper provides the first published account of how the Sun apparently triggers an Earth magnetic shield against its own harmful radiation. Disturbances from the Sun - which are random in terms of polarity, polarisation, amplitude, and occurrence - are considered here to trigger the Debye modes and generate observed planetary electric and magnetic fields. Snapping or reconnection of solar or interplanetary field lines, acting together with the newly conceived magnetospheric transmission lines of recent literature, is suspected as the excitation mechanism. Virtual replacement of free space by plasma, places the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets under greatly enhanced control from the Sun. From a radiation protection viewpoint, modal theory based on solar-terrestrial coupling provides a new insight into the origin of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield, greater understanding of which is essential to development of global cosmic radiation protection strategies. Should man-made influences unduly increase conductivities of the Earth's magnetosphere, planet Earth could be left with no magnetic radiation shield whatsoever. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection

  7. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  8. Electronic calibration developed for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Y W; David, P Y; Ditta, J; Hermel, V; Fouque, N; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Peigneux, J P; Poireau, V; Rebecchi, P; Silou, D

    2004-01-01

    An electronic system, designed to provide a relative calibration for the readout of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (CMS-ECAL), is described. On request, this system injects a pulse at the input of a predetermined group of preamplifiers with preselected amplitude and a shape identical to the one produced by the photodetectors. Several chips, in DMILL 0.8 mu m technology, have been developed for integration on the front-end electronics. We describe the principle, the testing, the measurement of their precision, and radiation hardness. (6 refs).

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility of PLC adapters for in-home/domestic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potisk, Lukas; Hallon, Jozef; Orgon, Milos; Fujdiak, Radek

    2018-01-01

    The use of programable logic controllers (PLC) technology in electrical networks 230 V causes electromagnetic radiation that interferes with other electrical equipment connected to the network [1-4]. Therefore, this article describes the issues of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of new PLC adapters used in IP broadband services in a multi-user environment. The measurements of disturbing electromagnetic field originated in PLC adapters were made in a certified laboratory EMC (laboratory of electromagnetic compatibility) in the Institute of Electrical Engineering at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava. The measured spectra of the radiated electromagnetic field will be compared with the results obtained when testing older PLC modems [5].

  10. Electromagnetic Methods of Lightning Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    Both cloud-to-ground and cloud lightning discharges involve a number of processes that produce electromagnetic field signatures in different regions of the spectrum. Salient characteristics of measured wideband electric and magnetic fields generated by various lightning processes at distances ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers (when at least the initial part of the signal is essentially radiation while being not influenced by ionospheric reflections) are reviewed. An overview of the various lightning locating techniques, including magnetic direction finding, time-of-arrival technique, and interferometry, is given. Lightning location on global scale, when radio-frequency electromagnetic signals are dominated by ionospheric reflections, is also considered. Lightning locating system performance characteristics, including flash and stroke detection efficiencies, percentage of misclassified events, location accuracy, and peak current estimation errors, are discussed. Both cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are considered. Representative examples of modern lightning locating systems are reviewed. Besides general characterization of each system, the available information on its performance characteristics is given with emphasis on those based on formal ground-truth studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.

  11. Radiation from nonlinear coupling of plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the generation of electromagnetic radiation by nonlinear resonant interactions of plasma waves in a cold, uniformly magnetized plasma. In particular, he considers the up-conversion of two electrostatic wave packets colliding to produce high frequency electromagnetic radiation. Efficient conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic wave energy occurs when the pump amplitudes approach and exceed the pump depletion threshold. Results from the inverse scattering transform analysis of the three-wave interaction equations are applied. When the wave packets are initially separated, the fully nonlinear set of coupling equations, which describe the evolution of the wave packets, can be reduced to three separate eigenvalue problems; each can be considered as a scattering problem, analogous to eh Schroedinger equation. In the scattering space, the wave packet profiles act as the scattering potentials. When the wavepacket areas approach (or exceed) π/2, the wave functions are localized (bound states) and the scattering potentials are said to contain solitons. Exchange of solitons occurs during the interaction. The transfer of solitons from the pump waves to the electromagnetic wave leads to pump depletion and the production of strong radiation. The emission of radio waves is considered by the coupling of two upper-hybrid branch wave packets, and an upper-hybrid and a lower hybrid branch wave packet

  12. influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    m. 10 . The magnetotransport and continuity equations of excess minority carriers are solved with boundary conditions and led to new analytical expressions of minority carrier's density, photocurrent density, photovoltage and electric power depending on electromagnetic field intensity and wavelength λ. The dependence of.

  13. Influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The magnetotransport and continuity equations of excess minority carriers are solved with boundary conditions and led to new analytical expressions of minority carrier's density, photocurrent density, photovoltage and electric power depending on electromagnetic field intensity and wavelength λ. The dependence of the ...

  14. Experimental study of electromagnetic radiation from a faster-than-light vacuum macroscopic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessarab, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Martynenko, S.P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Prudkoi, N.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation); Soldatov, A.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: soldatov@vniief.ru; Terekhin, V.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region, 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-15

    The effect which manifests itself in the form of directed electromagnetic pulses (EMP) initiated by an X-ray incident obliquely upon a conducting surface has been confirmed and investigated experimentally in detail. A planar accelerating diode comprising a metallic cathode and grid anode was initiated with an oblique short soft-X-ray pulse from a point laser-plasma source. Then a source of directed EMP-a current of accelerated photoelectrons-was formed whose boundary ran along the anode external surface with a faster-than-light velocity. The plasma was formed when short-pulse ({approx}0.3ns) laser radiation from ISKRA-5 facility was focused on a plane Au target. The amplitude-in-time and spatial characteristics of radiation emitted by the faster-than-light source have been measured. Parameters of the accelerated electron current have been measured too.

  15. Non-thermal influence of the mm-range electromagnetic radiation on the peroxide oxidation of egg yolk lipoproteins (in English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabolotna, N. M.

    The effect of weak electromagnetic radiation in the millimetre range upon the chemiluminescence intensity accompanying the process of peroxide oxidization of lipoproteins was studied. It is shown that in the temperature range of 35div 43°C the intensity is independent of the temperature up to the experimental errors. It is though strongly dependent on the composition of the buffer solution and radiation frequency. The results are explained using a modified Onsager model.

  16. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  17. Process and devices of detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations using a superconducting element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, A.K.; Valette, Claude; Waysand, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to processes and systems for the detection of hard electromagnetic or particle radiations and the sensors fitted to these systems. 'Hard radiations' means those whose energy is greater than a variable threshold, depending on the applications, but always more than 5 keV. The use of these sensors and the associated systems can therefore be envisaged in radiography and also in emission gammagraphy in the biological, anatomic and medical fields. In these processes, in order to detect a photon or a radiation particle, use is made of the transition phenomenon of a homogeneous grain of superconducting material of the first kind, from the metastable superconducting state to the normal state, under the effect of a photoelectron ejected by the impact of the photon or of the particle on the grain of superconducting material [fr

  18. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  19. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and public health : review of safety levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, A.; Trillo, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential health effects of the exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation are a source of increasing interest on the part of the public and the authorities. This article summarizes the theoretical-experimental basis supporting the safety levels proposed by international committees, and reviews the recent scientific literature on non-ionizing radiation's bioeffects that are relevant to the validation or modification of the present exposure limits. Because of its social interest, special consideration is given to power frequency fields (50-60Hz) and to the radio communication signals of mobile telephony. The paper also describes how interpretations of the scientific evidence, other than those of the international committees, have generated some controversy and have provided a basis for more restrictive limits, like those adopted in Europe by Switzerland and Italy. The article also identifies some gaps in the present scientific knowledge on the bioelectromagnetics discipline and proposes that additional research is needed to complete our present knowledge on the biological responses to non-ionizing radiation. (Author) 80 refs

  20. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Scattering and Diffraction of Electromagnetic Radiation: An Effective Probe to Material Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Scattered electromagnetic waves from material bodies of different forms contain, in an intricate way, precise information on the intrinsic, geometrical and physical properties of the objects. Scattering theories, ever deepening, aim to provide dependable interpretation and prediction to the complicated interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are well-established multiple-scattering formulations based on classical electromagnetic theories. An example is the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-solution (GMM), which has recently been extended to a special version ? the GMM-PA approach, applicable to finite periodic arrays consisting of a huge number (e.g., >>106) of identical scattering centers [1]. The framework of the GMM-PA is nearly complete. When the size of the constituent unit scatterers becomes considerably small in comparison with incident wavelength, an appropriate array of such small element volumes may well be a satisfactory representation of a material entity having an arbitrary structure. X-ray diffraction is a powerful characterization tool used in a variety of scientific and technical fields, including material science. A diffraction pattern is nothing more than the spatial distribution of scattered intensity, determined by the distribution of scattering matter by way of its Fourier transform [1]. Since all linear dimensions entered into Maxwell's equations are normalized by wavelength, an analogy exists between optical and X-ray diffraction patterns. A large set of optical diffraction patterns experimentally obtained can be found in the literature [e.g., 2,3]. Theoretical results from the GMM-PA have been scrutinized using a large collection of publically accessible, experimentally obtained Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. As far as characteristic structures of the patterns are concerned, theoretical and experimental results are in uniform agreement; no exception has been found so far. Closely connected with the spatial distribution of

  2. Radiation-activated sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirschl, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A sensing system is described for use in a remote location which detects electromagnetic radiation energy, the system being self-activating, turning itself automatically on and off, as a function of radiation intensity across the detector. In essence, when no radiation is present across the detector, the system will consume no power, the switches and MOSFET discriminator being essentially in an ''off'' position. Radiation across the detector provides a current to an input capacitance which when charged turns on the switch and the MOSFET discriminator. A switch driver produces an output pulse showing the presence of radiation; the system then shuts off awaiting the next radiation input. Since the sensor system uses virtually no power unless radiation is present, it is ideally suited for use in remote environments where battery power and size is a predominant consideration. 2 claims, 3 drawing figures

  3. Electromagnetic radiation damping of charges in external gravitational fields (weak field, slow motion approximation). [Harmonic coordinates, weak field slow-motion approximation, Green function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    As a model for gravitational radiation damping of a planet the electromagnetic radiation damping of an extended charged body moving in an external gravitational field is calculated in harmonic coordinates using a weak field, slowing-motion approximation. Special attention is paid to the case where this gravitational field is a weak Schwarzschild field. Using Green's function methods for this purpose it is shown that in a slow-motion approximation there is a strange connection between the tail part and the sharp part: radiation reaction terms of the tail part can cancel corresponding terms of the sharp part. Due to this cancelling mechanism the lowest order electromagnetic radiation damping force in an external gravitational field in harmonic coordinates remains the flat space Abraham Lorentz force. It is demonstrated in this simplified model that a naive slow-motion approximation may easily lead to divergent higher order terms. It is shown that this difficulty does not arise up to the considered order.

  4. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, KaiJun; Ni, Shuang; Ye, PanPan; Yu, YiBo; Ye, Juan; Sun, LiXia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate whether superposing of electromagnetic noise could block or attenuate DNA damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase of cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by acute exposure to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Methods An sXc-1800 RF exposure system was used to produce a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 W/kg. After 2 h of intermittent exposure, the ROS level was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DNA damage to HLECs was examined by alkaline comet assay and the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay. Results After exposure to 1.8 GHz RF for 2 h, HLECs exhibited significant intracellular ROS increase in the 2, 3, and 4 W/kg groups. RF radiation at the SAR of 3 W/kg and 4 W/kg could induce significant DNA damage, examined by alkaline comet assay, which was used to detect mainly single strand breaks (SSBs), while no statistical difference in double strand breaks (DSBs), evaluated by γH2AX foci, was found between RF exposure (SAR: 3 and 4 W/kg) and sham exposure groups. When RF was superposed with 2 μT electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS increase and DNA damage. Conclusions DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:18509546

  5. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation induced by mining rock failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel 84105); Vozoff, K. [V& amp; A Geoscience, POB 996 Spit Junction (NSW Australia 2088)

    2005-10-17

    Anticipating roof fall in mine workings has been a problem for centuries. The focus in the search for early warning indicators has been on observing seismic (acoustic) events prior to the fall. These precursors have been studied in great detail at many places, but none has been fully successful. So far, no valid, effective early warning system based on low-frequency seismic precursors has been established. In this paper, we investigated a promising new technique, which is not yet completely understood or been widely tested in mines. The new method is the sensing of the embryonic stages of roof fall by detection of high frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from rock microcracks. Two examples of combined observations of EMR and low frequency acoustic emission prior to roof fall at Moonee Colliery are presented. Anomalously high EMR was detected more than 1 h before roof fall, giving a significant time advantage over the first indicators of low frequency acoustic emission. Analysis of Benioff strain release diagrams of EMR emanating from developing medium scale failure in the mine enabled us to fill the 'gap' between previously known microscale (rock fracture in lab) and macroscale (earthquake) EMR observations, and to conclude that indeed a common fundamental relationship must lie behind this multi-scale phenomenon. (author)

  7. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  8. Electromagnetic field effect simulation over a realistic pixel ed phantom human's brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, R.; Calderon, J. A.; Rivera, T.; Azorin, J.

    2012-10-01

    The exposition to different types of electromagnetic radiations can produce damages and injures on the people's tissues. The scientist, spend time and resources studying the effects of electromagnetic fields over the organs. Particularly in medical areas, the specialist in imaging methodologies and radiological treatment, are very worried about no injure there patient. Determination of matter radiation interaction, can be experimental or theoretical is not an easy task anyway. At first case, is not possible make measures inside the patient, then the experimental procedure consist in make measures in human's dummy, however, is not possible see deformations of electromagnetic fields due the organs presence. In the second case, is necessary solve, the Maxwell's equations with the electromagnetic field, crossing a lot of organs and tissues with different electric and magnetic properties each one. One alternative for theoretical solution, is make a computational simulation, however, this option, require an enormous quantity of memory and large computational times. Then, the most simulations are making in 2 dimensional or in 3 dimensional although using human models approximations, build ed with basic geometrical figures, like spheres, cylinders, ellipsoids, etc. Obviously this models just lets obtain a coarse solution of the actually situation. In this work, we propose a novel methodology to build a realistic pixel ed phantom of human's organs, and solve the Maxwell's equations over this models, evidently, the solutions are more approximated to the real behaviour. Additionally, there models results optimized when they are discretized and the finite element method is used to calculate the electromagnetic field and the induced currents. (Author)

  9. Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.

  10. Bray–Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction in the radiofrequency electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisavljev, Dragomir R., E-mail: dragisa@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 473, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Velikić, Zoran [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, Zemun (Serbia); Veselinović, Dragan S.; Jacić, Nevena V.; Milenković, Maja C. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 473, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Oscillatory Bray–Liebhafsky reaction is coupled with the radiofrequency radiation. • The effects of radiofrequency field on oscillatory parameters are investigated. • Radiofrequency power of up to the 0.2 W did not produced observable changes. • The explanation related with dissipative and capacitive effects is given. • Open the possibility of investigations of reactive effects on biological systems. - Abstract: Oscillatory Bray–Liebhafsky (BL) reaction is capacitively coupled with the electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 60–110 MHz. Because of the specific reaction dynamics characterized by several characteristic parameters (induction period, period between chemical oscillations and their amplitude) it served as a good model system for the investigation of the effects of radiofrequent (RF) radiation. RF power of up to 0.2 W did not produce observable changes of the BL reaction parameters in the limit of the experiment reproductivity. Results indicate that, under the given experimental conditions, both dissipative and reactive properties of the solution are not considerably coupled with the RF electrical field.

  11. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity

  12. Computational Tools and Approaches for Design and Control of Coating and Composite Color, Appearance, and Electromagnetic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Sapper

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport behavior of electromagnetic radiation through a polymeric coating or composite is the basis for the material color, appearance, and overall electromagnetic signature. As multifunctional materials become more advanced and next generation in-service applications become more demanding, a need for predictive design of electromagnetic signature is desired. This paper presents various components developed and used in a computational suite for the study and design of electromagnetic radiation transport properties in polymeric coatings and composites. Focus is given to the treatment of the forward or direct scattering problem on surfaces and in bulk matrices of polymeric materials. The suite consists of surface and bulk light scattering simulation modules that may be coupled together to produce a multiscale model for predicting the electromagnetic signature of various material systems. Geometric optics ray tracing is used to predict surface scattering behavior of realistically rough surfaces, while a coupled ray tracing-finite element approach is used to predict bulk scattering behavior of material matrices consisting of microscale and nanoscale fillers, pigments, fibers, air voids, and other inclusions. Extension of the suite to color change and appearance metamerism is addressed, as well as the differences between discrete versus statistical material modeling.

  13. The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: historical trends and forecasting changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Krawczuk, Marek; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz; Gradolewski, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

  14. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  15. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  16. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  17. Momentum-energy of the non-radiating electromagnetic field: open problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    This paper inspects more closely the problem of the momentum and energy of a bound (non-radiative) electromagnetic (EM) field. It has been shown that for an isolating system of non-radiative non-relativistic mechanically free charged particles, a transformation of mechanical to EM momentum and vice versa occurs in accordance with the requirement P-vector G =const, where P-vector G = P-vector M + Σ i N q i A-vector i is the canonical momentum (N>1 is the number of particles, q is the charge, A-vector is the vector potential, P-vector M is the mechanical momentum of the system). Then dP-vector M /dt = -(d/dt)Σq i A-vector i represents the self-force, acting on this isolating system due to violation of Newton's third law in EM interaction. This equation is not applicable to an isolated charged particle, and the problems of its self-action and its own EM momentum have been examined. Analysing the systems of non-radiative particles, where the retardation is not negligible ('dynamical' systems in our definition) it has been found that the total momentum is the same at the initial and final stationary states of such systems, but it varies with time during the dynamical processes. It means a violation of continuous conservation of the total momentum, if the bound EM field spreads at the light velocity c. Finally, the compatibility of the energy conservation law and the Lentz rule for retarded non-radiative EM field has been examined. It has been shown that for dynamical systems the energy conservation law comes into a certain contradiction with the finite (light) spread velocity for the bound EM field

  18. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from A Mobile Phone Station on Biochemical and Histological Structure of Some Rat Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiations (EMR), especially radio frequency (RF), which arises from mobile phone station on some parameter in serum and histological structure of some organs in male albino rats exposed to short (15 days) and long (30 days) periods. The long time exposure of the electromagnetic radiations can induce significant increase in the levels of testosterone, creatinine, urea and uric acid in the two exposure groups (15 and 30 days), while the serum total protein, albumin and globulin were decreased significantly after the long time of exposure as compared with control. The microscopic examination of liver, kidney and testes tissues revealed destruction and atrophy of cells in rats exposed to RF for 15 and 30 days. In conclusion, long term exposure of mobile phones station (EMR) induced harmful effects on blood parameter and histological structure of liver, kidney and testes tissues of rats.

  19. Combination of ray-tracing and the method of moments for electromagnetic radiation analysis using reduced meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Cátedra, Manuel Felipe

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a technique that allows a very noticeable relaxation of the computational requirements for full-wave electromagnetic simulations based on the Method of Moments. A ray-tracing analysis of the geometry is performed in order to extract the critical points with significant contributions. These points are then used to generate a reduced mesh, considering the regions of the geometry that surround each critical point and taking into account the electrical path followed from the source. The electromagnetic analysis of the reduced mesh produces very accurate results, requiring a fraction of the resources that the conventional analysis would utilize.

  20. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  1. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  2. The study on electromagnetic compatibility of DC electric motor in HAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junping, Geng; Ronghong, Jin; Yu, Fan; Bo, Liu; Jiaqiang, Li; Yuebo, Cheng; Zhongyuan, Wang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Dpt. Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2005-10-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem of high altitude platform systems (HAPS) is investigated in this paper. A physical model for electromagnetic interferences (EMI) of electromagnetic radiation of spark discharge in DC electric motor is proposed. Based on this model, EMI frequency points has been estimated by approximative equation for the given structure and size of a motor, and EMI frequency points, peak values that received by the ports of antennas and far-field pattern have been calculated. The estimated results are consistent with the calculated ones. These frequency bands and spatial directions with max EMI should be avoided in the valid information when the HAPS system is being designed. Two methods are taken to shield electromagnetic radiation, either to mount a metal plate near the DC electric motor (EMI source), or to mount a perfect conductor board near the antenna array (sensitive element), are valid to shield electromagnetic radiation, but to mount a metal plate near the EMI source is more effective. (authors)

  3. 'Electric smog' - non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation. Seminar of the Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.

    1993-06-01

    This seminar on the subject of ''electrical smog'' welcomed participants from Bavarian environmental consultancy agencies, rural and urban district authorities, ministries, consume-consultancy agencies and public health authorities. Leading scientists from research and authorities gave papers on the sources, exposure and effects/actions of electromagnetic fields and present the current state of knowledge about the hazards and risk of this radiation for human health. The proceedings in hand provide the papers given on the following topics: electromagnetic fields - and introduction to relevant issues; low-frequency fields - sources and exposure; high-frequency fields - sources and exposure; biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields; biological actions and effects of high-frequency fields; low-frequency fields -helath risk assessment; high-frequency fields - health risk assessment. (Uhe) [de

  4. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  5. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  6. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field radiation: a preliminary study case in Bangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Nor Liza Mahadi; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohd Thari; Mohd Azizi Jali; Ahmad Fadhil Ahmad Sanusi

    2008-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields radiation is known to be hazardous if amount received is excessive. The primary sources of ELF EMF are from the electricity supply system such as transmission line, substation, transformers and switch gears. Due to limited space, many substations were built very close to the residential area. A study was carried out in the selected houses located in Bangi, Selangor which located close to the TNB substation. The study was made in two conditions, before the area fully occupied and after the resident moved into the house. The aim of the study is for assessing the strength of ELF EMF that emitted by the substation. This study was also conducted to assess the potential exposure received by personnel living in the house. The surveys were carried out using PMM model EHP50A and EMDEX instruments based on standard measurement procedures and protocol recommended by IEEE. Results obtained were compared against the permissible exposure limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).This paper highlights some of the findings at the study site. Results obtained suggest that ELF EMF radiation varies with location and the magnetic fields strength measured near the source of ELF EMF was found to be higher than the normal environment. (Author)

  7. [The specific features of the development of metabolic and regenerative processes under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in radiation exposure conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Mihajlik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Geniatulina, M S

    The experiments on male white rats with the use of biochemical, photo-optical, and electron-microscopic techniques have demonstrated that the use of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of ultrahigh frequency (EMR UHF) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF) during the post-irradiation period (within 21 days after exposure to radiation) enhanced the metabolic and regenerative processes in the testes and liver. It was shown that the application of MF largely intensified the antioxidant activity whereas EMR UHF preferentially stimulated the biosynthetic processes as well as the processes of cellular and intracellular regeneration.

  8. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with magnetically functionalized CNT nanocomposite in the subterahertz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atdaev, A.; Danilyuk, A. L.; Labunov, V. A.; Prischepa, S. L., E-mail: prischepa@bsuir.by [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Basaev, A. S.; Shaman, Yu. P. [SMC Technological Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a magnetically functionalized nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is considered using the model of random distribution of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in the carbon matrix characterized by the presence of resistive–inductive–capacitive coupling (contours). The model is based on the representation of the nanocomposite as a system consisting of the CNT matrix, ferromagnetic nanoparticles, and the interfaces between CNTs and nanoparticles. The wide range of possible resonant phenomena caused both by the presence of contours and the properties of the CNT nanocomposite is shown.

  9. Spin light of neutrino in matter and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, A.; Studenikin, A.

    2003-01-01

    A new type of electromagnetic radiation by a neutrino with non-zero magnetic (and/or electric) moment moving in background matter and electromagnetic field is considered. This radiation originates from the quantum spin flip transitions and we have named it as 'spin light of neutrino' (SLν). The neutrino initially unpolarized beam (equal mixture of ν L and ν R ) can be converted to the totally polarized beam composed of only ν R by the neutrino spin light in matter and electromagnetic fields. The quasi-classical theory of this radiation is developed on the basis of the generalized Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation. The considered radiation is important for environments with high effective densities, n, because the total radiation power is proportional to n 4 . The spin light of neutrino, in contrast to the Cherenkov or transition radiation of neutrino in matter, does not vanish in the case of the refractive index of matter is equal to unit. The specific features of this new radiation are: (i) the total power of the radiation is proportional to γ 4 , and (ii) the radiation is beamed within a small angle δθ∼γ -1 , where γ is the neutrino Lorentz factor. Applications of this new type of neutrino radiation to astrophysics, in particular to gamma-ray bursts, and the early universe should be important

  10. Effect of electromagnetic radiation on the kinetics of grinding a mineral; Efecto de la radiacion electromagnetica en la cinetica de molienda de un mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A.; Delgadillo G, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia, Av. Sierra Leona 550, 78210 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alopezm6@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In this study the effect of kinetic grinding of a mineral was investigated when is pre treated with ionizing electromagnetic radiation. This radiation is with 15 MeV photons produced by a Linac for Radiotherapy. The results for the irradiated sample with respect to the non-irradiated indicate that there were changes in the structure of the minerals in the sample under study. Changes were observed through scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, combined with the refinement of the diffraction profiles by the Rietveld method using the software Maud Program. The grinding kinetics shows a constant distribution of slightly greater size through time used for the irradiated sample. A reduction of 11.2% of the Bond (Wi) work index was reached, going from 10.91 to 9.69 kw h/t for the irradiated sample. This parameter represents the fracture toughness of a mineral. The results indicate greater efficiency of energy applied to the grinding of the irradiated sample with respect to the non-irradiated. (Author)

  11. An ARMA prediction model for electromagnetic radiation data preceeding a rock burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhen-tang; Liu Xiao-fei; Wang En-yuan [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering

    2009-03-15

    SAS statistical analysis software was used to test the randomness of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) observed during the '1.12 rock burst' of the number 237 working face in the Nanshan coal mine. An auto-regressive-moving-average (ARMA) model was fitted to the EMR data and used to forecast twelve observations into the future. The results show that the rock burst EMR data are non-white noise, stationary and can be fitted with an AR(3) model. Comparing the model EMR values to the real data, the similarity degree is about 66%. An ARMA model can use data preceding an event to describe changes in the EMR trends quantitatively. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress-Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure. PMID:25489427

  13. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Tavakoli, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated that electromagnetic waves, as the one of the most important physical factors, may alter cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors, depending on the frequency and energy. Moreover, non-ionizing radiation of low energy waves e.g. very low frequency waves could alter this phenomenon via alterations in neurotransmitters and neurohormones. In this study, short, medium, and long-term exposure to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) (1 and 5 Hz radiation) on behavioral, hormonal, and metabolic changes in male Wistar rats (250 g) were studied. In addition, changes in plasma concentrations for two main stress hormones, noradrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were evaluated. ELF-EMF exposure did not alter body weight, and food and water intake. Plasma glucose level was increased and decreased in the groups which exposed to the 5 and 1Hz wave, respectively. Plasma ACTH concentration increased in both using frequencies, whereas nor-adrenaline concentration showed overall reduction. At last, numbers of rearing, sniffing, locomotor activity was increased in group receiving 5 Hz wave over the time. In conclusions, these data showed that the effects of 1 and 5 Hz on the hormonal, metabolic and stress-like behaviors may be different. Moreover, the influence of waves on stress system is depending on time of exposure.

  14. TNB high tension overhead cables: is their electromagnetic field hazard real?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam

    2005-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF, EMF) fall under the category of non-ionising radiation. We live in an electromagnetic environment generated by both natural (earths magnetic field, sunlight) and man-made. One of the man-made sources which produces significant electromagnetic fields (EMF) is the electric power supply system. In modern time, electricity has become an essential part of our lives. Electric power supply system, which includes generation, transmission and distribution of the electricity, produces extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) that travel along the overhead cables at 50 cycles per second (50 Hz).They are a form of energy that travels in space as electromagnetic waves. In spite of the fact that ELF EMF are very weak electromagnetic emission, they are believed to be hazardous to human health because of their ability to induce current and to initiate energy deposition in the body, which may eventually lead to increase in body temperature, behavioral changes and perhaps cancer in the long term. Due to their potential of causing such health hazard, several companies have approached and requested MINT to carry out surveys and safety assessments of their land properties, which are located close to the transmission lines. This paper highlights some of the works that had been carried out by MINT based on the requests received. They were performed based on international standard IEEE procedures protocols using properly calibrated portable ELF instruments. The results confirmed that ELF EMF did present at the survey sites but were very much lower than the permissible exposure limit recommended for members of public (1000 m Gauss / 5000 V/m). They were found to vary against measurements locations, which were strongly influenced by vertical and horizontal distances from the cables and by the presence of other objects like building and trees. (Author)

  15. Experimental, theoretical and computational study of frequency upshift of electromagnetic radiation using plasma techniques. Final technical report, January 14, 1991--January 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of the PhD thesis of Richard L. Savage, Jr entitled: 'Frequency Upshifting of Electromagnetic Radiation via an Underdense Relativistic Ionization Front.' An underdense, relativistically propagating ionization front has been utilized to upshift the frequency of an impinging electromagnetic wave from 35 GHz to more than 173 GHz in a continuously tunable fashion. The source radiation interacted with the ionization front inside a metallic waveguide. The front, simply a moving boundary between ionized and neutral gas, was created as a short, intense pulse of ionizing laser radiation propagated through the gas-filled waveguide. In 1991, W.B. Mori showed theoretically that large upshifts are possible using underdense ionization fronts (underdense implies that the plasma density is lower than that required to reflect the source radiation), where the source wave is transmitted through the plasma/neutral boundary. The authors have extrapolated Mori's analysis to interactions within a waveguide. This is a new technique for generating high-power, short-pulse, tunable radiation, and has potential applications in areas such as time-resolved microwave spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing

  16. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Arkadiusz; Koncicki, Andrzej; Piechocki, Janusz; Jakubiuk, Kazimierz; Tojza, Piotr; Jaworski, Jacek; Ambroziak, Dominik; Skarbek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PMID:25811025

  17. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation trapped in the magnetosphere above the plasma frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Shaw, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electromagnetic noise band is frequently observed in the outer magnetosphere by the Imp 6 spacecraft at frequencies from about 5 to 20 kHz. This noise band generally extends throughout the region from near the plasmapause boundary to near the magnetopause boundary. The noise typically has a broadband field strength of about 5 microvolts/meter. The noise band often has a sharp lower cutoff frequency at about 5 to 10 kHz, and this cutoff has been identified as the local electron plasma frequency. Since the plasma frequency in the plasmasphere and solar wind is usually above 20 kHz, it is concluded that this noise must be trapped in the low-density region between the plasmapause and magnetopause boundaries. The noise bands often contain a harmonic frequency structure which suggests that the radiation is associated with harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency.

  19. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory E. Brill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration selforganization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Material and Methods — The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial LPS. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results — Low-intensity ultra high frequency (UHF radiation (1 GHz, 0.1 μW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion — 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the LPS structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  20. ''Use of synchrotron radiation in France: present status and perspectives''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, P.

    1996-01-01

    LURE (laboratory for the use of electromagnetic radiation) plays an important role as a research center, as a synchrotron radiation producer and as a leading pole about new light source studies. The necessity to maintain LURE at a high level of technological competitiveness implies to build a new facility called SOLEIL. This article describes the present equipment of LURE, its activity fields and draws the prospect of synchrotron radiation in France. (A.C.)

  1. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients.

  2. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients

  3. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding of different samples of mobile phone base station were investigated in order to cover residential zones of Damascus and her environs. Measurements were achieved according to the emission direction and to the studied positions environment. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) restriction level, but for few measurement points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. This study showed the importance of achieving a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone companies in order to improve the protection level.(author)

  4. Project Physics Tests 4, Light and Electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 4 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 22 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of light and electromagnetism are examined on charges, reflection, electrostatic forces, electric potential, speed of light, electromagnetic waves and radiations, Oersted's and Faraday's work,…

  5. The effect of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on primary producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ozone layer in stratosphere is thinning and consequently UV-B radiation on the Earth surface is increasing. Although there is a small portion of UV-B radiation in the solar radiation, it has strong influence on organisms. Targets of UV-B radiation and protective mechanisms in primary producers are described. In the framework of the international project we studied the effect of UV-B radiation on blue-greens, algae, mosses, lichens and vascular plants on the National Institute of Biology

  6. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  7. Left Handed Materials: A New Paradigm in Structured Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Manoj; Paudyal, Harihar

    2010-05-01

    A new paradigm has emerged exhibiting reverse electromagnetic properties. Novel composite and micro-structured materials (metamaterials) have been designed to control electromagnetic radiation. Such substances have been called as Left Handed Material (LHM) with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability and negative refractive index as well. Left handed materials are of importance because of their ability to influence the behavior of electromagnetic radiation and to display properties beyond those available in naturally occurring materials. Typically these are sub-wavelength artificial structures where the dimensions are very small compared to the working wavelength. These dimensions are normally of the order of λ/10 where λ is the wavelength of electromagnetic wave propagating in the material. Emergence of this new paradigm leads to some very interesting consequences, such as, to create lenses that are not diffraction limited, cloaking, sensors (chemical, biological and individual molecule), optical and radio communication. This new development in structured electromagnetic materials has had a dramatic impact on the physics, optics and engineering communities. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  9. New Definitions of Electromagnetic Screening of Cases in Front of Radiates Interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Perez, Luis Gines

    Electromagnetic shielding enclosures are simulated in this PhD thesis. Metallic enclosures with a frontal aperture have been implemented and shielding effectiveness has been calculated in frequency and time domains. The CST Microwave Studio application has been used, and necessary electromagnetic shielding measurements have been implemented in order to confirm the simulated results. An anechoic chamber and the network vector analyser ZVA 67 R&S have been employed. There were different set-ups that consist on two shielding enclosures with different apertures on their frontal walls, as well as an electric and a magnetic probes, and an external log-periodic antenna. The electromagnetic field shielding of enclosures against radiated interferences, and its study in the frequency and time domains requires to determine specific parameters for the measurement of the shielding effectiveness (SE). With this target recently it has been essayed indicators based on the peak reduction of electric and magnetic fields and the energy density in the time domain. Although many papers have been published with numeric simulations, rarely real measures in laboratory have been published. In the first part of this study, some important theoretical concepts have been explained, as the high intensity penetration of radiated fields in enclosures with apertures, several ways to define the shielding effectiveness, analytic formulations and different parameters among other concepts, in the frequency and time domains. Then, the system is defined, as from the implementations for simulations and calculations in CST Microwave Studio point of view, as from the set-ups implemented in laboratory point of view. In this section the features and utilization of the network vector analyser ZVA 67 R&S;, anechoic chamber design and dimensions, log-periodic antenna features, and all the different probes, enclosures and apertures employed have been detailed. After de system definition simulated and measured

  10. 8th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyo, J. Scott; Baum, Carl E; Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8; UWBSP8

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics Conference series is to focus on advanced technologies for the generation, radiation and detection of ultra-wideband short pulse signals, taking into account their propagation and scattering from and coupling to targets of interest. This Conference series reports on developments in supporting mathematical and numerical methods and presents current and potential future applications of the technology. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8 is based on the American Electromagnetics 2006 conference held from June 3-7 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Topical areas covered in this volume include pulse radiation and measurement, scattering theory, target detection and identification, antennas, signal processing, and communications.

  11. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G

    2016-01-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)

  12. Fundamental radiation effect on polymers energy transfer from radiation to polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer modification as cross-link, chain scission, and graft-polymerization by radiation is initiated by the quantum energy transferred from radiation to polymers. The active species for chemical reactions are produced through ionization or activation of polymer molecules for any radiation source. The energy transfer occurs mainly by ionic interaction between radiation and polymer molecule, and the contribution from the collision interaction is miner. The radiation of electromagnetic wave as X-ray or γ-ray generates the energetic electron which induces ionic interaction with polymer molecule. The energy loss profile along the penetration to polymer material is much different among the radiation sources of EB, γ-ray, and ion beams in the macroscopic mechanism. In this article, the behavior of single event, that is, the event induced by one electron, γ-ray, ion, and neutron is described by the macroscopic mechanism and by the microscopic mechanism. (authors)

  13. [The combined action of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation under the immobilization stress conditions (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu N; Bobrovnitsky, I P; Geniatulina, M S; Mikhailik, L V; Nikulina, L A; Bobkova, A S; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    The present study carried out on white male rats in experiments with the use of biochemical, radioimmunological, and electron- microscopic methods. It was shown that the combined treatment with potable mineral water (MV) and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) of ultrahigh frequency (power density less than 1 pW/cm2, the frequency about 1000 MHz) facilitated the activation of metabolic and intracellular regenerative processes in the liver and testes. One of the advantages of the combined application of MV and LIEMR over the single-factor treatment manifested itself as the weakening of stress reactions, the increase in the frequency of the plastic processes, and the more harmonious development of different forms of intracellular regeneration. The results of the study provide a deeper insight ino the mechanisms underlying the combined actions of drinking mineral water and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation; also, they justify the application of these factors for the protection of the reproductive system and the entire body from stress-induced disorders.

  14. Radiation from communication antenna and electrical cable generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaimah Abdul Rahim; Norzehan Ngadiron

    2009-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about radio frequency wave antenna emitter and electrical cable cause misunderstanding among public that make this technologies dangerous, thereby can harm the public hearths. Malaysian Nuclear Agency as one technical body in Malaysia that specialized in this matter had already explained it to the public about this issue long time ago. Basically, non-ionizing radiation are one of the electromagnetic radiation that can be produced naturally or artificially. It consists of two main component, electrical field and magnetic field that propagated with velocity of light. Energy for this radiation less than 12.4 eV, wave distance more than 100 nm with frequency less than 3000 THz. With low energy, this radiation cannot go to ionizing process. Exposure to this radiation also can cause biological effect, acute and chronic. For human that expose to this radiation, direct effect only involved in thermal effect which suddenly increasing of temperature in body. This can cause heat stress, heat stroke and cataract in eyes lens. For infrared, visible light, ultraviolet and laser, the critical organ are eyes and skins. In Malaysia, Telecommunication Department had already produce guideline , Regulatory Framework on the sharing communication infrastructures 1988 that mentioned about all the guideline that must be obey by all the network operator including safety aspect, especially for radio wave and micro wave with frequency from 30 MHz to 300 GHz. The other agencies that produced standards such as SIRIM specialized in level of exposure for electromagnetic radiation until 3 kHz. For the other non-ionizing radiation, guideline from ICNIRP, WHO or others will be referred. For the public the main problem for this issues are psychology problem, political influence and jealously. For Malaysian Nuclear Agency, public awareness must be proceeded in order to give knowledge and understanding about this matter so that the public will not fear in the future.

  15. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  16. Second harmonic electromagnetic emission via Langmuir wave coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Melrose, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The coalescence of Langmuir waves to produce electromagnetic waves at twice the plasma frequency is considered. A simplified expression for the rate of production of second harmonic electromagnetic waves is obtained for a broad class of Langmuir spectra. In addition, two different analytic approximations are considered. The validity of the commonly used head-on approximation is explored, in which the two coalescing Langmuir waves are assumed to approach from opposite directions. This approximation breaks down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and for narrow Langmuir wave spectra. A second, more general, approximation is introduced, called the narrow-spectrum approximation, which requires narrow spectral widths of the Langmuir spectra. The advantages of this approximation are that it does not break down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and that it remains valid for relatively broad Langmuir wave spectra. Finally, the applicability of these approximations in treating harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  18. Radiation and toxix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.V.; Belkin, V.I.; Davydov, B.I.; Kustov, V.V.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    General radiobiological concepts in aviation medicine related to the biological effect of ionizing radiation on flying factors are presented. Principles of standartization, permissible doses, general principles of radiation protection and prophylaxis of aviation personnel are described. Characteristics of radio emission, microwaves, procedure of their measurements are given. Pathophysiology of electromagnetic radiation is presented. Problems on radiation protection, technical and organization problems on electromagnetic radiation protection, as well as technology in aviation are discussed

  19. Analysis of Information Leakages on Laser Printers in the Media of Electromagnetic Radiation and Line Conductions

    OpenAIRE

    Ulaş, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the emissions of a laser printer, which may process classified information, are investigated in the media of electromagnetic radiation (ER), Power Line Conductors (PLC), and Signal Line Conductors (SLC). First, the candidate frequency points of CE are examined in the frequency domain. Second, the emitted signal is AM-demodulated with the proper bandwidth, and then sampled by a high storage oscilloscope in these frequency points. Third, the collected data is converted to 2D imag...

  20. The effects of ionizing radiation on eight cardiac pacemakers and the influence of electromagnetic interference from two linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venselaar, J.L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Eight cardiac pacemakers were irradiated in a cobalt-60 beam. Two out of six demand-type pacemakers showed an alarming decrease in pulse repetition frequency when irradiated to dose levels that are used in radiotherapy. Two modern programmable pacemakers showed a failure at a dose of 97 and 147 Gy, respectively. The dose levels at which these failures occurred were low enough to recommend that cardiac pacemakers should always be kept outside the radiation beam. The signals induced by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from two linear accelerators were measured using a simulation model of a pacemaker. In the laboratory, 22 modern-type pacemakers were tested with these signals to determine the sensitivity for the electromagnetic fields in the treatment rooms. It was observed that an inhibition of one pacemaker pulse was to be expected on one of the two linear accelerators when switching the machine on and off. No permanent effects were found. These findings resulted in the recommendation in our department not to use this treatment machine for radiation therapy of pacemaker-bearing patients. (orig.)

  1. Multipolar electromagnetic fields around neutron stars: general-relativistic vacuum solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fields inside and around neutron stars are at the heart of pulsar magnetospheric activity. Strong magnetic fields are responsible for quantum effects, an essential ingredient to produce leptonic pairs and the subsequent broad-band radiation. The variety of electromagnetic field topologies could lead to the observed diversity of neutron star classes. Thus, it is important to include multipolar components to a presumably dominant dipolar magnetic field. Exact analytical solutions for these multipoles in Newtonian gravity have been computed in recent literature. However, flat space-time is not adequate to describe physics in the immediate surroundings of neutron stars. We generalize the multipole expressions to the strong gravity regime by using a slowly rotating metric approximation such as the one expected around neutron stars. Approximate formulae for the electromagnetic field including frame dragging are computed from which we estimate the Poynting flux and the braking index. Corrections to leading order in compactness and spin parameter are presented. As far as spin-down luminosity is concerned, it is shown that frame dragging remains irrelevant. For high-order multipoles starting from the quadrupole, the electric part can radiate more efficiently than the magnetic part. Both analytical and numerical tools are employed.

  2. Tuned sources of submillimetre radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnyj, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The main present directions of development of sources of frequency coherent tuned radiation of electromagnetic waves in the submillimeter range: nonlinear mixing of different frequencies; semiconductor lasers; molecular lasers with optical pumping; relativistic electron beams in a magnetic field as submillimeter radiation sources; submillimeter radiation sources on the basis of SHF classical electrovacuum devices - are considered. The designs of generator systems and their specifications are presented. The main parameters of electromagnetic radiation of different sources, such as: power, stability, frequency, tuning range - are presented. The methods of improving sources and electromagnetic radiation parameters are proposed. The examples of possible applications of submillimeter radiation in different spheres of science and technology are given [ru

  3. Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-31

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.

  4. Electromagnetic foundations of solar radiation collection a technology for sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Sangster, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagneti

  5. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  6. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  7. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  8. Genetic effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased use of electricity and wireless communication devices, there is a concern on whether exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz fields and radiofrequency radiation) can lead to harmful health effects, particularly, genetic effects and cancer development. This presentation will review recent research on genetic effects of power line frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Even though the mechanism of interaction is still unknown, there is increasing evidence that these electromagnetic fields at low intensities can cause genetic damage in cells. There is also evidence suggesting that the effects are caused by oxidative stress. (author)

  9. Method for producing bonded nonwoven fabrics using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drelich, A.H.; Oney, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing a resin-bonded nonwoven fabric. The preparation involves forming a fibrous web annealing it and compressing it to provide fiber to fiber contact. A polymerizable binder is applied to the fibrous web which is then treated by ionizing radiation to produce the material. 9 figures, 3 drawing

  10. Study on Electromagnetic Interference of high-speed railway EMU

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; LIU Jin-jiang; CHENG Ning

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation generated by pantograph-catenaries detachment is one of the inevitable problems with the development of high-speed railway this paper is focusing on the generating mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic noise caused by pantograph-catenaries system. Based on previous research, we build an integrated model of catenaries and locomotive system, and study the electromagnetic disturbance characteristics using software FEKO. The simulation experiment results in th...

  11. Electromagnetic heating of a shape memory alloy translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, E.-A.; Maglione, M.; Gueldry, A.; Mantoux, J.-L.

    1996-03-01

    The active part of a linear translator is a shape memory alloy (SMA) made of nickel and titanium (NiTi) wire which is to be thermally cycled. We have achieved heating using electromagnetic radiation with a magnetic sheath and low-frequency waves at 8 kHz and without magnetic sheath and radio frequency waves at 28 MHz. The heating is equivalent for these two arrangements. In vitro experiments have been confirmed by computer simulations of the radiation distribution within the implant. We thus show that electromagnetic radiation could specifically heat a NiTi wire inside a stainless steel tube without heating the tube. An application could be a femoral prosthesis for the lengthening of the bone.

  12. Testing the radiation hardness of lead tungstate scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, M; Li Chuan; Chen, H; Xu, Z Z; Wang, Z M

    2000-01-01

    Large Hadron Collider operation will produce a high radiation background. PbWO/sub 4/ crystals are selected as scintillators for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To reach the precise requirement for energy measurements, a strict requirement for the radiation hardness is needed. In this paper, we present a method for evaluating the radiation hardness and its measurement. Results for several full size (23 cm length) lead tungstate crystals under Co/sup 60/ gamma - ray irradiation are given, investigating the light yield loss and its longitudinal uniformity. (8 refs).

  13. Method of operating an electromagnet arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, F.T.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for operating an electromagnet arrangement comprising a main electromagnet and a number of correction coils for applying correction fields to the field produced by the main electromagnet to produce a resultant desired homogeneous magnetic field in a given volume. The method comprises obtaining the least squares fit values for the correction coil currents. If the required current in any coil lies outside a range of permissible values for that coil current a special procedure is described to find the selection of coil currents providing the lowest squared deviation between the desired and actual fields consistent with the permissible currents in the coils. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic and Radiative Properties of Neutron Star Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason G.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetospheres of neutron stars are commonly modeled as either devoid of plasma in "vacuum'' models or filled with perfectly conducting plasma with negligible inertia in "force-free'' models. While numerically tractable, neither of these idealized limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. In this work we improve upon these models by considering the structure of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's Law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and implement a time-dependent numerical code to construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and force-free magnetosphere solutions. We further apply our method to create a self-consistent model for the recently discovered intermittent pulsars that switch between two distinct states: an "on'', radio-loud state, and an "off'', radio-quiet state with lower spin-down luminosity. Essentially, we allow plasma to leak off open field lines in the absence of pair production in the "off'' state, reproducing observed differences in spin-down rates. Next, we examine models in which the high-energy emission from gamma-ray pulsars comes from reconnecting current sheets and layers near and beyond the light cylinder. The reconnected magnetic field provides a reservoir of energy that heats particles and can power high-energy synchrotron radiation. Emitting particles confined to the sheet naturally result in a strong caustic on the skymap and double peaked light curves for a broad range of observer angles. Interpulse bridge emission likely arises from interior to the light cylinder, along last open field lines that traverse the space between the polar caps and the current sheet. Finally, we apply our code to solve for the magnetospheric structure of merging neutron star binaries. We find that the scaling of electromagnetic

  15. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Wright, E. M.; Moloney, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse.

  16. Combined action of low doses of Ionizing Radiation, Electromagnetic Fields, and Homeopathic Remedies of low dilution on Ionic Homeostasis of a Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, G.

    2006-01-01

    It is known fact that low doses of ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields (EMF) of certain frequency, and a number of homeopathic remedies produce stimulating effect in the cellular ionic homeostasis. The objective of present study was investigation of combined, simultaneous action of these three factors. The mice fibroblasts served as cell source. With an aid of ion-selective electrodes the sum effect of the following factors was evaluated: low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy), EMF (45 Hz, 2 mT), and stimulated phosphoric acid (homeopathic preparation diluted at 10 -14 ). It was found that integral index of the ionic homeostasis during above action, was higher than after action of any of these factors separately. It is suggested that these data point at beneficial action of the homeopathic remedy and it should be considered when promoting the homeopathic means of therapy. (author)

  17. Conversion of electromagnetic waves at the ionisation front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegotov, M V

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that a weak electromagnetic pulse interacting with a copropagating ionisation front is converted in the general case into three electromagnetic pulses with higher and lower frequencies, which propagate in different directions. The coefficients of conversion to these pulses (for intensities) were found as functions of the frequency. The electromagnetic energy is shown to decrease during this conversion because of the losses for the residual electron energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  19. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  20. [Comparative study of effect of infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter electromagnetic radiation on wing somatic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster induced by gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I; Pogodin, A S; Dubatolova, T D; Varlamov, A V; Leont'ev, K V; Khamoian, A G

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that the number of spontaneous and gamma-radiation-induced somatic mutations in wing cells of fruit flies (third instar larvae) exposed to laser irradiation of submillimeter range (lambda = 81.5 microns) was significantly lower than in control. Laser irradiation did not affect the number of recombinations. Exposure to laser radiation in the infrared range and electromagnetic waves of the millimeter range (lambda = 3.8 mm) enhanced the effect of gamma-irradiation.

  1. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  2. Mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials using sub-radiative and super-radiative resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yuncheng; Xu, Gaiqi; Sun, Han; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally explored the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mode-coupling in terahertz (THz) metamaterial resonators, in which a dipole resonator with a super-radiative mode is coupled to an inductance-capacitance resonator with a sub-radiative mode. The interference between these two resonators depends on the relative spacing between them, resulting in a tunable transparency window in the absorption spectrum. Mode coupling was experimentally demonstrated for three spacing dependent EIT metamaterials. Transmittance of the transparency windows could be either enhanced or suppressed, producing different spectral linewidths. These spacing dependent mode-coupling metamaterials provide alternative ways to create THz devices, such as filters, absorbers, modulators, sensors, and slow-light devices

  3. Infrared Radiative Properties of Food Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precisely, infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation and microwaves. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum spans roughly three orders of magnitude (750 nm to 100 µm) and has been...

  4. [Investigation of non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in 16 medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-xi; Zhou, Wei; Qiu, Hai-li; Yang, Guang-tao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in medical institutions and to explore feasible control measures for occupational diseases. On-site measurement and assessment of ultra-high-frequency radiation, high-frequency electromagnetic field, microwave radiation, and laser radiation were carried out in 16 medical institutions using the methods in the Measurement of Physical Agents in Workplace (GBZ/T189-2007). All the investigated medical institutions failed to take effective protective measures against non-ionizing radiation. Of the 17 ultra-short wave therapy apparatus, 70.6%, 47.1%, and 17.64% had a safe intensity of ultra-high-frequency radiation on the head, chest, and abdomen, respectively. Of the 4 external high-frequency thermotherapy apparatus, 100%, 75%, and 75%had a safe intensity of high-frequency electromagnetic field on the head, chest, and abdomen, respectively. In addition, the intensities of microwave radiation and laser radiation produced by the 18 microwave therapy apparatus and 12 laser therapeutic apparatus met national health standards. There are non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in medical institutions, and effective prevention and control measures are necessary.

  5. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  6. Measurements for the radiation spectra of fast Z-pinches produced at compression of multi-wire arrays on the 'Angara-5-1' facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkhovitinov, E.A.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Fedulov, M.V.; Grabovsky, E.V.; Gritsuk, A.N.; Oleinik, G.M.; Volkov, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The measurements results on the radiation spectra of fast z-pinches produced at compression of cylindrical multi-wire tungsten and aluminum arrays in the experiments on a high-current 'Angara-5-1' facility are presented. Cylindrical multi-wire arrays has linear mass 200-400 μg/cm and the initial diameter 12-20 mm. The pinch current was about 3 MA with pulse duration of 140 ns and peak power 3 TW. The radiation spectra are measured within the range of 50-900 eV quanta by a spectrometer with transmission diffraction grating, where the radiation is recorded on the UF-4 X-ray film. An electromagnetic curtain shutter was used to protect the transmission grating from fast microparticles produced by the erosion of high-voltage electrodes. The radiation spectrum of 1-3 keV quanta was recorded by a convex crystal wide-range spectrometer. Total yield of the radiation was measured by a thermocouple calorimeter. The main part of the tungsten plasma radiative energy proves to correspond to the quasi-continuous spectrum within the range of 80-300 eV quanta. Measurements of the tungsten plasma radiation spectrum with spatial resolution by a pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch as not higher than 1 mm. In the case of aluminum plasma an intensive linear radiation of the [H]- and [He]-like ions have been recorded along with a continuous and linear radiation of the [Li]- and [Be]-like ions with the range of 100-300 eV quanta. Spectral measurements of the aluminum plasma radiation with spatial resolution by the pinch radius have shown that the effective transversal size (diameter) of the pinch is around the value of 1.5 mm. Within the framework of the stationary collisional-radiative model, in respect of the [H]- and [He]-like ion spectral lines relative intensities, the parameters of the aluminum plasma pinch, namely, the electron temperature T e ∼ 550 eV and electron density n e ∼ 3 x 10 20 cm

  7. Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out

  8. Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when

  9. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddubskaya, A.; Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I.; Biró, I.; Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  10. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddubskaya, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Goštauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Kuzhir, P., E-mail: polina.kuzhir@gmail.com; Maksimenko, S. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I. [Open Laboratory on Experimental Micro and Nano Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 4, Sofia (Bulgaria); Biró, I. [3D Wishes, Bíró u. 44/a/2, Érd (Hungary); Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-04-07

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  11. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, B J; Nixon, B; King, B V; De Iuliis, G N; Aitken, R J

    2016-12-01

    Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism. Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced the antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that discussed this phenomenon, whereas consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments. In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production. A continued focus on research, which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Disordered redox metabolism of brain cells in rats exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation or UHF electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, A P; Druzhyna, M O; Vovk, A V; Lukin, S М

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the changes of redox-state of mammalian brain cells as the critical factor of initiation and formation of radiation damage of biological structures in setting of continuous exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation or fractionated ultra high frequency electromagnetic radiation (UHF EMR) at non-thermal levels. The influence of low-intensity ionizing radiation was studied on outbred female rats kept for 1.5 years in the Chernobyl accident zone. The effects of total EMR in the UHF band of non-thermal spectrum were investigated on Wistar rats. The rate of formation of superoxide radicals and the rate of NO synthesis in mitochondria were determined by the EPR. After exposure to ionizing or UHF radiation, the levels of ubisemiquinone in brain tissue of rats decreased by 3 and 1.8 times, respectively. The content of NO-FeS-protein complexes in both groups increased significantly (р < 0.05). In the conditions of ionizing or EMR the rates of superoxide radical generation in electron-transport chain of brain cell mitochondria increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively (р < 0.05). In brain tissue of rats kept in the Chernobyl zone, significant increase of NO content was registered; similar effect was observed in rats treated with UHFR (р < 0.05). The detected changes in the electron transport chain of mitochondria of brain cells upon low-intensity irradiation or UHF EMR cause the metabolic reprogramming of cell mitochondria that increases the rate of superoxide radical generation and nitric oxide, which may initiate the development of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  13. Electromagnetic field effect simulation over a realistic pixel ed phantom human's brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, R.; Calderon, J. A.; Rivera, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J., E-mail: rafaelturing@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The exposition to different types of electromagnetic radiations can produce damages and injures on the people's tissues. The scientist, spend time and resources studying the effects of electromagnetic fields over the organs. Particularly in medical areas, the specialist in imaging methodologies and radiological treatment, are very worried about no injure there patient. Determination of matter radiation interaction, can be experimental or theoretical is not an easy task anyway. At first case, is not possible make measures inside the patient, then the experimental procedure consist in make measures in human's dummy, however, is not possible see deformations of electromagnetic fields due the organs presence. In the second case, is necessary solve, the Maxwell's equations with the electromagnetic field, crossing a lot of organs and tissues with different electric and magnetic properties each one. One alternative for theoretical solution, is make a computational simulation, however, this option, require an enormous quantity of memory and large computational times. Then, the most simulations are making in 2 dimensional or in 3 dimensional although using human models approximations, build ed with basic geometrical figures, like spheres, cylinders, ellipsoids, etc. Obviously this models just lets obtain a coarse solution of the actually situation. In this work, we propose a novel methodology to build a realistic pixel ed phantom of human's organs, and solve the Maxwell's equations over this models, evidently, the solutions are more approximated to the real behaviour. Additionally, there models results optimized when they are discretized and the finite element method is used to calculate the electromagnetic field and the induced currents. (Author)

  14. Biological and Health Effects of Electromagnetic (Nonionizing) Radiation. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Hisako, Comp.

    The environment we live in today is filled with human-created electromagnetic fields generated by a variety of sources, including radio and television transmitters, power lines, and visual display terminals. (In addition, there exists a natural background of electromagnetic fields.) The term "electromagnetic pollution" is often used to…

  15. Thermally Driven Transport and Relaxation Switching Self-Powered Electromagnetic Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maosheng; Wang, Xixi; Cao, Wenqiang; Fang, Xiaoyong; Wen, Bo; Yuan, Jie

    2018-06-07

    Electromagnetic energy radiation is becoming a "health-killer" of living bodies, especially around industrial transformer substation and electricity pylon. Harvesting, converting, and storing waste energy for recycling are considered the ideal ways to control electromagnetic radiation. However, heat-generation and temperature-rising with performance degradation remain big problems. Herein, graphene-silica xerogel is dissected hierarchically from functions to "genes," thermally driven relaxation and charge transport, experimentally and theoretically, demonstrating a competitive synergy on energy conversion. A generic approach of "material genes sequencing" is proposed, tactfully transforming the negative effects of heat energy to superiority for switching self-powered and self-circulated electromagnetic devices, beneficial for waste energy harvesting, conversion, and storage. Graphene networks with "well-sequencing genes" (w = P c /P p > 0.2) can serve as nanogenerators, thermally promoting electromagnetic wave absorption by 250%, with broadened bandwidth covering the whole investigated frequency. This finding of nonionic energy conversion opens up an unexpected horizon for converting, storing, and reusing waste electromagnetic energy, providing the most promising way for governing electromagnetic pollution with self-powered and self-circulated electromagnetic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fixed-target particle fluxes and radiation levels at SSC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    The author calculates the charged particle fluxes and radiation doses from minimum ionizing particles (MIP), electromagnetic showers, and hadronic showers, in a fixed-target experiment at the SSC. This work follows the work of Groom, essentially boosting his results into the laboratory frame. The radiation in dense matter, such as a calorimeter, is produced by several sources: electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers, and minimum ionizing particles. The author does not consider other sources of radiation such as beam halo, a dependent effects, and low energy neutrons from secondary sources. Nor does he consider the effects of magnetic fields. Low energy neutrons have been shown to be an important source of radiation for collider experiments at the SSC. In fixed-target experiments, where the spectrometer is more open and where most detector elements are far away from secondary particle dumps, these sources are not as important. They are also very much detector and experimental hall dependent. Hence the results presented here are only a lower limit of the estimated radiation dose

  17. Long distance elementary measurement of the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Lou Benchao; Wu Chunlei; Hu Yonghong; Li Yan

    2009-04-01

    The working principle and the structure and performances of a long distance controllable individual radiation dose ratio instrument are described. The radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is elementarily measured by using this instrument in the neutron generator hall with high neutron yield. When neutron yield arrives to 2 x 10 11 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 99.9 μSv/h in 1 h after the generator being stopped. The radiation dose ratio is reduced to 24.4 μSv/h in 39 h after the generator being stopped. When neutron yield is 3.2 x 10 10 s -1 , the radiation dose ratio produced by neutron activation is 21.9 μSv/h in 36 min, after the generator being stopped. The measurement results may provide reference for physical experimenters and neutron generator operators. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of effect of high frequency electromagnetic field on growth and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Saleh H; Alharbi, Sulaiman A; Faden, Asmaa A; Wainwright, M

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF at 900 and 1800 MHz) on DNA, growth rate and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus , S. epidermidis , and P. aeruginosa . In this study, bacteria were exposed to 900 and 1800 MHz for 2 h and then inoculated to new medium when their growth rate and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. Results for the study of bacterial DNA unsuccessful to appearance any difference exposed and non-exposed S. aureus and S. epidermidis . Exposure of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to electromagnetic fields mostly produced no statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth, except for S. aureus when exposure to 900 MHz at 12 h. Exposure of P. aeruginosa to electromagnetic fields at 900 MHz however, lead to a significant reduction in growth rate, while 1800 MHz had insignificant effect. With the exception of S. aureus , treated with amoxicillin (30 µg) and exposed to electromagnetic fields, radiation treatment had no significant effect on bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics.

  19. Explicit symmetry breaking in electrodynamic systems and electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.

  20. The electromagnetic interferent antennae for gravitational waves detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, A.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic wave propagating in the toroidal waveguide is considered as an electromagnetic gravitational antenna. An interferometric method is applied to measure the disturbances of phase of the electromagnetic field caused by the incident gravitational wave. The calculations presented take into account the dispersive and dissipative phenomena occurring during the interaction between electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The active cross-section of the antenna interacting with coherent and pulsed gravitational radiation is estimated. Experimental possibilities presently available are discussed. Limiting fluxes in the astrophysical range of frequencies measured by the interferometric electromagnetic antenna are a factor of ten or so smaller than in the case of a classic mechanical antenna. Moreover the antenna could be used for carrying out a gravitational Hertz experiment. (author)