Analytical modeling of sandwich beam for piezoelectric bender elements
无
2007-01-01
Piezoelectric bender elements are widely used as electromechanical sensors and actuators. An analytical sandwich beam model for piezoelectric bender elements was developed based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which assumes a single rotation angle for the whole cross-section and a quadratic distribution function for coupled electric potential in piezoelectric layers, and corrects the effect of transverse shear strain on the electric displacement integration. Free vibration analysis of simplysupported bender elements was carried out and the numerical results showed that, solutions of the present model for various thickness-to-length ratios are compared well with the exact two-dimensional solutions, which presents an efficient and accurate model for analyzing dynamic electromechanical responses of bender elements.
An Electromagnetic Beam Converter
2009-01-01
The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...
N C Das; S N Jha; D Bhattacharyya; A K Poswal; A K Sinha; V K Mishra
2004-10-01
An extended X-ray absorption ﬁne structure (EXAFS) beam-line for X-ray absorption studies using energy dispersive geometry and position sensitive detector is being developed for the INDUS-II synchrotron source. The optical design of the beam-line has been completed based on the working principle that a single crystal bent in the shape of an ellipse by a crystal bender would act as a dispersing as well as focusing element. The heart of the beam-line is the crystal bender which has been designed on the basis of the principle of four-point bending and has been fabricated indigenously. The crystal bender is capable of producing pre-deﬁned elliptical curvature on a crystal surface by applying different couples at the two-ends of the crystal which has variable width along its length. The focusing property of the crystal bender has been tested using a laser source and has been compared with the theoretically simulated results.
Correlation singularities in partially coherent electromagnetic beams
Raghunathan, S.B.; Schouten, H.F.; Visser, T.D.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that coherence vortices, singularities of the correlation function, generally occur in partially coherent electromagnetic beams. In successive cross sections of Gaussian Schell-model beams, their locus is found to be a closed string. These coherence singularities have implications for
Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities
Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.
1983-01-01
A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.
Electromagnetic beam propagation in nonlinear media
V.V.Semak; M.N.Shneider
2015-01-01
We deduce a complete wave propagation equation that includes inhomogeneity of the dielectric constant and present this propagation equation in compact vector form. Although similar equations are known in narrow fields such as radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in stratified media, we develop here a novel approach of using such equations in the modeling of laser beam propagation in nonlinear media. Our approach satisfies the correspondence principle since in the limit of zero-length wavelength it reduces from physical to geometrical optics.
Regimes of enhanced electromagnetic emission in beam-plasma interactions
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Arzhannikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
The ways to improve the efficiency of electromagnetic waves generation in laboratory experiments with high-current relativistic electron beams injected into a magnetized plasma are discussed. It is known that such a beam can lose, in a plasma, a significant part of its energy by exciting a high level of turbulence and heating plasma electrons. Beam-excited plasma oscillations may simultaneously participate in nonlinear processes resulting in a fundamental and second harmonic emissions. It is obvious, however, that in the developed plasma turbulence the role of these emissions in the total energy balance is always negligible. In this paper, we investigate whether electromagnetic radiation generated in the beam-plasma system can be sufficiently enhanced by the direct linear conversion of resonant beam-driven modes into electromagnetic ones on preformed regular inhomogeneities of plasma density. Due to the high power of relativistic electron beams, the mechanism discussed may become the basis for the generator of powerful sub-terahertz radiation.
Regimes of enhanced electromagnetic emission in beam-plasma interactions
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Arzhannikov, A. V.
2015-11-01
The ways to improve the efficiency of electromagnetic waves generation in laboratory experiments with high-current relativistic electron beams injected into a magnetized plasma are discussed. It is known that such a beam can lose, in a plasma, a significant part of its energy by exciting a high level of turbulence and heating plasma electrons. Beam-excited plasma oscillations may simultaneously participate in nonlinear processes resulting in a fundamental and second harmonic emissions. It is obvious, however, that in the developed plasma turbulence the role of these emissions in the total energy balance is always negligible. In this paper, we investigate whether electromagnetic radiation generated in the beam-plasma system can be sufficiently enhanced by the direct linear conversion of resonant beam-driven modes into electromagnetic ones on preformed regular inhomogeneities of plasma density. Due to the high power of relativistic electron beams, the mechanism discussed may become the basis for the generator of powerful sub-terahertz radiation.
Propagation of electromagnetic stochastic beams in anisotropic turbulence.
Yao, Min; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga
2014-12-29
The effects of anisotropic, non-Kolmogorov turbulence on propagating stochastic electromagnetic beam-like fields are discussed for the first time. The atmosphere of interest can be found above the boundary layer, at high (more than 2 km above the ground) altitudes where the energy distribution among the turbulent eddies might not satisfy the classic assumption represented by the famous 11/3 Kolmogorov's power law, and the anisotropy in the direction orthogonal to the Earth surface is possibly present. Our analysis focuses on the classic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beams but can either be readily reduced to scalar and/or coherent beams or generalized to other beam classes. In particular, we explore the effects of the anisotropic parameter on the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and on the spectral degree of polarization of the beam.
Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions
Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.
1990-01-01
The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.
Beam equipment electromagnetic interaction in accelerators: simulation and experimental benchmarking
Passarelli, Andrea; Vaccaro, Vittorio Giorgio; Massa, Rita; Masullo, Maria Rosaria
One of the most significant technological problems to achieve the nominal performances in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) concerns the system of collimation of particle beams. The use of collimators crystals, exploiting the channeling effect on extracted beam, has been experimentally demonstrated. The first part of this thesis is about the optimization of UA9 goniometer at CERN, this device used for beam collimation will replace a part of the vacuum chamber. The optimization process, however, requires the calculation of the coupling impedance between the circulating beam and this structure in order to define the threshold of admissible intensity to do not trigger instability processes. Simulations have been performed with electromagnetic codes to evaluate the coupling impedance and to assess the beam-structure interaction. The results clearly showed that the most concerned resonance frequencies are due solely to the open cavity to the compartment of the motors and position sensors considering the crystal in o...
An Electromagnetically Excited Silicon Nitride Beam Resonant Accelerometer
2009-02-01
Full Text Available A resonant microbeam accelerometer of a novel highly symmetric structure based on MEMS bulk-silicon technology is proposed and some numerical modeling results for this scheme are presented. The accelerometer consists of two proof masses, four supporting hinges, two anchors, and a vibrating triple beam, which is clamped at both ends to the two proof masses. LPCVD silicon rich nitride is chosen as the resonant triple beam material, and parameter optimization of the triple-beam structure has been performed. The triple beam is excited and sensed electromagnetically by film electrodes located on the upper surface of the beam. Both simulation and experimental results show that the novel structure increases the scale factor of the resonant accelerometer, and ameliorates other performance issues such as cross axis sensitivity of insensitive input acceleration, etc.
Beam Tests of the BAYAN Electromagnetic Calorimeter
Kryshkin, V I; CERN. Geneva; Lishin, V A; Polyakov, V A; Prokoshkin, Yu D; Singovsky, A V; Shagin, P M; Shtannikov, A V; Proskuryakov, A L
1993-01-01
A new version of fine sampling lead-scintillator calorimeter (BAYAN) has been studied as a promising EM-detector in collider experiments, as well as in fixed-target experiments at high energy / intensity accelerators. Two prototypes have been tested in a 9 GeV electron beam at the IHEP 70 GeV proton synchrotron. The light yield for a minium ionizing particle amounts 30 photons per 1mm of track length in a scintillator. The number of photoelectrons in a S20 photocathode PM produced by EM-shower is measured to be 2500 phe/GeV and may be increased two times or more. BAYAN response is uniform within 1.2% when electron beam moves across its surface.
An electromagnetically focused electron beam line source
Iqbal, Munawar; Masood, Khalid; Rafiq, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Maqbool A.; Aleem, Fazal-e.-
2003-11-01
A directly heated thermionic electron beam source was constructed. A tungsten wire of length 140 mm with diameter 0.9 mm was used as a cathode. An emission current of 5000 mA was achieved at an input heating power of 600 W. Cathode to anode distance of 6 mm with acceleration voltage of 10 kV was used. A uniform external magnetic field of 50 G was employed to obtain a well-focused electron beam at a deflection of 180°, with cathode to work site distance of 130 mm. Dimensions of the beam (1.25×120 mm) recorded at the work site were found to be in good agreement with the designed length of cathode. The deformation of the cathode was overcome by introducing a spring action mechanism, which gives uniform emission current density throughout the emission surface. We have achieved the saturation limit of the designed source resulting in smooth and swift operation of the gun for many hours (10-15 h continuously). The design of gun is so simple that it can accommodate longer cathodes for obtaining higher emission values. This gun has made it possible to coat large substrate surfaces at much faster evaporation rate at lower cost. It can also be useful in large-scale vacuum metallurgy plants for melting, welding and heat treatment.
Optimizing Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Signals with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams
Holtfrerich, Matthew; Akin, Tom; Krzyzewski, Sean; Marino, Alberto; Abraham, Eric
2016-05-01
We have performed electromagnetically induced transparency in ultracold Rubidium atoms using a Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode as the control beam. Laguerre-Gaussian modes are characterized by a ring type transverse intensity profile and carry intrinsic orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum carried by the control beam can be utilized in optical computing applications which is unavailable to the more common Gaussian laser field. Specifically, we use a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam with a Gaussian probe to show that the linewidth of the transmission spectrum can be narrowed when compared to a Gaussian control beam that has the same peak intensity. We present data extending this work to compare control fields in both the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian modes with constant total power. We have made efforts to find the optical overlap that best minimizes the transmission linewidth while also maintaining signal contrast. This was done by changing the waist size of the control beam with respect to the probe. The best results were obtained when the waist of a Laguerre-Gaussian control beam is equal to the waist of the Gaussian probe resulting in narrow linewidth features.
Probabilistic model of beam-plasma interaction and electromagnetic radioemission
Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Volokitin, Alexander; Krafft, Catherine; Voshchepynets, Andrii
2016-07-01
In this presentation we describe the effects of plasma density fluctuations in the solar wind on the relaxation of the electron beams accelerated in the bow shock front. The density fluctuations are supposed to be responsible for the changes in the local phase velocity of the Langmuir waves generated by the beam instability. Changes in the wave phase velocity during the wave propagation can be described in terms of probability distribution function determined by distribution of the density fluctuations. Using these probability distributions we describe resonant wave particle interactions by a system of equations, similar to well known quasi-linear approximation, where the conventional velocity diffusion coefficient and the wave growth rate are replaced by the averaged in the velocity space. It was shown that the process of relaxation of electron beam is accompanied by transformation of significant part of the beam kinetic energy to energy of the accelerated particles via generation and absorption of the Langmuir waves. Generated Langmuir waves are transformed into electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of the reflection points when the level of density fluctuations is large enough. We evaluate the level of the radiowaves intensity, and the emissivity diagram of radiowaves emission around plasma frequency and its harmonics.
Efficient regime of electromagnetic emission in a plasma with counterstreaming electron beams
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.
2014-08-01
Efficiency of electromagnetic emission produced in a magnetized plasma with counterstreaming electron beams was investigated using both the linear kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations. We calculated the growth rate of the beam-plasma instability taking into account both kinetic and relativistic effects and showed that there exists a regime in which transversely propagating electromagnetic waves can be generated by the coupling of the most unstable oblique beam-driven modes. It was confirmed by numerical simulations that such a tune-up of system parameters for a specific nonlinear process can lead to a substantial increase in electromagnetic emission efficiency. It was found that electromagnetic radiation emerging from the plasma in such a regime is generated near the harmonics of the pump frequency that is determined by the typical eigenfrequency of the beam-driven modes. It was also shown that the peak emission power can reach 5% of the maximal power lost by beam electrons.
Efficient regime of electromagnetic emission in a plasma with counterstreaming electron beams
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2014-08-15
Efficiency of electromagnetic emission produced in a magnetized plasma with counterstreaming electron beams was investigated using both the linear kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations. We calculated the growth rate of the beam-plasma instability taking into account both kinetic and relativistic effects and showed that there exists a regime in which transversely propagating electromagnetic waves can be generated by the coupling of the most unstable oblique beam-driven modes. It was confirmed by numerical simulations that such a tune-up of system parameters for a specific nonlinear process can lead to a substantial increase in electromagnetic emission efficiency. It was found that electromagnetic radiation emerging from the plasma in such a regime is generated near the harmonics of the pump frequency that is determined by the typical eigenfrequency of the beam-driven modes. It was also shown that the peak emission power can reach 5% of the maximal power lost by beam electrons.
Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source
LI Jia; XIN Yu; CHEN Yan-ru
2011-01-01
@@ Within the framework of the correlation theory of electromagnetic laser beams, the far field cross-spectral density matrix of the light radiated from an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source is derived.By utilizing the convergence property of Hermite polynomials, the conditions of the matrices for the source to generate an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian beam are obtained.Furthermore, in order to generate a scalar Hermite-Gaussian model beam, it is required that the source should be locally rather coherent in the spatial domain.
Modeling of sensor function for piezoelectric bender elements
无
2008-01-01
An analytical sandwich beam model for piezoelectric bender elements is derived based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), which assumes a single rotation angle for the whole cross-section and a quadratic distribution for coupled electric potential in piezoelectric layers. Shear coefficient is introduced to correct the effect of transverse shear strain on shear force and the electric displacement integration. Static and free vibration analyses of simply-supported bender elements are carried out for the sensor function. The results illustrate the high accuracy of the present model compared with the exact 2D solutions.
Generation of high-power electromagnetic radiation by a beam-driven plasma antenna
Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Timofeev, I. V.
2016-04-01
In this paper we study how efficiently electromagnetic radiation can be generated by a relativistic electron beam with a gigawatt power level during its injection into a thin magnetized plasma. It is shown that, if the transverse beam and plasma size is compared with the radiation wavelength and the plasma density is modulated along the magnetic field, such a beam-plasma system can radiate electromagnetic waves via the antenna mechanism. We propose a theoretical model describing generation of electromagnetic waves by this plasma antenna and calculate its main radiation characteristics. In the two-dimensional case theoretical predictions on the radiation efficiency are shown to be confirmed by the results of particle-in-cell simulations, and the three-dimensional variant of this theory is used to estimate the peak power of sub-terahertz radiation that can be achieved in beam-plasma experiments in mirror traps.
A large-angle cold-neutron bender using sequential garland reflections
Suzuki, J; Tasaki, S; Ebisawa, T
2002-01-01
We discuss the principle and performance of a new cold-neutron bender using sequential garland reflections in order to bend a neutron beam with a large divergence to a large angle. Using this bender for a pulsed neutron source, we can distribute cold neutrons or polarized cold neutrons if necessary to plural spectrometers at a cold-neutron-guide tube to avoid the frame-overlap problem of cold neutrons. (orig.)
Manning, Robert M.
2015-01-01
A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2
Symplectic Modeling of Beam Loading in Electromagnetic Cavities
Abell, Dan T; Webb, Stephen D
2016-01-01
Simulating beam loading in radiofrequency accelerating structures is critical for understanding higher-order mode effects on beam dynamics, such as beam break-up instability in energy recovery linacs. Full wave simulations of beam loading in radiofrequency structures are computationally expensive, while reduced models can ignore essential physics and can be difficult to generalize. We present a self-consistent algorithm derived from the least-action principle which can model an arbitrary number of cavity eigenmodes and with a generic beam distribution.
Electromagnetic-wave excitation in a large laboratory beam-plasma system
Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.
1981-01-01
The mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of a beam-plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves is of current interest in space physics and in tokamak fusion research. The process involved in the conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic waves at the critical layer is well understood. However, the radiation from uniform plasmas cannot be explained on the basis of this process. In connection with certain difficulties, it has not yet been possible to establish the involved emission processes by means of experimental observations. In the considered investigation these difficulties are overcome by employing a large laboratory plasma in a parameter range suitable for detailed diagnostics. A finite-diameter electron beam is injected into a uniform quiescent afterglow plasma of dimensions large compared with electromagnetic wavelengths. The considered generation mechanism concerning the electromagnetic waves is conclusively confirmed by observing the temporal evolution of an instability
Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system
Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.
Timofeev, I V
2012-01-01
The power of second harmonic electromagnetic emission is calculated for the case when strong plasma turbulence is excited by a powerful electron beam in a magnetized plasma. It is shown that the simple analytical model of strong plasma turbulence with the assumption of a constant pump power is able to explain experimentally observed bursts of electromagnetic radiation as a consequence of separate collapse events. It is also found that the electromagnetic emission power calculated for three-wave interaction processes occurring in the long-wavelength part of turbulent spectrum is in order-of-magnitude agreement with experimental results.
DING Chao-Liang; ZHAO Zhi-Guo; LI Xiao-Feng; PAN Liu-Zhan; YUAN Xiao
2011-01-01
Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero. The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.%@@ Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere.The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero.The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.
Electromagnetic modified Bessel-Gauss beams and waves.
Seshadri, S R
2008-01-01
The transverse magnetic (TM) modified Bessel-Gauss beams and their full-wave generalizations are treated. Attention is paid to the spreading properties on propagation of the null in the radiation intensity pattern for the azimuthal mode numbers m=0 and 1. The rate of spreading of the null in the propagation direction is significantly less for the TM modified Bessel-Gauss waves than those for the corresponding TM Bessel-Gauss waves. The total power transported by the waves is determined and compared with that of the corresponding paraxial beam to estimate the quality of the paraxial beam approximation of the wave. The dependence of the quality of the paraxial beam approximation on the azimuthal mode number, the beam shape parameter, and the ratio of the beam waist to the wavelength has a regular pattern for the TM Bessel-Gauss wave and not for the TM modified Bessel-Gauss wave.
Active Vibration Control of Beam Using Electro-magnetic Constrained Layer Damping
Niu Hongpan; Zhang Yahong; Zhang Xinong; Xie Shilin
2008-01-01
This paper investigates vibration control of beam through electro-magnetic constrained layer damping (EMCLD) which consists of electromagnet layer, permanent magnet layer and viscoelastic damping layer. When the coil of the electromagnet is electrified with proper control strategy, the electromagnet can exert magnetic force opposite to the direction of structural deformation so that the struc- tural vibration is attenuated. A mathematical model is developed based on the equivalent current method to calculate the electromagnetic control force produced by EMCLD. The governing equations of the system are obtained using Hamilton's Principle and then reduced with the assumed-mode method. A simulation on vibration control of a cantilever beam is conducted under the velocity proportional feedback to demonstrate the energy dissipation capability of EMCLD, and the beam system with the same parameter is experimented. The results of experiment and simulation are compared and the results show that the EMCLD is an effective means for suppressing modal vibration. The results also indicate that the beam system has better control performance for larger control current. The EMCLD method presented in this paper provides an applicable and efficient tool for the vibration control of structures.
Berreman approach to electromagnetic wave and beam propagation in anisotropic metamaterials
Gnawali, Rudra; Banerjee, Partha
2016-09-01
The Berreman matrix method is used to analyze the polarization and propagation of electromagnetic waves and beams in anisotropic metamaterials. The metamaterial, comprising a multilayer structure of alternating metal and dielectric layers, is modeled as an effective anisotropic medium. The Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic propagation are then represented as a set of coupled differential equations using the Berreman matrix. These coupled equations are then solved analytically and cross checked numerically using MATLAB® for plane wave propagation. The analysis can be extended to Gaussian beam propagation through such anisotropic metamaterials using the angular plane wave spectral approach.
Electromagnetic modeling of beam position and phase monitors for SNS linac
Kurennoy, Sergey S.
2000-11-01
Electromagnetic modeling of the beam position monitors (BPMs) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac has been performed with MAFIA. The signal amplitudes and phases on the BPM electrodes are computed as functions of the beam transverse position using time-domain 3-D simulations with an ultra-relativistic beam. An analytical model is then applied to extrapolate the results to lower beam velocities. It is shown that while the signal phases on the individual electrodes for an off-axis beam can differ from those for a centered beam by a few degrees, the phase of the summed signal from all electrodes is insensitive to the beam transverse position inside the device. Based on the analysis results, an optimal BPM design with 4 one-end-shorted 60-degree electrodes has been chosen. It provides a very good linearity and sufficient signal power for both position and phase measurements, while satisfying the linac geometrical constrains and mechanical requirements.
Educational Implications of the Bender.
Petti, Michael
1988-01-01
Examples of diagnostic formulations of the "Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt" are outlined and their instructional implications are delineated. The difficulties in paper and pencil copying of geometric designs focus primarily on: separation and overlapping of figures, repetition of design elements, pencil grip, visual perceptions, pattern reversals,…
Performance of remanent supermirror benders
Boeni, P.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M.; Rubio, D.; Tixier, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Hahn, W. [ISIS (United Kingdom)
1997-09-01
Polarising supermirrors composed of magnetic and non-magnetic layers have been deposited on thin glass sheets by means of reactive DC-magnetron sputtering. Benders that are composed of such glass have an excellent transmission and can be used for polarising neutrons in zero field. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.
Hui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Weite; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin
2015-01-01
The topological charge of an electromagnetic vortex beam depends on its wavefront helicity. For mixed vortex beams composed of several different coaxial vortices, the topological charge spectrum can be obtained by Fourier transform. However, the vortex beam is generally divergent and imperfect. It makes it significant to investigate the local topological charges, especially in radio frequency regime. Fourier transform based methods are restrained by the uncertainty principle and cannot achieve high angular resolution and mode resolution simultaneously. In this letter, an analysis method for local topological charges of vortex beams is presented based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). From EMD, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) can be obtained to construct the bases of the electromagnetic wave, and each local topological charge can be respectively defined. With this method the local value achieves both high resolution of azimuth angle and topological charge, meanwhile the amplitudes of each OAM mode...
Annenkov, V V; Volchok, E P
2015-01-01
In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in the realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through the plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in the infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.
Annenkov, V. V.; Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.
2016-05-01
In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in a realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through a plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of the electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in an infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and the second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.
Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M
2013-01-01
The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.
Electromagnetic and beam dynamics studies of a high current drift tube linac for LEHIPA
Roy, S.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, R.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.
2014-06-01
We have performed detailed electromagnetic and beam dynamics studies of a 352.21 MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) that will accelerate a 30 mA CW proton beam from 3 to 20 MeV. At such high currents space charge effects are important, and therefore the effect of linear as well as non-linear space charge has been studied (corresponding to uniform and Gaussian initial beam distributions), in order to avoid space charge instabilities. To validate the electromagnetic simulations, a 1.2 m long prototype of the DTL was fabricated. RF measurements performed on the prototype were in good agreement with the simulations. A detailed simulation study of beam halos was also performed, which showed that beyond a current of 10 mA, significant longitudinal beam halos are excited even for a perfectly matched beam, whereas for a mis-matched beam transverse beam halos are also excited. However, these do not lead to any beam loss within the DTL.
Self-Guiding of Electromagnetic Beams in Degenerate Relativistic Electron-Positron Plasma
Berezhiani, V I
2016-01-01
The possibility of self-trapped propagation of electromagnetic beams in the fully degenerate relativistic electron-positron plasma has been studied applying Fluid-Maxwell model; it is shown that dynamics of such beams can be described by the generalized Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with specific type of saturating nonlinearity. Existence of radially symmetric localized solitary structures is demonstrated. It is found that stable solitary structures exist for the arbitrary level of degeneracy.
Electromagnetic scattering by a uniaxial anisotropic sphere located in an off-axis Bessel beam.
Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shang, Qing-Chao; Li, Zheng-Jun; Bai, Lu
2013-08-01
Electromagnetic scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam by an anisotropic spherical particle in the off-axis configuration is investigated. Based on the spherical vector wave functions, the expansion expression of the zero-order Bessel beam is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed in detail. Utilizing the tangential continuity of the electromagnetic fields, the expressions of scattering coefficients are given. The effects of the conical angle of the wave vector components of the zero-order Bessel beam, the ratio of the radius of the sphere to the central spot radius of the zero-order Bessel beam, the shift of the beam waist center position along both the x and y axes, the permittivity and permeability tensor elements, and the loss of the sphere on the radar cross section (RCS) are numerically analyzed. It is revealed that the maximum RCS appears in the conical direction or neighboring direction when the sphere is illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam. Furthermore, the RCS will decrease and the symmetry is broken with the shift of the beam waist center.
New aspects of whistler waves driven by an electron beam studied by a 3-D electromagnetic code
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Buneman, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten
1994-01-01
We have restudied electron beam driven whistler waves with a 3-D electromagnetic particle code. The simulation results show electromagnetic whistler wave emissions and electrostatic beam modes like those observed in the Spacelab 2 electron beam experiment. It has been suggested in the past that the spatial bunching of beam electrons associated with the beam mode may directly generate whistler waves. However, the simulation results indicate several inconsistencies with this picture: (1) whistler waves continue to be generated even after the beam mode space charge modulation looses its coherence, (2) the parallel (to the background magnetic field) wavelength of the whistler wave is longer than that of the beam instability, and (3) the parallel phase velocity of the whistler wave is smaller than that of the beam mode. The complex structure of the whistler waves in the vicinity of the beam suggest that the transverse motion (gyration) of the beam and background electrons is also involved in the generation of whistler waves.
New aspects of whistler waves driven by an electron beam studied by a 3-D electromagnetic code
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Buneman, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten
1994-01-01
We have restudied electron beam driven whistler waves with a 3-D electromagnetic particle code. The simulation results show electromagnetic whistler wave emissions and electrostatic beam modes like those observed in the Spacelab 2 electron beam experiment. It has been suggested in the past that the spatial bunching of beam electrons associated with the beam mode may directly generate whistler waves. However, the simulation results indicate several inconsistencies with this picture: (1) whistler waves continue to be generated even after the beam mode space charge modulation looses its coherence, (2) the parallel (to the background magnetic field) wavelength of the whistler wave is longer than that of the beam instability, and (3) the parallel phase velocity of the whistler wave is smaller than that of the beam mode. The complex structure of the whistler waves in the vicinity of the beam suggest that the transverse motion (gyration) of the beam and background electrons is also involved in the generation of whistler waves.
Miller, Andrew L
2016-01-01
We focus on understanding the beaming of gravitational radiation from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) by approximating GRBs as linearly accelerated point masses. For accelerated point masses, it is known that gravitational radiation is beamed isotropicly at high speeds, and beamed along the polar axis at low speeds. Aside from this knowledge, there has been very little work done on beaming of gravitational radiation from GRBs, and the impact beaming could have on gravitational wave (GW) detection. We determine the following: (1) the observation angle at which the most power is emitted as a function of speed, (2) the maximum ratio of power radiated away as a function of speed, and (3) the angular distribution of power ratios at relativistic and non-relativistic speeds. Additionally the dependence of the beaming of GW radiation on speed is essentially the opposite of the beaming of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from GRBs. So we investigate why this is the case by calculating the angular EM radiation distribution from ...
Mounet, N
2009-01-01
This paper aims at giving an as complete and detailed as possible derivation of the six electromagnetic field components created by an offset point charge travelling at any speed in an infinitely long circular multilayer beam pipe. Outcomes from this study are a novel and efficient matrix method for the field matching determination of all the constants involved in the field components, and the generalization to any azimuthal mode together with the final summation on all such modes in the impedance formulas. In particular the multimode direct space-charge impedances (both longitudinal and transverse) are given, as well as the wall impedance to any order of precision. New quadrupolar terms for the transverse wall impedance are found, which look negligible in the ultrarelativistic case but might be of significance for low-energy beams. In principle from this analysis the electromagnetic fields created by any particular source, with a finite transverse shape, can then be computed using convolutions.
Whistler waves produced by a modulated electron beam: Electromagnetic fields in the linear approach
Volokitin, A. [Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region, 142092 (Russian Federation); Krafft, C.; Matthieussent, G. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris Sud, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
1995-11-01
The theory of whistler wave interaction with a modulated electron beam of finite radius and injected parallel to the magnetic field in an unbounded space plasma is considered. The study of the energy transfer between the thin beam and the whistler wave is done in the case of sheared whistlers, when the parallel wave number is very small compared to the perpendicular one. In this case, and in the linear regime, structures of potentials and electromagnetic fields inside and outside the beam are determined analytically. In the vicinity of the beam, simple expressions for field components are provided in the case of {hacek C}erenkov resonance near the double pole. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Laser Beam Welding of Aluminum Alloys Under the Influence of an Electromagnetic Field
Schneider, A.; Avilov, V.; Gumenyuk, A.; Rethmeier, M.
During laser beam welding of aluminum alloys an electromagnetic field may favour pore outgassing through the top oxide layer. High frequencies cause a small penetration depth and thus exert a stabilizing effect on the weld surface. The point at which the laser beam between the two magnetic poles hits the workpiece surface is crucial to the influence of the magnetic field on the weld surface roughness. Using analyzed parameters for different laser points of application cause a change in weld surface roughness could be observed. The weld surface roughness could be reduced by 50%. The outgassing effect in terms of a reduction of pores could be observed for all parameter sets investigated.
Jixiong Pu
2006-01-01
@@ The propagation of polychromatic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beams in free space is investigated. It is shown that the spectral degree of polarization, spectral degree of coherence, and normalized spectrum change generally on propagation. The conditions of keeping the spectral invariance and keeping polarization invariance for the polychromatic EGSM beams are derived respectively. The results indicate that the constraints on the parameters of EGSM source to keep polarization invariance on propagation are more rigorous than those to keep invariance of the normalized spectrum.
Yan, Wang; Chengqiang, Li; Tingfeng, Wang; Heyong, Zhang; Jingjiang, Xie; Lisheng, Liu; Jin, Guo
2016-11-01
The performance of heterodyne systems is discussed for stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmospheres by introducing a turbulence spectrum of refractive-index fluctuations. Several analytic formulae for the heterodyne detection system are presented by employing the beam coherence polarization matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam. Based on the Tatarskii spectrum model, some numerical results are given for the variation of heterodyne efficiency with the misalignment angle, detector diameter, turbulence conditions and parameters of the overlapping beams. According to the numerical results, we find that the change in heterodyne efficiency is dependent on the initial polarization of the beams, and that a turbulent atmosphere degrades the heterodyne efficiency significantly for a lager detector diameter. The change in heterodyne efficiency in a turbulent atmosphere is basically the same as that in free space for a relatively short distance z s. However, the change in heterodyne efficiency is different for a sufficiently long distance. For the deterministic received signal and the detector, the performance of the heterodyne detection can be adjusted by controlling the local oscillator signal parameters.
Lagasse, P.E.; Baets, R.
1987-12-01
The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers. 28 references.
Lagasse, P. E.; Baets, R.
1987-12-01
The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers.
Principle of a correction of the long-range beam-beam effect in LHC using electromagnetic lenses
Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre
2000-01-01
Due to the small bunch spacing, the beams in LHC collide not only in the four experimental points but experience more than one hundred 'near-misses'. They occur on either side of the collision points in places where the beam separation is in the range of 7 to 13 sigma. These so-called 'long-range'interactions are more and more recognized to be a drastic mechanism leading to beam blow-up or beam loss even-though the tunes of the particles are under control. We show in this note that, contrary to the head-on-beam interaction, a simple non linear model of the long-range interactions can be devised. This model suggests a rather simple correction principle by electromagnetic lenses, basically a wire, which correct with a good accuracy simultaneously the linear and non-linear perturbations. The correction of the average perturbation over all the bunches seems not demanding. An exact correction of the so-called PACMAN bunches may be done at a frequency an order of magnitude lower than the bunch frequency and is bein...
Electromagnetic fields from pulsed electron beam experiments in space - Spacelab-2 results
Bush, R. I.; Reeves, G. D.; Banks, P. M.; Neubert, T.; Williamson, P. R.
1987-01-01
During the Spacelab-2 mission a small satellite carrying various plasma diagnostic instruments was released from the Shuttle to coorbit at distances up to 300 m. During a magnetic conjunction of the Shuttle and the satellite an electron beam modulated at 1.22 kHz was emitted from the Shuttle during a 7 min period. The spatial structure of the electromagnetic fields generated by the beam was observed from the satellite out to a distance of 153 m perpendicular to the beam. The magnetic field amplitude of the strongest harmonics were comparable to the amplitude of simultaneously observed whistlers, while the electric field amplitudes were estimated to 1-10 mV/m.
Frequency-controls of electromagnetic multi-beam scanning by metasurfaces.
Li, Yun Bo; Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2014-01-01
We propose a method to control electromagnetic (EM) radiations by holographic metasurfaces, including to producing multi-beam scanning in one dimension (1D) and two dimensions (2D) with the change of frequency. The metasurfaces are composed of subwavelength metallic patches on grounded dielectric substrate. We present a combined theory of holography and leaky wave to realize the multi-beam radiations by exciting the surface interference patterns, which are generated by interference between the excitation source and required radiation waves. As the frequency changes, we show that the main lobes of EM radiation beams could accomplish 1D or 2D scans regularly by using the proposed holographic metasurfaces shaped with different interference patterns. This is the first time to realize 2D scans of antennas by changing the frequency. Full-wave simulations and experimental results validate the proposed theory and confirm the corresponding physical phenomena.
Jere Harrison
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Recent advancements in microelectromechanical system (MEMS fabrication techniques have enabled the batch-fabrication of quadrupole MEMS electromagnets producing 100 mT-scale field across sub-mm gaps with the potential for transformational advances in the field of compact high performance charged particle focusing and steering optics. The footprint of these in-vacuum focusing and steering optics can be as small as 3 mm×3 mm×0.5 mm. The low electromagnet impedance (58 mΩ, 32 nH per pole facilitates power-efficient operation and continuous or low duty cycle operation, and the individually controlled electromagnets allow combined dipole-quadrupole fields. Here we report on an experiment where these miniature devices have been used to focus and steer a 34 keV electron beam from a DC photogun, demonstrating the first application of magnetic MEMS to particle beam focusing.
Without the electromagnetic force, you would not be solid. The atoms of your body are held together by electromagnetism: negatively charged electrons are held around the positively charged nucleus. Atoms share electrons to form molecules, so building up the structure of matter. As its name suggests, electromagnetism has a double nature: a moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. This intimate connection between electricity and magnetism was described by James Maxwell in 1864. The electromagnetic force can be both positive and negative : opposite charges attract, whereas like charges repel. Electromagnetic radiation, such as radio, microwaves, light and X-rays, is emitted by charges when they are made to move. For example, an oscillating current in a wire emits radio waves. Text for the interactive: Why do the needles move when you switch on the current ?
Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael
The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.
Spin characteristics of ion beams during the motion of electromagnetic elements
Zaika, N. I.; Magal, M. I.
The matrix method for description of the polarization components for ions moving through different electromagnetic systems: dipole magnets, cycle accelerators, quadrupole lenses, solenoids, wine filters, and electrostatic mirrors is developed in the paper. The expressions for elements of the transportation matrixes for the above-mentioned systems taking account of the projective trajectories are obtained. The program, TRANSPIN, for calculation of the beam polarization components after motion by ions of arbitrary number of electromagnetic elements along any possible trajectory is presented. The calculation results made for some of transportation lines for the isochronous cyclotron U-240 are discussed (trajectories for the ion motion were calculated by CERN-program TRANSPORT). The conditions for decrease of the polarization component dispersion because of difference between trajectories of the particles motion are also defined.
The Prestressed Track Beam Testing Technology of Shanghai Electromagnetic Levitation Train
Qing-biao WANG
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Shanghai electromagnetic levitation train (maglev is the first one that is constructed and operated commercially in the world. Many technological problems have to be tackled during its construction, and the most difficult problem in the civil engineering part is the making of prestressed track beam. It requires high precision because of its special function. The stretching control of the pre-tensioning force and the post-tensioning force in the making of prestressed track beam is most important during the construction. This paper introduces and analyses the technical features of vibrating wire sensors as well as the development, the research and the application of force sensor for pulling force measurement of anchor cable.
Excitation of Electromagnetic Waves by an Electron Ring Beam in a Magnetized Plasma Waveguide
周国成; 吴京生; 王德驹; 陈雁萍
2002-01-01
We study the resonant interactions between an electron ring beam and plasma waveguide modes. This is motivatedby the research of radio emission in low solar corona. We consider a density-depleted duct (above an active regionnear a flare site) that may be treated as a magnetized plasma waveguide. The electromagnetic waves excited inthe waveguide are classified into the so-called E-type and B-type waves. The results show that there are twounstable modes of B-type waves propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the direction of the electron beam. Theeffect of the finite radius and boundary conditions of the waveguide on the excitation of waveguide modes isimportant. For a given B-type mode, the smaller the radius R, the larger the temporal and spatial amplificationrate. We suggest that these excited waveguide modes could be one of the processes responsible for the observedsolar radio emission.
Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.
1992-11-01
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides.
Beam polarization asymmetry and the electromagnetic production of kaons from protons
Maxwell, Oren V.
2012-12-01
The beam polarization asymmetry in the reaction ep→e'K+Λ has been investigated in a tree-level effective Lagrangian model. The model incorporates most of the well-established baryon resonances with spins up to (5)/(2), four less well-established nucleon resonances with larger mass, and the two kaon resonances K(892) and K1(1270). The off-shell structure of the electromagnetic vertices was accounted for by the inclusion of electromagnetic form factors at those vertices. The free parameters of the model were fitted in a previous study to a large pool of photoproduction data from the CLAS, GRAAL, SAPHIR, and LEPS collaborations and to CLAS data for the virtual photoproduction structure functions σU, σT, σL, σTT, and σLT. Using this model, results were obtained for the beam polarization asymmetry structure function σLT' and compared with CLAS data. Two new fits to the combined photoproduction and electroproduction data with the σLT' data included were then generated. The first of these includes contributions from all of the resonances included in the previous study; the second excludes contributions from the N(2080) and N(2200) resonances. The results of both fits for both photoproduction and electroproduction observables are compared with the results of the previous fit and the data.
Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu
2009-07-06
The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.
Factor- Analytic Study of Performance on the Bender-Gestalt
Haynes, Jack R.
1970-01-01
College students were given the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, the Guilford Zimmerman Spatial Orientation and Spatial Visualization Tests, and the Bender Gestalt. Analyses revealed that personality characteristics were related to Bender performance and that the Bender was not measuring a unitary dimension of behavior. (Author)
New studies of adults' responses to the Bender Gestalt.
Murray, J B
2001-02-01
The Bender-Gestalt test originated in 1936 with Lauretta Bender for evaluating perceptual and motor development of children 4 to 11 yr. old. Koppitz (1964) developed a scoring system for the test. Lacks (1984) contributed normative data for testing adults. Seven studies since Lacks' which have contributed to normative data of adults' responses to the Bender-Gestalt are reviewed here.
Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.; Chan, C.
1984-01-01
Counterstreaming large-diameter electron beams in a steady-state laboratory experiment are observed to generate transverse radiation at twice the upper-hybrid frequency (2omega-UH) with a quadrupole radiation pattern. The electromagnetic wave power density is nonlinearly enhanced over the power density obtained from a single beam-plasma system. Electromagnetic power density scales exponentially with beam energy and increases with ion mass. Weak turbulence theory can predict similar (but weaker) beam energy scaling but not the high power density, or the predominance of the 2omega-UH radiation peak over the omega-UH peak. Significant noise near the upper-hybrid and ion plasma frequencies is also measured, with normalized electrostatic wave energy density W(ES)/n(e)T(e) approximately 0.01.
Kuzelev, M. V., E-mail: kuzelev@mail.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2011-02-15
A nonlinear theory of interaction of two electromagnetic waves with a beam or a gas of spinless charged particles is developed. The effects of stimulated Compton scattering of electromagnetic waves and stimulated particle pair production (annihilation) during a collision of two electromagnetic quanta are investigated. Other stimulated processes that can occur only in a medium and decelerate electromagnetic waves are also considered. The relation between stimulated processes and various types of instabilities considered in classical electrodynamics of plasmas and plasmalike media is demonstrated.
Sodha, M.S.; Govind; Sharma, R.P. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Centre of Energy Studies)
1981-05-01
An investigation of the plasma wave and third harmonic generation by a Gaussian electromagnetic (em) beam, propagating in extraordinary mode in a collisionless hot magnetoplasma has been made. On account of the (VXB) force, a plasma wave at twice the pump wave frequency gets excited. The interaction of the plasma wave with the pump wave leads to third harmonic generation. By taking into account the self-focusing of the pump wave on account of non-uniform intensity distribution along the wave front, a modification is effected in the power of the plasma wave and the third harmonic em wave. The dependence of these phenomena on the strength of the static magnetic field has also been studied.
Electromagnetic scattering of a vector Bessel beam in the presence of an impedance cone
Salem, Mohamed
2013-07-01
The electromagnetic field scattering of a vector Bessel beam in the presence of an infinite circular cone with an impedance boundary on its surface is considered. The impinging field is normal to the tip of the cone and is expanded in terms of vector spherical wave functions; a Kontorovich-Lebedev (KL) transform is employed to expand the scattered fields. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation with a variable coefficient of the non-convolution type. The singularities of the spectral function are deduced and representations for the field at the tip of the cone as well as other regions are given together with the conditions of validity of these representations. © 2013 IEEE.
Characterization of a mechanical bender for x-ray mirrors at European XFEL
Freijo Martín, Idoia; Vannoni, Maurizio; Music, Valerija; Sinn, Harald
2016-09-01
The European XFEL will generate extremely short and intense X-ray laser pulses of high coherence and nearly diffraction-limited divergence. Guiding these X-rays beams over a distance of more than 1 km to the experiments requires an extreme precision in pointing stability of beamline components like mirrors and gratings and also a control of the divergence of the beam. The specifications of the X-ray mirrors that will be able to transport, distribute and focus the beam are quite challenging. The European XFEL mirrors for the beam transport are 950 mm long and the optical surface specifications are 2 nm Peak-To-Valley. Some of the mirrors will have bending capabilities in order to focus the beam in the right position and with nanometer accuracy. This is implemented using a mechanical bender that will ensure stability of the optics in the nanometer range and will also offer the possibility to correct for mechanical or temperature drifts. We present here the characterization of a mechanical bender that was done using two instruments, a Large Aperture Fizeau interferometer and a system of three capacitive sensors. The bender is designed in a way that the mirror is hold with clamps on both ends and a symmetric torque is applied on the clamps, inducing a cylindrical shape on the mirror surface. Several long-term stability measurements were done, as well as the characterization of bending capabilities. The parameters retrieved from the measurements are the sagitta and therefore the radius of curvature for different bending positions. The behavior of the variation of the shape of the mirror was also studied. The information gathered from our measurements will be used to optimize the final design of the bender.
Lauretta Bender on autism: a review.
Faretra, G
1979-01-01
Lauretta Bender, internationally known as one of the pioneers in the field of child psychiatry, has written extensively on autism and other forms of childhood disturbance. This paper reviews and analyzes the development of her theories on autism, especially as it relates to childhood schizophrenia. Bender believes that the condition is one of the manifestations of schizophrenia occurring in earliest childhood. This review traces, through her writings and through personal contact, the development and elaboration of this view, and discusses influences on her work of Schilder, Gesell and others.
Grant, Ian S
1990-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
Fu, X. R.; Cowee, M. M.; Liu, K.; Peter Gary, S.; Winske, D.
2014-04-01
The velocity space scattering of an anisotropic electron beam (T⊥b/T∥b>1) flowing along a background magnetic field B0 through a cold plasma is investigated using both linear theory and 2D particle-in-cell simulations. Here, ⊥ and ∥ represent the directions perpendicular and parallel to B0, respectively. In this scenario, we find that two primary instabilities contribute to the scattering in electron pitch angle: an electrostatic electron beam instability and a predominantly parallel-propagating electromagnetic whistler anisotropy instability. Our results show that at relative beam densities nb/ne≤0.05 and beam temperature anisotropies Tb ⊥/Tb ∥≤25, the electrostatic beam instability grows much faster than the whistler instabilities for a reasonably fast hot beam. The enhanced fluctuating fields from the beam instability scatter the beam electrons, slowing their average speed and increasing their parallel temperature, thereby increasing their pitch angles. In an inhomogeneous magnetic field, such as the geomagnetic field, this could result in beam electrons scattered out of the loss cone. After saturation of the electrostatic instability, the parallel-propagating whistler anisotropy instability shows appreciable growth, provided that the beam density and late-time anisotropy are sufficiently large. Although the whistler anisotropy instability acts to pitch-angle scatter the electrons, reducing perpendicular energy in favor of parallel energy, these changes are weak compared to the pitch-angle increases resulting from the deceleration of the beam due to the electrostatic instability.
Yu, Mei Ping; Han, Yi Ping; Cui, Zhi Wei; Chen, An Tao
2017-07-01
This study investigates the electromagnetic scattering of a high-order Bessel vortex beam by multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape based on the surface integral equation (SIE) method. In Cartesian coordinates, the mathematical formulas are given for characterizing the electromagnetic field components of an arbitrarily incident high-order Bessel vortex beam. By using the SIE, a numerical scheme is formulated to find solutions for characterizing the electromagnetic scattering by multiple homogeneous particles of arbitrary shape and a home-made FORTRAN program is written. The presented theoretical derivations as well as the home-made program are validated by comparing to the scattering results of a Zero-Order Bessel Beam by the Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory. From our simulations, the beam's order, half-cone angles, and the ways of particles' arrangement have a great influence upon the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for multiple particles. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the scattering characteristic in three dimension (3-D) space, the 3-D distribution of the DSCS for different cases is presented. It is anticipated that these results can be helpful to understand the scattering mechanisms of a high-order Bessel vortex beam on multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape.
2012-03-07
are adversely affected by atmospheric turbulence, which induces intensity fluctuations ( scintillations ). Laser beam distorted by turbulence „Heat...unlimited. Scintillation vs. # of Beamlets Scintillation reaches its minimum possible value with only four beamlets! Evidently four beamlets is...for Ultrafast Carrier Scattering in Semiconductors ” 1. Model IR amplifier for extremely weak signals and distant targets Dr. Analee Miranda
夏雄平; 易林
2012-01-01
Effect of higher order axial electron temperature on self-focusing of electromagnetic pulsed beam in collisional plasma is investigated.It is shown that higher order axial electron temperature T p4 is not trivial than T p0 and T p2,which can modify slightly radial redistribution of electron density and increases effective dielectric constant.As a result,on one hand,slightly reduce electromagnetic beam self-focusing in the course of oscillatory convergence,on the other hand,quicken beam divergence in the course of steady divergence,i.e.,higher order axial electron temperature T p4 can decrease the influence of collisional nonlinearity in collisional plasma.
Electromagnetic Fields Produced by Moving Sources in a Curved Beam Pipe
Goto, Shin-itiro
2008-01-01
A new geometrical perturbation scheme is developed in order to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by charged sources in prescribed motion moving in a non-straight perfectly conducting beam pipe. The pipe is regarded as a perturbed infinitely long hollow right-circular cylinder. The perturbation maintains the pipe's circular cross-section while deforming its axis into a planar space-curve with, in general, non-constant curvature. Various charged source models are considered including a charged bunch and an off-axis point particle. In the ultra-relativistic limit this permits a calculation of the longitudinal wake potential in terms of powers of the product of the pipe radius and the arbitrarily varying curvature of the axial space-curve. Analytic expressions to leading order are presented for beam pipes with piecewise defined constant curvature modelling pipes with straight segments linked by circular arcs of finite length. The language of differential forms is used throughout and to illustrate the ...
Design and Beam Test Results for the sPHENIX Electromagnetic and Hadronic Calorimeter Prototypes
Aidala, C.A.; et al.
2017-04-05
The sPHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will perform high precision measurements of jets and heavy flavor observables for a wide selection of nuclear collision systems, elucidating the microscopic nature of strongly interacting matter ranging from nucleons to the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. A prototype of the sPHENIX calorimeter system was tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility as experiment T-1044 in the spring of 2016. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) prototype is composed of scintillating fibers embedded in a mixture of tungsten powder and epoxy. The hadronic calorimeter (HCal) prototype is composed of tilted steel plates alternating with plastic scintillator. Results of the test beam reveal the energy resolution for electrons in the EMCal is $2.8\\%\\oplus~15.5\\%/\\sqrt{E}$ and the energy resolution for hadrons in the combined EMCal plus HCal system is $13.5\\%\\oplus 64.9\\%/\\sqrt{E}$. These results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed calorimeter system is consistent with \\geant simulations and satisfies the sPHENIX specifications.
Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.
Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha
1982-01-01
Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)
Reading Retardation and Bender Gestalt Performance
Binkley, M. Edward; Maggart, William
1974-01-01
Compared two groups of children know to be poor readers, those with adequate perceptual functioning and those without, to determine what inadequate perceptual functioning is related to the severity of the reading and adjustment problems. Inadequate Bender performance was related to a more severe reading problem. (Author/PC)
A Graphic Analysis Bender Gestalt Test.
Hilgert, Larry D.
1985-01-01
Bender Gestalt Test data from 60 severely emotionally handicapped and 60 normal children were computer digitized and scored traditionally. Reliability results from comparison of analysis techniques favored computer approach; criterion-related validity was unsuccessful for both scoring methods; and concurrent validity results indicated limited…
Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.
Grow, Richard T.
1980-01-01
Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)
Lauretta Bender's Contribution to Understanding Language Disorders.
Silver, Archie A.
1989-01-01
Lauretta Bender's experiences as a bright child struggling with specific learning problems and her subsequent work in language disorders are described. Her recognition of the biological nature of a group of learning disorders for which there was no clinical evidence of structural damage to the central nervous system is emphasized. (JDD)
Draskovic, Drasko; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Lefèvre, Thibaut; Wendt, Manfred
2015-01-01
This paper presents the preliminary electromagnetic design of a stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the High Luminosity program of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN. The design is fitted into a new octagonal shielded Beam Screen for the low-beta triplets and is optimized for high directivity. It also includes internal Tungsten absorbers, required to reduce the energy deposition in the superconducting magnets. The achieved broadband directivity in wakefield solver simulations presents significant improvement over the directivity of the current stripline BPMs installed in the LHC.
Alexeev, G; Baillon, Paul; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Bateman, E; Bell, K W; Benhammou, Ya; Bloch, P; Bomestar, D; Borgia, B; Bourotte, J; Burge, S R; Cameron, W; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Connolly, J; Dafinei, I; Denes, P; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; El-Mamouni, H; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Finger, M H; Flügel, T; Gautheron, F; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, B W; Kirn, T; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Ma, D; Martin, F; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newbold, D; Newman, H; Oukhanov, M; Pacciani, L; Peigneux, J P; Pirro, S; Popov, S; Puljak, I; Purves, C; Renker, D; Rondeaux, F; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Schwenke, J; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Shevchenko, S; Shi, X; Sillou, D; Simohand, D; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Smith, B; Stephenson, R; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y
1997-01-01
Using matrices of lead tungstate crystals energy resolutions better than 0.6% at 100 GeV have been achieved in the test beam in 1995. It has been demonstrated that a lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter read out by avalanche photodiodes can consistently achieve the excellent energy resolutions necessary to justify its construction in the CMS detector. The performance achieved has been understood in terms of the properties of the crystals and photodetectors.
Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.
Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D
1978-10-01
Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.
CÉSAR MERINO SOTO
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hace algunos años, se ha publicado el nuevo Test Gestáltico de Bender, segunda versión (Ben- der-II. Esta nueva versión usa el Sistema de Calificación Global (SCG para obtener los pun- tajes, que enfatiza la reproducción exacta de los diseños; junto con otros cambios estructurales, consiste en la mayor modificación realizada al Test de Bender para evaluar la habilidad visomo- tora en varias etapas del desarrollo humano. Pero aún hay pocas investigaciones que han estudiado su funcionamiento psicométrico en muestras his- panas y especialmente el error de medición en el procedimiento de la calificación. Se investigó el efecto de la variabilidad de la calificación del nuevo Bender-II sobre su validez de constructo con una medida de inteligencia. Se administraron el Bender-II y el Test Breve de In- teligencia de Kaufman (K-BIT a 60 niños prees- colares, y tres calificadores calificaron las figu- ras reproducidas mediante procedimientos es- tandarizados y el SCG. El análisis comparó las correlaciones obtenidas por cada calificador en- tre los puntajes del Bender-II y del K-BIT. Se ha- lló que la variabilidad de los puntajes provenien- te de la interpretación del SCG afectó mode- radamente las correlaciones con el puntaje total y de las subescalas del K-BIT. Un calificador fue menos confiable y sus puntajes mostraron al me- nos 5% menos variancia compartida al compa- rarlo con los otros calificadores. Se concluye que la interpretación de la validez se puede dis- torsionar aun cuando el error de medición es moderado pues interaccionan con otras fuentes de error. Esto sugiere que se debe garantizar un buen acuerdo en la calificación de pruebas que requieran juicio.
Bender Gestalt Recall: Memory Measure or Intelligence Estimate?
Armentrout, James A.
1976-01-01
WAIS subtset standard scores, IQ scores, and factorial deviation quotients were correlated with Bender Gestalt recall scores for 111 vocational rehabilitation clients. Results found that the Bender recall task could not classify Ss as to general intelligence level with greater accuracy than could be obtained with the WAIS Vocabulary subtest alone.…
Bender Gestalt Signs as Indicants of Conceptual Impulsivity
Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others
1978-01-01
Sixty children were individually administered the Matching Familiar Figures Test and the Bender Gestalt Test. A significant relationship was found between errors on the Bender Gestalt Test and impulsivity. Specifically, increased or decreased loops, change in angulation, loops for circles, and circles for dots or dots for circles were all…
Two Aspects of Scorer Reliability in the Bender Gestalt Test
Morsbach, Gisela; And Others
1975-01-01
This study investigated (a) interscorer reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test by using more than one person to score the same test protocols; and (b) rate-rerate reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test after a half-year interval. (Author)
Gatzen, M.; Tang, Z.; Vollertsen, F.
Additional external electromagnetic fields are used in laser beam welding of aluminium with silicon containing filler wire to manipulate the flow of the liquid metal due to induced volume forces and hence to modify the element distribution. Aiming for a better understanding of the fluid-dynamic processes inside the meld pool, a CFD model has been implemented to simulate the melt flow. In this paper, simulation results on the resulting element distribution of filler wire material under a coaxial magnetic field with different frequencies is compared to experimental results for the same parameters. It is shown that in both cases the concentration of alloying elements of the filler material has a spatial periodicity. From the CFD model it can be concluded that the change of the distribution of the filler material results from a modulation of the melt flow due to the periodic induced electromagnetic volume forces.
Hale, Alison C
2009-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic fields satisfying perfectly conducting boundary conditions in a segment of a straight beam pipe with a circular cross-section is discussed as a function of various source models. These include charged bunches that move along the axis of the pipe with constant speed for which an exact solution to the initial-boundary value problem for Maxwell's equations in the beam pipe is derived. In the ultra-relativistic limit all longitudinal components of the fields tend to zero and the spectral content of the transverse fields and average total electromagnetic energy crossing any section of the beam pipe are directly related to the properties of the ultra-relativistic source. It is shown that for axially symmetric ultra-relativistic bunches interference effects occur that show a striking resemblance to those that occur due to CSR in cyclic machines despite the fact that in this limit the source is no longer accelerating. The results offer an analytic description showing how such enhanced ...
Two modes of administration of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test to kindergarten children.
Caskey, W E; Larson, G L
1977-12-01
Using Otis-Lennon IQs 104 kindergarten children were paired and divided into two groups. The first was administered a group Bender test based on transparencies of the Bender designs and 10 to 14 days later the standard individual Bender Test. The second group was administered the Bender tests in reverse order. A significant correlation was found between Koppitz scores from the group and the individual Bender scores. It is suggested that the group Bender test might be used as a screening device without significant loss of information on a later administration of the individual Bender test.
Correction of the Long-Range Beam-Beam Effect in LHC using Electro-Magnetic Lenses
Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre
2001-01-01
The beams in LHC collide head-on in at most four experimental points. Due to the small bunch spacing, the beams experience more than one hundred 'near-misses' on either side of the collision points. The transverse beam separation at these places, limited by the quadrupole aperture, is in the range of 7 to 13 sigma. The non-linear part of these 'long-range' interactions appears to be the dominant mechanism for beam blow-up or beam loss in simulation. A simple non-linear model of the long-range interactions can be devised. It shows that the latter may be locally corrected with good accuracy using wires as correcting lenses. The non-linearity measured by the tune footprint is reduced by one order of magnitude. Pulsing the correcting lenses cancels the so-called PACMAN effect.
Dubenskiy, V P; CERN. Geneva; Tsimbal, F A
1995-01-01
Here we present the results of our estimates of upper limits for heating induced by the relativistic beams of charged particles at the future LHC in the MCP detector placed inside the beam pipe. The energy losses are small for the uppermost intensities of the beams to be expected: less than 0.0033 Wt for the conductive cromium MCP cladding and not greater than 0.02 Wt for the dialectric MCP body (for the whole MCP disk of 100 sq.cm area). The special measurements of the dispersion law e(w) of the MCP dialectric material have been performed in order to get the reference data to the analytical calculations. The approaches outlined here could be applied to any detector positioned in the vicinity of the beams. The possible problems of the beam induced electrical signal in the detector circuits are touched also.
Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.
1994-08-01
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: the computation of charged particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates. Substantial progress in research has been made during the past year. These achievements are summarized in the following report.
Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.
1993-06-01
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates.
Nemkovski, K.; Ioffe, A.; Su, Y.; Babcock, E.; Schweika, W.; Brückel, Th
2017-06-01
We present the concept and the results of the simulations of a new polarizer for the diffuse neutron scattering spectrometer DNS at MLZ. The concept of the polarizer is based on the idea of a bender made from the stack of the silicon wafers with a double-side supermirror polarizing coating and absorbing spacers in between. Owing to its compact design, such a system provides more free space for the arrangement of other instrument components. To reduce activation of the polarizer in the high intensity neutron beam of the DNS spectrometer we plan to use the Fe/Si supermirrors instead of currently used FeCoV/Ti:N ones. Using the VITESS simulation package we have performed simulations for horizontally focusing polarizing benders with different geometries in the combination with the double-focusing crystal monochromator of DNS. Neutron transmission and polarization efficiency as well as the effects of the focusing for convergent conventional C-benders and S-benders have been analyzed both for wedge-like and plane-parallel convergent geometries of the channels. The results of these simulations and the advantages/disadvantages of the various configurations are discussed.
LI; Fangyu
2001-01-01
［1］Gerlach, U. H., Cavity quantum-electrodynamical response to a gravitational wave, Phys. Rev. D, 1992, 46: 1 239.［2］Fortini, P., Gualdi, C., Ortolan, A., Interaction of a gravitational wave with electromagnetic currents, Nuovo Cimento B, 1991,106: 395.［3］Cuomo, D., Franceschetti, G., Panariello, G. et al., Proceeding of International Symposium on Experimental Gravitational Physics, Guangzhou, China (ed. Michelson, F. C.), Singapore: World Scientific, 1992, 262.［4］Logi, W. K., Mickelson, A. R., Electrogravitational conversion cross section in static electromagnetic fields, Phys. Rev. D, 1977, 16: 2 915.［5］Long, H. N., Soa, D. V., Tuan, T. A., The conversion of gravitons into photons in a periodic external electromagnetic field, Phys. Lett. A, 1994, 186: 382.［6］Boccaletti, D., Sabbata, V. D., Fortini, P., Conversion of photons into gravitons and vice versa in a static electromagnetic field, Nuovo Cimento B, 1970, 70: 129.［7］Grishchuk, L. P., Sazhin, M. V., Excitation and detection of standing gravitational waves, Sov. Phys. Jetp, 1975, 41: 787.［8］Gratta, G., Kim, K. J., Melissions, A. et al., Workshop on Beam-Beam and Beam-Radiation Interaction: High Intensity and Nonlinear Effects, Los Angeles, USA (ed. Pellegrini, C.), Singapore: World Scientific, 1992, 70.［9］Chen, P., Palazzi, G. D., Kim, K. J. et al., Workshop on Beam-Beam and Beam-Radiation Interaction: High Intensity and Nonlinear Effects, Los Angeles, USA (ed. Pellegrini, C.), Singapore: World Scientific, 1992, 84.［10］Grishchuk, L. P., Sazhin, M. V., Squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator in the problem of gravitational wave detection. Sov. Phys. Jetp, 1983, 53: 1128.［11］Tang, M. X., Li, F. Y., Luo, J., High frequency gravitational wave of a composite toroidal electrodrynamical resonant system, Acta Physical Sinica, 1997, 6: 161.［12］Li, F. Y., Tang, M. X., Coherent resonant of a strong electromagnetic wave beam to a standing gravitational wave
Modeling of a Dielectric Elastomer Bender Actuator
Paul White
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The current smallest self-contained modular robot uses a shape memory alloy, which is inherently inefficient, slow and difficult to control. We present the design, fabrication and demonstration of a module based on dielectric elastomer actuation. The module uses a pair of bowtie dielectric elastomer actuators in an agonist-antagonist configuration and is seven times smaller than previously demonstrated. In addition, we present an intuitive model for the bowtie configuration that predicts the performance with experimental verification. Based on this model and the experimental analysis, we address the theoretical limitations and advantages of this antagonistic bender design relative to other dielectric elastomer actuators.
Alex J. Dragt
2012-08-31
Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.
Campbell, Kaleb; Madkhaly, Samaya; de Medeiros, Dillon; Bali, Samir; Macklin Quantum Information Sciences Collaboration
2016-05-01
Progress toward undergraduate oriented experiments on image storage in room-temperature atomic vapor using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency is described. Using a scanning longitudinal magnetic field technique we diagnose and suppress stray magnetic fields and polarization impurity. We consider the pump-probe angular dependence of the EIT signal but at much smaller angles of less than a milliradian.
Split radius-form blocks for tube benders
Lange, D. R.; Seiple, C. W.
1970-01-01
Two-piece, radius-form block permits accurate forming and removing of parts with more than a 180 degree bend. Tube bender can shape flexible metal tubing in applications dealing with plumbing, heating, and pressure transmission lines.
Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S.; Mishra, S. K.
2017-02-01
An analytical formulation, describing the propagation of multiple coaxial Gaussian electromagnetic (em) beams in a self-formed plasma channel with dominant collisional nonlinearity has been developed; the generation/recombination of high energy plasma particles has been considered as an additional source of plasma non-linearity in addition to Ohmic heating. Well versed paraxial approach in the vicinity of the intensity maximum has been adopted to solve the wave equation and examine the non-linear propagation of em beams while the dielectric function in the presence of the em field is determined from the balance of partial pressure gradient of electron/ion gas with the space charge field and energy balance of plasma particles. On the basis of the analysis the influence of this novel non-linearity on the propagation features like electron temperature, dielectric function and critical curves are derived numerically and graphically presented. The inclusion of this novel nonlinearity results in reduced focusing effect. The three regime characteristic features viz. oscillatory focusing/defocusing and steady divergence of beam propagation have also been worked out.
Mounet, Nicolas Frank; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2015-01-01
This note provides general and approximate formulas for the electromagnetic fields created by a passing beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick resistive pipe made of a single homogeneous layer. The full derivations and their resulting approximate expressions at low and intermediate frequencies are given here, as well as the conditions under which those approximations are valid. Beam-coupling impedances are also computed, and examples are shown.
Electromagnetic Modeling of a Fast Traveling-Wave Beam Chopper for the SNS Project.
Kurennoy, Sergey
1998-04-01
High current and severe restrictions on beam losses, below 1 nA/m, in the designed linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) require clean and fast --- with the rise time from 2% to 98% less than 2.5 ns --- beam chopping in its front end, at the beam energy 2.5 MeV. The development of new traveling-wave deflecting current structures, based on meander lines, is discussed. Three-dimensional time-domain computer simulations are used to study transient effects in the chopper and to optimize its design.
Electromagnetic fields and beam coupling impedances in a multilayer flat chamber
Mounet, N
2010-01-01
This paper aims at giving a derivation of the six electromagnetic field components created by an offset point charge travelling at any speed in a flat chamber, i.e. a two dimensional structure consisting of two infinite parallel plates surrounding a vacuum region. The plates are infinite both horizontally and along the direction of the point charge movement. We study the general case where the two plates are made of several layers of linear materials up to infinity in the vertical direction, with no a priori top-bottom symmetry. We find new results for the electromagnetic fields and impedances, generalizing in particular the so-called ``Yokoya factors'' that are valid under certain conditions only.
Klinkenbusch, Ludger; Brüns, Hendrik
2016-11-01
The paper addresses the combination of the spherical-multipole analysis in sphero-conal coordinates with a uniform complex-source beam (CSB) in order to analyze the scattering of a localized electromagnetic plane wave by any desired part of a perfectly conducting elliptic cone. The concept of uniform CSB is introduced and rigorously applied to the diffraction by a semi-infinite elliptic cone. The analysis takes into account the fact that the incident CSB does not satisfy the radiation condition. A new modal form of the Green's function for the elliptic cone is derived based on the principle that there is no energy loss to infinity. The numerical evaluation includes the scattered far fields of a CSB incident on the corner of a plane angular sector with different opening angles. xml:lang="fr"
Kulchitskii, Yu A; Khubua, J I; Rusakovitch, N A; Tsiareshka, P V; Vinogradov, V B
2005-01-01
The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. The important question of calorimetry is the calibration in the electromagnetic energy scale. With the aim of establishing of this scale and understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. Our work is devoted to the determination of the electromagnetic energy calibration constants of the EBM$-$ (ANL-44), EBM$+$ (IFA-42), BM (JINR-55) TILECAL modules at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o$ and $\\eta$ scans on the basis of the July 2002 testbeam run data using the flat filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. The ...
Electromagnetic guided couch and multileaf collimator tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator
Hansen, Rune; Ravkilde, Thomas; Worm, Esben Schjødt
2016-01-01
of the couch or MLC as recorded by continuous MV portal imaging. The geometric and dosimetric tracking accuracies were measured in tracking experiments with motion phantoms that reproduced four prostate and four lung tumor trajectories. The geometric tracking error in beam's eye view was determined...
Dal Forno, Massimo; Craievich, Paolo; Baruzzo, Roberto; De Monte, Raffaele; Ferianis, Mario; Lamanna, Giuseppe; Vescovo, Roberto
2012-01-01
The Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is a beam diagnostic instrument which, in a seeded Free Electron Laser (FEL), allows the measurement of the electron beam position in a non-destructive way and with sub-micron resolution. It is composed by two resonant cavities called reference and position cavity, respectively. The measurement exploits the dipole mode that arises when the electron bunch passes off axis. In this paper we describe the Cavity BPM that has been designed and realized in the context of the FERMI@Elettra project [1]. New strategies have been adopted for the microwave design, for both the reference and the position cavities. Both cavities have been simulated by means of Ansoft HFSS [2] and CST Particle Studio [3], and have been realized using high precision lathe and wire-EDM (Electro-Discharge) machine, with a new technique that avoids the use of the sinker-EDM machine. Tuners have been used to accurately adjust the working frequencies for both cavities. The RF parameters have been estimated, and the modifications of the resonant frequencies produced by brazing and tuning have been evaluated. Finally, the Cavity BPM has been installed and tested in the presence of the electron beam.
Dal Forno, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.dalforno@phd.units.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Technology, University of Trieste (Italy); Craievich, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.craievich@elettra.trieste.it [Sicrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Baruzzo, Roberto [Cinel Strumenti Scientifici s.r.l., Vigonza, Padova (Italy); De Monte, Raffaele; Ferianis, Mario [Sicrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Lamanna, Giuseppe [Cinel Strumenti Scientifici s.r.l., Vigonza, Padova (Italy); Vescovo, Roberto [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information Technology, University of Trieste (Italy)
2012-01-11
The Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is a beam diagnostic instrument which, in a seeded Free Electron Laser (FEL), allows the measurement of the electron beam position in a non-destructive way and with sub-micron resolution. It is composed by two resonant cavities called reference and position cavity, respectively. The measurement exploits the dipole mode that arises when the electron bunch passes off axis. In this paper we describe the Cavity BPM that has been designed and realized in the context of the FERMI-Elettra project . New strategies have been adopted for the microwave design, for both the reference and the position cavities. Both cavities have been simulated by means of Ansoft HFSS and CST Particle Studio , and have been realized using high precision lathe and wire-EDM (Electro-Discharge) machine, with a new technique that avoids the use of the sinker-EDM machine. Tuners have been used to accurately adjust the working frequencies for both cavities. The RF parameters have been estimated, and the modifications of the resonant frequencies produced by brazing and tuning have been evaluated. Finally, the Cavity BPM has been installed and tested in the presence of the electron beam.
Information Processing Components of Koppitz Errors on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test.
Blaha, John; And Others
1979-01-01
The relative importance of different cognitive subprocesses in Bender performance was studied with Black middle-class first graders. Results suggest that the Bender owes much of its clinical validity to loadings across all stages of human information processing. Kagan's hypothesis on conceptual tempo in Bender performance is also analyzed. (SJL)
Reassessment of Inferring Personality Traits from Bender-Gestalt Drawing Styles.
Holmes, Cooper B.; And Others
1984-01-01
Assessed patients with closure difficulty on the Bender-Gestalt (N=50) and patients with edging tendencies on the Bender-Gestalt (N=50) for possible personality traits associated with those drawing styles. Results did not support using clients' Bender-Gestalt drawing style as a basis for inferring personality traits. (LLL)
Electromagnetic scattering from two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam
Wang Yun-Hua; Guo Li-Xin; Wu Qiong
2006-01-01
In this paper based on the equivalence principle and the reciprocity theorem, the scattered field up to second-order by two parallel 2D targets arbitrarily located in a Gaussian beam is considered. The first-order solution can easily be obtained by calculating the scattered field from isolated targets when illuminated by a Gaussian beam. However, because of the difficulty in formulating the couple scattering field, it is almost impossible to find an analytical solution for the second-order scattered field if the shapes of 2D targets are not canonical geometries. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper, the second-order solution is derived by using the technique based on the reciprocity theorem and the equivalence principle. Meanwhile, the relation between the secondary scattered field from target #1 and target #2 is obtained. Specifically, the bi- and mono-static scattering of Gaussian beam by two parallel adjacent inhomogeneous plasma-coated conducting circular cylinders is calculated and the dependence of attenuation of the scattering width on the thickness of the coated layer, electron number density, collision frequency and radar frequency is discussed in detail.
Effect of nonlinear radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the emittance of bunched beams
Phadte, D. S.; Patidar, C. B.
2013-07-01
Gap transformations are frequently used in ion Linac codes, to efficiently describe the particle dynamics. Using similar approach, we analyze the uniformly bunched beam passing through an axis-symmetric radiofrequency (RF) cavity. The method can be used for other distributions as well using a similar six dimensional analysis. The effect of non-linear RF field in radial and axial directions in an RF cavity and the finite phase width of the bunch, on the transverse and longitudinal emittance growth have been studied. The expressions obtained have been verified for the two types of cavity cells namely the zero mode DTL and pi mode CCL type used frequently in ion linacs. The results are seen to be valid for the entire maximum phase acceptance up to 360 degrees. Simulations with the equivalent beams of non-uniform distributions namely Waterbag and Gaussian show that at synchronous phases closer to the wave crest, the results give a good approximation of emittance growth in both planes for non-uniform beams.
Obituary: David Fulmer Bender, 1913-2004
Miller, Sylvia L.
2004-12-01
David Fulmer Bender died in San Diego, California, on 13 September 2004, at the age of 91. His heart stopped suddenly while he was dancing. His pioneering work in establishing comprehensive, computer-accessible ephemerides of asteroids and comets found many applications, including the first-ever visit to an asteroid, Gaspra, by an interplanetary spacecraft. Dave was born in Reno, Nevada, on 10 February 1913, to Homer Charles Bender and Susan Bowers Bender. The family moved to Spokane, Washington, while Dave was very young. His father was a civil engineer and a graduate of MIT, who helped design bridges and dams throughout the Northwest, including the Grand Coolie Dam. Dave had a brother, Phillip (now deceased), who was one year younger. Advancing rapidly in the Spokane school system, Dave finished high school when he was 15 years old. At 16 he moved to Pasadena, California, and began his studies at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In addition to pursuing his course work, he was active in track and football, a tendency toward physical exercise that stayed with him for the rest of his life. It was probably during these years that Dave heard a lecture by Albert Einstein, as mentioned to colleagues many years later. Dave received a BS degree in physics in 1933, an MS in 1934, and a PhD in 1937, all from Caltech. His dissertation was entitled, "The Index of Refraction of Air in the Photographic Infrared." During his sophomore year he found his way to Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he met his future wife, Elizabeth Boyden at a social gathering. They were married in 1935. Dave's academic career spanned the years from 1937 to 1970, initially at Louisiana State University, Vanderbilt University, and then Fisk. As a life-long pacifist and conscientious objector, Dave served alternate duty during World War II. In 1946 he joined the faculty of the physics department at Whittier College in California, where he became the department chair and
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Schildkamp, W.; Jaski, Y. [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tonnessen, T.; Douglas, G. [Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations, 2511 C. Broadbent Parkway, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States)
1996-09-01
When silicon single crystal mirrors are bent to cylindrical figures of typically 6 km bending radius, the moments needed are very small and easy to disturb by cooling attachments to the sides of the mirror. Hence, we decided to abandon the conventional concept of cooling plates attached to the sides of the mirrors and instead have chosen to use internal water channels. We present here the design of mirrors with cooling channels near the neutral axis of the silicon beam that have a rather thick {open_quote}{open_quote}hot wall.{close_quote}{close_quote} The results of this analytical work are nonintuitive, regarding the stresses produced by wiggler heating. The design path chosen minimizes figure errors due to coolant pressure variations and residual stresses from machining and bonding of multiple layers of silicon. The geometry of the water channels avoids water-to-vacuum seals and uses the mirror bender as the coolant manifold. Engineering efforts, which reduce the bending stresses at bender-to-silicon interface by a factor of five, will be presented. The complete mirror bender and motion control mechanics will be shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Electromagnetic-scattering by bi-sphere groups and coherent-beam scattering by homogeneous spheres
Linsheng LIU; Hengyu KE; Zhensen WU; Lu BAI
2008-01-01
By using Mie's theory, the boundary condi-tions, and some advanced mathematical knowledge, the scattering problem of a plane-wave by bi-sphere groups and of cores-traversed coherent Gauss-beams by one sphere was addressed. In each, the coefficients of the scattering-field expressions were deduced. Finally, the result was predigested and transfigured so that the available form for programming was achieved. On deducing, the former adopted the undetermined coeffi-cient method and the latter used the plane geometry method. Moreover, the complexity of the calculation was decreased here.
Barreda, Angela I; Litman, Amelie; Gonzalez, Francisco; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Moreno, Fernando
2016-01-01
High Refractive Index (HRI) dielectric particles smaller than the wavelength, isolated or forming a designed ensemble are ideal candidates as new multifunctional elements for building optical devices. Their directionality effects are traditionally analyzed through forward and backward measurements, even if these directions are not suitable for practical purposes. Here we present unambiguous experimental evidence in the microwave range that, for a dimer of HRI spherical particles, a perfect switching effect (perfect means off = null intensity) is observed out of those directions as a consequence of the mutual particle electric/magnetic interaction. The binary state depends on the excitation polarization (polarization switching). Its analysis is performed through the linear polarization degree of scattered radiation at a detection direction perpendicular to the incident direction: the beam-splitter configuration. The scaling property of Maxwell equations allows generalizing our results to other frequency range ...
Electromagnetic acceleration of material from a plate hit by a pulsed electron beam
Garcia, M.
1998-04-16
An intense pulsed electron beam traversing a thin metal plate creates a volume of dense plasma. Current flows in this plasma as a result of the charge and magnetic field introduced by the relativistic electrons. A magnetic field may linger after the electron beam pulse because of the conductivity of the material. This field decays by both diffusing out of the conducting matter and causing it to expand. If the magnetized matter is of low density and high conductivity it may expand quickly. Scaling laws for this acceleration are sought by analyzing the idealization of a steady axisymmetric flow. This case simplifies a general formulation based on both Euler`s and Maxwell`s equations. As an example, fluid with conductivity {sigma} = 8 x 10{sup 4} Siemens/m, density {rho} = 8 x 10{sup -3} kg/m{sup 3}, and initially magnetized to B = 1 Tesla can accelerate to v = 10{sup 4} m/s within a distance comparable to L = 1 mm and a time comparable to {sigma}{mu}L{sup 2} = 100 ns, which is the magnetic diffusion time. If instead, {sigma} = 8 x 10{sup 3} Siemens/m and {rho} = 8 x 10{sup -5} kg/m{sup 3} then v = 10{sup 5} m/s with a magnetic diffusion time {sigma}{mu}L{sup 2} = 10 ns. These idealized flows have R{sub M} = {sigma}{mu}vL = 1, where R{sub M} is the magnetic Reynolds number. The target magnetizes by a thermal electric effect.
Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1996-12-01
A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries and uses an electromagnetic field which is decomposed in its transverse magnetic (TM) and electric (TE) components. The code has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D, and on the CRAY Y-MP. (author) figs., tabs., refs.
Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, 5 Bisbee Ct., Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States); Li, R.X., E-mail: rxli@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Guo, L.X. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China); Ding, C.Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071 (China)
2015-10-15
A complete description of vector Bessel (vortex) beams in the context of the generalized Lorenz–Mie theory (GLMT) for the electromagnetic (EM) resonance scattering by a dielectric sphere is presented, using the method of separation of variables and the subtraction of a non-resonant background (corresponding to a perfectly conducting sphere of the same size) from the standard Mie scattering coefficients. Unlike the conventional results of standard optical radiation, the resonance scattering of a dielectric sphere in air in the field of EM Bessel beams is examined and demonstrated with particular emphasis on the EM field’s polarization and beam order (or topological charge). Linear, circular, radial, azimuthal polarizations as well as unpolarized Bessel vortex beams are considered. The conditions required for the resonance scattering are analyzed, stemming from the vectorial description of the EM field using the angular spectrum decomposition, the derivation of the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) using the integral localized approximation (ILA) and Neumann–Graf’s addition theorem, and the determination of the scattering coefficients of the sphere using Debye series. In contrast with the standard scattering theory, the resonance method presented here allows the quantitative description of the scattering using Debye series by separating diffraction effects from the external and internal reflections from the sphere. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to include rainbow formation in Bessel beams and the derivation of a generalized formula for the deviation angle of high-order rainbows. Potential applications for this analysis include Bessel beam-based laser imaging spectroscopy, atom cooling and quantum optics, electromagnetic instrumentation and profilometry, optical tweezers and tractor beams, to name a few emerging areas of research.
Irvine, William T M
2011-01-01
Maxwell's equations allow for some remarkable solutions consisting of pulsed beams of light which have linked and knotted field lines. The preservation of the topological structure of the field lines in these solutions has previously been ascribed to the fact that the electric and magnetic helicity, a measure of the degree of linking and knotting between field lines, are conserved. Here we show that the elegant evolution of the field is due to the stricter condition that the electric and magnetic fields be everywhere orthogonal. The field lines then satisfy a `frozen field' condition and evolve as if they were unbreakable filaments embedded in a fluid. The preservation of the orthogonality of the electric and magnetic field lines is guaranteed for null, shear-free fields such as the ones considered here by a theorem of Robinson. We calculate the flow field of a particular solution and find it to have the form of a Hopf fibration moving at the speed of light in a direction opposite to the propagation of the pu...
Sociocultural Factors and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Performance.
Sapp, Gary L.
The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BG), a test of visual-motor integration, is a screening device used to investigate school-related factors that may produce poor academic achievement and learning disabilities. Because BG test stimuli are not obviously related to classroom content, and because BG scores are frequently offered as evidence of…
Bender Test Recall in Children: An Unreliable Test.
Rogers, Dan L.
1980-01-01
To assess the utility and reliability of Bender test recall in children, 304 children (ages 5 through 14) were individually administered the copy and recall phases using Koppitz's directions. The recall phase was judged to be of doubtful utility in assessing intellectual functioning in children. (Author/SJL)
A Benders approach for the constrained minimum break problem
Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; Trick, Michael
2007-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid IP/CP algorithm for designing a double round robin schedule with a minimal number of breaks. Both mirrored and non-mirrored schedules with and without place constraints are considered. The algorithm uses Benders cuts to obtain feasible home-away pattern sets in few...
Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator
Miller, E. R.
1972-01-01
Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.
2003-01-01
A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angular...... orientation of a plurality of micro-objects may be individually controlled.A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having...
Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)
2013-03-15
Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.
Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, H; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J.
2012-01-01
Purpose Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso® 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in post-prostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for post-prostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Results Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: − 0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5 degrees, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion Target rotational motion could cause under-dosage to partial volume of the post-prostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. PMID:23021439
Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J
2013-03-15
Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: -0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glückstad, Jesper; Eriksen, Rene Lynge; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2003-01-01
A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angular orientation of a plurality of micro-objects may be individually controlled.A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of ...
Solving a reverse supply chain design problem by improved Benders decomposition schemes.
Santibanez-Gonzalez, Ernesto Del Rosario; Diabat, Ali
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose improved Benders decomposition schemes for solving a remanufacturing supply chain design problem (RSCP). We introduce a set of valid inequalities in order to improve the quality of the lower bound and also to accelerate the convergence of the classical Benders algorithm. We also derive quasi Pareto-optimal cuts for improving convergence and propose a Benders decomposition scheme to solve our RSCP problem. Computational experiments for randomly generated networks of up...
Flat profile laser beam shaper
Johnson, Todd R.
2017-09-12
A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.
Comparison of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and the Bender-Gestalt test.
Brown, M J
1977-12-01
The Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration (Beery) and the Bender-Gestalt test (Bender) were administered to 44 second-grade children. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Beery) were compared. The correlation of .43 between Bender (Koppitz scoring) and Beery scores was moderate but statistically significant. A t test for dependent groups indicated a significant difference between the means on the Bender and Beery tests. These results confirm that neither test should be utilized as the sole indicator of visual-motor perception.
Differential functioning of Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test items.
Sisto, Fermino Fernandes; Dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto
2010-02-01
Differential Item Functioning (DIF) refers to items that do not function the same way for comparable members of different groups. The present study focuses on analyzing and classifying sex-related differential item functioning in the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 1,052 children attending public schools (513 boys, 539 girls, ages 6-10 years). The protocols were scored using the Bender Graduated Scoring System, which evaluates only the distortion criterion using the Rasch logistic response model. The scoring system fit the Rasch model, although two items were found to be biased by sex. When analyzing differential functioning of items for boys and girls separately, the number of differentially functioning items was equal.
Bender-Gestalt Test correlates of prognosis in Unipolar Depression
Mr. Anand Prakash MPhil
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The Bender-Gestalt test (B-G test was administered to examine its prognostic implications in an Ethiopian sample with unipolar depression. Total 30 patients with moderate level of depression were included in study and their time taken was compared against the performance on the B-G test. Finally, a significant difference was found between time taken and Z-scores of the test supporting the prognostic value of this test in unipolar depression.
Applied Electromagnetism and Materials
Moliton, André
2007-01-01
Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.
Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael
1999-01-01
Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)
Relationship of Bender Memory to Achievement in Arithmetic by First Graders.
Snyder, Robert T.; And Others
1980-01-01
Arithmetic and reading achievement scores of 84 children were correlated with power and precision of Bender Memory using the Bender Visual Memory Technique (BVMT). Of the 20 correlations, 16 were significant. Support for recommended use of the BVMT as a screening instrument for early assessment of arithmetic skill is provided. (Author/SJL)
Multiple Sources of Test Bias on the WISC-R and Bender-Gestalt Test.
Oakland, Thomas; Feigenbaum, David
1979-01-01
Assessed test bias on the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Bender-Gestalt. On the Bender, evidence of bias was infrequent and irregular. On the WISC-R, group differences were most discernible for age, sex, family structure, and race. Consistent patterns of bias were not apparent among comparison groups. (Author)
Fuller, Gerald B.; Wallbrown, Fred H.
1983-01-01
Compared the Bender Gestalt (BD) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) in predicting academic achievement for younger children (N=69). Results suggested that the MPD is more sensitive than the Bender in identifying visual-motor perception areas of achievement performance problems. (LLL)
Vance, Booney; Gore, William V.
The relationship between word recognition subtests of the Wide Range Achievement Test and Peabody Individual Achievement Test with Bender-Gestalt and the Berry-Buktencia Test of Visual Motor Integration was examined with 27 children (7-14 years old) referred for psychological services. The Bender and Berry tests are among the most popular…
Predicting Reading and Arithmetic Achievement by Using Bender Gestalt and Visual Memory Technique.
Rust, James O.; And Others
1982-01-01
First grade students were administered a screening battery that included the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test, the Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Bender Gestalt Test, and the Visual Memory Technique. Stepwise regression equations revealed that the Bender Gestalt Test significantly increased the predictive power of the test battery. (FL)
Scaled Score Transformations of Bender Gestalt Expectancy Levels for Young Children
Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Lucas, David G.
1971-01-01
The present study was aimed at developing a method for the transformation of Bender performance into scaled score equivalents and at testing the validity of such scaled score equivalents. The use of scaled scores permits a more direct comparison between Bender performance and performance on measures of intellectual ability. (Author)
Bender-Gestalt Emotional Indicators and Acting-Out Behavior in Young Children.
Trahan, Donald; Stricklin, Ann
1979-01-01
The relationship between 15 emotional indicators on the Bender Gestalt Test and the acting out behavior of 93 children, ages 5 to 12, as rated by their teachers, was investigated. Use of the Bender as a projective measure was seriously questioned. The ten-item behavioral rating scale is appended. (MH)
Analysis of bender element test interpretation using the discrete element method
O’Donovan, J.; O’Sullivan, C.; Marketos, G.; Muir Wood, D.
2015-01-01
While bender element testing is now well-established as a laboratory technique to determine soil stiffness, a robust technique to interpret the data remains elusive. A discrete element method (DEM) model of a face-centred cubic packing of uniform spheres was created to simulate bender element tests
Vance, Booney; Gore, William V.
The relationship between word recognition subtests of the Wide Range Achievement Test and Peabody Individual Achievement Test with Bender-Gestalt and the Berry-Buktencia Test of Visual Motor Integration was examined with 27 children (7-14 years old) referred for psychological services. The Bender and Berry tests are among the most popular…
The Stability of Koppitz Scores on the Bender-Gestalt for Reading Disabled Children.
Wallbrown, Fred H.; Fremont, Theodore
1980-01-01
Findings support Koppitz's assertion that the total error score for the Bender Gestalt Test is stable and reliable. Working time is a relatively stable dimension of Bender performance, which may be of value in assessment activities. Perseveration and integration should not be used in differential diagnosis. (Author)
The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender-Gestalt: Is It Developmental?
Taylor, Ronald L.; And Others
1984-01-01
Investigated the developmental aspects of the Koppitz scoring system with 652 children who took the Bender Motor Gestalt Test. Scores were fitted to various developmental curves by computer. Results indicated only 35 percent of the Bender test performance variance was accounted for by age. (JAC)
Comparison of Native American Navajo Bender-Gestalt Performance with Koppitz and Sompa Norms.
Moore, Clay L.; Zarske, John A.
1984-01-01
Compared Bender-Gestalt performance of 452 Navajo children with 1974 Koppitz and System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment norms (SOMPA), and investigated the use of the Bender-Gestalt for diagnosing learning disabilities. Results suggested the Koppitz and SOMPA White norms may be useful in psychological assessment of Navajo children. (JAC)
Dragt, A.J.; Gluckstern, R.L.
1993-06-01
The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates.
Surface-mounted bender elements for measuring horizontal shear wave velocity of soils
Yan-guo ZHOU; Yun-min CHEN; Yoshiharu ASAKA; Tohru ABE
2008-01-01
The bender element testing features its in-plane directivity,which allows using bender elements to measure the shear wave velocities in a wider range of in-plane configurations besides the standard tip-to-tip alignment.This paper proposed a novel bender element testing technique for measuring the horizontal shear wave velocity of soils,where the bender elements are surface-mounted and the axes of the source and receiver elements are parallel to each other.The preliminary tests performed on model ground of silica sand showed that,by properly determining the travel distance and time of the shear waves,the surface-mounted bender elements can perform as accurately as the conventional "tip-to-tip" configuration.Potentially,the present system provides a promising nondestructive tool for characterizing geomaterials and site conditions both in laboratory and in the fields.
Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator
Halbach, Klaus
1988-01-01
This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.
In-beam background suppression shield
Santoro, V.; Cai, Xiao Xiao; DiJulio, D. D.
2015-01-01
, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative...
The validity of the Bender-Gestalt emotional indicators.
Rossini, E D; Kaspar, J C
1987-01-01
We evaluated the concurrent validity of the revised Bender-Gestalt emotional indicators (Koppitz, 1975) among three groups of children in the 7- to 10-year age range: adjustment disorder, behavior disorder, and normal control. The concurrent validity of the emotional indicators total score was demonstrated. Notably, with the developmental level controlled, both clinical groups produced significantly more emotional indicators than the control group, although the two clinical groups could not be differentiated. Nominal-data analyses of the 13 individual emotional indicators indicated that three specific indicators (confused order, large size, boxed figures) possessed validity as pathognomonic signs. We discuss issues concerning the use of the emotional indicators in clinical practice.
Design and Scheduling of Microgrids using Benders Decomposition
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Ayyanar, Raja
2016-11-21
The distribution feeder laterals in a distribution feeder with relatively high PV generation as compared to the load can be operated as microgrids to achieve reliability, power quality and economic benefits. However, renewable resources are intermittent and stochastic in nature. A novel approach for sizing and scheduling an energy storage system and microturbine for reliable operation of microgrids is proposed. The size and schedule of an energy storage system and microturbine are determined using Benders' decomposition, considering PV generation as a stochastic resource.
Kimball, J G
1977-01-01
The Southern California Sensory Integration Tests (SCSIT) and the Bender Gestalt are two measures used to evaluate children with suspected perceptual-motor deficits. Since these tests are used primarily by two groups of professionals, occupational therapists and psychologists, it was thought that studying the correlations between these two tests might help psychologists to know which children needed to be referred to an occupational therapist for sensory integrative evaluation, and might help the occupational therapist to understand the psychologist's use of the Bender Gestalt. The use of the Bender by the occupational therapist as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction was also investigated. The SCSIT and Bender were given to 26 children with suspected sensory integrative dysfunction. Scores on the Bender were found to be predictive of grouped scores on the Form and Space Perception and Praxis-Tactile sections of the SCSIT, but not of the Postural and Bilateral Integration section. It was concluded that when the Bender is used as a screening device for sensory integrative dysfunction, some measure of postural mechanisms must be included. Correlations between the Bender and individual tests of the SCSIT were also studied.
Han, Lu; Han, Yiping; Wang, Jiajie; Cui, Zhiwei
2014-09-01
Within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, scattering from a homogeneous spheroidal particle illuminated by an on-axis zero-order Bessel beam is formulated analytically, with special attention paid to the investigation of internal and near-surface fields. Numerical results concerning the spatial distributions of internal and near-surface fields are presented for various parameter values, such as the half-cone angle of the incident zero-order Bessel beam, the major axis, the minor axis, and the refractive index of the spheroid. The study of internal and near-surface field distributions will contribute to the understanding of Bessel beam scattering by nonspherical particles with sizes close to the incident wavelength.
Ivanov, B I
2002-01-01
The anomalous Doppler effect (ADE) in systems consisting of an electron beam and slow wave structure in longitudinal magnetic field is considered. Resonance condition for amplifiers and generators based on ADE enables resonance maintaining in case of wave phase velocity or beam velocity changing (acceleration of ions at ADE, reception of high efficiency at microwave generation). Essential advantages can be reached at combination of ADE and normal Doppler effect. The review of experimental studies of ADE is presented: amplification and generation of microwaves, energetic relations, excitation of accelerating IH-structures, development of ion acceleration.
Arnold, L. Eugene; And Others
1978-01-01
The differential effect of amphetamine optical isomers on Bender Gestalt performance was examined in 31 hyperkinetic minimally brain dysfunctioned children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, using a double-blind Latin-square crossover comparison. (Author)
An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items
Lambert, Nadine M.
1971-01-01
This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)
Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children
Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred
1975-01-01
This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)
Bender Gestalt Signs and Anti-Social Acting Out Tendencies in Adolescents
Brannigan, Gary G.; Benowity, Martin L.
1975-01-01
This study explores the relationship between performance on the Bender-Gestalt test and antisocial acting out tendencies in adolescents. Results indicate that uneven figure size and exaggerated curvature are the best indicators of antisocial acting out tendencies. (Author)
The Bender-Gestalt Test in Differential Diagnosis of Adolescents with Learning Difficulties
Mordock, John B.; and others
1968-01-01
Attempt to assess efficiency of Haine and Koppitz scoring systems with Bender-Gestalt in ability to differentiate between brain-damaged and other young people in a residential treatment center did not prove useful. (Author/CJ)
Loffredo, Filomena; Vardaci, Emanuele; Quarto, Maria; Roca, Vincenzo; Pugliese, Mariagabriella
2017-01-01
In the study of the effectiveness of shielding materials against radiations, one of the main steps concerns with the validation of models describing the interaction processes of the radiation of interest with the material chosen for the shielding. This paper shows the results of the validation of electromagnetic and hadronic processes with the aim to contribute to the study of protection for astronauts against the radiations due to the Solar Particle Events, in particular to the selection of the optimal material for radiation shielding. The physics case deals with the interaction of a proton beam with an aluminum slab about 20 g/cm2 thick. Two specific applications, STP and DOSE, were developed by using Geant4 package. STP computes the radiations produced in the interaction and their stopping power; DOSE computes the absorbed dose from the stopping power calculated by STP. The validation process was performed in two steps. In the first one, the output of the STP code is compared to data available on NIST database; in the second one, the absorbed dose computed with DOSE is compared to the dose gathered during an experiment performed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory involving the bombardment of an aluminum slab with a 1 GeV proton beam. The computing model has allowed us to correlate the size of the impinging beam profile to the dose measured before and after an Al slab. The sharp increase of the dose in the position right after the slab might be due to the stochastic nature of the trajectories of charged ions in matter which makes the radiation to emerge with non-zero transverse linear momentum. From the case examined here, we conclude that aluminum is not an efficient material for Solar Particle Event shielding.
A PROCEDURE TO CALIBRATE AND PERFORM THE BENDER ELEMENT TEST
JAVIER FERNANDO CAMACHO-TAUTA
2012-01-01
Full Text Available El método de ensayo bender element es utilizado en laboratorio para obtener la velocidad de la onda cortante de suelos. A pesar de su aparente simplicidad, aún no existe una norma para este ensayo. Existen factores que pueden tener alguna incidencia sobre el resultado. Estos factores son tenidos en cuenta para diseñar y construir un sistema de ensayo en una cámara triaxial. Se propone un método para calibrar el sistema mediante la utilización de barras de aluminio de diferente longitud y se hacen recomendaciones para la ejecución del ensayo, en lo relacionado con la selección de la frecuencia del pulso sinusoidal utilizado para producir la perturbación. Finalmente, se presentan ensayos efectuados sobre dos muestras de arena.
Kalitzova, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics - BAS, Boulevard Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: markaliz@issp.bas.bg; Peeva, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics - BAS, Boulevard Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ignatova, V. [SCK.CEN, Reactor Materials Research, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lebedev, O.I. [EMAT, RUCA, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Zollo, G. [Dipartimento di Enerdetica, Univ. La Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Vitali, G. [Dipartimento di Enerdetica, Univ. La Sapienza, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy)
2006-01-15
The post-implantation effect of high frequency electromagnetic field (HFEMF) on the microstructure and electrical properties of high dose Te{sup +} and Bi{sup +} implanted (1 0 0) Si was investigated by cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy and four-point probe electrical measurements. Te and Bi nanoclusters (NCs) embedded in amorphized Si have been formed by ion implantation. Post-implantation treatment with HFEMF reorganizes the cluster shape and distribution by stimulation of spinodal decomposition and ordering of Te NCs to a percolation system. The effect of HFEMF on Bi NCs is assumed to be connected with the formation of electrical microcurrents causing local heating of their interfaces with the a-Si matrix. The results of electrical measurements show that the HFEMF application reduces the sheet resistance by a factor of about 6 for Te{sup +} and about 3 for Bi{sup +} irradiation.
Kickuth, R.; Reichling, C.; Bley, T.; Hahn, D.; Ritter, C. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
2015-07-15
To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of C-arm fluoroscopic cone-beam computed tomography (CACT) in combination with a new electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system for needle guidance during percutaneous biopsies. 53 patients were referred for biopsy of thoracic (n = 19) and abdominal (n = 34) lesions. CT-like images of the anatomical region of interest (ROI) were generated using a flat panel-based angiographic system. These images were transmitted to an EMT system. A coaxial puncture needle with a sensor in its tip was connected with the navigation system and tracked into an electromagnetic field created via a field generator. Data generated within this field were merged with the CACT images. On a monitor both the anatomical ROI and needle tip position were displayed to enable precise needle insertion into the target. Through the coaxial needle, biopsy specimens for the histologic evaluation were extracted. Number of representative biopsy samples, number of core biopsies/patient, total procedure time, dose-area product, fluoroscopic time, and complications were recorded. 53 CACT/EMT-guided biopsy procedures were performed, 48 of which (91 %) yielded representative tissue samples. Four core biopsies were obtained from each patient. 40 (75 %) lesions were malignant and 13 (25 %) lesions were benign. The total procedure time was 9 ± 5 min (range, 3 - 23 min), fluoroscopic time was 0.8 ± 0.4 min (range, 0.4 - 2 min). The mean dose-area product (cGy cm{sup 2}) was 7373 (range, 895 - 26 904). The rate of complications (1 pneumothorax, 2 hemoptyses) was 6 %. CACT combined with EMT appears to be a feasible and effective technique for the guidance of percutaneous biopsies with a low rate of therapeutically relevant complications.
无
2001-01-01
Concrete forms of resonant response (ER) for a strongelectromagnetic (EM) wave beam (photon flux) propagating in a static magnetic field to a standing gravitational wave (gravitons) are given, and the corresponding perturbation solutions and resonant conditions are obtained. It is found that perturbed EM fields (PEMFs) contain three new components with frequencies ｜ωg±ωe｜ and ωg, respectively. In the case of ωeωg, the PEMFs are manifested as the EM wave beams with frequency ωe and a standing EM wave with ωg. The former and the background EM wave beam (BEMWB) have the same propagating direction, while in the case of ωgωe, all PEMFs are expressed as the standing EM waves with frequency ωg. The resonant response occurs in two cases of ωe=1/2ωg and ωe=ωg only. Then not only the first order perturbed energy fluxes (PEFs) propagating in the same and opposite directions of the BEMWB can be generated, but also radial and tangential PEFs which are perpendicular to the above directions can be produced. This effect might provide a new way for the EM detection of the gravitational waves (GWs). Moreover, the possible schemes of displaying perturbed effects induced by the standing GW with h=10-33-10-35 and λg=0.1 m at the level of the single photon avalanche and in a typicla laboratory dimension are reviewed.
Auffray, Etiennette; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benhammou, Ya; Blick, A M; Bloch, P; Bonamy, P; Bourotte, J; Buiron, L; Cavallari, F; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Dafinei, I; Davies, G; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Diemoz, M; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Donskov, S V; Mamouni, H E; Ercoli, C; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Gautheron, F; Géléoc, M; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Inyakin, A V; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kirn, T; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Longo, E; MacKay, C K; Martin, E; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Organtini, G; Paoletti, S; Pansart, J P; Peigneux, J P; Puljak, I; Qian, S; Reid, E; Renker, D; Rosowsky, A; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schneegans, M; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Sillou, D; Singovsky, A V; Sougonyaev, V; Soric, I; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y
1998-01-01
Tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices carried out in high-energy electron beams in 1996, using new crystals, new APDs and an improved test set-up, confirm that an energy resolution of better than 0 .6% at 100 GeV can be obtained when the longitudinal uniformity of the struck crystal is adequate. Light loss measurements under low dose irradiation are reported. It is shown that there is no loss of energy resolution after irradiation and that the calibration change due to light loss can be tracked with a precision monitoring system. Finally, successuful tests with a preshower device, equipped wi th silicon strip detector readout, are described.
Barreda, Ángela I.; Saleh, Hassan; Litman, Amelie; González, Francisco; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Moreno, Fernando
2017-01-01
Sub-wavelength particles made from high-index dielectrics, either individual or as ensembles, are ideal candidates for multifunctional elements in optical devices. Their directionality effects are traditionally analysed through forward and backward measurements, even if these directions are not convenient for in-plane scattering practical purposes. Here we present unambiguous experimental evidence in the microwave range that for a dimer of HRI spherical particles, a perfect switching effect is observed out of those directions as a consequence of the mutual particle electric/magnetic interaction. The binary state depends on the excitation polarization. Its analysis is performed through the linear polarization degree of scattered radiation at a detection direction perpendicular to the incident direction: the beam-splitter configuration. The scaling property of Maxwell's equations allows the generalization of our results to other frequency ranges and dimension scales, for instance, the visible and the nanometric scale.
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...
A strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator
Halbach, K.
1987-01-30
This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles. 4 figs.
Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.
Martin, John D.; And Others
1979-01-01
The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)
Brannigan, Gary G.; Brunner, Nancy A.
1993-01-01
Examined two scoring systems for Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. Administered Bender-Gestalt and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test to 75 first-grade and 84 second-grade students. Both systems were significantly correlated with school ability. Results of tests for differences between correlations indicated that Qualitative Scoring System…
Haddad, Frederick A.
1986-01-01
Results of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) and Bender-Gestalt Test were compared for a sample of learning disabled children that included 24 blacks and 24 whites; mean age 9 years. A significant correlation coefficient was found between the K-ABC Simultaneous Scale and the Bender-Gestalt Test error score. Implications of these…
Butler, Oliver T.; And Others
1976-01-01
This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....
Bender test (B-SPG and HFD-escala Sisto: Validity by contrasting groups
Daniel Bartholomeu
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This study investigated validity evidences by contrasting groups for the Bender (B-SPG and DFH-Escala Sisto. The instruments were administered to 244 pupils, being 50.4% boys and all of them aged from seven to 10 years, with an average of eight years (DP=1,08 attending from first to fourth grades of the basic education of a public school in the state of São Paulo. The tests were collectively administered and the slides of the Bender test were projected in the blackboard to be copied by the children. Differences between the extreme groups of the DFH in relation to the Bender scores were evidenced in all the studied situations. It was concluded that the Gestaltic Test furnishes an estimative of the intellectual capacities of children and differentiates those with bigger scores in the DFH from those less scored.
Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.
Armstrong, B B; Knopf, K F
1982-08-01
The Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration were administered to two groups of 40 children each, ages 7 through 10 yr. Developmental age scores (Koppitz scoring) and age equivalents (Revised Beery manual) were obtained. Children screened for learning disabilities were selected for one group and children enrolled in regular classrooms were selected for another group. The correlation of .74 between the Bender and Beery test scores was high and statistically significant for the learning-disabled group. The correlation of .36 was low though statistically significant for the regular students, which suggests the groups performed differently on the tests. A significant mean difference of 9 mo. was noted between the Bender and Beery scores.
Bender performance and socioeconomic status in Mexican children: a cross-cultural study.
Fernández, T; Tuset, A M
2007-12-01
Normative data are presented for Bender test performance, following the system of Koppitz, of 695 Mexican students between 5.0 and 12.1 yr. old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.01) and belonging to different socioeconomic status. The data are compared with the normative group of U.S. students used by Koppitz and with a representative sample of children from Barcelona, Spain. The results indicate that the total number of Bender errors decreased with increasing age of the children and that significant differences existed with respect to socioeconomic status. The comparison of these data with U.S. and Spanish children shows significant differences in all age groups, with the Mexican children scoring lowest. Differences in quality of schooling and in other aspects of education could explain the variability in Bender test performance.
The Bender-Gestalt with adolescents: comparison of two scoring systems.
McIntosh, J A; Belter, R W; Saylor, C F; Finch, A J; Edwards, G L
1988-03-01
The present study was designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of two different scoring systems (Koppitz, 1975; Lacks, 1984) for use in evaluating Bender-Gestalt performance by adolescents. Normative data are presented for the two scoring systems with a sample of "normal" controls (N = 150), emotionally disturbed (N = 140), and mentally retarded/neurologically impaired adolescents (N = 47), aged 12-17. Results suggested that age and psychopathology were not related to the quality of the Bender-Gestalt reproductions of these subjects. An inverse relationship was found between cognitive ability and visual motor skills. Data obtained from these samples of adolescents showed a high degree of consistency between the scoring systems, which suggests that either scoring procedure is suitable for evaluating the Bender-Gestalt performance of adolescents.
Ozer, Serap
2011-02-01
The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.
A solution approach to the ROADEF/EURO 2010 challenge based on Benders' Decomposition
Lusby, Richard Martin; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Petersen, Bjørn
We present a Benders’ decomposition based framework for solving a large scale energy management problem with varied constraints posed as the ROADEF/EURO 2010 challenge. Because of the nature of the problem, not all constraints can be modeled satisfactorily as linear constraints and the approach...... is therefore divided into two stages: in the first stage Benders feasibility and optimality cuts are added based on the linear programming relaxation of the Benders Master problem, and in the second stage feasible integer solutions are enumerated and procedure is applied to each solution in an attempt to make...
Bender scores and the horse as a distinct item on object assembly of the WISC.
Thomas, A D
1984-08-01
This exploratory study investigated the relationship between two measures of perceptual-motor problems. Ratios derived from the Object Assembly subtest of the WISC with errors greater than 1 SD on the Bender test using Koppitz' scoring system were compared. The sample of 66 white middle-class children was 6 to 11 yr. old. The particular ratio studied was statistically significantly associated with the Bender, whereas ratios of other Object Assembly items were not. The Horse ratio was also significantly associated with the presence of learning problems shown in children's files.
Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator
Zaeper, R.; Richwin, M. E-mail: richwin@uni-wuppertal.de; Wollmann, R.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R
2001-07-21
A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.
Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator
Zaeper, R; Wollmann, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R
2001-01-01
A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.
Serfon, C
2005-05-15
ATLAS is one of the four experiments being built on the future proton-proton collider at CERN: the LHC. This experiment has a large physics program, from Standard Model to new physics. The search for the Higgs boson in two photons or in four leptons, or the search of Z' or W' needs a good energy resolution for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This thesis describes the beam tests performed on three modules of the electromagnetic end cap calorimeter. A 0.6% non-uniformity, and a 0.7% energy resolution global constant term (dominant at high energy) has been obtained. Moreover, a study on the separation between electrons and jets is also performed. This study shows that a jets rejection factor of 10{sup 5} can be obtained keeping an electron efficiency better than 78%. (author)
Lifshitz, Michaela
1978-01-01
The present study assessed the extent to which kindergarten children's performance on the Bender-Gestalt Test is related to sex and sociocultural variables and to children's social behavior. Two distinctly different Israeli populations were included: the Druze and the Jews. Significant correlations between perceptual indicators and social…
Lesiak, Judi
1984-01-01
Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)
Comparison of Two Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.
Schachter, Steven; And Others
1991-01-01
Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…
Comparison of the Bender-Gestalt and Revised Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.
Armstrong, Barbara B.; Knopf, Karen F.
1982-01-01
Using children with learning disabilities and children enrolled in regular classrooms, test scores on the Bender-Gestalt and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration indicated high and significant correlations for the learning-disabled group and low but significant correlations for regular students. A nine-month mean difference in scores…
Bender Gestalt Test Performance and the Word Recognition Skills of Disadvantaged Children
Baker, E. H.; Thurber, Steven
1976-01-01
The Bender Gestalt Test and the WRAT reading section were administered to 147 disadvantaged children. The zero-order correlation of -.62 was found to be moderated by the variable of age. For younger subjects, highly significant first- and second-order partial correlations were obtained with age and/or WISC information scores held constant. (Author)
Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.
Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others
1995-01-01
Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…
Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.
Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda
1985-01-01
The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)
Dixon, J L
1998-02-01
This study evaluated the concurrent validity of Koppitz' revised Bender-Gestalt Emotional Indicators among 44 women with mental retardation. The concurrent validity of the Emotional Indicator total score was not supported when compared with responses on two widely used and accepted screening inventories, the Reiss Screen and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning.
Koppitz errors on the Bender-Gestalt for adult retardates: normative data.
Andert, J N; Dinning, W D; Hustak, T L
1976-04-01
Normative data on the Koppitz developmental scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test were derived from a sample which included 510 protocols of adult resident retardates. Percentile norms are presented on Koppitz error scores for three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two AAMD ranges of retardation based on Stanford-Binet IQs.
Assessing Secondary Students with the Bender, VADS, and HFD: Research and Application.
Koppitz, Elizabeth M.
The Koppitz Minibattery, that is, the Bender Gestalt Test, the Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS), and the Human Figure Drawing (HFD), was adopted and extended for use with middle school pupils (aged 11 to 14). Similarities and differences for older and younger children are described in behavior observation, objective scores and the qualitative…
Foster, Glen G.; And Others
1976-01-01
Ten special education teachers and two school psychologists scored the Bender-Gestalt protocals of elementary school children using the Koppitz scoring system. The reported correlations between teachers and school psychologists compared favorably to correlations between school psychologists as well as to interrater reliabilities reported in the…
Performance of American Indian Children Compared with Koppitz Normative Population on the Bender.
Lansford, L. M.; Asmussen, J. M.
Differences in the normative data presented in the Koppitz Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test (a measure for diagnosing learning and neurological disorders) were compared for 838 elementary age children of the Sioux, Chippewa, Navajo, and Apache tribes and a Koppitz normative group. Considered were mean error differences and mean time…
Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale
Gregory Mary K.
1977-01-01
A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…
Shapiro, S K; Simpson, R G
1995-01-01
Data are presented to assess the use of the Koppitz scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt Test in a sample (N = 87) of behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Results suggested that age was modestly related to Koppitz Developmental scores, an indication that visual-motor skills continue to develop beyond age 11. Scores were related to spatial perception skills as measured on the WISC-R. Gender, primary psychiatric diagnosis, educational tests, and MMPI scores were not related to Bender performance. Findings are discussed in terms of a need for additional research into the utility of the Bender as a measure of visual-motor skills in adolescents.
Superconducting dipole electromagnet
Purcell, John R.
1977-07-26
A dipole electromagnet of especial use for bending beams in particle accelerators is wound to have high uniformity of magnetic field across a cross section and to decrease evenly to zero as the ends of the electromagnet are approached by disposing the superconducting filaments of the coil in the crescent-shaped nonoverlapping portions of two intersecting circles. Uniform decrease at the ends is achieved by causing the circles to overlap increasingly in the direction of the ends of the coil until the overlap is complete and the coil is terminated.
A benders decomposition approach to multiarea stochastic distributed utility planning
McCusker, Susan Ann
Until recently, small, modular generation and storage options---distributed resources (DRs)---have been installed principally in areas too remote for economic power grid connection and sensitive applications requiring backup capacity. Recent regulatory changes and DR advances, however, have lead utilities to reconsider the role of DRs. To a utility facing distribution capacity bottlenecks or uncertain load growth, DRs can be particularly valuable since they can be dispersed throughout the system and constructed relatively quickly. DR value is determined by comparing its costs to avoided central generation expenses (i.e., marginal costs) and distribution investments. This requires a comprehensive central and local planning and production model, since central system marginal costs result from system interactions over space and time. This dissertation develops and applies an iterative generalized Benders decomposition approach to coordinate models for optimal DR evaluation. Three coordinated models exchange investment, net power demand, and avoided cost information to minimize overall expansion costs. Local investment and production decisions are made by a local mixed integer linear program. Central system investment decisions are made by a LP, and production costs are estimated by a stochastic multi-area production costing model with Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Law constraints. The nested decomposition is a new and unique method for distributed utility planning that partitions the variables twice to separate local and central investment and production variables, and provides upper and lower bounds on expected expansion costs. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law imposes nonlinear, nonconvex constraints that preclude use of LP if transmission capacity is available in a looped transmission system. This dissertation develops KVL constraint approximations that permit the nested decomposition to consider new transmission resources, while maintaining linearity in the three
Tsiklauri, David; Schmitz, Holger
2013-04-01
, in long term evolution of electromagnetic emission generation of type III solar radio bursts. The following improvements and progress in understanding of the radio emission mechanism are made: (i) Improved numerical simulations with larger spatial domain and longer end-simulation times; (ii) The electron beam injection on a density plateau followed by a decreasing density gradient that mimics the Sun-earth system; (iii) Consideration of a ring and shifted ring electron initial velocity distribution functions; (iv) The role of the k-space drift in the radio emission; (v) Estimation of the ECM growth rate and its role in the emission generation. It is worthwhile to note that Ref.[3] proposed mode coupling on the density gradient as a source of radio emission as opposed to the k-space drift advocated in the present work. The situation is analogous to the auroral waves emitted near the plasma frequency in Earth auroral ionosphere [A. Layden, I. H. Cairns, P. A. Robinson, and J. LaBelle, J. Geophys. Res. 116, A12328 (2011)]. [1] D. Tsiklauri, "An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-In-Cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts", Physics of Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011) [2] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, "The effect of electron beam pitch angle and density gradient on solar type III radio bursts", Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012) [3] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, "Electron cyclotron maser emission mode coupling to the z-mode on a longitudinal density gradient in the context of solar type III bursts", Phys. Plasmas 19, 110702 (2012) [4] H. Schmitz, D. Tsiklauri, "k-space drift due to the density variation as a cause of electromagnetic emission generation of type III solar radio bursts by a non-gyrotropic electron beam", Phys. Plasmas, in preparation, (2013)
Zuelzer, Margot B.; And Others
1976-01-01
This study investigated whether Koppitz Bender Gestalt Scores were related to ethnocultural, socioeconomic and sex factors when statistical controls for intelligence were used. When intelligence was controlled for, it eliminated many effects for these variables. Results are discussed. (NG)
Merino Soto, Cesar
2011-01-01
La investigacion con las nuevas versiones del Test Gestaltico de Bender (TGB) apenas ha llamado la atencion en el mundo hispano, considerando que esta prueba es una de las mas utilizadas en la evaluacion psicologica...
Özer, Serap
2010-01-01
The present study compared a clinical and a control sample of Turkish children on the Bender Gestalt and Draw A Person tests. 44 of the children from a clinic sample were compared to 44 children from a matched nonclinical school sample The tests were scored according to the Koppitz criteria. ANOVA comparisons showed differences on the Bender Gestalt test, and the HFD. The two groups did not differ on the number of Emotional Indicators. Correct classification of the children in the clinical gr...
Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron
Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab
2005-01-01
The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.
许森东; 徐弼军; 陆璇辉
2013-01-01
为了研究高斯-谢尔模型(GSM)光束在电磁感应透明(EIT)材料中的传输特性，利用矩阵光学理论、衍射积分理论、相干偏振统一理论推导了GSM光束通过EIT材料的传输交叉谱密度方程的解析表达式。该表达式可以用于计算和研究GSM光束通过EIT原子气体的谱密度和相干度的变化。分析显示GSM光束的谱密度和相干度都可以通过控制光的拉比频率调控。此研究结果提供了一种新的调控光传输的方法和技术，同时该发现也为控制部分相干光的谱密度和相干度提供了一种新方法。%In order to study the propagation characteristics of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams in electromagnetically induced transparency atomic vapor, the analytical expression was obtained for the cross-spectral density function of a Gaussian Schell-model beam passing through the electromagnetically induced transparency atomic vapor based on the matrix optics theory, diffraction integral theory and unified theory of coherence and polarization. The formula can be used in the study of the changes in the spectral density and spectral degree of coherence of the beam through the EIT atomic vapor. Numerical examples show that both the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the GSM beam can be modulated by the Rabi frequency of the control light. The results have been provided a new method and technique for modulation the beam propagation. The findings indicate a new technique for controlling the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the partially coherent light beam.
Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt Test performance: a pilot study and preliminary norms.
Ozer, Serap
2007-12-01
The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD = 3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD = 3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.
Evidências de validade para o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender
Silva, Roselaine Berenice Ferreira da
2008-01-01
Esta tese trata da qualidade de instrumentos psicológicos, dando destaque ao Teste Gestáltico Visomotor de Bender. O trabalho está constituído por três estudos, dentre os quais um em específico se propõe a resgatar a história do instrumento, desde sua construção, com os estudos iniciais de Lauretta Bender (1938), até a consolidação de diversos sistemas de correção. Para este propósito foi feito levantamento bibliográfico em bancos de dados PsychInfo, Bireme, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) ...
Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL.
Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia; Sinn, Harald
2016-07-01
One of the classical devices used to tune a mirror on an X-ray optical setup is a mechanical bender. This is often designed in such a way that the mirror is held with clamps on both ends; a motor is then used to put a torque on the clamps, inducing a cylindrical shape of the mirror surface. A mechanical bender with this design was recently characterized, to bend a 950 mm-long mirror up to a radius of curvature of 10 km. The characterization was performed using a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer with an angled incidence setup. Some particular and critical effects were investigated, such as calibration, hysteresis, twisting and long-term stability.
Benders' Decomposition Based Heuristics for Large-Scale Dynamic Quadratic Assignment Problems
Sirirat Muenvanichakul
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Dynamic Quadratic Assignment Problem (DQAP is NP hard problem. Benders decomposition based heuristics method is applied to the equivalent mixed-integer linear programming problem of the original DQAP. Approach: Approximate Benders Decomposition (ABD generates the ensemble of a subset of feasible layout for Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP to determine the sub-optimal optimal solution. A Trust-Region Constraint (TRC for the master problem in ABD and a Successive Adaptation Procedure (SAP were implemented to accelerate the convergence rate of the method. Results: The sub-optimal solutions of large-scales DQAPs from the method and its variants were compared well with other metaheuristic methods. Conclusion: Overall performance of the method is comparable to other metaheuristic methods for large-scale DQAPs.
Measuring Growth and Decline in Visual-Motor Processes with the Bender-Gestalt Second Edition
Decker, Scott L.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a change-sensitive scale for evaluating developmental change in visual-motor ability across the life span. A partial-credit item-response model is used to estimate theta values for each age group between 4 and 90 using the Bender-Gestalt II standardization sample (N = 4,000). Results from this study suggest…
Habibollah Ghassemzadeh
1994-06-01
Full Text Available The Bender-Gestalt Test was given to thirty mentally-retarded psychiatric patients. The mean, standard deviation, and standard error were 56.73, 26.25, and 4.80 respectively. Rotation was the most frequent major deviation which occurred in all the designs."nDesign # 7 was the most difficult one to be reproduced in the sample. This design by itself, was subject to 47% of distortion, 79% of omission, and 21% of rotation.
Measuring Growth and Decline in Visual-Motor Processes with the Bender-Gestalt Second Edition
Decker, Scott L.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a change-sensitive scale for evaluating developmental change in visual-motor ability across the life span. A partial-credit item-response model is used to estimate theta values for each age group between 4 and 90 using the Bender-Gestalt II standardization sample (N = 4,000). Results from this study suggest…
Electrostatic Bender Fields, Optics, Aberrations, with Application to the Proton EDM Ring
Baartman, R
2015-01-01
Electrostatic bender optics are derived up to second order (third order in fields and the Hamiltonian) and applied to the proposed EDM proton ring. The results for linear optics agree with those already presented by V.\\ Lebedev (Nov.\\ 18, 2013). Second order optics is not sensitive to the shape of the fringe fields and formulas are given. It is shown that the proposed electrode shape that linearizes the vertical electric field is no advantage to this order.
Bender-gradual scoring system: performance of Brazilian and Peruvian children.
dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; Rueda, Fabián Javier Marín; Segovia, José Livia
2014-06-01
This is a transcultural study of a sample of Peruvian and Brazilian children using the Bender-Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG), which considers shape distortion as the only aspect to be analyzed, assuming that perceptual-motor maturity is independent of cultural context. The study verified that the scoring system has psychometric qualities such that it may be applied in another country. The sample consisted of 231 children, ages 6 to 10 yr., 108 from different districts of the province Lima in Peru, and 123 children from three states in Brazil. During test application, the figures were projected to children in groups. Scoring the protocols for errors was conducted by psychologists experienced in interpreting and correcting the Bender-SPG, who rigorously followed instructions in Portuguese and Spanish. The results obtained with Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis indicated that Figures 1 and 4 presented DIF, one favoring Brazilian children and the other Peruvian children. Thus, it was concluded that the overall scores did not favor either population and the Bender-SPG could be used to evaluate perceptual-motor maturity in both countries.
Aspects of Perturbation theory in Quantum Mechanics: The BenderWu Mathematica package
Sulejmanpasic, Tin
2016-01-01
We discuss a general setup which allows the study of the perturbation theory of an arbitrary, locally harmonic 1D quantum mechanical potential as well as its multi-variable (many-body) generalization. The latter may form a prototype for regularized quantum field theory. We first generalize the method of Bender-Wu, and derive exact recursion relations which allow the determination of the perturbative wave-function and energy corrections to an arbitrary order, at least in principle. For 1D systems, we implement these equations in an easy to use Mathematica package we call BenderWu. Our package enables quick home-computer computation of high orders of perturbation theory (about 100 orders in 10-30 seconds, and 250 orders in 1-2h) and enables practical study of a large class of problems in Quantum Mechanics. We have two hopes concerning the BenderWu package. One is that due to resurgence, large amount of non-perturbative information, such as non-perturbative energies and wave-functions (e.g. WKB wave functions), ...
Milson, James L.
1990-01-01
Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia). Physical Chemistry
2016-07-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment
Rodríguez-Ramos P.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.
Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.
1994-01-01
An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.
Decker, Scott L; Allen, Ryan; Choca, James P
2006-02-01
This study investigated the relationships of visuomotor constructs as measured by the Bender-Gestalt II with the subtests of the WISC-III. A factor analysis included the standardized Copy and Recall scores of the Bender-Gestalt II and subtest scores of the WISC-III. The Copy score was predicted to load on measures of visual and spatial thinking and the Recall score on a short-term memory factor. The results of a principal components analysis suggest a four-factor solution with the Bender-Gestalt II Copy score loading on a visual and spatial thinking factor primarily with WISC-III Perceptual Organization subtests. The Recall score loaded on a visual and spatial thinking factor as well as a short-term memory factor with the WISC-III Digit Span subtest. The results suggest the Bender-Gestalt II Copy subtest shared commonality with the visual and spatial tasks given the similarity in the visuomotor demands of each test and was less influenced by processing speed or cultural knowledge than other tests on the visual and spatial thinking factor. Also, results suggest Bender-Gestalt II Recall measures elements of both visual and spatial thinking as well as aspects of short-term memory and memory retrieval. Clinical guidelines for co-administration and underlying processing demands are discussed.
Keppeke, Lívia de Freitas; Cintra, Isa de Pádua; Schoen, Teresa Helena
2013-08-01
Visual-motor skill is fundamental to human development and is an important component of psychological evaluations. The goal of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between visual-motor development, as measured by the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (Bender test), and sexual maturity in adolescents, based on the Tanner Stages in Adolescents. 134 adolescents from 10 to 15 years of age participated in the study. The Bender test and the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test were employed. The measures were administered individually and information on sexual maturity and the presence of developmental disorders was collected from medical charts. The results of the Bender test were not affected by gender, age, schooling, or changes stemming from puberty, but were significantly affected by having repeated a school year and by developmental disorders. An association was found with Raven's scores. The Bender test proved sensitive to developmental disorders in adolescence. No association was found between visual-motor development and sexual maturity in adolescents.
Lehman, Joanne; Breen, Michael J.
1982-01-01
Regular education students (N=125) in grades K-3 were administered the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica tests of visual-motor integration. Found significant differences between the mean Bender and Beery age equivalent scores at each grade level. Discusses implications for their utilization in assessing fine motor readiness development.…
Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg
Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…
Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...
... causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...
2012-03-01
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for Public Release Electromagnetic Railgun ASNE Combat System Symposium 26-29 March 2012 CAPT Mike...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electromagnetic Railgun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Defense 3/29/2012 Slide 5 Distribution A Naval Railgun – Key Elements Capacitors or Rotating Machines Ship Integration Launcher Projectile
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse
2015-01-01
Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....
Ma, Ning; Zhao, Juan; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2016-01-01
. Statistical phenomena of random electric vector fields have close relevance to the theories of speckles, polarization and coherence theory. In this paper, we investigate the correlation tensor for stochastic electromagnetic fields modulated by a depolarizer consisting of a rough-surfaced retardation plate...... plate and the coherence matrix under the free space geometry. This relation is regarded as entirely analogous to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory. Within the paraxial approximation as represented by the ABCD-matrix formalism, the three-dimensional structure of the generated...
Bergere, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
For measuring the diverse characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam, the one method causing the least perturbation to the electron beam itself, consists in the detection of signals induced in certain types of detectors by the electromagnets fields associated with the beam. Some particular detectors are then described, for measuring the following characteristic parameters of a Linac electron beam; a) electron beam peak current, a) longitudinal dimension and density of an elementary electron bunch, c) phase position of the electrons on the travelling sine wave of the accelerating field, d) transverse position of the beam. These particular electrodes are then used to provide experimental data In order to check the theoretical computations giving the longitudinal and transversal motions Of the electrons during their acceleration. (author) [French] Parmi les methodes de mesure des diverses caracteristiques du faisceau d'electrons d'un accelerateur lineaire, celles qui perturbent le moins le faisceau sont les methodes dans lesquelles l'energie du signal de mesure provient de la perturbation par l'electrode de mesure des champs electromagnetiques associes au faisceau. On decrit les electrodes de ce type qui ont ete mises au point pour mesurer les caracteristiques suivantes du faisceau d'electrons: a) courant crete, b) extension en phase d'un paquet elementaire d'electrons, c) phase d'accrochage des electrons, d) position transversale moyenne des electrons. On decrit ensuite comment les signaux provenant de ces diverses electrodes peuvent etre utilises pour verifier experimentalement les previsions theoriques des mouvements longitudinaux et transversaux des electrons en cours d'acceleration. (auteur)
Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell
Garg, Anupam
2012-01-01
This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.
Electromagnetic Theory for Microwaves and Optoelectronics
Zhang, Keqian
2007-01-01
This book is a first year graduate text on electromagnetic fields and waves. At the same time it serves as a useful reference for researchers and engineers in the areas of microwaves and optoelectronics. Following the presentation of the physical and mathematical foundations of electromagnetic theory, the book discusses the field analysis of electromagnetic waves confined in material boundaries, or so-called guided waves, electromagnetic waves in the dispersive media and anisotropic media, Gaussian beams and scalar diffraction theory. The theories and methods presented in the book are foundations of wireless engineering, microwave and millimeter wave techniques, optoelectronics and optical fiber communication.
CÉSAR MERINO SOTO; RYAN A. ALLEN
2013-01-01
Hace algunos años, se ha publicado el nuevo Test Gestáltico de Bender, segunda versión (Ben- der-II). Esta nueva versión usa el Sistema de Calificación Global (SCG) para obtener los pun- tajes, que enfatiza la reproducción exacta de los diseños; junto con otros cambios estructurales, consiste en la mayor modificación realizada al Test de Bender para evaluar la habilidad visomo- tora en varias etapas del desarrollo humano. Pero aún hay pocas investigaciones que han estudiado su funcionamiento ...
The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity.
Brito, G N; Santos, T R
1996-11-01
Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.
A Benders decomposition-based Matheuristic for the Cardinality Constrained Shift Design Problem
Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Range, Troels Martin
. A shift type is a consecutive sequence of time periods that adheres to legal and union rules and can be assigned to an employee on any day. In this paper we introduce the Cardinality Constrained Shift Design Problem; a variant of the Shift Design Problem in which the number of permitted shift types...... the problem. Furthermore, we argue that an important step in this approach is finding dual alternative optimal solutions to the Benders subproblems and describe an approach to obtain a diverse set of these. Numerical tests show that the described methodology significantly outperforms a commercial Mixed...
The stability of four kinds of perceptual erros on the Bender-Gestalt.
Engin, A W; Wallbrown, F H
1976-09-01
The test-retest reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated for 157 second graders from two middle-class schools. The test-retest interval ranged from 11 days through 15 days. Testing was conducted in accordance with the Koppitz procedure, but errors of distortion, rotation, integration, and preservation were determined separately. The total time required to reproduce the designs were also recorded. The reliability estimate for the Koppitz score was generally satisfactory, but the estimates obtained for the four separate error categories and total working time were substantially smaller.
Single-Facility Scheduling over Long Time Horizons by Logic-Based Benders Decomposition
Coban, Elvin; Hooker, John N.
Logic-based Benders decomposition can combine mixed integer programming and constraint programming to solve planning and scheduling problems much faster than either method alone. We find that a similar technique can be beneficial for solving pure scheduling problems as the problem size scales up. We solve single-facility non-preemptive scheduling problems with time windows and long time horizons that are divided into segments separated by shutdown times (such as weekends). The objective is to find feasible solutions, minimize makespan, or minimize total tardiness.
Electromagnetic waves and photons
Hofmann, Ralf
2015-01-01
We explore how the thermal ground states of two mixing and pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theories, SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}\\sim 10^{-4}\\,$eV and SU(2)$_{e}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{e}\\sim 5\\times 10^5\\,$eV, associate either wave or particle aspects to electromagnetic disturbances during thermalisation towards the photon gas of a blackbody, in realising the photoelectric effect, and through the frequency dependence of the monochromatic, nonthermal beam structure in Thomson/Compton scattering.
Ma, Ning; Zhao, Juan; Hanson, Steen Grüner;
2016-01-01
. Statistical phenomena of random electric vector fields have close relevance to the theories of speckles, polarization and coherence theory. In this paper, we investigate the correlation tensor for stochastic electromagnetic fields modulated by a depolarizer consisting of a rough-surfaced retardation plate...... plate and the coherence matrix under the free space geometry. This relation is regarded as entirely analogous to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical coherence theory. Within the paraxial approximation as represented by the ABCD-matrix formalism, the three-dimensional structure of the generated......Laser speckle has received extensive studies of its basic properties and associated applications. In the majority of research on speckle phenomena, the random optical field has been treated as a scalar optical field, and the main interest has been concentrated on their statistical properties...
Some normative data on the Bender Gestalt test performance of Iranian children.
Yousefi, F; Shahim, S; Razavieh, A; Mehryar, A H; Hosseini, A A; Alborzi, S
1992-11-01
The Bender Gestalt test of visuomotor coordination was applied to a sample of Iranian children (N = 1,600) aged between 6.0 years and 10 years and 11 months attending grades 1 through 5 of 16 public primary schools in Shiraz city, southern Iran. The administration of the test and its scoring followed the standard procedures recommended by Koppitz. The reliability of the test in its new context was investigated through readministering it to a group of 60 children after four weeks, the r being .77. The validity of the test was established by comparing scores of children at different age levels and by correlating test results with marks obtained in two sets of examinations, results of Goodenough Harris Draw-A-Person Test and indices of parental education and occupation. The results are mostly in the expected direction and indicate that the Bender Gestalt test may be used as a simple measure of cognitive-intellectual development in Iran. Observed differences between Iranian norms and those of Koppitz (1963, 1975) for American children are briefly discussed and explained.
Milecki, Andrzej; Pelic, Marcin
2016-10-01
This paper presents results of studies of an application of a new method of piezo bender actuators modelling. A special hysteresis simulation model was developed and is presented. The model is based on a geometrical deformation of main hysteresis loop. The piezoelectric effect is described and the history of the hysteresis modelling is briefly reviewed. Firstly, a simple model for main loop modelling is proposed. Then, a geometrical description of the non-saturated hysteresis is presented and its modelling method is introduced. The modelling makes use of the function describing the geometrical shape of the two hysteresis main curves, which can be defined theoretically or obtained by measurement. These main curves are stored in the memory and transformed geometrically in order to obtain the minor curves. Such model was prepared in the Matlab-Simulink software, but can be easily implemented using any programming language and applied in an on-line controller. In comparison to the other known simulation methods, the one presented in the paper is easy to understand, and uses simple arithmetical equations, allowing to quickly obtain the inversed model of hysteresis. The inversed model was further used for compensation of a non-saturated hysteresis of the piezo bender actuator and results have also been presented in the paper.
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...
Roberds, Jeannette
The scores of 79 second-grade pupils on the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices and the Bender Gestalt were factor-analyzed using six different factor-analytic procedures. Sex, age, and vocabulary test scores were included in the analysis as marker variables. The original factor solutions were subjected to oblique transformation and the…
Hamer, Ann
1988-01-01
Use of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test in Australia was studied by comparing it with existing research, scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), and other attainment tests. Subjects were 142 children aged 7-11 years. The suitability of the instrument in Australia is discussed. (SLD)
The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children
McCarthy, Denis P.
1975-01-01
Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)
Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney
1993-01-01
Investigated whether Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test-Revised (MPD-R) or Bender-Gestalt Test (BG) would more accurately predict achievement at first-, third-, and fifth-grade levels. Administered both tests to 84 children in counterbalanced order. Results indicated that MPD-R was better predictor of achievement than BG, especially at first- and…
McManis, Donald L.; And Others
1978-01-01
Twelve reading-disabled and 12 nondisabled boys, of average intellectual ability, in Grades 3 to 6 were compared on the Memory-For-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). (Author)
The Bender Gestalt Test: A Review of Reported Research with School-Age Subjects, 1966-1977
Buckley, Pepper D.
1978-01-01
The past 11 years of published research investigating the use of the Bender Gestalt Test with school-age children are reviewed. Seen as a psychometric instrument, scored according to standardized procedures, this recent work does not conclusively support use of the test for prediction of school achievement or emotional disturbance. (Author)
Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.
1988-01-01
Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…
Knoff, Howard M.; Sperling, Barbara L.
1986-01-01
A sample of 63 gifted elementary-school students was administered the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Group results revealed no significant differences between the two tests, that they did correlate significantly, and that younger students had advanced visual-motor development when tested…
Fuller, Gerald B.; Vance, Booney
1995-01-01
Extends the reliability research of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test. The test was administered to 48 children, and the 48 test protocols were scored independently by two psychologists using the Qualitative Scoring System. Results indicated that the scoring system is highly reliable. (JPS)
Validity of the Draw-A-Person and Bender Gestalt Tests as Measures of Impulsivity with Adolescents.
Oas, Peter
1984-01-01
Designated 100 psychiatrically hospitalized and 114 nonhospitalized adolescents as impulsive or nonimpulsive and compared them to determine the validity of signs of impulsivity on the Draw-A-Person and Bender Gestalt tests. Signs of impulsivity and nonimpulsivity on these tests discriminated between impulsive and nonimpulsive adolescents with…
Knoff, Howard M.; Sperling, Barbara L.
1986-01-01
A sample of 63 gifted elementary-school students was administered the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Group results revealed no significant differences between the two tests, that they did correlate significantly, and that younger students had advanced visual-motor development when tested…
Redfering, David L.; Collins, Jackie
1982-01-01
Forty elementary students were administered the Bender-Gestalt Test using two techniques: Koppitz routine instructions and the Hutt testing-the-limits method. The mean number of Koppitz errors was approximately two greater than the number obtained using the Hutt technique. (Author/BW)
O'Connor, William J.
The relationship between the Bender-Gesalt Test was studied using the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System and the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception in terms of age, sex, IQ, and socioeconomic status. A relationship to the Harrison Reading Readiness Test was also explored. Subjects were 89 first- and second-grade children…
Bolen, Larry M.; And Others
1992-01-01
Examined use of Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test with school-age adolescents over age 11. Mean error scores suggest that visual-motor development is not maturationally complete by age 11 years, 11 months. Suggests additional research focusing on extending normative sample or developing new scoring system for adolescents. (Author/NB)
Ozer, Serap
2009-01-01
The Bender Gestalt test and Human Drawings are frequently utilized tests in assessing school readiness in children. This study was a pilot attempt to evaluate these two tests in a Turkish sample as they relate to first grade behaviour as measured by teacher ratings. One hundred and five children were evaluated at the end of kindergarten using the…
Böhm, Birgitta; Lundequist, Aiko; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
2010-10-01
Visual-motor development and executive functions were investigated with the Bender Test at age 5½ years in 175 children born preterm and 125 full-term controls, within the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project. Assessment also included WPPSI-R and NEPSY neuropsychological battery for ages 4-7 (Korkman, 1990). Bender protocols were scored according to Brannigan & Decker (2003), Koppitz (1963) and a complementary neuropsychological scoring system (ABC), aimed at executive functions and developed for this study. Bender results by all three scoring systems were strongly related to overall cognitive level (Performance IQ), in both groups. The preterm group displayed inferior visual-motor skills compared to controls also when controlling for IQ. The largest group differences were found on the ABC scoring, which shared unique variance with NEPSY tests of executive function. Multiple regression analyses showed that hyperactive behavior and inattention increased the risk for visual-motor deficits in children born preterm, whereas no added risk was seen among hyperactive term children. Gender differences favoring girls were strongest within the preterm group, presumably reflecting the specific vulnerability of preterm boys. The results indicate that preterm children develop a different neurobehavioral organization from children born at term, and that the Bender test with a neuropsychological scoring is a useful tool in developmental screening around school start.
Ozer, Serap
2009-01-01
The Bender Gestalt test and Human Drawings are frequently utilized tests in assessing school readiness in children. This study was a pilot attempt to evaluate these two tests in a Turkish sample as they relate to first grade behaviour as measured by teacher ratings. One hundred and five children were evaluated at the end of kindergarten using the…
基于ANSYS的一种螺旋焊管机座的强度分析%ANSYS-based Strength Analysis of Spiral Welded Pipe Bender Seat
虞兵; 陈靖芯; 马祥; 秦永法; 竺志大
2013-01-01
This paper simply introduces the components of the spiral welded pipe bender ,puts forward a way of structural strength analysis for spiral welded pipe bender seat ,and uses this method to analyse the strength of one spiral welded pipe bender seat .% 简单介绍了螺旋焊管机的组成，提出了一种螺旋焊管机座结构强度分析的计算方法，并且采用该方法对某款螺旋焊管机座进行了结构强度分析。
Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.
Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min
2015-08-28
Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.
2007-01-01
The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...... transforming lens for Inverse Fourier transforming the spatially modulated radiation, whereby a set of light beams are formed propagating through the inverse Fourier plane (x', y') at desired positions (x's, y's), and a controller for controlling the position of a replica of the symbol, s, for movement...
Fabián Javier Marín Rueda
2013-12-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar el desempeño en la Prueba Gestáltica Visomotriz de Bender - Sistema de Puntuación Gradual (B-SPG en un grupo de niños peruanos en función a los datos ofrecidos por el manual brasilero de la prueba. Participaron 82 niños, de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 8 y 10 años (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. Los niños provenían de los distritos de Pueblo Libre (43.9% y Rímac (51.2%, de la provincia de Lima, así como también de Lima Metropolitana (4.9%. El B-SPG fue aplicado de forma colectiva. Los promedios de puntos obtenidos por los niños peruanos en el B-SPG fueron significativamente superiores a los obtenidos por los niños brasileros en cada una de las edades estudiadas. Se destaca la importancia de investigar evidencias de validez y de confiabilidad para que la prueba pueda ser usada de forma adecuada en el Perú, considerando las particularidades de desarrollo de los niños del país. ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to compare performance on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt test - system of Gradual punctuation (B-SPG in a group of Peruvian children in connection with the data provided by the Brazilian manual of the test. In this research 82 Peruvian children were involved, both sexes, with ages between 8 and 10 years (M = 9.21, DT = 0.83. The hildren came from the districts of Pueblo Libre (43.9% and Rimac (51.2% in the province of Lima, as well as from metropolitan Lima (4.9%. The B-SPG was collectively applied in the children’s schools. The average points earned by the Peruvian children in the B-SPG were significantly higher than those obtained by Brazilian children in each one of the ages studied. It emphasizes the importance of investigating evidence of validity and reliability, so that, the test can be used appropriately in Peru, considering the peculiarities of the development of children in the country.
Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam
Chao, A.W.
1982-06-01
A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.
Computational Electromagnetics
Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders
2013-01-01
Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories
Ida, Nathan
2015-01-01
This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems and summaries. The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...
Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers
Toh, Tze-Chuen
2013-01-01
Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the
Porter, Gary L.; Binder, Dorothy M.
1981-01-01
To determine the intertest reliability of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BGT), 64 six to nine year olds were administered both tests.
Eno, Larry; Deichmann, John
1980-01-01
All methods reviewed significantly discriminate between groups of brain damaged and unimpaired children. No method, however, provides successful predictive rates high enough to warrant the use of the Bender as the sole diagnostic instrument in individual cases. (Author)
2007-01-01
5 värv. sisevaadet; sisekujundajad: A. Oja, R. Luuk (ajalooline osa), P. Bender (uus osa); siseviimistluse, maalingute ja valgustite restaureerimine: KAR Grupp; 1926. a. valminud hoone arhitekt: F. Skujinsh
Electromagnetic THz Radiation Modeling by DPSM
Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram
2012-03-01
THz or T-ray imaging and spectroscopy are becoming increasingly popular nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage detection and characterization of materials. In order to understand the interaction between the T-ray electromagnetic waves and dielectric media a reliable model of electromagnetic wave propagation through dielectric materials must be developed. A recently developed semi-analytical method called the distributed point source method (DPSM) is extended to model electromagnetic wave propagation in THz range. Since T-ray signals generated by emitters or sources are close to Gaussian beams, the DPSM modeling is carried out for Gaussian beams generated by finite sized emitters. The DPSM generated results are compared with the analytical and experimental results. T-ray propagation in layered structures in absence of any anomaly and the interaction between the Gaussian beam and the spherical scatterer are also investigated.
Fabricio Oliveira
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a stochastic Benders decomposition algorithm for the problem of supply chain investment planning under uncertainty applied to the petroleum byproducts supply chain. The uncertainty considered is related with the unknown demand levels for oil products. For this purpose, a model was developed based on two-stage stochastic programming. It is proposed two different solution methodologies, one based on the classical cutting plane approach presented by Van Slyke & Wets (1969, and other, based on a multi cut extension of it, firstly introduced by Birge & Louveaux (1988. The methods were evaluated on a real sized case study. Preliminary numerical results obtained from computational experiments are encouraging.
The Bender-Gestalt psychopathology scale: failure to infer validity in a school-aged sample.
Rossini, E D
1993-06-01
The concurrent validity of Hutt's (1977) empirical psychopathology scale of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test was evaluated among three groups of younger school-aged children within the 7-to-10- year age range (M = 109.1): adjustment disordered, conduct disordered, and nonclinical controls (n = 40/group). Excellent interscorer reliability was achieved with approximately 2 hr of self-study of the scoring manual. Although the conduct-disordered group was significantly more immature on Koppitz' Developmental Scoring System, there were no significant differences among groups on the psychopathology scale when visual-motor development was covaried (M = 50.5). This was an unexpected result, given Hutt's initial validation study among school-aged children. The psychopathology scale was not inferred to be valid among adolescents in the only known concurrent validation study. Pending supportive validation research, the psychopathology scale should not be employed in the clinical assessment of younger school-aged children.
Effects of serial position on Bender-Gestalt errors using Koppitz's criteria.
Nyfield, B; Patalano, F
1998-12-01
The validity of the Koppitz Developmental scoring system in identifying organic impairment among functionally impaired adolescents was challenged in the current study. It was proposed that there are two distinct subtypes of errors in this system: those that are valid indicators of organic impairment (Category A) and those which are not but occur as a function of specific emotional factors (Category B). 46 male adolescents with a primary diagnosis of Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were administered the Bender-Gestalt once using the standard order of administration and once in reverse order. It was hypothesized that more errors would be committed on cards presented later than those presented earlier in sequence for Category B but not Category A errors. Analysis provided partial support for this hypothesis.
The Bender-Gestalt as a method of personality assessment with adolescents.
Belter, R W; McIntosh, J A; Finch, A J; Williams, L D; Edwards, G L
1989-05-01
Normative data are presented for two Bender-Gestalt scoring systems with a sample of "normal" controls (n = 150), emotionally disturbed (n = 140), and mentally retarded/neurologically impaired (MR/NI) adolescents (n = 47), aged 12 to 17 years. The results failed to support the use of Hutt's (1985) Psychopathology Scale and Adolescent Configuration in differentiating the "normal" and emotionally disturbed groups, but did support their use in differentiating the MR/NI group from the other two. The Hutt scores also were found to be related inversely to age and IQ. By contrast, the Koppitz scores differentiated the three groups from each other and were not related significantly to IQ. The results supported limited use of Koppitz's (1975) Emotional Indicators as a "sign" approach to brief screening for emotional disturbance in adolescents.
BENDER GESTALT VISUALMOTOR TEST AND CARAS TEST: A EXAM OF CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
Cesar Merino Soto
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Research with new versions of the Bender Gestalt Test (TGB has hardly attracted attention to the researchers of the Hispanic world, onsidering that this test is one of the most widely used psychological assessments. This study evaluates the construct validity of the modified version of TGB for children, elative to sustainedattention assessed by the Caras Test. Both tests were applied to 90 children, aged between 5 and 8, in standardized conditions. The esults indicate that the shared variance between the two measures is zero, even when applied disattenuated correlations for measurement error; also, no non-linear patterns were detected between the two variables. These correlations were consistent in the total sample and among subgroups of children. We discuss these results with respect to the limits of validity of this modified version of TGB in the Spanish language.
Artemev, A.; Artemiev, N.; Busetto, E.; Franc, F.; Hrdý, J.; Mrázek, D.; Savoia, A.
2002-03-01
The bender described is a part of the double crystal monochromator for the QUICKEXAFS spectrometer, which is under development for ELETTRA. Technical specification for the bender include the following: constant position of the central point of the crystal during the bending process, the full size of the crystal must be as small as possible in the dynamic bending process, and the bender must be highly vacuum compatible. To satisfy all of these demands we propose a new scheme for a bender of rectangular crystal with four living supports. The bender has two inner wings, which bear two inner crystal supports, and two outer wings, which bear two outer supports. These wings are moved by two cones placed on the same rod. The cones have different profiles. In order to keep the central part of the crystal in a constant position during the bending process these cone profiles are designed and manufactured in a very special way. Measurements of the bender characteristics were made with the help of a test bench. Instead of a Si single crystal we used a bronze plate of the same size, which had very similar elastic constants. The full scattering of the position of the central part of the bronze plate during the bending process is less then 100 μm. The measured profile of the plate bent to about 506 mm was compared with a circle fitted by the least square method. The relative difference between measured and fitted radius appeared to be about 10-5.
Diagnosis of OCD Patients Using Drawing Features of Bender Gestalt Shapes
Boostani R.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Since psychological tests such as questionnaire or drawing tests are almost qualitative, their results carry a degree of uncertainty and sometimes subjectivity. The deficiency of all drawing tests is that the assessment is carried out after drawing the objects and lots of information such as pen angle, speed, curvature and pressure are missed through the test. In other words, the psychologists cannot assess their patients while running the tests. One of the famous drawing tests to measure the degree of Obsession Compulsion Disorder (OCD is the Bender Gestalt, though its reliability is not promising. Objective: The main objective of this study is to make the Bender Gestalt test quantitative; therefore, an optical pen along with a digital tablet is utilized to preserve the key drawing features of OCD patients during the test. Materials and Methods: Among a large population of patients who referred to a special clinic of OCD, 50 under therapy subjects voluntarily took part in this study. In contrast, 50 subjects with no sign of OCD performed the test as a control group. This test contains 9 shapes and the participants were not constraint to draw the shapes in a certain interval of time; consequently, to classify the stream of feature vectors (samples through drawing Hidden Markov Model (HMM is employed and its flexibility increased by incorporating the fuzzy technique into its learning scheme. Results: Applying fuzzy HMM classifier to the data stream of subjects could classify two groups up to 95.2% accuracy, whereas the results by applying the standard HMM resulted in 94.5%. In addition, multi-layer perceptron (MLP, as a strong static classifier, is applied to the features and resulted in 86.6% accuracy. Conclusion: Applying the pair of T-test to the results implies a significant supremacy of the fuzzy HMM to the standard HMM and MLP classifiers.
Diagnosis of the OCD Patients using Drawing Features of the Bender Gestalt Shapes.
Boostani, R; Asadi, F; Mohammadi, N
2017-03-01
Since psychological tests such as questionnaire or drawing tests are almost qualitative, their results carry a degree of uncertainty and sometimes subjectivity. The deficiency of all drawing tests is that the assessment is carried out after drawing the objects and lots of information such as pen angle, speed, curvature and pressure are missed through the test. In other words, the psychologists cannot assess their patients while running the tests. One of the famous drawing tests to measure the degree of Obsession Compulsion Disorder (OCD) is the Bender Gestalt, though its reliability is not promising. The main objective of this study is to make the Bender Gestalt test quantitative; therefore, an optical pen along with a digital tablet is utilized to preserve the key drawing features of OCD patients during the test. Among a large population of patients who referred to a special clinic of OCD, 50 under therapy subjects voluntarily took part in this study. In contrast, 50 subjects with no sign of OCD performed the test as a control group. This test contains 9 shapes and the participants were not constraint to draw the shapes in a certain interval of time; consequently, to classify the stream of feature vectors (samples through drawing) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed and its flexibility increased by incorporating the fuzzy technique into its learning scheme. Applying fuzzy HMM classifier to the data stream of subjects could classify two groups up to 95.2% accuracy, whereas the results by applying the standard HMM resulted in 94.5%. In addition, multi-layer perceptron (MLP), as a strong static classifier, is applied to the features and resulted in 86.6% accuracy. Applying the pair of T-test to the results implies a significant supremacy of the fuzzy HMM to the standard HMM and MLP classifiers.
Artru, X. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, IRMM (Gell), LURE (Orsay); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, LAL and IEF (Orsay), HIP (Helsinki), INFN (Frascati, Milan)
1998-12-31
We have studied different effects related to electromagnetic interaction of relativistic electrons in matter and investigated their use in beam profile measurements. (authors) 4 refs. Short communication
Sobouti, Yousef
2013-01-01
That the universal constancy of the speed of light is a logical consequence of Maxwell's equations is common knowledge. Here we show that the converse is also true. That is, electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics (ED) in all their details can be derived from the simple assumption that the speed of light is a universal constant. The consequences reach far. Conventional EM and ED are observation based. The alternative we propose spares all observational foundations of EM, only to reintroduce them as theoretically derived and empiricism-free laws of Nature. Simplicity is beauty and there are merits to it. For instance, if $\
Nelken, Miranda
2009-01-01
This article presents a lesson that allows third and fourth graders to forge the steel bodies of automobiles through repousse, the art of applying pressure to metal with a wooden point. In this lesson, the students draw cars paired with a landscape, making the road trip an adventure in drawing. Both parts of the lesson challenge students'…
Nelken, Miranda
2009-01-01
This article presents a lesson that allows third and fourth graders to forge the steel bodies of automobiles through repousse, the art of applying pressure to metal with a wooden point. In this lesson, the students draw cars paired with a landscape, making the road trip an adventure in drawing. Both parts of the lesson challenge students'…
Roselaine Berenice Ferreira; Cristiane Friedrich Feil; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes
2009-01-01
Este estudo avaliou os erros mais freqüentes cometidos por crianças no Bender, pelo método Koppitz, e identificou sua relação com as variáveis idade e sexo. Analisou-se 1111 protocolos de avaliação psicológica, contemplando meninos e meninas, com idades entre cinco e doze anos, os quais apresentavam dificuldades emocionais, cognitivas e neurológicas, compondo uma amostra clínica. Constatou-se que os erros mais comuns frente à cópia do Bender foram a Distorção da Forma nas figuras 7 e 8 e a Ro...
What Are Electromagnetic Fields?
... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...
Roselaine Berenice Ferreira
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou os erros mais freqüentes cometidos por crianças no Bender, pelo método Koppitz, e identificou sua relação com as variáveis idade e sexo. Analisou-se 1111 protocolos de avaliação psicológica, contemplando meninos e meninas, com idades entre cinco e doze anos, os quais apresentavam dificuldades emocionais, cognitivas e neurológicas, compondo uma amostra clínica. Constatou-se que os erros mais comuns frente à cópia do Bender foram a Distorção da Forma nas figuras 7 e 8 e a Rotação na figura 7. Através do teste do Qui-quadrado identificou-se relação significativa entre erros nas figuras A, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 e 8 e a variável idade (p=0,000. A variável sexo apresentou correlação significativa somente em erros nas figuras 4 e 7 no item rotação (pThis study discusses the most frequent errors committed by children in the Bender Test, assessed by the Koppitz method, and identified the correlation regarding age and sex. 1111 psychological assessment protocols were examined, including boys and girls, aged five and twelve years, which had emotional, cognitive and neurological difficulties, composing a clinical sample. The most frequent errors in the Bender test were distortion of form in Figures 7 and 8, and Rotation in Figure 7. Using Qui-square test was identified a significant relationship between errors in Figures A, 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 and variable age (p = 0000 was found. The variable sex showed significant correlation only in error of Figures 4 and 7 on the rotation item (p <0005.
César Merino Soto
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Resumen:La presente investigación hace un estudio psicométrico de un nuevo sistema de calificación de la Prueba Gestáltica del Bendermodificada para niños, que es el Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa (Brannigan y Brunner, 2002, en un muestra de 244 niñosingresantes a primer grado de primaria en cuatro colegios públicos, ubicados en Lima. El enfoque usado es un análisis noparamétrico de ítems mediante el programa Testgraf (Ramsay, 1991. Los resultados indican niveles apropiados deconsistencia interna, identificándose la unidimensionalidad, y el buen nivel discriminativo de las categorías de calificación deeste Sistema Cualitativo. No se hallaron diferencias demográficas respecto al género ni la edad. Se discuten los presenteshallazgos en el contexto del potencial uso del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa y del análisis no paramétrico de ítems en lainvestigación psicométrica.AbstracThis research designs a psychometric study of a new scoring system of the Bender Gestalt test modified to children: it is theQualitative Scoring System (Brannigan & Brunner, 2002, in a sample of 244 first grade children of primary level, in four public school of Lima. The approach aplied is the nonparametric item analysis using The test graft computer program (Ramsay, 1991. Our findings point to good levels of internal consistency, unidimensionality and good discriminative level ofthe categories of scoring from the Qualitative Scoring System. There are not demographic differences between gender or age.We discuss our findings within the context of the potential use of the Qualitative Scoring System and of the nonparametricitem analysis approach in the psychometric research.
Gravito-electromagnetism versus electromagnetism
Tartaglia, A; Ruggiero, M L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico and INFN, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2004-03-01
The properties of the gravito-magnetic interaction in non-stationary conditions are discussed. A direct deduction of the equivalent Faraday-Henry law is given. A comparison is made between gravito-magnetic and electromagnetic induction, and it is shown that there is no Meissner-like effect for superfluids in the field of massive spinning bodies. The impossibility of stationary motions in directions not along the lines of the gravito-magnetic field is found. Finally the results are discussed in relation to the behaviour of superconductors.
César Ayax Merino Soto
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This study is looking for evidences of reliability, for the Qualification Qua- litative System (Brannigan y Brunner, 2002 applied to the Bender Gestalt Test – Modified. The participants were 86 children, divided in two groups: pre- school and school; and three students who scored the designs in both groups. The analysis was done in the final grade and the item. The results pointed to the good levels of results of external reliability and internal consistence in the pre- school group, while these levels were scored in the school group. These differences establish the relation between these two aspects of measurement error and the emphasis in an appropriate training of measurements that require the examiner’s judgments. We discussed our results considering the potential utility of this relative version of the Bender Gestalt Test for the clinical practice and investigation as well.
Doyle, Dennis
2010-06-01
This paper examines one US psychiatrist's engagement between 1936 and 1952 with a racialist strain of evolutionary thought. When Lauretta Bender began working with Bellevue Hospital's disproportionately black population, the psychiatric literature still circulated the crude evolutionary proposition that blacks remained stuck at a more primitive stage of development. In the 1930s, drawing insights from holistic, mechanistic and environmentalist thinking on the relationship between mind and body, Bender developed her own more circumspect racialist position. Although she largely abandoned her underdetermined version of racialism in the 1940s for an approach that left out race as an active factor of analysis, this paper contends that she probably never wrote off black primitivity as a theoretical possibility.
In-Beam Background Suppression Shield
Santoro, V; DiJulio, D D; Ansell, S; Bentley, P M
2015-01-01
The long (3ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument capabilities will be limited by it's Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks .
Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M
2001-09-01
This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.
Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation
Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe
2011-01-01
When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.
Electro-Magnetic Quadrupole Magnets in the LCLS FEL Undulator
Emma, P.
2005-01-31
We discuss various aspects of electro-magnetic quadrupole (EMQ) magnets for the LCLS FEL undulator, including their utility in beam-based alignment (BBA), magnet design issues, and impact on tunnel environment, reliability, and cost.
Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields
Karbstein, F.
2017-03-01
Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.
Photon propagation in slowly varying electromagnetic fields
Karbstein, Felix
2016-01-01
We study the effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counter-propagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. As we treat the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.
Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling
Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.
1991-01-01
The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS Experiment
Longo, Egidio
2006-01-01
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment has been designed to achieve an extreme precision in photon and electron energy measurements at LHC. The status of the project will be discussed, together with recent results on performances of final components in beam tests.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media
Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...
The barrel electromagnetic calorimeter on OPAL
Patrice Loiez
1993-01-01
The two particle beams collide at the centre of this barrel and eject a large number of different particles. The energy of some of these particles will be measured by this electromagnetic calorimeter by absorbing all of the particle's energy. The OPAL detector was used on the LEP accelerator, which ran from 1989 to 2000.
The BTeV electromagnetic calorimeter
Brennan, T.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Frolov, V.; Khroustalev, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mountain, R.; Stone, S.; Yarba, J.; Alexeev, S.N.; Batarin, V.A.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Grishin, V.N.; Datsko, V.S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Fomin, Yu.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Y.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Leontiev, V.M.; Lukanin, V.S.; Maisheev, V.A.; Matulenko, Ya.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mikhalin, N.E.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Nogach, L.V.; Pikalov, V.I.; Semenov, P.A. E-mail: semenov@mx.ihep.su; Shestermanov, K.E.; Soloviev, L.F.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Ukhanov, M.N.; Uzunian, A.V.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Yakutin, A.E
2002-11-21
The electromagnetic calorimeter for a new Fermilab collider program named BTeV is based on lead tungstate scintillating crystals (PbWO{sub 4}). Various properties of crystals manufactured by Russian and Chinese companies were measured at the U70 accelerator in Protvino. A dedicated beam momentum tagging system was used to measure the energy and spatial resolution.
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism
Barrett, Terrence W
2008-01-01
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field
Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.
1980-09-01
Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.
CEBAF at higher energies and the kaon electromagnetic form factor
Baker, O.K.
1994-04-01
The electromagnetic production of strangeness, the physics of exciting systems having strangeness degrees of freedom (production of hadrons with one or more strange constituent quarks) using electromagnetic probes (real or virtual photons), is one of the frontier areas of research which will be investigated at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) when it becomes operational. CEBAF is expected to have an important impact upon this field of research using its specialized set of detection instruments and high quality electron beam. This paper focusses upon one aspect of the associated production of strangeness - the determination of the kaon electromagnetic form factor at high squared momentum transfers.
ZHOU Yan-guo; CHEN Yun-min; KE Han
2005-01-01
Recent studies using field case history data yielded new criteria for evaluating liquefaction potential in saturated granular deposits based on in situ, stress-corrected shear wave velocity. However, the conditions of relatively insufficient case histories and limited site conditions in this approach call for additional data to more reliably define liquefaction resistance as a function of shear wave velocity. In this study, a series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on saturated sand with shear wave velocity Vs measured by bender element. By normalizing the data with respect to minimum void ratio, the test results, incorporated with previously published laboratory data, statistically revealed good correlation of cyclic shear strength with small-strain shear modulus for sandy soils, which is almost irrespective of soil types and confining pressures. The consequently determined cyclic resistance ratio, CRR, was found to be approximately proportional to Vs4. Liquefaction resistance boundary curves were established by applying this relationship and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements. Although in the range of Vs1＞200 m/s the presented curves are moderately conservative, they are remarkably consistent with the published field performance criteria on the whole.
Fuller, G B; Wallbrown, F H
1983-11-01
Administered the Bender-Gestalt (BG) and Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test (MPD) to 69 first-grade children prior to administration of the California Achievement Test (CAT). Order of administration for the BG and MPD was counterbalanced to control for practice effects. Correlations (rs) were computed between the 9 CAT subtests and scores from the BG and MPD. The DD score from the MPD correlated significantly with all 9 CAT subtests. The SpCD score from the MPD correlated significantly with 6 of the 9 CAT subtests. The BG Koppitz score correlated significantly with 6 of the 9 CAT subtests. Both the DD and SpCD scores showed a significantly higher negative r with Reading Vocabulary, Total Reading, and Arithmetic Computation than the BG. Furthermore, both types of MPD scores showed a much higher average r with the 9 CAT subtests than was evident for the BG. These findings suggest that DD and SpCD scores from the MPD provide a more sensitive measure of deficits in visual-motor perception than the Koppitz score from the BG.
Thomas Bender. Historia de los Estados Unidos: una nación entre naciones
Jhon Florián Guzmán
2012-01-01
Full Text Available El libro de Thomas Bender es una obra que busca reclamar un lugar dentro de la extensa bibliografía que ya acumula la historia de los Estados Unidos. Para ello, apunta al reconocimiento de las conexiones externas de la historia nacional y, de paso, entiende que la nación no es una entidad autosustentada. Está, al igual que cualquier forma de solidaridad humana, conectada con aquello que la excede, y que además, contribuye a configurarla. Es por esta razón que el autor debate con los teóricos del excepcionalismo norteamericano, para instalar los principales acontecimientos nacionales, incluidos los más distintivos (como la revolución y la guerra civil, en un contexto global. El debate sobre el método, más que el barrido detallado de los hechos históricos, es el principal aporte de este historiador del Centro Internacional para Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad de Nueva York.
Munoz, Eduardo; Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2009-01-01
We study the problem of designing a minimum compliance (or weight) composite laminate. The optimization is made by selecting, out of a set of candidate materials, the materials that will be used in the building process of a laminated structure. The material candidate set is given as data of the d......We study the problem of designing a minimum compliance (or weight) composite laminate. The optimization is made by selecting, out of a set of candidate materials, the materials that will be used in the building process of a laminated structure. The material candidate set is given as data...... a generalized Benders Decomposition technique, a global optimization technique for mixed-integer optimization. The method, under certain conditions, solves optimization problems to global optimum and allows us to solve larger problems. The technique solves the optimization problem iteratively, where at each...... iteration, a local linear approximation of the objective function and the feasible set are included in a mixed integer linear program, called the relaxed master problem. The approximations are obtained by solving one analysis problem and one adjoint problem. The process continues, until the optimal value...
Development of 3D beam-beam simulation for the Tevatron
Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley
2007-06-01
We present status of development of a 3D Beam-Beam simulation code for simulating the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The essential features of the code are 3D particle-in-cell Poisson solver for calculating the Beam-Beam electromagnetic interactions with additional modules for linear optics, machine impedance and chromaticity, and multiple bunch tracking. The simulations match synchrobetatron oscillations measured at the VEPP-2M collider. The impedance calculations show beam instability development consistent with analytic expressions.
Lusby, Richard Martin; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Petersen, Bjørn
2013-01-01
This paper describes a Benders decomposition-based framework for solving the large scale energy management problem that was posed for the ROADEF 2010 challenge. The problem was taken from the power industry and entailed scheduling the outage dates for a set of nuclear power plants, which need...... to be regularly taken down for refueling and maintenance, in such away that the expected cost of meeting the power demand in a number of potential scenarios is minimized. We show that the problem structure naturally lends itself to Benders decomposition; however, not all constraints can be included in the mixed...... integer programming model. We present a two phase approach that first uses Benders decomposition to solve the linear programming relaxation of a relaxed version of the problem. In the second phase, integer solutions are enumerated and a procedure is applied to make them satisfy constraints not included...
Physics opportunities with meson beams
Briscoe, William J.; Doering, Michael; Haberzettl, Helmut; Strakovsky, Igor I. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States); Naruki, Megumi [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Swanson, Eric S. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2015-10-15
Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electroproduction data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even non-existent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state-of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility. (orig.)
Physics Opportunities with Meson Beams
Briscoe, William J; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I; Swanson, Eric S
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.
Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams
Plettner, Tomas [San Ramon, CA; Byer, Robert L [Stanford, CA
2011-08-09
Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.
Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams
Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel
2017-06-06
A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.
Electromagnetic Simulations of Helical-Based Ion Acceleration Structures
Nelson, Scott D; Caporaso, George; Friedman, Alex; Poole, Brian R; Waldron, William
2005-01-01
Helix structures have been proposed* for accelerating low energy ion beams using MV/m fields in order to increase the coupling effeciency of the pulsed power system and to tailor the electromagnetic wave propagation speed with the particle beam speed as the beam gains energy. Calculations presented here show the electromagnetic field as it propagates along the helix structure, field stresses around the helix structure (for voltage breakdown determination), optimizations to the helix and driving pulsed power waveform, and simulations showing test particles interacting with the simulated time varying fields.
Discriminación de la ansiedad a través del Test Gestáltico Bender
Alonso Martín, Pilar; Juídias Barroso , Jerónimo
2008-01-01
Generalmente la familia y los profesionales de la enseñanza entienden la importancia de la prevención, pero sólo se ocupan de los problemas emocionales cuando empiezan a aparecer la sintomatología y el niño manifiesta síntomas del conflicto. Es importante un buen diagnóstico de dichos trastornos emocionales, por eso este trabajo pretende determinar si el Test de L. Bender podría ser utilizado como discriminador de ansiedad infantil. La muestra está compuesta por 722 sujetos de ...
Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Franc, F; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Savoia, A
2001-01-01
We propose a new scheme for a crystal bender. This scheme provides the constant position of the central point of a rectangular crystal during the bending process. The measurements show that the full scatter of the position of the central part of a sample during the bending process is slightly less than 100 microns. The measured profile of a sample bent to a radius of about 50 cm was compared with a circle fitted by the least square method. The relative difference between measured and fitted radii appeared to be about 10 sup - sup 5.
Electromagnetic Education in India
Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan
2016-01-01
Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…
Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects
Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.
2015-05-03
One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.
王成山; 张义
2003-01-01
对于目标为网损费用和无功设备投资费用最小的无功优化规划问题,Bender's分解技术是一种有效的解决方法.原-对偶仿射尺度法作为一种被证明具有多项式时间复杂性的方法,已经被用于无功优化的计算中.本文结合Bender's分解技术和原-对偶仿射尺度法,解决了城市高中压配电网的长期无功优化规划问题.通过实际电力系统的计算结果表明,此算法的迭代收敛次数稳定,优化结果的经济效益明显,适合于大规模电力系统的无功优化规划计算.
César Merino Soto*
2011-09-01
Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente estudio explora la magnitud de las diferencias en los puntajes del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa parael Test Gestáltico de Bender Modificado, usando diferente información normativa proveniente de Perú, Estados Unidos yChina. En una muestra de 324 niños(as peruanos entre 5 y 6 años de edad, se analizaron las potenciales diferencias en ladensidad, tendencia central, dispersión y clasificaciones de rendimiento visomotor. Se hallaron grandes diferenciasnormativas, y por lo tanto, el desempeño en los participantes se vio altamente sobreestimado o subestimado dependiendode la norma usada. Se discute el impacto de estos resultados en la apropiada práctica evaluativa en niños.ABSTRACTThis study explores the magnitude of difference in scores from Qualitative Scoring System to Bender Gestalt TestModified using different normative data from Peru, USA and China. In a sample of 324 children (boys and girls between5 and 6 ages, we analyzed the potential differences in density, central tendency, dispersion and visual motor performanceclassifications. It was found large normative differences, and therefore, performance in participants was highlyoverestimated or underestimated depending on the standard used. It discusses the impact of these results in the appropriateassessment practice in children.
Time Reconstruction and Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter
Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; 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2010-01-01
The resolution and the linearity of time measurements made with the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied with samples of data from test beam electrons, cosmic rays, and beam-produced muons. The resulting time resolution measured by lead tungstate crystals is better than 100 ps for energy deposits larger than 10 GeV. Crystal-to-crystal synchronization with a precision of 500 ps is performed using muons produced with the first LHC beams in 2008.
Time Reconstruction and Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter
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Nardulli, A; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Punz, T; Rizzi, A; Ronga, F J; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M C; Sordini, V; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Trüb, P; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Zelepoukine, S; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Tsirigkas, D; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, E A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y; Lei, Y J; Lin, S W; Lu, R S; Schümann, J; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Ueno, K; Velikzhanin, Y; Wang, C C; Wang, M; Adiguzel, A; Ayhan, A; Azman Gokce, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Karaman, T; Karaman, T; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kurt, P; Önengüt, G; Önengüt Gökbulut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Öcalan, K; Serin, M; 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2010-01-01
The resolution and the linearity of time measurements made with the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied with samples of data from test beam electrons, cosmic rays, and beam-produced muons. The resulting time resolution measured by lead tungstate crystals is better than 100 ps for energy deposits larger than 10 GeV. Crystal-to-crystal synchronization with a precision of 500 ps is performed using muons produced with the first LHC beams in 2008.
Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors
Kees de Jager
2004-08-01
Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.
ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)
R. Rusack
Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap, were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...
Theory of electromagnetic fields
Wolski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
We discuss the theory of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to radiofrequency systems in particle accelerators. We begin by reviewing Maxwell's equations and their physical significance. We show that in free space, there are solutions to Maxwell's equations representing the propagation of electromagnetic fields as waves. We introduce electromagnetic potentials, and show how they can be used to simplify the calculation of the fields in the presence of sources. We derive Poynting's theorem, which leads to expressions for the energy density and energy flux in an electromagnetic field. We discuss the properties of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.
Yahyaei, Mohsen; Bashiri, Mahdi
2017-03-01
The hub location problem arises in a variety of domains such as transportation and telecommunication systems. In many real-world situations, hub facilities are subject to disruption. This paper deals with the multiple allocation hub location problem in the presence of facilities failure. To model the problem, a two-stage stochastic formulation is developed. In the proposed model, the number of scenarios grows exponentially with the number of facilities. To alleviate this issue, two approaches are applied simultaneously. The first approach is to apply sample average approximation to approximate the two stochastic problem via sampling. Then, by applying the multiple cuts Benders decomposition approach, computational performance is enhanced. Numerical studies show the effective performance of the SAA in terms of optimality gap for small problem instances with numerous scenarios. Moreover, performance of multi-cut Benders decomposition is assessed through comparison with the classic version and the computational results reveal the superiority of the multi-cut approach regarding the computational time and number of iterations.
Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.
2010-01-01
The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…
Elovitz, Gerald P.
1979-01-01
Measures of visual perception, such as the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) usually require motoric responding, i.e., drawing of figures. An alternative test, the Non-Motoric Visual Gestalt Test (NVGT), is compared with the BVMGT and shown to be superior in measuring visual-perceptual abilities that can discriminate poor and average…
Skeen, Judith A.; And Others
1982-01-01
A comparison was made of the performance of 30 learning-disabled students on the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. A significant correlation of -.72 was obtained. No significant difference was found in estimations of age equivalents. (Author)
Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.
2010-01-01
The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…
McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee
2002-12-01
To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.
Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method
Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.
Thomas Bender. Historia de los Estados Unidos: una nación entre naciones
Jhon Florián Guzmán
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 El libro de Thomas Bender es una obra que busca reclamar un lugar dentro de la extensa bibliografía que ya acumula la historia de los Estados Unidos. Para ello, apunta al reconocimiento de las conexiones externas de la historia nacional y, de paso, entiende que la nación no es una entidad autosustentada. Está, al igual que cualquier forma de solidaridad humana, conectada con aquello que la excede, y que además, contribuye a configurarla. Es por esta razón que el autor debate con los teóricos del excepcionalismo norteamericano, para instalar los principales acontecimientos nacionales, incluidos los más distintivos (como la revolución y la guerra civil, en un contexto global. El debate sobre el método, más que el barrido detallado de los hechos históricos, es el principal aporte de este historiador del Centro Internacional para Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad de Nueva York. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.
Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M
2014-02-01
Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.
Performances of the AMS-02 Electromagnetic Calorimeter
Adloff, C.; Coignet, G.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Kossakowski, R.; Lees-Rosier, S.; Pochon, J.; Vialle, J. P.; Cervelli, F.; di Falco, S.; Galeotti, S.; Incagli, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Spinella, F.; Venanzoni, G.; Falchini, E.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Bolmont, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Sapinski, M.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Lu, Y.; Yang, C.
2004-07-01
A 3D imaging electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) made of scintillating fibers embedded in lead has been developed for the AMS-02 experiment to be installed on the International Space Station. A full scale ECAL prototype, partially instrumented, was tested in July 2002 in a beam at CERN. Several million events were recorded using muon, electron, proton, and antiproton beams, from which the ECAL behavior was determined. Results on the measurement of the ECAL parameters and performances are presented : radiation length, linearity, energy and angular resolutions, e/p separation.
Self accelerating electron Airy beams
Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady
2013-01-01
We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.
Cuperus, J H
1977-01-01
Quite often, particle-beam monitors have not the same cross-section as the beam pipe or vacuum chamber in which they are mounted. In that case, the electromagnetic field of the beam is distorted in the vicinity of the edges of the monitor. This field, at the junction of two rectangular beam pipes of different dimensions, is computed for a beam with constant charge along its length. Solutions which are less accurate but easier to apply are obtained with a first order approximation. The results are extended to intensity-modulated beams and circular or elliptical cross-sections. The errors, due to the edge effect, for the electrostatic pickup and the wall-current monitor are computed. The final formulas are simple and easy to apply to practical cases. (6 refs).
ATLAS electromagnetic end-cap detector
Maximilien Brice
2003-01-01
After the insertion of the first end-cap into this cryostat, the team proceed to the wiring operations. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap, whch must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. The energy of photons, electrons and positrons will be measured as they pass through the end-cap having been created along the line of the beams in the proton-proton collisions.
Calibration strategy of CMS electromagnetic calorimeter
Paramatti, R
2004-01-01
Calibration is one of the main factors that set limits on the ultimate performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at LHC. Crystals raw intercalibration from lab measurements during assembly and CERN-SPS test beam of Supermodules will represent the precalibration at the start-up. In situ calibration with physics events will be the main tool to reduce the constant term to the design goal of 0.5%. The calibration strategy will be described in detail.
Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves
Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials
Moliton, André
2007-01-01
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...
Static electromagnetic frequency changers
Rozhanskii, L L
1963-01-01
Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work
Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage
Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...
Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...
Slewing crane with electromagnet
2006-01-01
This paper describes a slewing crane with electromagnet, operated by three three-phase induction motors. A switchboard described in a separate paper, which also depicts the electromagnet construction details, drives the motors and the electromagnet. From its seat – mounted on the crane - an operator can make the crane arm slew left or right. The electromagnet can be moved back, forward, up or down. The crane is made of iron, has a height of 3m and a length of 2,5m. Such proportions make it ve...
Fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism
Kim, Nam; Yoon, Youngro; Jun, Sukhee; Jun, Hoin
2004-08-15
It indicates fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism. It mentions electromagnetic field model of introduction and International system of units and universal constant, Vector analysis with summary and orthogonal coordinate systems, electrostatic field on Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, electrostatic energy and strength, steady state current with Ohm's law and Joule's law and calculation of resistance, crystallite field with Vector's electrostatic potential, Biot-Savart law and application and Magnetic Dipole, time-Savart and Maxwell equation with potential function and Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, plane electromagnetic wave, transmission line, a wave guide and cavity resonator and antenna arrangement.
Large electromagnetic pumps. [LMFBR
Kilman, G.B.
1976-01-01
The development of large electromagnetic pumps for the liquid metal heat transfer systems of fission reactors has progressed for a number of years. Such pumps are now planned for fusion reactors and solar plants as well. The Einstein-Szilard (annular) pump has been selected as the preferred configuration. Some of the reasons that electromagnetic pumps may be preferred over mechanical pumps and why the annular configuration was selected are discussed. A detailed electromagnetic analysis of the annular pump, based on slug flow, is presented. The analysis is then used to explore the implications of large size and power on considerations of electromagnetic skin effect, geometric skin effect and the cylindrical geometry.
Ana Paula Porto Noronha
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to gather evidences of validity for the Bender test – Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG, investigating developmental changes based on the relationships between its scores and the ages of the children. The study investigated 1052 children attending from pre-school to fourth grade of eight municipal and state public schools of Campinas (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and the surrounding region. Ages ranged from six to ten years old, with an average of 8,35. The findings indicated that according to the increase of age, the B-SPG scores diminished, suggesting that the distortions progressively diminish as the children become older. Although other studies are suggested, the results presented here are consonant with researches that sought to establish that it is possible too find a maturational character among the figures of the test.
M. Baghdadi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive framework model of a distribution company with security and reliability considerations. A probabilistic wind farm, which is a renewable energy resource, is modeled in this work. The requirement energy of distribution company can be either provided by distribution company's own distributed generations or purchased from power market. Two reliability indices as well as DC load flow equations are also considered in order to satisfy reliability and security constraints, respectively. Since allocating proper spinning reserve improves reliability level, the amount of spinning reserve will be calculated iteratively. In this work, all equations are expressed in a linear fashion in which unit commitment formulation depends on binary variables associated with only on/off of units. The benders decomposition method is used to solve security-based unit commitment.
Theoretical and Experimental Beam Plasma Physics (TEBPP)
Roberts, B.
1986-01-01
The theoretical and experimental beam plasma physics (TEBPP) consists of a package of five instruments to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasma density and temperature, neutral density, photometric emissions, and energetic particle spectra during firings of the particle injector (SEPAC) electron beam. The package is developed on a maneuverable boom (or RMS) and is used to measure beam characteristics and induced perturbations field ( 10 m) and mid field ( 10 m to 100 m) along the electron beam. The TEBPP package will be designed to investigate induced oscillations and induced electromagnetic mode waves, neutral and ion density and temperature effects, and beam characteristics as a function of axial distance.
Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
2012-01-01
I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…
High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry
Sánchez-Hernández, David A
2009-01-01
Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.
Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler
Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.
1992-01-01
The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.
Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency
Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2014-01-01
Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.
The AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter
Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert-Hermel, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, H.; Coignet, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J.M.; Falchini, E.; Franzoso, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Girard, L.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Kossakowski, R.; Lieunard, B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Paoletti, R.; Pilo, F. E-mail: federico.pilo@pi.infn.it; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.; Valle, G.; Venanzoni, G.; Vialle, J.P.; Yu, Z.; Zhuang, H
2002-12-01
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a lead-scintillating fibers sampling calorimeter characterized by high granularity that allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron/hadron discrimination. The light collection system and the FE electronics are designed to let the calorimeter operate over a wide energy range from few GeV up to 1 TeV. A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter was tested at CERN in October 2001 using electrons and pions beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. Effective sampling thickness, linearity and energy resolution were measured.
The AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter
Cadoux, F; Chambert-Hermel, V; Chen, G; Chen, H; Coignet, G; Di Falco, S; Dubois, J M; Falchini, E; Franzoso, A; Fougeron, D; Fouque, N; Galeotti, S; Girard, L; Goy, C; Hermel, R; Incagli, M; Kossakowski, R; Lieunard, B; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lomtadze, T A; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Rosier-Lees, S; Spinella, F; Turini, N; Valle, G D; Venanzoni, G; Vialle, J P; Yu, Z; Zhuang, H
2002-01-01
The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a lead-scintillating fibers sampling calorimeter characterized by high granularity that allows to image the longitudinal and lateral showers development, a key issue to provide high electron/hadron discrimination. The light collection system and the FE electronics are designed to let the calorimeter operate over a wide energy range from few GeV up to 1 TeV. A full-scale prototype of the e.m. calorimeter was tested at CERN in October 2001 using electrons and pions beams with energy ranging from 3 to 100 GeV. Effective sampling thickness, linearity and energy resolution were measured. (8 refs).
De la Torre Vega, Eli
1997-04-01
In the first chapter the deduction of the Benders cuts are presented, departing from the properties of duality. Also the properties of the Benders cuts are presented, as well as the initial algorithm of Benders to solve any problem of lineal integer-mixed programming are presented. In the second chapter, of the planning of the expansion of means of generation and transmission in an electric power system is presented and the different structures of the mathematical programming it gives rise to and how the method of Benders can be adapted to these. In the third chapter the theoretical contributions of this work are presented: a) How to initialize the master problem to take advantage of the acquired experience after having solved a similar problem, so that it can be solved more efficiently, the succession of integer-mixed problems of linear programming that arise when solving the problem of the planning of the expansion of generation and transmission means in an electric power system. b) How to generate a master problem whose continuous optimal solution corresponds to the optimal continuous one of the integer-mixed problem, so that the search of integer solutions is made in the vicinity of the optimum continuous. c) How to generate an integer solution, close to the optimum continuous of the integer-mixed problem, that has high probability of being feasible, and that is perhaps the optimal integer solution, in a smaller time than that required to solve it in exact form. In addition, other ideas are presented that can be incorporated to the Benders method. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed ideas, in chapter 4 the results obtained when solving several problems are presented using: 1. The updated Benders method, 2. The branch and bound method, 3. The update of Benders when adding restrictions and 4. The update of Benders when considered as integer each time to more variables. Finally a summary is made of the achievements, of the conclusions obtained and
Electromagnetic interactions in the MINOS detectors
Vahle, Patricia LaVern [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
2004-08-01
MINoS is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to observe the oscillation of neutrinos traveling between two detectors, a Near Detector at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far Detector at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. Precision measurement of the oscillation parameters requires a better than 5% absolute energy calibration with is derived using a dedicated calibration detector, called CalDet. A smaller version of the MINOS detectors, the CalDet was exposed to particular beams in the CERN PS East Area test beams in 2001-2003. This document describes the conditions under which the CalDet beam data were taken, establishes selection criteria to identify a sample of electrons, and discusses the characteristics of electromagnetic interactions in the CalDet.
OLAF BENDER:德国视音频艺术前沿的白色噪音%VISUAL NOISE:CUTTING EDGE OF GERMAN AUDIO
杜钦
2009-01-01
@@ Raster-Noton是当代德国一个重要的电子乐厂牌,由Frank Bretschneider(又名Kornet)和Olaf Bender(又名Byetone)拥有的厂牌Raster,与Carsten Nicolai (又名Alva Nato)拥有的Noton在1999年合并组成,至今已有近十年的历史.
Computer techniques for electromagnetics
Mittra, R
1973-01-01
Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni
Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena
Ponath, H-E
1991-01-01
In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are
High frequency electromagnetic tomography
Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Ueng, T.; Latorre, R.
1989-09-01
An experiment was conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site to evaluate high frequency electromagnetic tomography as a candidate for in situ monitoring of hydrology in the near field of a heater placed in densely welded tuff. Tomographs of 200 MHz electromagnetic permittivity were made for several planes between boreholes. Data were taken before the heater was turned on, during heating and during cooldown of the rockmass. This data is interpreted to yield maps of changes in water content of the rockmass as a function of time. This interpretation is based on laboratory measurement of electromagnetic permittivity as a function of water content for densely welded tuff. 8 refs., 6 figs.
Electromagnetic analysis of electromagnet for control element drive mechanism
Huh, Hyung; Kim, J.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, Y.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)
1999-06-01
A 2-D electromagnetic numerical analysis model is developed to calculate the attraction force of the electromagnet for CEDM. trend relating to electromagnetic design within constrained. The important design variables of the electromagnet are current density and air gap length. The results show that the attraction force by using optimum design point is well within the acceptable level. It is anticipated that the results will eventually be utilized for more realitic design of the electromagnet. 10 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
Mitchell-Burns, J A
2000-06-01
Performance of 66 children, 30 with and 36 without learning disabilities, in four ways using the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test was compared. First, the test with the standard Koppitz scoring procedure, second with the Canter Background Interference Procedure sheet using the standard Koppitz scoring procedure; third, the Bender test on a standard sheet of paper using Canter scoring procedure; and fourth, the Canter Background Interference Procedure (BIP) sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. The effectiveness of the Canter procedure was examined when scored with an age-appropriate normative scoring system. This was accomplished by combining the Canter BIP interference sheet with the Koppitz scoring system. The children ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Using discriminant analysis, all four methods correctly categorized statistically significant percentages of both types of students but there was a significant difference on the Canter BIP sheet using the Canter scoring procedure. This procedure classified students with the least absolute number and percentage of either false negatives or false positives when compared with the other three methods, suggesting that using this scoring method with the Bender Gestalt may be better for identifying younger children with learning disabilities.
Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
Tran, T.M.; Jost, G.; Appert, K.; Sauter, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuthrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1995-10-01
Experimental observations seem to indicate that the beam velocity and energy spreads are larger than those calculated from the electron trajectory codes which do not take into account the effects of beam instabilities. On the other hand, parasitic oscillations of the beam with frequencies close to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce} have been observed experimentally, suggesting the possibility that instabilities can be excited in the beam tunnels and are responsible for the beam degradation. 2D electrostatic and electromagnetic time-dependent PIC codes have been developed to simulate the beam transport in the beam tunnel. The results of extensive parametric runs, using these codes (which were ported on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer), together with the role of the beam instabilities around {omega}{sub ce} on the beam degradation will be reported. (author) 2 figs., 9 refs.
Electromagnetic fields and waves
Rojansky, Vladimir
2012-01-01
This comprehensive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory covers the major aspects, including scalar fields, vectors, laws of Ohm, Joule, Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell's equation, and more. With numerous diagrams and illustrations.
OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter
1988-01-01
Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.
BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter
CERN
1988-01-01
* Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).
The classical electromagnetic field
Eyges, Leonard
2010-01-01
This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.
Electromagnetism in the Movies.
Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.
1999-01-01
Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)
Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics
Shang, Joseph J S
2016-01-01
Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...
Acácia Aparecida Angeli dos Santos
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos maturacionais e disfuncionais referentes à percepção visomotora de disléxicos valendo-se, para isso, do Teste de Bender analisado sob dois sistemas de correção, o sistema de pontuação gradual (B-SPG e o sistema Lacks. Participaram da pesquisa 20 disléxicos com idade entre 9 e 16 anos (M = 12, sendo 16 do sexo masculino e 4 do sexo feminino. Os dados mostraram que a média de erros dos disléxicos foi acima do que é esperado para crianças de nove e dez anos que compõem a amostra normativa do B-SPG. De acordo com o sistema Lacks de pontuação os fatores mais comprometidos na amostra de disléxicos foram referentes a mudanças na forma da gestalt e distorção da gestalt, fatores esses equivalentes à distorção da forma no B-SPG. O índice de correlação entre os dois sistemas foi significativo e alto (r = 0,76.The present study aimed to evaluate maturity and dysfunctional aspects referred to visualmotor perception of dyslexics using for this, the Bender Test analyzed under two correction systems, being the gradual scoring system (B-SPG and Lacks system. Twenty dyslexics have taken part in the research with ages from 9 to 16 years (average=12, being 16 males and 4 females. The data showed the average of mistakes committed by the dyslexics was above the expected for children from nine to ten years who compose the B-SPG normative sample. According to the Lacks scoring system the factors more affected in the sample of dyslexics were referred to changes on the gestalt form and distortions, factors which are equivalent to the form distortions on the B-SPG. The correlation index between these two systems was significant (r = 0.76.
Ana Paula Porto Noronha
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Esse estudo objetivou buscar evidências de validade para o teste de Bender - Sistema de Pontuação Gradual (B-SPG, por meio da investigação das mudanças desenvolvimentais, expressas pela relação entre os escores com a idade. Fizeram parte do estudo 1052 crianças de oito escolas públicas estaduais e municipais de Campinas e região, de pré-escola à 4ª série do ensino fundamental. As idades variaram entre 6 e 10 anos, com uma média de 8,35 anos. Os achados revelaram que conforme aumentou a idade, diminuiu a pontuação obtida pelo B-SPG, indicando que com o aumento da idade, as distorções da cópia progressivamente diminuem. Embora outros estudos sejam recomendados, os resultados aqui apresentados estão em consonância com trabalhos que buscaram a constatação de que é possível encontrar um caráter maturacional nas figuras do teste.This study aimed to gather evidences of validity for the Bender test - Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG, investigating developmental changes based on the relationships between its scores and the ages of the children. The study investigated 1052 children attending from pre-school to fourth grade of eight municipal and state public schools of Campinas (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and the surrounding region. Ages ranged from six to ten years old, with an average of 8,35. The findings indicated that according to the increase of age, the B-SPG scores diminished, suggesting that the distortions progressively diminish as the children become older. Although other studies are suggested, the results presented here are consonant with researches that sought to establish that it is possible too find a maturational character among the figures of the test.
Electromagnetic rotational actuation.
Hogan, Alexander Lee
2010-08-01
There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.
The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter
Maximilien Brice
2003-01-01
Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.
Electromagnetic Education in India
Bajpai Shrish
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.
Electromagnetic reverberation chambers
Besnier, Philippe
2013-01-01
Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc
Inhomogeneous electromagnetic gravitational collapse
Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1985-04-15
The collapse of an inhomogeneous dust cloud in the presence of an electromagnetic field is investigated in detail. The possibility of a naked singularity arising is studied using some known solutions for a spherical charged inhomogeneous dust cloud. It is found that locally naked singularities may develop when the arbitrary functions in the solution are chosen in a special way, but that a global naked singularity will not form. Also the role of the electromagnetic pressure is discussed.
Vibration control of a flexible structure with electromagnetic actuators
Gruzman, Maurício; Santos, Ilmar
2016-01-01
This work presents the model of a shear-frame-type structure composed of six flexible beams and three rigid masses. Fixed on the ground, outside the structure, two voltage-controlled electromagnetic actuators are used for vibration control. To model the flexible beams, unidimensional finite...... elements were used. Nonlinear equations for the actuator electromagnetic force, noise in the position sensor, time delays for the control signal update and voltage saturation were also considered in the model. For controlling purposes, a discrete linear quadratic regulator combined with a predictive full......-order discrete linear observer was employed. Results of numerical simulations, where the structure is submitted to an impulsive disturbance force and to a harmonic force, show that the oscillations can be significantly reduced with the use of the electromagnetic actuators....
OBSERVATION OF LONG-RANGE BEAM-BEAM EFFECT IN RHIC AND PLANS FOR COMPENSATION.
FISCHER, W.; CALAGA, R.; DORDA, U.; DOUTCHOUK, J.-P.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; RANJBAR, V.; SEN, T.; SHI, J.; QIANG, J.; KABEL, A.
2006-06-23
At large distances the electromagnetic field of a wire is the same as the field produced by a bunch. Such a long-range beam-beam wire compensator was proposed for the LHC, and single beam tests with wire compensators were successfully done in the SPS. RHIC offers the possibility to test the compensation scheme with colliding beams. We report on measurements of beam losses as a function of transverse separation in RHIC at 100 GeV, and comparisons with simulations. We present a design for a long-range wire compensator in RHIC.
Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage
Mao Jian
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and analyzes amount of leakage information with formulas.
Covariant electromagnetic field lines
Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.
2017-08-01
Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.
Electromagnetic cellular interactions.
Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan
2011-05-01
Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beam splitting by a plane-parallel absorptive slab.
Halevi, P
1982-10-01
A study of the transmission of inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves through an interface between a transparent and an absorbing medium leads to the prediction of a novel effect. A beam of unpolarized light passing through a dissipative plane-parallel slab splits into two parallel beams. The electric field in one beam is perpendicular to the plane of incidence, whereas in the other beam it is parallel to this plane.
The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop
Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter
The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...
Synthesis of electromagnetic metasurfaces: principles and illustrations
Achouri Karim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents partial overview of the mathematical synthesis and the physical realization of metasurfaces, and related illustrative examples. The synthesis consists in determining the exact tensorial surface susceptibility functions of the metasurface, based on generalized sheet transition conditions, while the realization deals with both metallic and dielectric scattering particle structures. The examples demonstrate the capabilities of the synthesis and realization techniques, thereby showing the plethora of possible metasurface field transmission and subsequent applications. The first example is the design of two diffraction engineering birefringent metasurfaces performing polarization beam splitting and orbital angular momentum multiplexing, respectively. Next, we discuss the concept of the electromagnetic remotely controlled metasurface spatial processor, which is an electromagnetic linear switch based on destructive interferences. Then, we introduce a non-reciprocal non-gyrotropic metasurface using a pick-up circuit radiator (PCR architecture. Finally, the implementation of all-dielectric metasurfaces for frequency dispersion engineering is discussed.
Xiao, Yanhong; Klein, Mason; Hohensee, Michael; Jiang, Liang; Phillips, David F; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L
2008-07-25
We demonstrate a slow light beam splitter using rapid coherence transport in a wall-coated atomic vapor cell. We show that particles undergoing random and undirected classical motion can mediate coherent interactions between two or more optical modes. Coherence, written into atoms via electromagnetically induced transparency using an input optical signal at one transverse position, spreads out via ballistic atomic motion, is preserved by an antirelaxation wall coating, and is then retrieved in outgoing slow light signals in both the input channel and a spatially-separated second channel. The splitting ratio between the two output channels can be tuned by adjusting the laser power. The slow light beam splitter may improve quantum repeater performance and be useful as an all-optical dynamically reconfigurable router.
冯宏岩; 孟慧慧
2013-01-01
随机规划方法在解决不确定环境中的资源配置问题上具有很大优势.笔者介绍并采用了Benders'分解法来求解动态随机规划,依据“阶段”的概念划分出后部子规划,通过前向模拟和后向递归得出最优HN解.这种方法避免了大多数应用问题中确定性等价形式求解时规模过大的问题,同时反映了信息集的更新过程.此外,从“等待观察(WS)”、“此时此刻(HN)”和“期望价值(EV)”3种假设出发分析最优资产配置问题投资策略的特征,采用EVPI和VSS诠释决策过程中信息的价值和随机方法的价值,并给出了实例分析.
张国文; 陶华; 蒲继雄; 卢兴强; 马伟新
2012-01-01
Unified theory of coherence and polarization of stationary beams is applied to pulsed light beams research. Partially coherent square flat-topped electromagnetic pulsed beams have been constructed, and analytical expressions for cross-spectral density matrix of a class of the pulsed light beams focused by a phase modulated lens have been derived. A detailed study on effects of phase distortion radii, phase distortion depth, phase modulated position and correlation length on spectral density in focused filed is carried on. It is shown that local phase modulation will produce another spectral density peak in the focused field, and correlation parameter of source and phase modulation parameters determine the value of intensity peak, and make it shift in some cases. Especially when parameters of correlation of the source are chosen to be some values, a focal switch phenomenon will occur. Change of spatial coherent length of the source produces the spatially focal shift and pulse time correlation length also produces spectral density peak shift on frequency.%将稳态场的相干偏振统一理论应用于脉冲光束的研究.构建了部分相干方形平顶电磁脉冲光束,并推导出该光束经相位调制透镜后聚焦的交叉谱密度函数表达式.详细探讨了相位调制尺寸、调制深度、调制中心位置以及光束相关长度等对聚焦场光谱强度的影响.研究结果表明,局域相位调制会导致在聚焦场中产生另一光谱强度峰值,光束的相关参数和相位调制参数决定该光谱强度峰值大小,并在一定情况下使之发生移动.特别是当光源相关参数和相位调制参数处于某临界值时,会发生光谱强度峰值开关现象.同时发现,空间相关长度导致光束发生空间焦移,而脉冲时间相关长度导致光谱强度峰值在频率上的移动.
Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams
Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2013-01-01
We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....
Gouesbet, Gérard; Lock, James A.
2016-07-01
When dealing with light scattering and propagation of an electromagnetic beam, there are essentially two kinds of expansions which have been used to describe the incident beam (i) a discrete expansion involving beam shape coefficients and (ii) a continuous expansion in terms of an angular spectrum of plane waves. In this paper, we demonstrate that the angular spectrum decomposition readily leads to two important consequences, (i) laser light beams travel in free space with an effective velocity that is smaller than the speed of light c, and (ii) the optical theorem does not hold for arbitrary shaped beams, both in the case of electromagnetic waves and scalar waves, e.g. quantum and acoustical waves.
Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure
Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.
1993-06-01
Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development.
The Calibration Stategy of CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter
Meridiani, P
2004-01-01
Calibration is one of the main factors that set limits on the ultimate performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) at LHC. Crystals raw intercalibration from laboratory measurements during assembly will be available for all the crystals and has been demonstrated to be a good precalibration value at the start-up; some crystals will be also intercalibrated using an electron beam. In situ calibration with physics events will be the main tool to reduce the constant term of the emergy resolution to the design goal of 0.5%. In the following the calibration strategy will be described in detail.
Electromagnetic proton form factors: perspectives for PANDA
Tomasi-Gustafsson Egle
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The PANDA collaboration studies fundamental aspects of the strong interaction in the transition region between non-perturbative and perturbative QCD, investigating charmonium spectroscopy, hybrids and glueballs, hypernuclei, light and heavy meson production with antiproton beams. In this contribution we focus on leptonic final channels which give access to nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The expected precision on the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton in the time-like region and the radiative corrections to be applied to the data are discussed.
CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter
G Mavromanolakis
2007-12-01
A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 layers and depth of 7.2 0 at normal incidence, having in total 3024 channels of 1 cm2, was tested recently with - beam. We describe the prototype and discuss some preliminary testbeam results on its performance with respect to position resolution, response inhomogeneity and transverse containment.
Applied electromagnetic scattering theory
Osipov, Andrey A
2017-01-01
Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...
Electromagnetic pollution. Screens accused
Vincent, J.
1996-04-01
A recent experiment carried out by M. Bastide (Montpellier University, France) has shown an important increase of mortality, immunosuppression and morphological changes for chicks embryos when submitted to the very low frequency electromagnetic field of a personal computer screen during incubation. Similar effects on pregnant women working in front of cathode ray tubes have never been demonstrated. The paper gives an overview of the epidemiological studies carried out so far to determine the possible noxious effects of electromagnetic fields on public health. In particular, EdF (Electricite de France) has started three different inquiries involving 400000 workmens from electric power industry in order to determine some possible correlation between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukemias, brain tumors and melanomas. William Dab, from EdF Medical Studies Service indicates that only a very small relation with the occurrence of brain tumors and acute myeloid leukemias have been shown so far. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 photos.
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A; Maslovski, Stanislav I
2015-01-01
The ideal black body fully absorbs all incident rays, that is, all propagating waves created by arbitrary sources. The known idealized realization of a black body is the perfectly matched layer (PML), widely used in numerical electromagnetics. However, ideal black bodies and PMLs do not interact with evanescent fields existing near any finite-size source, and the energy stored in these fields cannot be harvested. Here we introduce the concept of the ideal conjugate matched layer (CML), which fully absorbs energy of both propagating and evanescent fields of sources acting as an ideal sink for electromagnetic energy. Conjugate matched absorbers have exciting application potentials, as resonant attractors of electromagnetic energy into the absorber volume. We derive the conditions on the constitutive parameters of media which can serve as CML materials, numerically study the performance of planar and cylindrical CML and discuss possible realizations of such materials as metal-dielectric composites.
Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility
Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.
1987-06-01
Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.
Electromagnetic induction studies
Hermance, J. F.
1983-04-01
Recent developments in electromagnetic induction studies of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere are reviewed. Attention is given to geoelectrical studies of active tectonic areas in terms of the major zones of crustal extension, the basin and range province along western regions of North America, and the Rio Grande rift. Studies have also been performed of tectonic activity around Iceland, the Salton Trough and Cerro Prieto, and the subduction zones of the Cascade Mountains volcanic belt, where magnetotelluric and geomagnetic variation studies have been done. Geomagnetic variations experiments have been reported in the Central Appalachians, and submarine electromagnetic studies along the Juan de Fuca ridge. Controlled source electromagnetic and dc resistivity investigations have been carried out in Nevada, Hawaii, and in the Adirondacks Mountains. Laboratory examinations on the conductivity of representative materials over a broad range of temperature, pressure, and chemistry are described.
Transverse beams stability studies at the Large Hadron Collider
Buffat, Xavier; Pieloni, Tatiana
2015-01-30
A charged particle beam travelling at the speed of light produces large electromagnetic wake fields which, through interactions with its surroundings, act back on the particles in the beam. This coupled system may become unstable, resulting in a deterioration of the beam quality. Such effects play a major role in most existing storage rings, as they limit the maximum performance achievable. In a collider, the presence of a second beam significantly changes the dynamics, as the electromagnetic interactions of the two beams on each other are usually very strong and may, also, limit the collider performances. This thesis treats the coherent stability of the two beams in a circular collider, including the effects of the electromagnetic wake fields and of the beam-beam interactions, with particular emphasis on CERN's Large Hadron Collider. As opposed to other colliders, this machine features a large number of bunches per beam each experiencing multiple long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions. Existing models...
Improved Electromagnetic Brake
Martin, Toby B.
2004-01-01
A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may
Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials
Kebin Fan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic metamaterials are designer materials made from ‘artificial atoms’ which provide unprecedented control over light matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. Having matured over the last decade and a half, researchers now look toward realizing applications of metamaterials. The ability to dynamically control novel responses exhibited by electromagnetic metamaterials would bolster this quest thus ushering in the next revolution in materials.
Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics
Sheng, Xin-Qing
2012-01-01
Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin
Das, Ashok
2013-01-01
These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari
The theory of electromagnetism
Jones, D S
1964-01-01
The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The
Electromagnetic fields and interactions
Becker, Richard
1982-01-01
For more than a century, ""Becker"" and its forerunner, ""Abraham-Becker,"" have served as the bible of electromagnetic theory for countless students. This definitive translation of the physics classic features both volumes of the original text.Volume I, on electromagnetic theory, includes an introduction to vector and tensor calculus, the electrostatic field, electric current and the field, and the theory of relativity. The second volume comprises a self-contained introduction to quantum theory that covers the classical principles of electron theory and quantum mechanics, problems involving
Electromagnetic induction in Australia
Lilley, F. E. M.
Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.
Electromagnetic clutches and couplings
Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli
A racetrack microtron with high brightness beams
Shvedunov, V. I.; Barday, R. A.; Frolov, D. A.; Gorbachev, V. P.; Gribov, I. V.; Knapp, E. A.; Novikov, G. A.; Pakhomov, N. I.; Shvedunov, I. V.; Skachkov, V. S.; Sobenin, N. P.; Trower, W. P.; Tyurin, S. A.; Vetrov, A. A.; Yailijan, V. R.; Zayarny, D. A.
2004-10-01
Here we describe a racetrack microtron that provides electron beams at 12 energies from 4.85 to 34.2 MeV with ˜150 pC/bunch in ˜5 ps bunches having ˜10 mm mrad normalized transverse emittance. Our compact, inexpensive accelerator in addition to its external electron beams can generate electromagnetic radiation from ˜3 mm to ˜0.3 nm by a variety of mechanisms.
A racetrack microtron with high brightness beams
Shvedunov, V.I.; Barday, R.A.; Frolov, D.A.; Gorbachev, V.P.; Gribov, I.V.; Knapp, E.A.; Novikov, G.A.; Pakhomov, N.I.; Shvedunov, I.V.; Skachkov, V.S.; Sobenin, N.P.; Trower, W.P. E-mail: trower@naxs.net; Tyurin, S.A.; Vetrov, A.A.; Yailijan, V.R.; Zayarny, D.A
2004-10-01
Here we describe a racetrack microtron that provides electron beams at 12 energies from 4.85 to 34.2 MeV with {approx}150 pC/bunch in {approx}5 ps bunches having {approx}10 mm mrad normalized transverse emittance. Our compact, inexpensive accelerator in addition to its external electron beams can generate electromagnetic radiation from {approx}3 mm to {approx}0.3 nm by a variety of mechanisms.
Bunching high intensity proton beams with a CH-DTL
Schwarz, Malte; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Hinrichs, Ole; Koser, Daniel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Seibel, Anja [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2014-07-01
The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) will provide ultra short neutron pulses at high intensities and repetition rates. The facility is under construction with an expected first beam by the end of 2014. A 5-Gap CH rebuncher is installed behind a coupled RFQ/IH-DTL combination at the end of the LINAC section between two magnetic quadrupole triplets. It will be used for varying the final energy between 1.8 and 2.2 MeV, as well as for focusing the proton beam bunch longitudinally, to compensate RF defocusing effects and huge space charge forces at currents up to 200 mA at the final stage of extension. Therefore high current beam dynamic simulations are in progress. They include benchmarking of different beam dynamic codes like LORASR, TraceWin and Bender (a new PIC tracking code developed at IAP), as well as validating the results by measurements. Detailed error tolerance studies, thermal simulations and examination of multipole field impact, due to the cavity geometry, are also done. Furthermore, this CH rebuncher serves as prototype for CH cavity operation at MYRRHA (Belgium), an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation of high level nuclear waste. After copper-plating the cavity, RF conditioning will start in spring 2014.
Bogdanov, O V
2014-01-01
The relations among the components of the exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered on a strong electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization are established using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of the electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of the momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at the small angles to the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of the electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momenta. The momentum component parallel to the electric field strength vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined only by the diameter of the laser beam measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part l...
Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!
Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes
2015-01-01
Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the S
Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!
Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes
2015-01-01
Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the
Electromagnetic fields in stratified media
Li, Kai
2009-01-01
Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.
New perspectives on classical electromagnetism
Cote, Paul J.
2009-01-01
The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.
Electromagnetic Force on a Brane
Li, Li-Xin
2016-01-01
A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza-Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also ...
High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions
Gurnett, D. A.
1983-01-01
The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.
High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing
2015-07-09
Electromagnetic Pulse Horizontal Electromagnetic Pulse Advanced Fast Electromagnetic Pulse Nuclear Weapons Effect Testing and Environments 16. SECURITY...TOP 01-2-620A 9 July 2015 G-1 APPENDIX G. ABBREVIATIONS. AFEMP Advanced Fast Electromagnetic ... Electromagnetic Pulse A burst of electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field. The resulting electric and
Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet
Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.
1992-01-01
Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.
Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities
Naus, H.W.L.
2008-01-01
A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic
Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation
Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2014-01-01
Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...
Manifestly covariant electromagnetism
Hillion, P. [Institut Henri Poincare' , Le Vesinet (France)
1999-03-01
The conventional relativistic formulation of electromagnetism is covariant under the full Lorentz group. But relativity requires covariance only under the proper Lorentz group and the authors present here the formalism covariant under the complex rotation group isomorphic to the proper Lorentz group. The authors discuss successively Maxwell's equations, constitutive relations and potential functions. A comparison is made with the usual formulation.
"Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves
Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan
2014-01-01
In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…
"Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves
Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan
2014-01-01
In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
螺旋埋弧焊管机组三辊弯板机的控制%Controlling Three-roll Plate Bender of SAWH Pipe Unit
崔远洋
2012-01-01
介绍了螺旋埋弧焊管机组三辊弯板成型原理,分析了弯板三辊位置控制不佳对焊缝质量的影响及造成的危害,指出了弯板机轧辊位置控制的重要性及具体措施.在三辊弯板成型工艺中,成型辊位置的优化设计时,建议采用“不同管径选择与之相匹配的1#,3#辊的倾角”设计三辊弯板成型的位置.不建议采用“不同管径均选择固定的1#辊、3#辊高度”来设计三辊弯板成型位置和“不同管径均选择固定的1#辊、3#辊中心距”来设计三辊弯板成型位置.%In this article, it introduced forming principle of three-roll plate bender, analyzed the influence and damage to weld quality because of poor control of three-roll plate bender position, pointed out the importance of controlling plate bender roll position and detailed measures. In optimization design of forming roll position, it suggests using different pipe diameter is matched with corresponding obliquity of 1# and 3# roll, and does not suggest using different pipe diameter is all matched with fixed height of 1# and 3# roll and different pipe diameter is all matched with fixed center distance of I# and 3# roll.
Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics
DeFord, J.F.
1993-03-01
The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.
Ana Paula Porto Noronha; Fabian Javier Marin Rueda; Acacia Aparecida Angeli dos Santos
2013-01-01
The aim in this study was to analyze differences between children’s performances on the Bender – Sistema de Pontuação Gradual (B-SPG) [Gradual Scoring System] in the states of Minas Gerais and Paraíba, and to compare them with the results presented in the test manual. The participants were 511 children, both sexes, aged 6-10 years ( M = 8.21, SD = 1.33), and 50.7% male. The children were from two states, Minas Gerais ( n = 298, 58.3%) and Paraiba ( n = 213, 41.7%). The SPG was administered co...
Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; Rueda, Fabian Javier Marin; Santos,Acacia Aparecida Angeli dos
2013-01-01
The aim in this study was to analyze differences between children’s performances on the Bender – Sistema de Pontuação Gradual (B-SPG) [Gradual Scoring System] in the states of Minas Gerais and Paraíba, and to compare them with the results presented in the test manual. The participants were 511 children, both sexes, aged 6-10 years ( M = 8.21, SD = 1.33), and 50.7% male. The children were from two states, Minas Gerais ( n = 298, 58.3%) and Paraiba ( n = 213, 41.7%). ...
tayebeh Rezaie nasab
2013-02-01
Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.
Ráez de Ramírez, Matilde; Thorne, Cecilia; Martinez, Patricia; Niño de Guzmán, Isabel; Rossel, Zoila; Twanama, Walter
1986-01-01
The present study explores the relation between age, sex and socio-economical level in 1,019 children from 5 years to 1 O years, 11 months with the Bender Gestalt Test, using the Kippitz Developmental Scoring System. No significant differences were found according to sex or socio-economical level. Comparing the results with those of Koppitz, significant differences were found in 8 of the 12 groups studied. It was also found that the test is only developmental untill 9 years, just as Taylor & ...
Electromagnetic force and torque in ponderable media
Mansuripur, Masud
2014-01-01
Maxwell's macroscopic equations combined with a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force are a complete and consistent set of equations. Not only are these five equations fully compatible with special relativity, they also conform with conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum. We demonstrate consistency with the conservation laws by showing that, when a beam of light enters a magnetic dielectric, a fraction of the incident linear (or angular) momentum pours into the medium at a rate determined by the Abraham momentum density, ExH/c^2, and the group velocity V_g of the electromagnetic field. The balance of the incident, reflected, and transmitted momenta is subsequently transferred to the medium as force (or torque) at the leading edge of the beam, which propagates through the medium with velocity V_g. Our analysis does not require "hidden" momenta to comply with the conservation laws, nor does it dissolve into ambiguities with regard to the nature of electromagnetic momentum in ponderab...
Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields
Alpaslan Türkkan
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41
Shaped beam scattering by an anisotropic particle
Chen, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Huayong; Huang, Zhixiang; Wu, Xianliang
2017-03-01
An exact semi-analytical solution to the electromagnetic scattering from an optically anisotropic particle illuminated by an arbitrarily shaped beam is proposed. The scattered fields and fields within the anisotropic particle are expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The unknown expansion coefficients are determined by using the boundary conditions and the method of moments scheme. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are given to a uniaxial, gyrotropic anisotropic spheroid and circular cylinder of finite length. The scattering properties are analyzed concisely.
Quantum mechanics of charged particle beam optics
Khan, Sameen Ahmed
2018-01-01
Theory of charged particle beam optics is basic to the design and working of charged particle beam devices from electron microscopes to accelerator machines. Traditionally, the optical elements of the devices are designed and operated based on classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism, and only certain specific quantum mechanical aspects are dealt with separately using quantum theory. This book provides a systematic approach to quantum theory of charged particle beam optics, particularly in the high energy cases such as accelerators or high energy electron microscopy.
High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor
Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C
2000-01-01
Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.
Closing LHCb's calorimeter around the beam-pipe
Kristic, R
2008-01-01
Photos 1 and 2 show the pre-shower, lead absorber and the scintillating pad detector layers moving in towards the beam-pipe. Photos 3,4 and 5 show the hadron calorimeter with both halves closed around the beam-pipe, to the left of the picture and, in the centre, half of the electromagnetic calorimeter closed in towards the beam-pipe.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM
Michelson, C.
1960-09-13
An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.
Classical Electromagnetic Theory
VanderLinde, Jack
2004-01-01
This book is a self contained course in electromagnetic theory suitable for senior physics and electrical engineering students as well as graduate students whose past has not prepared them well for books such as Jackson or Landau and Lifschitz. The text is liberally sprinkled with worked examples illustrating the application of the theory to various physical problems. In this new edition I have endeavored to improve the accuracy and readability, added and further clarified examples, added sections on Schwarz-Christoffel mappings, and to make the book more self sufficient added an appendix on orthogonal function expansions and added the derivation of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials as well as derivation of their generating functions. The number of student exercises has been increased by 45 over the previous edition. This book stresses the unity of electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic fields developed in parallel. SI units are used throughout and considerable use is made of tensor notatio...
Electromagnetic fields and waves
Iskander, Magdy F
2013-01-01
The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...
The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter
Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C. E-mail: cesare.bini@roma1.infn.it; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P
2002-04-11
The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb{sup -1} we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/{radical}E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.
Electromagnetic acoustic imaging.
Emerson, Jane F; Chang, David B; McNaughton, Stuart; Jeong, Jong Seob; Shung, K K; Cerwin, Stephen A
2013-02-01
Electromagnetic acoustic imaging (EMAI) is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission. Signal intensity and image contrast have been found to depend on spatially varying electrical conductivity of the medium in addition to conventional acoustic properties. The resultant conductivity- weighted ultrasound data may enhance the diagnostic performance of medical ultrasound in cancer and cardiovascular applications because of the known changes in conductivity of malignancy and blood-filled spaces. EMAI has a potential advantage over other related imaging techniques because it combines the high resolution associated with ultrasound detection with the generation of the ultrasound signals directly related to physiologically important electrical properties of the tissues. Here, we report the theoretical development of EMAI, implementation of a dual-mode EMAI/ultrasound apparatus, and successful demonstrations of EMAI in various phantoms designed to establish feasibility of the approach for eventual medical applications.
Electromagnetic wave energy converter
Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.
The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter
Adinolfi, M; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Barbiellini, G; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Cabibbo, G; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giannasi, A; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Keeble, L; Kim, W; Kuo, C; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, T A; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Mei, W; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Pacciani, L; Palomba, M; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passeri, A; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Sciascia, B; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spiriti, E; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Ventura, A; Wu, Y; Wölfle, S; Xie, Y G; Zema, P F; Zhang, C D; Zhang, J Q; Zhao, P P
2002-01-01
The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e sup + e sup - collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb sup - sup 1 we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/sq root E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/sq root E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.
Gravitation and electromagnetism
Sidharth, B.G. [Birla Science Centre, Adarsh Nagar, Hyderabad (India)
2001-06-01
The realms of gravitation, belonging to classical physics, and of electromagnetism, belonging to the theory of the electron and quantum mechanics have remained apart as two separate pillars, in spite of a century of effort by physicists to reconcile them. In this paper it is argued that if ideas of classical spacetime have been extended to include in addition to non-integrability non-commutavity also, then such a reconciliation is possible.
Fractional Electromagnetic Waves
Gómez, J F; Bernal, J J; Tkach, V I; Guía, M
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.
The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter
Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G. E-mail: gaia.lanfranchi@lnf.infn.it; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P
2002-11-21
The KLOE calorimeter is a fine lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter. We describe in the following the calibration procedures and the calorimeter performances obtained after 3 years of data taking. We get an energy resolution for electromagnetic showers of 5.4%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 56 ps/{radical}E(GeV). We also present a measurement of efficiency for low-energy photons.
Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials
Fan, Kebin; Padilla, Willie J.
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic metamaterials are designer materials made from ‘artificial atoms’ which provide unprecedented control over light matter interactions. Metamaterials are fashioned to yield a specific response to the electric and magnetic components of light and have realized a multitude of exotic properties difficult to achieve with natural materials. Having matured over the last decade and a half, researchers now look toward realizing applications of metamaterials. The ability to dynamically c...
Electromagnetism and interconnections
Charruau, S
2009-01-01
This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.
Introduction to electromagnetic theory
Owen, George E
2003-01-01
A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele
Belle electromagnetic calorimeter
Miyabayashi, K
2002-01-01
We report the performance of the Belle electromagnetic calorimeter for the first three years operation. Good mass resolutions for pi sup 0 and eta are obtained to be 4.8 and 12.1 MeV/c sup 2 , respectively. The degradation of light output due to the radiation damage is small, about 3% for the radiation dose of 40 rad. These performances promise further study of B physics with neutral particle reconstruction.
Making electromagnetic wavelets
Kaiser, Gerald [Center for Signals and Waves, 3803 Tonkawa Trail no. 2, Austin, TX 78756-3915 (United States)
2004-06-04
Electromagnetic wavelets are constructed using scalar wavelets as superpotentials, together with an appropriate polarization. It is shown that oblate spheroidal antennas, which are ideal for their production and reception, can be made by deforming and merging two branch cuts. This determines a unique field on the interior of the spheroid which gives the boundary conditions for the surface charge-current density necessary to radiate the wavelets. These sources are computed, including the impulse response of the antenna.
Electromagnetic Simulation Seminar and Opera/Tosca update Seminar
IT Department
2012-01-01
9 May 2012 Kjell Johnsen Auditorium – Room 30-7-018 Electromagnetic Simulation Seminar & Opera/Tosca update Seminar By Cobham Technical Services – Vector Fields Software Virtual prototyping using electromagnetic simulation software plays an important role in the design stage of many devices and the Opera software has been in use for this purpose at CERN for over a decade. A technical seminar will take place concerning the latest developments in electromagnetic design, analysis and multi-physics applications for large scientific experiments. Information will be presented on applications such as superconducting magnets and ion-beam sources. The seminar will be presented by engineers/physicists from Cobham Technical Services – Vector Fields Software who develop the Opera program. It is FREE to attend and is open to both current Opera software users and also those who wish to expand their knowledge and understand better the capabilities on offer. Prog...
Gamp, Alexander
2013-01-01
We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.
李颖浩; 郭瑞鹏
2012-01-01
电力系统机组组合问题是一个高维、离散、非线性的工程优化问题。提出了一种基于Benders分解的启发式算法。该算法一方面充分利用研究时段负荷曲线的特征，将问题进行解耦，减小被研究问题的规模。另一方面，利用Benders分解算法在混合整数规划中的有效性，提高了解决问题的效率。算例表明该方法效率高、结果稳定，有较好的实用价值。%Unit commitment （UC） of power system is a high dimensional, nonlinear and mixed-integer engineering optimization problem. To solve this problem a generalized Benders decomposition based heuristic algorithm is proposed. On the one hand the characteristics of load curve in the time-interval being researched are fully utilized to decouple the problem and to decrease the scale of the problem, on the other hand using the effectiveness of Benders algorithm is solving mixed-integer programming problem the efficiency of solving the problem is improved. Results of calculation example show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and practicable.
Electromagnetic force on a brane
Li, Li-Xin
2016-11-01
A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory.
Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams
Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.
2017-01-01
Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.
Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter
Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)
2010-12-15
The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)
Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic
Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O
2004-04-15
Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz
Siewert, Julaine C.; Breen, Michael J.
1983-01-01
Compared three tests of visual-motor integration: The Revised Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI-R), the Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG). Results showed significantly higher BG age equivalent scores. Highly significant correlations were found among all variables. (WAS)
Invariant superoscillatory electromagnetic fields in 3D-space
Makris, K. G.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.
2017-01-01
We derive exact solutions of Maxwell’s equations based on superoscillatory superpositions of vectorial Bessel beams. These novel beams are diffraction-free and can support subwavelength features in their transverse electromagnetic fields, without the presence of any evanescent waves. These features can be propagated into the far field. Approximate solutions in closed form are also derived based on asymptotic expansions of Bessel functions for simple prescribed subwavelength patterns. The superoscillatory characteristics of both electric, magnetic field components (transverse and longitudinal), and the Poynting vector, as well as, the effect of nonparaxiality are systematically investigated.
Batarin, V.A.; Brennan, T.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Fomin, Y.V.; Frolov, V.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Grishin, V.N.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Y.; Khroustalev, K.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kubota, Y.; Leontiev, V.M.; Maisheev, V.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Melnick, Y.M.; Meschanin, A.P.; Mikhalin, N.E.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Mountain, R.; Nogach, L.V.; Ryazantsev, A.V.; Semenov, P.A. E-mail: semenov@mx.ihep.su; Shestermanov, K.E.; Soloviev, L.F.; Solovianov, V.L.; Stone, S.; Ukhanov, M.N.; Uzunian, A.V.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Yakutin, A.E.; Yarba, J
2003-09-11
The energy dependence of the energy and position resolutions of the electromagnetic calorimeter prototype made of lead tungstate crystals produced in Bogoroditsk (Russia) and Shanghai (China) is presented. These measurements were carried out at the Protvino accelerator using a 1-45 GeV electron beam. The crystals were coupled to photomultiplier tubes. The dependence of energy and position resolutions on different factors as well as the measured electromagnetic shower lateral profile are presented.
Batarin, V; Butler, J; Cheung, H; Derevshchikov, A A; Fomin, Y; Frolov, V; Goncharenko, Yu M; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Khroustalev, K; Konstantinov, A S; Kravtsov, V; Kubota, Y; Leontiev, V M; Maisheev, V; Matulenko, Yu A; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Mikhalin, N; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D A; Mountain, R; Nogach, L V; Ryazantsev, A; Semenov, P A; Shestermanov, K E; Soloviev, L; Solovianov, Vladimir L; Stone, S; Ukhanov, M N; Uzunian, A V; Vasilev, A; Yakutin, A; Yarba, J V
2003-01-01
The energy dependence of the energy and position resolutions of the electromagnetic calorimeter prototype made of lead tungstate crystals produced in Bogoroditsk (Russia) and Shanghai (China) is presented. These measurementswere carried out at the Protvino accelerator using a 1 to 45 GeV electron beam. The crystals were coupled to photomultiplier tubes. The dependence of energy and position resolutions on different factors as well as the measured electromagnetic shower lateral profile are presented.
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed
2011-08-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Neutral Spinning Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Neutron Interference
丁秀香; 梁九卿
1994-01-01
The dynamics of neutral spinning particles in electromagnetic fields is investigated. The phase interference of unpolarized neutron beams is reasonably interpreted as the observed spin precession in external fields instead of potential effects in the quantum physics; namely, the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects. It is also pointed out that the recent experiment claimed to be the verification of Aharonov-Casher phase with neutron interferometry, however, can be considered as a test of new anyon model.
Attractors and chaos of electron dynamics in electromagnetic standing wave
Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Koga, James K; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori; Rosanov, Nikolay N; Korn, Georg; Bulanov, Sergei V
2014-01-01
The radiation reaction radically influences the electron motion in an electromagnetic standing wave formed by two super-intense counter-propagating laser pulses. Depending on the laser intensity and wavelength, either classical or quantum mode of radiation reaction prevail, or both are strong. When radiation reaction dominates, electron motion evolves to limit cycles and strange attractors. This creates a new framework for high energy physics experiments on an interaction of energetic charged particle beams and colliding super-intense laser pulses.
Cellular Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation.
2014-09-26
8217-- - - .- . - .- ’*-_- - 7 - r - .STUDIES OF EXPOSURE TO AMPLITUDE-MODULATED FIELDS The electromagnetic fields to which naval personnel are exposed tend to...radiation) ,.- Biological effects of electromagnetic fields , 20. ABSTRACT (Contimee an revers side II neceesmv aiId identify by Wek numbe") , .P-Giant...cells of characean algae were examined for electrophysiological sequelae to acute electromagnetic field irradiation at 10 mW/cm Carrier frequencies
Electromagnetic field and cosmic censorship
Düztaş, Koray
2013-01-01
We construct a gedanken experiment in which an extremal Kerr black hole interacts with a test electromagnetic field. Using Teukolsky's solutions for electromagnetic perturbations in Kerr spacetime, and the conservation laws imposed by the energy momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field and the Killing vectors of the spacetime, we prove that this interaction cannot convert the black hole into a naked singularity, thus cosmic censorship conjecture is not violated in this case.
Expansion of Arbitrary Electromagnetic Fields in Terms of Vector Spherical Wave Functions
Moreira, W L; Garbos, M K; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J; Cesar, C L
2010-01-01
Since 1908, when Mie reported analytical expressions for the fields scattered by a spherical particle upon incidence of an electromagnetic plane-wave, generalizing his analysis to the case of an arbitrary incident wave has proved elusive. This is due to the presence of certain radially-dependent terms in the equation for the beam-shape coefficients of the expansion of the electromagnetic fields in terms of vector spherical wave functions. Here we show for the first time how these terms can be canceled out, allowing analytical expressions for the beam shape coefficients to be found for a completely arbitrary incident field. We give several examples of how this new method, which is well suited to numerical calculation, can be used. Analytical expressions are found for Bessel beams and the modes of rectangular and cylindrical metallic waveguides. The results are highly relevant for speeding up calculation of the radiation forces acting on small spherical particles placed in an arbitrary electromagnetic field, fo...
Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam
Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M
2011-01-01
Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.
Doughnut laser beam as an incoherent superposition of two petal beams
Litvin, IA
2014-02-01
Full Text Available evidence of the real electromagnetic field. In this Letter we revisit this question and show that an observed doughnut beam from a laser cavity may not be a pure Laguerre–Gaussian azimuthal mode but can be an incoherent sum of petal modes, which do...
Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok
2016-02-01
A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.
Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.
Electromagnetic Dissociation of Target Nuclei by $^{208}$Pb Projectiles
Petridis, A; Wohn, F K
2002-01-01
% NA53 \\\\ \\\\ The purpose of this experiment is to study the process of electromagnetic dissociation (ED) that occurs at impact parameters large enough so that there is no nuclear interaction. In these cases strong electromagnetic fields are produced for a short time at the nucleus. For large charges and ultrarelativistic energies, the intense electromagnetic pulse produces cross-sections much larger than the total hadronic cross-section. These effects place significant constraints on the storage times of the heavy ion beams planned for RHIC and LHC.\\\\ \\\\In this experiment we measure the cross-sections for the one- and two-neutron removal processes resulting from the interaction of 160 and 40~GeV/nucleon Pb beams on Au and Co targets. Thin Au targets were bombarded in the beam line of the NA50 experiment. Gamma rays from the residual nuclides produced in the bombardment were measured to determine the saturation activities of $^{196}$Au and $^{195}$Au resulting from ED of the Au target. This along with cross-se...
Electromagnetic fields in biological systems
Lin, James C
2012-01-01
"Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...
Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...
Method of moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2007-01-01
Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t
Electromagnetic waves in stratified media
Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne
Towards large area THz electromagnetic metamaterials
Moser, H. O.; Bahou, M.; Chen, A.; Heussler, S. P.; Jian, L. K.; Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.; Liu, G.; Maniam, S. M.; bin Mahmood, Shahrain; Gu, P. D.; Wen, L.; Kong, J. A.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, X. X.; Wu, B. I.; Casse, B. D. F.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.
2008-08-01
Up to date, electromagnetic metamaterials (EM3) have been mostly fabricated by primary pattern generation via electron beam or laser writer. Such an approach is time-consuming and may have limitations of the area filled with structures. Especially, electron beam written structures are typically confined to areas of a few 100×100 μm2. However, for meaningful technological applications, larger quantities of good quality materials are needed. Lithography, in particular X-ray deep lithography, is well suited to accomplish this task. Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS) has been applying its LIGA process that includes primary pattern generation via electron beam or laser writer, X-ray deep lithography and electroplating to the micro/nano-manufacturing of high-aspect ratio structures to produce a variety of EM3 structures. Starting with Pendry's split ring resonators, we have pursued structure designs suitable for planar lithography since 2002 covering a range of resonance frequencies from 1 to 216 THz. More recently, string-like structures have also been included. Latest progress made in the manufacturing and characterization of quasi 3D metamaterials having either split ring or string structures over areas of about ~1 cm2 extension will be described.
Three dimensional parametrization of electromagnetic shower in Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Ⅱ ECAL
TAO Jun-Quan; CHEN He-Sheng; CHEN Gang; YANG Min; CHEN Guo-Ming; LI Zu-Hao; LI Xin-Qiao; TANG Zhi-Cheng; ZHANG Zhen; WANG Jian; L(U) Yu-Sheng
2008-01-01
We develop an empirical formula to parameterize the 3-dimension (3D) distribution of electromagnetic showers in the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Ⅱ electromagnetic calorimeter(ECAL). The formula was verified by ECAL test beam data in 2002 and found to perform well. The distribution of electron showers in the ECAL are well described by the formula, which has parameters that allow one to determine the 3D shape of electromagnetic showers in the ECAL. We use this formula to correct for lateral energy leakage and dead channels in the ECAL; good results are obtained.
Electromagnetism from counting
Noyes, H.P.
1992-12-01
The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which fields'' are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.
Electromagnetism from counting
Noyes, H.P.
1992-12-01
The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which ``fields`` are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.
Introduction to electromagnetic engineering
Harrington, Roger E
2003-01-01
This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr
Visinelli, Luca
2014-01-01
We extend the duality symmetry between the electric and the magnetic fields to the case in which an additional axion-like term is present, and we derive the set of Maxwell's equations that preserves this symmetry. This new set of equations allows for a gauge symmetry extending the ordinary symmetry in the classical electrodynamics. We obtain explicit solutions for the new set of equations in the absence of external sources, and we discuss the implications of a new internal symmetry between the axion field and the electromagnetic gauge potential.
Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility
1995-01-01
This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E
Alight A Beam and Beaming Light -- A Theme With Variations
Chattopadhyay, Swapan
1997-11-01
We will explore the physics and technology of interaction of light (coherent and incoherent) with charged particle beams with the generation of novel types of electromagnetic radiation and particle sources in mind. Various configurations will be presented: incoherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from an incoherent particle beam (high temperature), coherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from a `cold' (bunched) beam, amplification of light by a particle beam, femtosecond generation of particle and light beams via `optical slicing' and Thomson/Compton scattering techniques, etc. We will explore the domains of untrashort temporal duration (femtoseconds) as well as of ultrashort wavelengths (x-rays and shorter), with varying degrees of coherence. The relevance of such sources to a few critical areas of research in the natural sciences e.g. ultrafast material, chemical and biological processes, protein folding, x-ray holography, particle phase space cooling and quantum computing will be briefly touched upon. All the processes discussed involve proper interpretation and understanding of coherent states of matter and radiation, as well as the quality and quantity of information and energy embedded in them.
Beam-Wall interaction in the LHC liner
Mostacci, A
2001-01-01
The beam pipe foreseen for the LHC is rather unconventional. To shield the cold bore of the magnets from the synchrotron radiation emitted by protons at 7 TeV, a beam screen (the so called "liner") has been introduced practically along all the machine. The present design of the liner is a compromise among beam stability issues, vacuum requirements, heat load on the cold bore, electron cloud effects and mechanical constraints. Three main potential sources of beam energy loss in the actual LHC liner are addressed, namely the interaction with the pumping holes, the (sawtooth) surface corrugation and the effect of an azimuthally inhomogeneous metallic beam pipe modelling the high resistivity of the welding. The losses are estimated through a detailed electromagnetic analysis (by means of standard theories) seeking for analytical expressions of electromagnetic fields and/or coupling impedance. An analytical (or semi-analytical) approach is considered for each problem, to better understand the relevant parameters t...
Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples
Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@gmail.com; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2014-01-15
In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.