WorldWideScience

Sample records for electromagnetic acoustic resonance

  1. Online monitoring of pipe wall thinning by electromagnetic acoustic resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urayama, Ryoichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) method provides accurate and stable evaluation in high temperature environment, and it is an effective tool for online monitoring. In this study, the EMAR method and the superposition of the n-th compression (SNC) for data processing are applied to online monitoring of pipe wall thinning, and the accuracy and reliability of the measurements are demonstrated through field tests using a large-scale corrosion test loop at high temperature. To measure the thickness of pipes with complicated wall thinning, the SNC extracts thickness information from the spectral responses of the EMAR. Results from monitoring test show that EMAR with SNC can evaluate pipe wall thinning with an accuracy of 10 μm at 165degC. In addition, time evaluation of evaluated thickness decreases monotonically all over the test duration, which indicates high stability of this measurement technique. (author)

  2. Phase control of electromagnetically induced acoustic wave transparency in a diamond nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Sofia, E-mail: Evangelousof@gmail.com

    2017-05-10

    Highlights: • A high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers is studied. • A Δ-type coupling configuration is formed. • The spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers interact with a strain field and two microwave fields. • The absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field are controlled by the use of the relative phase of the fields. • Phase-dependent acoustic wave absorption, transparency, and gain are obtained. • “Slow sound” and negative group velocities are also possible. - Abstract: We consider a high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. We study the interaction of the transitions of the spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers with a strain field and two microwave fields in a Δ-type coupling configuration. We use the relative phase of the fields for the control of the absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field. Specifically, we show that by changing the relative phase of the fields, the acoustic field may exhibit absorption, transparency, gain and very interesting dispersive properties.

  3. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    Acoustics; energy harvesting; electromagnetic; Helmholtz resonator; sound pressure level; suspended coil. ... WSNs, which are supposed to operate for longer period of time. However ... several ambient energies such as wind, thermal, vibration, and solar are ..... textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.

  4. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  5. Electromagnetic resonance waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs

  6. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (LsCpLp) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  7. Design and implementation of improved LsCpLp resonant circuit for power supply for high-power electromagnetic acoustic transducer excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, Yongming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Jiawei; Zhang, Xinglan; Hou, Shuaicheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of an improved series-parallel inductor-capacitor-inductor (L s C p L p ) resonant circuit power supply for excitation of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The main advantage of the proposed resonant circuit is the absence of a high-permeability dynamic transformer. A high-frequency pulsating voltage gain can be achieved through a double resonance phenomenon. Both resonant tailing behavior and higher harmonics are suppressed by the improved resonant circuit, which also contributes to the generation of ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the proposed circuit can realize impedance matching and can also optimize the transduction efficiency. The complete design and implementation procedure for the power supply is described and has been validated by implementation of the proposed power supply to drive a portable EMAT. The circuit simulation results show close agreement with the experimental results and thus confirm the validity of the proposed topology. The proposed circuit is suitable for use as a portable EMAT excitation power supply that is fed by a low-voltage source.

  8. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, Marvin C

    2013-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Acoustic Fano resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    The resonances with asymmetric Fano line-shapes were originally discovered in the context of quantum mechanics (U. Fano, Phys. Rev., 124, 1866-1878, 1961). Quantum Fano resonances were generated from destructive interference of a discrete state with a continuum one. During the last decade this concept has been applied in plasmonics where the interference between a narrowband polariton and a broader one has been used to generate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) (M. Rahmani, et al., Laser Photon. Rev., 7, 329-349, 2013).

  10. Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling in ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling at the surface and in the bulk of ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures has been studied using electromagnetically excited acoustic standing-wave resonances at MHz frequencies in a number of ferromagnetic metals and alloys of commercial interest...

  11. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A; Flores-Olmedo, E; Báez, G; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results. (paper)

  12. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  13. Acoustic Fano resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The resonances with asymmetric Fano line-shapes were originally discovered in the context of quantum mechanics (U. Fano, Phys. Rev., 124, 1866-1878, 1961). Quantum Fano resonances were generated from destructive interference of a discrete state

  14. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers noncontacting ultrasonic measurements using EMATS

    CERN Document Server

    Hirao, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    This second edition provides comprehensive information on electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), from the theory and physical principles of EMATs to the construction of systems and their applications to scientific and industrial ultrasonic measurements on materials. The original version has been complemented with selected ideas on ultrasonic measurement that have emerged since the first edition was released. The book is divided into four parts: PART I offers a self-contained description of the basic elements of coupling mechanisms along with the practical designing of EMATs for various purposes. Several implementations to compensate for EMATs’ low transfer efficiency are provided, along with useful tips on how to make an EMAT. PART II describes the principle of electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), which makes the most of EMATs’ contactless nature and is the most successful amplification mechanism for precise measurements of velocity and attenuation. PART III applies EMAR to studying physical ...

  15. Drift effects on electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgalla, R. J. F., E-mail: reneesgalla@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    A two fluid model with parallel viscosity is employed to derive the dispersion relation for electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in the presence of drift (diamagnetic) effects. Concerning the influence of the electron dynamics on the high frequency GAM, it is shown that the frequency of the electromagnetic GAM is independent of the equilibrium parallel current but, in contrast with purely electrostatic GAMs, significantly depends on the electron temperature gradient. The electromagnetic GAM may explain the discrepancy between the f ∼ 40 kHz oscillation observed in tokamak TCABR [Yu. K. Kuznetsov et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 063044 (2012)] and the former prediction for the electrostatic GAM frequency. The radial wave length associated with this oscillation, estimated presently from this analytical model, is λ{sub r} ∼ 25 cm, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than the usual value for zonal flows (ZFs)

  16. Electromagnetically actuated micromanipulator using an acoustically oscillating bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J O; Yang, J S; Lee, S J; Rhee, K; Chung, S K

    2011-01-01

    A novel non-invasive micromanipulation technique has been developed where a microrobot swimming in an aqueous medium manipulates micro-objects, through electromagnetic actuation using an acoustically oscillating bubble attached to the microrobot as a grasping tool. This micromanipulation concept was experimentally verified; an investigation of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation was also performed. Two-dimensional propulsion of a magnetic piece was demonstrated through electromagnetic actuation, using three pairs of electric coils surrounding the water chamber, and confirming that the propulsion speed of the magnetic piece was linearly proportional to the applied current intensity. Micro-object manipulation was separately demonstrated using an air bubble with glass beads (80 µm diameter) and a steel ball (800 µm diameter) in an aqueous medium. Upon acoustic excitation of the bubble by a piezo-actuator around its resonant frequency, the generated radiation force attracted and captured the neighboring glass beads and steel ball. The grasping force was indirectly measured by exposing the glass beads captured by the oscillating bubble to a stream generated by an auto-syringe pump in a mini-channel. By measuring the maximum speed of the streaming flow when the glass beads detached from the oscillating bubble and flowed downstream, the grasping force was calculated as 50 nN, based on Stokes' drag approximation. Finally, a fish egg was successfully manipulated with the integration of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation, using a mini-robot consisting of a millimeter-sized magnetic piece with a bubble attached to its bottom. This novel micromanipulation may be an efficient tool for both micro device assembly and single-cell manipulation.

  17. Electromagnetically actuated micromanipulator using an acoustically oscillating bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. O.; Yang, J. S.; Lee, S. J.; Rhee, K.; Chung, S. K.

    2011-11-01

    A novel non-invasive micromanipulation technique has been developed where a microrobot swimming in an aqueous medium manipulates micro-objects, through electromagnetic actuation using an acoustically oscillating bubble attached to the microrobot as a grasping tool. This micromanipulation concept was experimentally verified; an investigation of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation was also performed. Two-dimensional propulsion of a magnetic piece was demonstrated through electromagnetic actuation, using three pairs of electric coils surrounding the water chamber, and confirming that the propulsion speed of the magnetic piece was linearly proportional to the applied current intensity. Micro-object manipulation was separately demonstrated using an air bubble with glass beads (80 µm diameter) and a steel ball (800 µm diameter) in an aqueous medium. Upon acoustic excitation of the bubble by a piezo-actuator around its resonant frequency, the generated radiation force attracted and captured the neighboring glass beads and steel ball. The grasping force was indirectly measured by exposing the glass beads captured by the oscillating bubble to a stream generated by an auto-syringe pump in a mini-channel. By measuring the maximum speed of the streaming flow when the glass beads detached from the oscillating bubble and flowed downstream, the grasping force was calculated as 50 nN, based on Stokes' drag approximation. Finally, a fish egg was successfully manipulated with the integration of electromagnetic actuation and acoustic excitation, using a mini-robot consisting of a millimeter-sized magnetic piece with a bubble attached to its bottom. This novel micromanipulation may be an efficient tool for both micro device assembly and single-cell manipulation.

  18. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  19. Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...

  20. A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes

  1. Electromagnetic resonance waves. Resonancias de ondas electromagneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Solidly Mounted Resonator with Optimized Acoustic Reflector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2009-01-01

    The quality factor (Q) of the Solidly Mounted Resonator is limited by acoustic losses caused by waves leaking through the mirror stack. Traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects only longitudinal waves and not shear waves. Starting with the stop-band theory and the principle of spacer layers

  3. Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Li, Jiawen; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2013-01-01

    We report on a resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technique that uses mechanical resonant frequency to characterize and identify tissues of different types. The linear dependency of the resonant frequency on the square root of Young's modulus was validated on silicone phantoms. Both the frequency response spectrum and the 3D imaging results from the agar phantoms with hard inclusions confirmed the feasibility of deploying the resonant frequency as a mec...

  4. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  5. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polzikova, N. I., E-mail: polz@cplire.ru; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya 11, building 7, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  6. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  7. Acoustic Resonance between Ground and Thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Matsumura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low frequency acoustic waves called "acoustic gravity waves" or "infrasounds" are theoretically expected to resonate between the ground and the thermosphere. This resonance is a very important phenomenon causing the coupling of the solid Earth, neutral atmosphere, and ionospheric plasma. This acoustic resonance, however, has not been confirmed by direct observations. In this study, atmospheric perturbations on the ground and ionospheric disturbances were observed and compared with each other to confirm the existence of resonance. Atmospheric perturbations were observed with a barometer, and ionospheric disturbances were observed using the HF Doppler method. An end point of resonance is in the ionosphere, where conductivity is high and the dynamo effect occurs. Thus, geomagnetic observation is also useful, so the geomagnetic data were compared with other data. Power spectral density was calculated and averaged for each month. Peaks appeared at the theoretically expected resonance frequencies in the pressure and HF Doppler data. The frequencies of the peaks varied with the seasons. This is probably because the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere varies with the seasons, as does the reflection height of infrasounds. These results indicate that acoustic resonance occurs frequently.

  8. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churches, D.K.

    1999-10-01

    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ''Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ''Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document. (author)

  9. Electromagnetic decay of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Auble, R.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Horen, D.J.; Robinson, R.L.; Sayer, R.O.; Sjoreen, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Coincidence experiments were done to investigate the photon and neutron emission from the giant resonance regions of 208 Pb and 90 Zr using the ORNL Spin Spectrometer, a 72-segment NaI detector system. We have determined the total gamma-decay probability, the ground-state gamma branching ratio, and the branching ratios to a number of low-lying states as a function of excitation energy in 208 Pb to approx.15 MeV. Similar data were also obtained on 90 Zr. The total yield of ground-state E2 gamma radiation in 208 Pb and the comparative absence of such radiation in 90 Zr can only be understood if decay of compound (damped) states is considered. Other observations in 208 Pb include the absence of a significant branch from the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) to the 3 - state at 2.6 MeV, a strong branch to a 3 - state at 4.97 MeV from the same region, and transitions to various 1 - states between 5 to 7 MeV from the E* approx. 14 MeV region (EO resonance)

  10. Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.

  11. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Koju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  12. Acoustic Resonator Optimisation for Airborne Particle Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendran, Citsabehsan; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and biomedical research necessitate micro-machined manipulators to capture, handle and position delicate micron-sized particles. To this end, a parallel plate acoustic resonator system has been investigated for the purposes of manipulation and entrapment of micron sized particles in air. Numerical and finite element modelling was performed to optimise the design of the layered acoustic resonator. To obtain an optimised resonator design, careful considerations of the effect of thickness and material properties are required. Furthermore, the effect of acoustic attenuation which is dependent on frequency is also considered within this study, leading to an optimum operational frequency range. Finally, experimental results demonstrated good particle levitation and capture of various particle properties and sizes ranging to as small as 14.8 μm.

  13. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  14. Electromagnetic decay of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Auble, R.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Horen, D.J.; Robinson, R.L.; Sayer, R.O.; Sjoreen, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Coincidence experiments are carried out to investigate the photon and neutron emission from the giant resonance regions of 208 Pb and 90 Zr using the ORNL Spin Spectrometer, a 72-segment NaI detector system. The authors determined the total gamma-decay probability, the ground-state gamma branching ratio, and the branching ratios to a number of low-lying states as a function of excitation energy in 208 Pb to ∼15 MeV. Similar data were also obtained on 90 Zr. The total yield of ground-state E2 gamma radiation in 208 Pb and the comparative absence of such radiation in 90 Zr can only be understood if decay of compound (damped) states is considered. (Auth.)

  15. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1996-03-01

    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  16. Resonance contribution to electromagnetic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, A.L. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The part of the pion and proton electromagnetic structure functions due to direct channel resonances in the virtual Compton amplitude is discussed. After a phenomenological discussion, based on the work of Bloom and Gilman, of resonance production in inelastic electroproduction, the single resonance contribution to the pion and proton structure functions is expressed in terms of transition form factors. Froissart-Gribov representations of the Compton amplitude partial waves are presented and are used to specify the spin dependence of the transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on momentum transfer and resonance mass is assumed on the basis of the behavior of exclusive resonance electroproduction. The single resonance contributions are summed in the Bjorken limit, and the result exhibits Bjorken scaling. Transverse photons are found to dominate in the Bjorken limit, and the threshold behavior of the resonant part of the structure functions is related to the asymptotic behavior of exclusive form factors at large momentum transfer. The resonant parts of the annihilation structure functions are not in general given by simple analytic continuation in the scaling vari []ble ω' of the electroproduction structure functions. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  17. Acoustic and electromagnetic emission as a tool for crack localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, P; Sikula, J; Lokajicek, T; Mori, Y

    2008-01-01

    The creation of cracks is accompanied by electric charge redistribution due to loosened chemical bounds. Electric charge on a crack wall creates dipole moments. Vibrations of crack walls produce time-dependent dipole moments and, consequently, electric and magnetic fields are generated. An electric signal is induced on metal electrodes. Simultaneously with the electromagnetic emission (EME) signal, an acoustic emission (AE) signal is generated, but due to the different velocities of propagation of both waves, the detection of the AE signal is delayed. This time delay presents the time of the wave propagation from the individual acoustic emission sensor to the crack. The defect can be located by means of these time intervals. This paper describes the localization using acoustic and electromagnetic emission signals for the two-dimensional case

  18. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Elayouch, A.; Addouche, M.; Farhat, Mohamed; El-Amin, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan; Khelif, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties

  19. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  20. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves

  1. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ren-Hao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang, Xian-Rong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wang, Mu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  2. The electrical properties of a planar coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer and their implications for noise performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Matthias; Challis, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the electrical properties of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) formed of a flat spiral coil coupled to steel sheet components and operating over a narrow band of frequencies around 50 kHz, well below significant resonances. The electromagnetic skin effect is a significant contributor to the terminal impedance of the EMAT and hence to signal sensitivity, Johnson noise generation and the achievable signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). A transformer model is developed to simulate these effects and to assist in the optimization of the SNR. In this analysis Johnson noise in the system is compared to the unknown emf generated in the eddy current path by an incident acoustic wave to yield a fundamental SNR. The attainable SNR of the whole system is normalized to this in the form of a noise figure. (paper)

  3. Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.

    2017-08-08

    Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.

  4. Estimation of acoustic resonances for room transfer function equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Strong acoustic resonances create long room impulse responses (RIRs) which may harm the speech transmission in an acoustic space and hence reduce speech intelligibility. Equalization is performed by cancelling the main acoustic resonances common to multiple room transfer functions (RTFs), i...

  5. Numerical analysis of the resonance mechanism of the lumped parameter system model for acoustic mine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chi; Zhou Yu-Qiu; Shen Gao-Wei; Wu Wen-Wen; Ding Wei

    2013-01-01

    The method of numerical analysis is employed to study the resonance mechanism of the lumped parameter system model for acoustic mine detection. Based on the basic principle of the acoustic resonance technique for mine detection and the characteristics of low-frequency acoustics, the ''soil-mine'' system could be equivalent to a damping ''mass-spring'' resonance model with a lumped parameter analysis method. The dynamic simulation software, Adams, is adopted to analyze the lumped parameter system model numerically. The simulated resonance frequency and anti-resonance frequency are 151 Hz and 512 Hz respectively, basically in agreement with the published resonance frequency of 155 Hz and anti-resonance frequency of 513 Hz, which were measured in the experiment. Therefore, the technique of numerical simulation is validated to have the potential for analyzing the acoustic mine detection model quantitatively. The influences of the soil and mine parameters on the resonance characteristics of the soil—mine system could be investigated by changing the parameter setup in a flexible manner. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Demonstration of slow sound propagation and acoustic transparency with a series of detuned resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental results demonstrating the phenomenon of acoustic transparency with a significant slowdown of sound propagation realized with a series of paired detuned acoustic resonators (DAR) side-attached to a waveguide. The phenomenon mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency...... than 20 dB on both sides of the transparency window, and we quantify directly (using a pulse propagation) the acoustic slowdown effect, resulting in the sound group velocity of 9.8 m/s (i.e. in the group refractive index of 35). We find very similar values of the group refractive index by using...

  7. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  8. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  9. Parametric resonance in acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Liquid drops can be suspended in air with acoustic levitation method. When the sound pressure is periodically modulated, the levitated drop is usually forced into an axisymmetric oscillation. However, a transition from axisymmetric oscillation into sectorial oscillation occurs when the modulation frequency approaches some specific values. The frequency of the sectorial oscillation is almost exactly half of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that this transition is induced by the parametric resonance of levitated drop. The natural frequency of sectorial oscillation is found to decrease with the increase of drop distortion extent.

  10. The digital holographic interferometry in resonant acoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAPONOV, V.E.; AZAMATOV, Z.T.; REDKORECHEV, V.I.; ISAEV, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunities of application of digital holographic interferometry method for studies of shapes of resonant modes in resonant acoustic spectroscopy are shown. The results of experimental measurements and analytical calculations are submitted. (authors)

  11. Versatile resonance-tracking circuit for acoustic levitation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K; Apfel, R E; Marston, P L

    1978-02-01

    Objects can be levitated by radiation pressure forces in an acoustic standing wave. In many circumstances it is important that the standing wave frequency remain locked on an acoustic resonance despite small changes in the resonance frequency. A self-locking oscillator circuit is described which tracks the resonance frequency by sensing the magnitude of the transducer current. The tracking principle could be applied to other resonant systems.

  12. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  13. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  14. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.

  15. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sé bastien

    2015-01-01

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  16. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  17. Measurement of elastic modules of structural ceramic by acoustic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Bong Young; Lee Seong Suck; Kim, Young Gil

    1993-01-01

    Elastic moduli of structural ceramic materials, Al 2 O 3 , SiC, Si 3 N 4 , were measured by acoustic resonance method. Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio were calculated from the torsional and flexural resonant frequencies, densities, and the dimensions of the specimen. The results by acoustic resonance method were compared with the results by ultrasonic method and the differences were less than 4%.

  18. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...

  19. Photoproduction of axions in a resonant electromagnetic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van Soa; Hoang Ngoc Long; Ha Huy Bang; Nguyen Mai Hung

    2000-09-01

    Photon-axion conversions in a resonant electromagnetic cavity with frequency equal to the axion mass are considered in detail by the Feynman diagram methods. The differential cross sections are presented and numerical evaluations are given. It is shown that there is a resonant conversion for the considered process. From our results, some estimates for experimental conditions are given. (author)

  20. A Pseudo-3D Model for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuliang Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous methods for modelling Rayleigh waves produced by a meander-line-coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT consisted mostly of two-dimensional (2D simulations that focussed on the vertical plane of the material. This paper presents a pseudo-three-dimensional (3D model that extends the simulation space to both vertical and horizontal planes. For the vertical plane, we combines analytical and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD methods to model Rayleigh waves’ propagation within an aluminium plate and their scattering behaviours by cracks. For the horizontal surface plane, we employ an analytical method to investigate the radiation pattern of Rayleigh waves at various depths. The experimental results suggest that the models and the modelling techniques are valid.

  1. Selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming-Liang; Deng Ming-Xi; Gao Guang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a modal expansion approach for the analysis of the selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). With the modal expansion approach for waveguide excitation, an analytical expression of the Lamb wave’s mode expansion coefficient is deduced, which is related to the driving frequency and the geometrical parameters of the EMAT’s meander coil, and lays a theoretical foundation for exactly analyzing the selective generation of Lamb waves with EMATs. The influences of the driving frequency on the mode expansion coefficient of ultrasonic Lamb waves are analyzed when the EMAT’s geometrical parameters are given. The numerical simulations and experimental examinations show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave modes can be effectively regulated (strengthened or restrained) by choosing an appropriate driving frequency of EMAT, with the geometrical parameters given. This result provides a theoretical and experimental basis for selectively generating a single and pure Lamb wave mode with EMATs. (special topic)

  2. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  3. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of acoustic neurinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Hiromichi; Seki, Yojiro; Aiba, Tadashi; Takemori, Setsuko

    1991-01-01

    A restrospective review was made on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, preoperative neuro-otological findings, and surgical results for hearing preservation in 20 consecutive patients with histologically verified acoustic neurinomas. The maximum diameter of the tumor, both in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC), were measured by MRI scans to classify tumor size. The signal intensity of acoustic neurinoma was equal to or lower than that of the adjacent pons on T 1 -weighted images and higher on T 2 -weighted images. After the administration of Gd-DTPA, tumors were markedly enhanced, which appeared homogeneous for small tumors and heterogeneous for large ones. There was no relationship between the degree of preoperative hearing loss and tumor size in either the CPA or the IAC. The larger the tumor in the CPA, however, the more often did the response to a caloric test disappear or decrease greatly. In contrast, there was no apparent correlation between the caloric response and tumor size in the IAC. Twelve patients (60%) had serviceable hearing (pure tone average loss 50%) preoperatively: the average tumor size in this group was similar to that in patients with poor or no hearing. These 12 patients were considered to be candidates for hearing preservation at surgery: 5 (41.7%) retained serviceable hearing postoperatively. A mean tumor size in the CPA was 11.8 mm for patients with postoperative serviceable hearing and 21.3 mm for those without it. Moreover, hearing was preserved postoperatively in all 4 patients with tumor less than 5 mm in the IAC. Thus, hearing preservation after surgery seemed to be closely related to tumor size. This study confirmed the value of MRI, providing information for the evaluation of hearing-preservation surgery. (N.K.)

  5. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  6. Acoustic Resonance Characteristics of Rock and Concrete Containing Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Seiji [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In recent years, acoustic resonance has drawn great attention as a quantitative tool for characterizing properties of materials and detecting defects in both engineering and geological materials. In quasi-brittle materials such as rock and concrete, inherent fractures have a significant influence on their mechanical and hydraulic properties. Most of these fractures are partially open, providing internal boundaries that are visible to propagating seismic waves. Acoustic resonance occurs as a result of constructive and destructive interferences of propagating waves. Therefore the geometrical and mechanical properties of the fracture are also interrogated by the acoustic resonance characteristics of materials. The objective of this dissertation is to understand the acoustic resonance characteristics of fractured rock and concrete.

  7. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  8. Evaluation of acoustic resonance at branch section in main steam line. Part 1. Effects of steam wetness on acoustic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Morita, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    The power uprating of the nuclear power plant (NPP) is conducted in United States, EU countries and so on, and also is planned in Japan. However, the degradation phenomena such as flow-induced vibration and wall thinning may increase or expose in the power uprate condition. In U.S. NPP, the dryer had been damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration under a 17% extended power uprating (EPU) condition. This is caused by acoustic resonance at the stub pipes of safety relief valves (SRVs) in the main steam lines (MSL). Increased velocity by uprating excites the pressure fluctuations and makes large amplitude resonance. To evaluate the acoustic resonance at the stub pipes of SRVs in actual BWR, it is necessary to clarify the acoustic characteristics in steam flow. Although there are several previous studies about acoustic resonance, most of them are not steam flow but air flow. Therefore in this study, to investigate the acoustic characteristics in steam flow, we conducted steam flow experiments in each dry and wet steam conditions, and also nearly saturated condition. We measured pressure fluctuation at the top of the single stub pipe and in main steam piping. As a result, acoustic resonance in dry steam flow could be evaluated as same as that in air flow. It is clarified that resonance amplitude of fluctuating pressure at the top of the stub pipe in wet steam was reduced to one-tenth compared with that in dry. (author)

  9. Experimental realization of extraordinary acoustic transmission using Helmholtz resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Crow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary acoustic transmission through a solid barrier with an embedded Helmholtz resonator (HR is demonstrated. The Helmholtz resonator consists of an embedded cavity and two necks that protrude, one on each side of the barrier. Extraordinary transmission occurs for a narrow spectral range encompassing the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. We show that an amplitude transmission of 97.5% is achieved through a resonator whose neck creates an open area of 6.25% of the total barrier area. In addition to the enhanced transmission, we show that there is a smooth, continuous phase transition in the transmitted sound as a function of frequency. The frequency dependent phase transition is used to experimentally realize slow wave propagation for a narrow-band Gaussian wave packet centered at the maximum transmission frequency. The use of parallel pairs of Helmholtz resonators tuned to different resonant frequencies is experimentally explored as a means of increasing the transmission bandwidth. These experiments show that because of the phase transition, there is always a frequency between the two Helmholtz resonant frequencies at which destructive interference occurs whether the resonances are close or far apart. Finally, we explain how the phase transition associated with Helmholtz-resonator-mediated extraordinary acoustic transmission can be exploited to produce diffractive acoustic components including sub-wavelength thickness acoustic lenses.

  10. Electromagnetic excitation of the two-phonon giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emling, H.

    1994-03-01

    It is the aim of this article to summarize our present knowledge on the double isovector giant dipole resonance (DGDR) and our understanding of the electromagnetic excitation mechanism in heavy ion collisions in the relativistic energy regime. In the following chapter, a brief resume on the history of giant resonances is given and, based on their understanding, conclusions on the expected properties of multi-phonon resonances are drawn. In chapter 2, the essential features of electromagnetic heavy ion interactions at (near) relativistic velocities will be illuminated and the theoretical framework is presented, which describes such processes. New experimental methods were required for an appropriate study of Coulomb dissociation processes, which are discussed in chapter 3 together with the experimental results. Chapter 4 is dedicated to summarize the results from electromagnetic excitation studies, to compare with those from alternative methods and, in particular, to contrast experimental findings with theoretical predictions and to address open problems. (orig.)

  11. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Elayouch, A.

    2017-01-05

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.

  12. Multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: datorma1@upvnet.upv.es, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n (Edificio 7F), ES-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials is presented. This approach is comprehensive and can lead to frequency-dependent effective parameters (scalar bulk modulus and tensorial mass density), as it is possible to have not only positive or negative ellipsoidal refractive index, but also positive or negative hyperbolic refractive index. The correction due to multiple scattering interactions is included in the theory and it is demonstrated that its contribution is important only for lattices with high filling fractions. Since the surface fields on the scatterers are mainly responsible for the anomalous behavior of the resulting effective medium, complex scatterers can be used to engineer the frequency response. Anisotropic effects are also discussed within this formulation and some numerical examples are reported. A homogenization theory is also extended to electromagnetic wave propagation in 2D lattices of dielectric structures, where Mie resonances are found to be responsible for the metamaterial behavior.

  13. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-10-22

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  14. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Elayouch, A.; Farhat, Mohamed; Addouche, M.; Khelif, A.; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  15. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature. PMID:26933692

  16. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature.

  17. Research on Acoustic Emission and Electromagnetic Emission Characteristics of Rock Fragmentation at Different Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among the generation of acoustic emission, electromagnetic emission, and the fracture stress of rock grain are investigated, which are based on the mechanism of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission produced in the process of indenting rock. Based on the relationships, the influence of loading rate on the characteristics of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission of rock fragmentation is further discussed. Experiment on rock braking was carried out with three loading rates of 0.001 mm/s, 0.01 mm/s, and 0.1 mm/s. The results show that the phenomenon of acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission is produced during the process of loading and breaking rock. The wave forms of the two signals and the curve of the cutter indenting load show jumping characteristics. Both curves have good agreement with each other. With the increase of loading rate, the acoustic emission and electromagnetic emission signals are enhanced. Through analysis, it is found that the peak count rate, the energy rate of acoustic emission, the peak intensity, the number of pulses of the electromagnetic emission, and the loading rate have a positive correlation with each other. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis. The proposed studies can lead to an in-depth understanding of the rock fragmentation mechanism and help to prevent rock dynamic disasters.

  18. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  19. Off-Resonance Acoustic Levitation Without Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Orthogonal acoustic-levitation modes excited at slightly different frequencies to control rotation. Rotation of object in square cross-section acoustic-levitation chamber stopped by detuning two orthogonal (x and y) excitation drivers in plane of square cross section. Detuning done using fundamental degenerate modes or odd harmonic modes.

  20. Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J... Program 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 Approved for public release; distribution is...4 Fig. 4 Flowchart of wireless experiment to receive acoustically modulated radar waveforms

  1. Development of ultrasonic testing equipment incorporating electromagnetic acoustic transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Michio; Kimura, Motohiko; Okano, Hideharu; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Nagase, Koichi; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    1989-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing equipment for use in in-service inspection of nuclear power plant piping has been developed, which comprises an angle-beam electromagnetic acoustic transducer mounted on a vehicle for scanning the piping surface to be inspected. The transducer functions without direct contact with the piping surface through couplant, and the vehicle does not require a guide track installed on the piping surface, being equipped with magnetic wheels that adhere to the piping material, permitting it to travel along the circumferential weld joint of a carbon steel pipe. The equipment thus dispenses with the laborious manual work involved in preparing the piping for inspection, such as removal of protective coating, surface polishing and installation of guide track and thereby considerably reduces the duration of inspection. The functioning principle and structural features of the transducer and vehicle are described, together with the results of trial operation of a prototype unit, which proved a 1mm deep notch cut on a test piece of 25mm thick carbon steel plate to be locatable with an accuracy of ±2mm. (author)

  2. Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaut, L R

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin-It o-hat and Fokker-Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general not separable, as a result of nonstationarity. A general solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in integral form, together with explicit closed-form solutions for several asymptotic cases. The findings extend known results on statistics and distributions of quasi-stationary ideal random fields (pure diffusions), which are retrieved as special cases

  3. Electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric terahertz metamaterials with triangle microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Yanping; Qian, Yunan; Lin, Xingyue; Tang, Yunhai; Cheng, Xinli; Qin, Changfa; Shen, Jiaoyan; Zang, Taocheng; Ma, Chunlan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate terahertz transmission properties and electromagnetic resonance modes in the asymmetric triangle structures with the change of asymmetric distance and the direction of electric field. When the THz electric field is perpendicular to the split gap of triangle, the electric field can better excite the THz absorption in the triangle structures. Importantly, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) characteristics are observed in the triangle structures due to the destructive interference of the different excited modes. The distributions of electric field and surface current density simulated by finite difference time domain indicate that the bright mode is excited by the side of triangle structures and dark mode is excited by the gap-side of triangle. The present study is helpful to understand the electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric triangular metamaterials.

  4. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  5. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  6. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  7. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-01-05

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  8. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position

  9. SILICON COMPATIBLE ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONATORS: DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Continuous advancement in wireless technology and silicon microfabrication has fueled exciting growth in wireless products. The bulky size of discrete vibrating mechanical devices such as quartz crystals and surface acoustic wave resonators impedes the ultimate miniaturization of single-chip transceivers. Fabrication of acoustic wave resonators on silicon allows complete integration of a resonator with its accompanying circuitry.  Integration leads to enhanced performance, better functionality with reduced cost at large volume production. This paper compiles the state-of-the-art technology of silicon compatible acoustic resonators, which can be integrated with interface circuitry. Typical acoustic wave resonators are surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators.  Performance of the resonator is measured in terms of quality factor, resonance frequency and insertion loss. Selection of appropriate piezoelectric material is significant to ensure sufficient electromechanical coupling coefficient is produced to reduce the insertion loss. The insulating passive SiO2 layer acts as a low loss material and aims to increase the quality factor and temperature stability of the design. The integration technique also is influenced by the fabrication process and packaging.  Packageless structure using AlN as the additional isolation layer is proposed to protect the SAW device from the environment for high reliability. Advancement in miniaturization technology of silicon compatible acoustic wave resonators to realize a single chip transceiver system is still needed. ABSTRAK: Kemajuan yang berterusan dalam teknologi tanpa wayar dan silikon telah menguatkan pertumbuhan yang menarik dalam produk tanpa wayar. Saiz yang besar bagi peralatan mekanikal bergetar seperti kristal kuarza menghalang pengecilan untuk merealisasikan peranti cip. Silikon serasi  gelombang akustik resonator mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk menggantikan unsur

  10. Nucleon resonance production in electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtarov, A.I.; Sadykhov, F.S.; Vasil'ev, O.A.; Abdullaev, S.K.; Mustafaev, V.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigation into nucleon resonance production (NR) in the ep → eNsup(*)(eNsup(*)γ) and eantie → antipNsup(*)(antipNsup(*)γ) processes, where Nsup(*) is a nucleon resonance of the 3/2 or 5/2 spin are presented. The calculation of the NR structure functions with the mass M and 3/2 or 5/2 spin is carried out. The Δ(1236), N(1688) and Δ(2160) NR production was observed in the ep → eNsup(*) and eantie → antipNsup(*) processes. For the ep-interaction the energy dependence of the NR production differential cross section at the electron scattering angle THETA = 6 dea and the angular dependence of the longitudinal polarization degree of the scattered electrons at the electron energy of 6 GeV are presented. The energy dependence of the total cross section of the NR production for eantie → antipNsup(*) is obtained. The ep → eNsup(*)γ radiative electron scattering on a proton is investigated only in case of the Δ(1236)NR production. The dependence of the effective cross section of the Δ(1236) radiative production process on THETA for the energies of an incident and scattered electron of 6 and 2.5 GeV, respectively, and the dependence of the cross section on the scattered electron energy at the initial energy of 6 GeV and THETA = 15 deg are presented

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in 38 cases of acoustic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Masafumi; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Matsumoto, Mikiro; Shibata, Iekado; Terao, Hideo [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Kohno, Takeshi; Sanpei, Kenji; Mano, Isamu

    1989-08-01

    The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of acoustic tumors was retrospectively assessed in 38 cases. A 0.15 Tesla permanent magnet and a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnet were employed in 24 and 14 cases, respectively. Gadolinium diethlene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), a paramagnetic contrast agent, was used in 10 cases. Acoustic tumors were identified in all cases. Small, medium, and large tumors were depicted with equal clarity by MRI and computed tomography (CT). However, tumor contour and extension, accompanying cysts, and brainstem displacement were more clarly visualized on MRI. The use of Gd-DTPA improved the quality of the MR images by markedly enhancing the acoustic tumors in all cases. In particular, detection of small acoustic tumors and intra- or paratumoral cysts was facilitated by the use of Gd-DTPA. The possibility of a correlation between acoustic tumor histology and MRI features was studied by calculation of the contrast to noise (C/N) ratio in 10 cases of acoustic tumor and 7 cases of meningioma. No definite correlation was demonstrated, but there appeared to be some difference in the C/N ratio between acoustic tumors and meningiomas. In three volunteers, MRI demonstrated intracanalicular nerves, separately. Because of its higher resolution, MRI can be expected to replace CT and air CT in the diagnosis of acoustic tumors. (author).

  12. A low frequency acoustic insulator by using the acoustic metasurface to a Helmholtz resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metasurfaces (AMSs are able to manipulate wavefronts at an anomalous angle through a subwavelength layer. Their application provide a new way to control sound waves in addition to traditional materials. In this work, we introduced the AMS into the design of a Helmholtz resonator (HR and studied the acoustic transmission through the modified HR in a pipe with one branch. The variation of sound insulation capacity with the phase gradient of the AMS was studied, and the results show that the AMS can remarkably lower the frequency band of the sound insulation without increasing the size. Our investigation provides a new degree of freedom for acoustic control with a Helmholtz resonator, which is of great significance in acoustic metasurface theory and sound insulation design.

  13. A low frequency acoustic insulator by using the acoustic metasurface to a Helmholtz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Cai, Li; Yu, Dianlong; Lu, Zhimiao; Wen, Jihong

    2017-06-01

    Acoustic metasurfaces (AMSs) are able to manipulate wavefronts at an anomalous angle through a subwavelength layer. Their application provide a new way to control sound waves in addition to traditional materials. In this work, we introduced the AMS into the design of a Helmholtz resonator (HR) and studied the acoustic transmission through the modified HR in a pipe with one branch. The variation of sound insulation capacity with the phase gradient of the AMS was studied, and the results show that the AMS can remarkably lower the frequency band of the sound insulation without increasing the size. Our investigation provides a new degree of freedom for acoustic control with a Helmholtz resonator, which is of great significance in acoustic metasurface theory and sound insulation design.

  14. Acoustic superlens using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xishan; Yin, Jing; Yu, Gaokun; Peng, Linhui; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic superlens provides a way to overcome the diffraction limit with respect to the wavelength of the bulk wave in air. However, the operating frequency range of subwavelength imaging is quite narrow. Here, an acoustic superlens is designed using Helmholtz-resonator-based metamaterials to broaden the bandwidth of super-resolution. An experiment is carried out to verify subwavelength imaging of double slits, the imaging of which can be well resolved in the frequency range from 570 to 650 Hz. Different from previous works based on the Fabry-Pérot resonance, the corresponding mechanism of subwavelength imaging is the Fano resonance, and the strong coupling between the neighbouring Helmholtz resonators separated at the subwavelength interval leads to the enhanced sound transmission over a relatively wide frequency range

  15. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  16. Validation of an Acoustic Impedance Prediction Model for Skewed Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2009-01-01

    An impedance prediction model was validated experimentally to determine the composite impedance of a series of high-aspect ratio slot resonators incorporating channel skew and sharp bends. Such structures are useful for packaging acoustic liners into constrained spaces for turbofan noise control applications. A formulation of the Zwikker-Kosten Transmission Line (ZKTL) model, incorporating the Richards correction for rectangular channels, is used to calculate the composite normalized impedance of a series of six multi-slot resonator arrays with constant channel length. Experimentally, acoustic data was acquired in the NASA Langley Normal Incidence Tube over the frequency range of 500 to 3500 Hz at 120 and 140 dB OASPL. Normalized impedance was reduced using the Two-Microphone Method for the various combinations of channel skew and sharp 90o and 180o bends. Results show that the presence of skew and/or sharp bends does not significantly alter the impedance of a slot resonator as compared to a straight resonator of the same total channel length. ZKTL predicts the impedance of such resonators very well over the frequency range of interest. The model can be used to design arrays of slot resonators that can be packaged into complex geometries heretofore unsuitable for effective acoustic treatment.

  17. Reflector stack optimization for Bulk Acoustic Wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy

    2011-01-01

    Thin-film bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) devices are used for RF selectivity in mobile communication system and other wireless applications. Currently, the conventional RF filters are getting replaced by BAW filters in all major cell phone standards. In this thesis, we study solidly mounted BAW resonators

  18. Analysis of acoustic resonator with shape deformation using finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M KALMSEa, AJAY CHAUDHARIb and P B PATILb a Science College, PB No. 62, Nanded 431603, India b Department of Physics, Dr B A M University, Aurangabad 431 004, India e-mail: bamuaur@bom4.vsnl.net.in. MS received 23 September 1999. Abstract. An acoustic resonator with shape deformation has been ...

  19. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  20. Towards optimal design of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krushynska, A.O.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an in-depth analysis of solid locally resonant acoustic metamaterials (LRAMs) consisting of rubber-coated inclusions. Dispersion properties of two-dimensional LRAMs are studied by means of finite-element modal analysis. For an incompressible rubber, only one practically important

  1. Numerical modelling of the structure of electromagnetic disturbances generated by acoustic-gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorel'tsev, A.I.; Bidlingmajer, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    A numeric model of electromagnetic field disturbances generated under the interaction of acoustic-gravitational waves with ionospheric plasma is elaborated and vertical structure of the above disturbances is calculated. The estimates shown that electromagnetic disturbances can penetrate into neutral atmosphere and can be recorded through measurements of the variation of magnetic field and electron field vertical component near the earth is surface. A conclusion is made on a feasibility of monitoring of acoustic-gravitational wave activity in the lower thermosphere through land measurements of magnetic and electric field variations

  2. Spectrum of the seismic-electromagnetic and acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koshevaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the spectrum of the seismo-electromagnetic and acoustic waves, caused by seismic and volcanic activity, has been done. This spectrum includes the Electromagnetic Emission (EME, due to fracturing piezoelectrics in rocks and the Acoustic Emission (AE, caused by the excitation and the nonlinear passage of acoustic waves through the Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere. The investigated mechanism of the EME uses the model of fracturing and the crack motion. For its analysis, we consider a piezoelectric crystal under mechanical stresses, which cause the uniform crack motion, and, consequently, in the vicinity of the moving crack also cause non-stationary polarization currents. A possible spectrum of EME has been estimated. The underground fractures produce Very Low (VLF and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF acoustic waves, while the acoustic waves at higher frequencies present high losses and, on the Earth's surface, they are quite small and are not registered. The VLF acoustic wave is subject to nonlinearity under passage through the lithosphere that leads to the generation of higher harmonics and also frequency down-conversion, namely, increasing the ELF acoustic component on the Earth's surface. In turn, a nonlinear propagation of ELF acoustic wave in the atmosphere and the ionosphere leads to emerging the ultra low frequency (ULF acousto-gravity waves in the ionosphere and possible local excitation of plasma waves.

  3. Resonant scattering in the presence of an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of resonant reactions, in the projection-operator formulation of Feshbach, is generalized to account for the presence of an external electromagnetic field. The theory is used as the basis for the construction of low-frequency approximations for the transition amplitude. Results obtained here for scattering in a laser field confirm earlier versions of the low-frequency approximation when the resonances are isolated. However, if there are several closely spaced resonances additional terms must be included (their importance magnified by the appearance of near singularities) which account for the effect of radiative transitions between pairs of nearly degenerate resonant states. The weak-field limit of this result yields a low-frequency approximation for single-photon spontaneous bremsstrahlung which, through the inclusion of correction terms associated with closely spaced resonances, provides an improvement over the Feshbach-Yennie version derived some time ago. A separate treatment is required to deal with the limiting case of a static external field and this is worked out here in the context of a time-dependent formulation of the scattering problem. Linear and quadratic Stark splitting of the resonance positions, and resonance broadening due to the tunneling mechanism, are expected to play a significant role in the static limit and these effects are included in the approximation derived here for the transition amplitude

  4. Electromagnetic Meson Production in the Nucleon Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volker Burkert; T.-S. H. Lee

    2004-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in investigating electromagnetic meson production reactions in the nucleon resonance region are reviewed. The article gives a description of current experimental facilities with electron and photon beams and presents a unified derivation of most of the phenomenological approaches being used to extract the resonance parameters from the data. The analyses of {pi} and {eta} production data and the resulting transition form factors for the {Delta}(1232)P{sub 33}, N(1535)S{sub 11}, N(1440)P{sub 11}, and N(1520)D{sub 13} resonances are discussed in detail. The status of our understanding of the reactions with production of two pions, kaons, and vector mesons is also reviewed.

  5. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs

  6. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D., E-mail: davsark@yahoo.com, E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am [National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research (Armenia); Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C. [Université de Bourgogne-Dijon, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS (France); Cartaleva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electronics (Bulgaria); Wilson-Gordon, A. D. [Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Auzinsh, M. [University of Latvia, Department of Physics (Latvia)

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  8. Acoustic resonance in MEMS scale cylindrical tubes with side branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, John F.; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Marcus, Logan S.

    2014-05-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a useful monitoring technique that is well suited for trace gas detection. This method routinely exhibits detection limits at the parts-per-million (ppm) or parts-per-billion (ppb) level for gaseous samples. PAS also possesses favorable detection characteristics when the system dimensions are scaled to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) design. One of the central issues related to sensor miniaturization is optimization of the photoacoustic cell geometry, especially in relationship to high acoustical amplification and reduced system noise. Previous work relied on a multiphysics approach to analyze the resonance structures of the MEMS scale photo acoustic cell. This technique was unable to provide an accurate model of the acoustic structure. In this paper we describe a method that relies on techniques developed from musical instrument theory and electronic transmission line matrix methods to describe cylindrical acoustic resonant cells with side branches of various configurations. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ease and accuracy of this method. All experimental results were within 2% of those predicted by this theory.

  9. Mapping thunder sources by inverting acoustic and electromagnetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, J. B.; Arechiga, R. O.; Thomas, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new method of locating current flow in lightning strikes by inversion of thunder recordings constrained by Lightning Mapping Array observations. First, radio frequency (RF) pulses are connected to reconstruct conductive channels created by leaders. Then, acoustic signals that would be produced by current flow through each channel are forward modeled. The recorded thunder is considered to consist of a weighted superposition of these acoustic signals. We calculate the posterior distribution of acoustic source energy for each channel with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion that fits power envelopes of modeled and recorded thunder; these results show which parts of the flash carry current and produce thunder. We examine the effects of RF pulse location imprecision and atmospheric winds on quality of results and apply this method to several lightning flashes over the Magdalena Mountains in New Mexico, USA. This method will enable more detailed study of lightning phenomena by allowing researchers to map current flow in addition to leader propagation.

  10. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  11. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  12. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  13. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  14. Analysis and experimental study on the effect of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic levitation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Jiang; Jianfang Liu; Qingqing Lv; Shoudong Gu; Xiaoyang Jiao; Minjiao Li; Shasha Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic standing wave-based levitation device (acoustic levitation device hereinafter) is studied by analyzing the acoustic pressure and levitation force of four types of acoustic levitation devices without a resonance tube and with resonance tubes of different radii R using ANSYS and MATLAB. Introducing a resonance tube either enhances or weakens the levitation strength of acoustic levitation device, depending on the resonance tube radi...

  15. Investigation of the Sintering Process Using Non-Contact Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James C. Foley; David K. Rehbein; Daniel J. Barnard

    2001-01-01

    In-situ characterizations of green state part density and sintering state have long been desired in the powder metal community. Recent advances in non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology have enabled in-situ monitoring of acoustic amplitude and velocity as sintering proceeds. Samples were made from elemental powders of Al (99.99%), Al (99.7%), Ag, (99.99%), Cu (99.99%) and Fe (99.9%). The powders were pressed in a uniaxial die and examined with acoustic waves for changes in velocity and amplitude during sintering for the samples containing Al, Ag, and Cu. The changes in acoustic properties were correlated with sample microstructures and mechanical properties. Evolution of a series of reverberating echoes during sintering is shown to provide information on the state of sintering, and changes in sintering kinetics as well as having the potential for detection of interior flaws

  16. Analytic Solution of the Electromagnetic Eigenvalues Problem in a Cylindrical Resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [Fermilab

    2016-10-06

    Resonant accelerating cavities are key components in modern particles accelerating facilities. These take advantage of electromagnetic fields resonating at microwave frequencies to accelerate charged particles. Particles gain finite energy at each passage through a cavity if in phase with the resonating field, reaching energies even of the order of $TeV$ when a cascade of accelerating resonators are present. In order to understand how a resonant accelerating cavity transfers energy to charged particles, it is important to determine how the electromagnetic modes are exited into such resonators. In this paper we present a complete analytical calculation of the resonating fields for a simple cylindrical-shaped cavity.

  17. Helium gas purity monitor based on low frequency acoustic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Monitoring gas purity is an important aspect of gas recovery stations where air is usually one of the major impurities. Purity monitors of Katherometric type are commercially available for this purpose. Alternatively, we discuss here a helium gas purity monitor based on acoustic resonance of a cavity at audio frequencies. It measures the purity by monitoring the resonant frequency of a cylindrical cavity filled with the gas under test and excited by conventional telephone transducers fixed at the ends. The use of the latter simplifies the design considerably. The paper discusses the details of the resonant cavity and the electronic circuit along with temperature compensation. The unit has been calibrated with helium gas of known purities. The unit has a response time of the order of 10 minutes and measures the gas purity to an accuracy of 0.02%. The unit has been installed in our helium recovery system and is found to perform satisfactorily.

  18. Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator for low frequency absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Passive acoustic liners, used in aeronautic engine nacelles to reduce radiated fan noise, have a quarter-wavelength behavior, because of perforated sheets backed by honeycombs (with one or two degrees of freedom). However, their acoustic absorption ability is naturally limited to medium and high frequencies because of constraints in thickness. The low ratio "plate thickness/hole diameter" generates impedance levels dependent on the incident sound pressure level and the grazing mean flow (by a mechanism of nonlinear dissipation through vortex shedding), which penalises the optimal design of liners. The aim of this paper is to overcome this problem by a concept called LEONAR ("Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator"), in which a perforated plate is coupled with tubes of variable lengths inserted in a limited volume of a back cavity. To do this, experimental and theoretical studies, using different types of liners (material nature, hole diameter, tube length, cavity thickness) are described in this paper. It is shown that the impedance can be precisely determined with an analytical approach based on parallel transfer matrices of tubes coupled to the cavity. Moreover, the introduction of tubes in a cavity of a conventional resonator generates a significant shift in the frequency range of absorption towards lower frequencies or allows a reduction of cavity thickness. The impedance is practically independent of sound pressure level because of a high ratio "tube length/tube hole diameter". Finally, a test led in an aeroacoustic bench suggests that a grazing flow at a bulk Mach number of 0.3 has little impact on the impedance value. These first results allow considering these resonators with linear behavior as an alternative to classical resonators, in particular, as needed for future Ultra High Bypass Ratio engines with shorter and thinner nacelles.

  19. Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Phipps, Alex; Horowitz, Stephen; Ngo, Khai; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the development of an acoustic energy harvester using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The EMHR consists of an orifice, cavity, and a piezoelectric diaphragm. Acoustic energy is converted to mechanical energy when sound incident on the orifice generates an oscillatory pressure in the cavity, which in turns causes the vibration of the diaphragm. The conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy is achieved via piezoelectric transduction in the diaphragm of the EMHR. Moreover, the diaphragm is coupled with energy reclamation circuitry to increase the efficiency of the energy conversion. Lumped element modeling of the EMHR is used to provide physical insight into the coupled energy domain dynamics governing the energy reclamation process. The feasibility of acoustic energy reclamation using an EMHR is demonstrated in a plane wave tube for two power converter topologies. The first is comprised of only a rectifier, and the second uses a rectifier connected to a flyback converter to improve load matching. Experimental results indicate that approximately 30 mW of output power is harvested for an incident sound pressure level of 160 dB with a flyback converter. Such power level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices.

  20. A multi-purpose electromagnetic actuator for magnetic resonance elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhu, Mo; Qiu, Suhao; Shen, Ping; Ma, Shengyuan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Hu, Chun-Hong; Guo, Liang

    2018-04-19

    An electromagnetic actuator was designed for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The actuator is unique in that it is simple, portable, and capable of brain, abdomen, and phantom imagings. A custom-built control unit was used for controlling the vibration frequency and synchronizing the trigger signals. An actuation unit was built and mounted on the specifically designed clamp and holders for different imaging applications. MRE experiments with respect to gel phantoms, brain, and liver showed that the actuator could produce stable and consistent mechanical waves. Estimated shear modulus using local frequency estimate method demonstrated that the measurement results were in line with that from MRE studies using different actuation systems. The relatively easy setup procedure and simple design indicated that the actuator system had the potential to be applied in many different clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Channel noise enhances signal detectability in a model of acoustic neuron through the stochastic resonance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, M; Paffi, A; Maggio, F; De Angelis, A; Apollonio, F; d'Inzeo, G

    2009-01-01

    A number of experimental investigations have evidenced the extraordinary sensitivity of neuronal cells to weak input stimulations, including electromagnetic (EM) fields. Moreover, it has been shown that biological noise, due to random channels gating, acts as a tuning factor in neuronal processing, according to the stochastic resonant (SR) paradigm. In this work the attention is focused on noise arising from the stochastic gating of ionic channels in a model of Ranvier node of acoustic fibers. The small number of channels gives rise to a high noise level, which is able to cause a spike train generation even in the absence of stimulations. A SR behavior has been observed in the model for the detection of sinusoidal signals at frequencies typical of the speech.

  2. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  3. Electromagnetic characteristics of geodesic acoustic mode in the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidl, Jakub; Krbec, Jaroslav; Hron, Martin; Adámek, Jiří; Hidalgo, C.; Markovič, Tomáš; Melnikov, A.V.; Stöckel, Jan; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Aftanas, Milan; Bílková, Petra; Bogár, Ondrej; Böhm, Petr; Eliseev, L.G.; Háček, Pavel; Havlíček, Josef; Horáček, Jan; Imríšek, Martin; Kovařík, Karel; Mitošinková, Klára; Pánek, Radomír; Tomeš, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 126048. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA16-24724S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : geodesic acoustic mode * tokamak * turbulence * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  4. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  5. On the plasma confinement by acoustic resonance. An innovation for electrodeless high-pressure discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courret, Gilles; Nikkola, Petri; Wasterlain, Sébastien; Gudozhnik, Olexandr; Girardin, Michel; Braun, Jonathan; Gavin, Serge; Croci, Mirko; Egolf, Peter W.

    2017-08-01

    In an applied research project on the development of a pulsed microwave sulfur lamp prototype of 1 kW, we have discovered an amazing phenomenon in which the plasma forms a ball staying at the center of the bulb despite gravity, thus protecting the glass from melting. In this paper, it is shown that this results from an acoustic resonance in a spherical mode. Measurements of the plasma response to short pulses are presented showing beats at the spherical resonance. It is demonstrated that the beats could result from the simultaneous excitation of two normal modes with a frequency difference of approximately 1%. One of the two frequencies matches precisely the microwave pulses repetition, a little below 30 kHz. Thus this one is due to a forced oscillation, whereas the other one is due to a free oscillation. The phase velocity of sound was calculated as a function of temperature in order to find the series of temperatures at which a resonance would occur if the bulb were an isothermal solid sphere. The mean temperature inside the actual bulb was determined from the only doublet of this series, that has characteristic frequencies close enough to cause the observed beats. In addition, one of these two modes has a spherical symmetry that can explain the plasma ball formation. The obtained mean temperature is consistent with the direct measurements on the bulb surface as well as with the temperature in the core of a similar plasma found in the literature. We have also proposed a model of the resonance onset based on the acoustic dispersion and the sound amplification due to electromagnetic coupling.

  6. Electromagnetically induced acoustic emission—novel NDT technique for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, P.; Godinez, V.; Miller, R.; Finlayson, R.

    2001-04-01

    A recently developed electromagnetically induced acoustic emission technique (EM AE) which can be used for damage assessment of thin walled conducting structures is described. This technique allows a structure to be loaded locally by applying an electromagnetic field in order to produce an AE response, which may be captured by conventional or fiber optic (FO) AE sensors. The advantage of this technique is that the localized dynamic stresses induced by a short current pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field aid in the detection of cracks. Also, it is shown that electromagnetic stimulation can be applied to enhance conventional ultrasonics by modulation of the scattered signal from the defect (EM UT). Experimental data is presented for the case of a fatigue crack near rivet holes in thin walled aluminum structures.

  7. Pull-in voltage of microswitch rough plates in the presence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the combined influence of electromagnetic and acoustic Casimir forces on the pull-in voltage of microswitches with self-affine rough plates. It is shown that for plate separations within the micron range the acoustic term arising from pressure fluctuations can influence

  8. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  9. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  10. Investigation of acoustic resonances in high-power lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettlitz, M; Zalach, J; Rarbach, J

    2011-01-01

    High-power, medium-pressure, mercury-containing lamps are used as UV sources for many industrial applications. Lamps investigated in this paper are driven with an electronic ballast with a non-sinusoidal current waveform at a fixed frequency of 20 kHz and a maximum power output of 35 kW. Instabilities can occur if the input power is reduced below 50%. The reason is identified as acoustic resonances in the lamp. Comparison of calculated and measured resonance frequencies shows a good agreement and explains the observed lamp behaviour. This has led to the development of a new ballast prototype which is able to avoid instabilities by changing the driving frequency dependent on the applied power.

  11. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.e [Wave Phenomena Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sanchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  12. Correlated terahertz acoustic and electromagnetic emission in dynamically screened InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Capel, P. J. S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Porte, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    signals and THz electromagnetic radiation signals demonstrates that transient strain generation in InGaN/GaN MQWs is correlatedwith electromagnetic THz generation, and both types of emission find their origin in ultrafast dynamical screening of the built-in piezoelectric field in the MQWs. The measured......We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic...

  13. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  14. Determination of the electromagnetic field in a high-Tc linear superconducting resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotel, A.; Sautrot, S.; Pyee, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic field configuration in a linear SHTC resonator is described. Two areas are considered: 1) the superconducting strip, 2) the dielectric around the strip. The calculation is based on the current density given by Bowers for an infinite superconducting line. The current density in the resonator is defined by these relations and the resonance conditions. (orig.)

  15. Flow-excited acoustic resonance excitation mechanism, design guidelines, and counter measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, Samir; Lafon, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The excitation mechanism of acoustic resonances has long been recognized, but the industry continues to be plagued by its undesirable consequences, manifested in severe vibration and noise problems in a wide range of industrial applications. This paper focuses on the nature of the excitation mechanism of acoustic resonances in piping systems containing impinging shear flows, such as flow over shallow and deep cavities. Since this feedback mechanism is caused by the coupling between acoustic resonators and shear flow instabilities, attention is focused first on the nature of various types of acoustic resonance modes and then on the aero-acoustic sound sources, which result from the interaction of the inherently unstable shear flow with the sound field generated by the resonant acoustic modes. Various flow-sound interaction patterns are discussed, in which the resonant sound field can be predominantly parallel or normal to the mean flow direction and the acoustic wavelength can be an order of magnitude longer than the length scale of the separated shear flow or as short as the cavity length scale. Since the state of knowledge in this field has been recently reviewed by Tonon et al. (2011, 'Aero-acoustics of Pipe Systems With Closed Branches', Int. J. Aeroacoust., 10(2), pp. 201-276), this article focuses on the more practical aspects of the phenomenon, including various flow sound interaction patterns and the resulting aero-acoustic sources, which are relevant to industrial applications. A general design guide proposal and practical means to alleviate the excitation mechanism are also presented. These are demonstrated by two examples of recent industrial case histories dealing with acoustic fatigue failure of the steam dryer in a boiling water reactor (BWR) due to acoustic resonance in the main steam piping and acoustic resonances in the roll posts of the Short Take-Off and Vertical Lift Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). (authors)

  16. Film bulk acoustic resonator pressure sensor with self temperature reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X L; Jin, P C; Zhou, J; Wang, W B; Dong, S R; Luo, J K; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Flewitt, A J; Milne, W I

    2012-01-01

    A novel film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) with two resonant frequencies which have opposite reactions to temperature changes has been designed. The two resonant modes respond differently to changes in temperature and pressure, with the frequency shift being linearly correlated with temperature and pressure changes. By utilizing the FBAR's sealed back trench as a cavity, an on-chip single FBAR sensor suitable for measuring pressure and temperature simultaneously is proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results show that the pressure coefficient of frequency for the lower frequency peak of the FBAR sensors is approximately −17.4 ppm kPa −1 , while that for the second peak is approximately −6.1 ppm kPa −1 , both of them being much more sensitive than other existing pressure sensors. This dual mode on-chip pressure sensor is simple in structure and operation, can be fabricated at very low cost, and yet requires no specific package, therefore has great potential for applications. (paper)

  17. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  18. A hybrid electromagnetic-acoustic levitator for the containerless processing of undercooled melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo, Anthony B.; Banerjee, Sharbari; Wang, Taylor G.

    1992-01-01

    The hybrid, acoustic-EM levitator discussed provides a small lifting force independently of its EM component by exciting an acoustic resonance that serves as a pressure node at the position of the EM-levitated specimen. The system also stabilizes and damps chaotic oscillations during specimen positioning, and can excite forced oscillations of levitated molten metals for drop-physics and thermophysical property measurements. Attention is given to the character and function of the atmosphere in the levitator. Noncontact temperature measurement is via single-color optical pyrometer.

  19. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  1. Resonance Spectrum Characteristics of Effective Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of High-Overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-overtone bulk acoustic resonator (HBAR consisting of a piezoelectric film with two electrodes on a substrate exhibits a high quality factor (Q and multi-mode resonance spectrum. By analyzing the influences of each layer’s material and structure (thickness parameters on the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient (Keff2, the resonance spectrum characteristics of Keff2 have been investigated systematically, and the optimal design of HBAR has been provided. Besides, a device, corresponding to one of the theoretical cases studied, is fabricated and evaluated. The experimental results are basically consistent with the theoretical results. Finally, the effects of Keff2 on the function of the crystal oscillators constructed with HBARs are proposed. The crystal oscillators can operate in more modes and have a larger frequency hopping bandwidth by using the HBARs with a larger Keff2·Q.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wen, Kunhua; Guo, Zhen; Luo, Xiangang

    2012-10-22

    We investigate a plasmonic waveguide system based on side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission. LC resonance model is utilized to explain the electromagnetic responses of CSRR, which is verified by simulation results of finite difference time domain method. The electromagnetic responses of CSRR can be flexible handled by changing the asymmetry degree of the structure and the width of the metallic baffles. Cascaded CSRRs also have been studied to obtain EIT-like transmission at visible and near-infrared region, simultaneously.

  3. Current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hatefi Kargan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode under electromagnetic radiation has been calculated and compared with the results when there is no electromagnetic radiation. For calculating current -voltage characteristic, it is required to calculate the transmission coefficient of electrons from the well and barrier structures of this device. For calculating the transmission coefficient of electrons at the presence of electromagnetic radiation, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been used and when there is no electromagnetic radiation Transfer Matrix Method (TMM and finite diffirence time domain method have been used. The results show that the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes resonant states other than principal resonant state (without presence of electromagnetic radiation to appear on the transmition coefficient curve where they are in distances from the principal peak and from each other. Also, the presence of electromagnetic radiation causes peaks other than principal peak to appear on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Under electromagnetic radiation, the number of peaks on the current-voltage curve is smaller than the number of peaks on the current-voltage transmission coefficient. This is due to the fact that current-voltage curve is the result of integration on the energy of electrons, Thus, the sharper and low height peaks on the transmission coefficient do not appear on the current-voltage characteristic curve.

  4. Quantum resonances of Landau damping in the electromagnetic response of metallic nanoslabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-López, S G; Makarov, N M; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2018-05-15

    The resonant quantization of Landau damping in far-infrared absorption spectra of metal nano-thin films is predicted within the Kubo formalism. Specifically, it is found that the discretization of the electromagnetic and electron wave numbers inside a metal nanoslab produces quantum nonlocal resonances well-resolved at slab thicknesses smaller than the electromagnetic skin depth. Landau damping manifests itself precisely as such resonances, tracing the spectral curve obtained within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach. For slab thicknesses much greater than the skin depth, the classical regime emerges. Here the results of the quantum model and the Boltzmann approach coincide. Our analytical study is in perfect agreement with corresponding numerical simulations.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  6. Particle acceleration through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)

  7. Detection of Breast Microcalcifications Under Ultrasound Using Power Doppler and Acoustic Resonance Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Our goal with our current project was to utilize breast sonography coupled with the technique of acoustic resonance to image and evaluate the breast micorcalcifications in patients prior to biopsy...

  8. Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, J.

    2017-01-01

    The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail

  9. Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for comparing corresponding acoustic resonances in liquids. The present invention permits the measurement of certain characteristics of liquids which affect the speed of sound therein. For example, a direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the speed of sound in a gasoline sample has been experimentally observed. Therefore, changes in the speed of sound therein can be utilized as a sensitive parameter for determining changes in composition of a liquid sample. The present apparatus establishes interference patterns inside of a liquid without requiring the use of very thin, rigorously parallel ceramic discs, but rather uses readily available piezoelectric transducers attached to the outside surface of the usual container for the liquid and located on the same side thereof in the vicinity of one another. That is, various receptacle geometries may be employed, and the driving and receiving transducers may be located on the same side of the receptacle. The cell may also be constructed of any material that is inert to the liquid under investigation. A single-transducer embodiment, where the same transducer provides the excitation to the sample container and receives signals impressed therein, is also described.

  10. Experimental study on flow-induced acoustic resonance in square closed side branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Gu Hanyang; Liu Xiaojing; Zhang Kai; Xie Yongcheng; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonance is a phenomenon caused by the interaction of flow and acoustic fields in special structure. Acoustic resonance characteristic experiments were carried out on square closed side branch. The influences of the velocity in main pipe and the length of the side branch on acoustic resonance were studied. The range of occurrence and characteristics of pressure pulsation were analyzed. Three lengths of side branches (L/d=5.6 and 7) were experimentally studied and the Reynolds number in the experiment was 2.74 X 10 4 -2.429 X 10 5 while the Mach number was 0.025-0.218. The results show that the resonance frequency shows a lock-in phenomenon with the increase of velocity. As the length of the side branch increasing, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure and the resonance frequency decrease. In the considered structure, the acoustic resonance occurs when Strouhal number is 0.3-0.6 and 0.7-1.0. (authors)

  11. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  12. Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed

  13. Acoustic resonance of outer-rotor brushless dc motor for air-conditioner fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Joo; Chung, Shi-Uk; Hwang, Sang-Moon

    2008-04-01

    Generation of acoustic noise in electric motor is an interacting combination of mechanical and electromagnetic sources. In this paper, a brushless dc motor for air-conditioner fan is analyzed by finite element method to identify noise source, and the analysis results are verified by experiments, and sensitivity analysis is performed by design of experiments.

  14. Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.

  15. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigations of resonant acoustic waves in near-critical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Nusair; Farouk, Bakhtier

    2015-10-01

    Flow and transport induced by resonant acoustic waves in a near-critical fluid filled cylindrical enclosure is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Supercritical carbon dioxide (near the critical or the pseudo-critical states) in a confined resonator is subjected to acoustic field created by an electro-mechanical acoustic transducer and the induced pressure waves are measured by a fast response pressure field microphone. The frequency of the acoustic transducer is chosen such that the lowest acoustic mode propagates along the enclosure. For numerical simulations, a real-fluid computational fluid dynamics model representing the thermo-physical and transport properties of the supercritical fluid is considered. The simulated acoustic field in the resonator is compared with measurements. The formation of acoustic streaming structures in the highly compressible medium is revealed by time-averaging the numerical solutions over a given period. Due to diverging thermo-physical properties of supercritical fluid near the critical point, large scale oscillations are generated even for small sound field intensity. The strength of the acoustic wave field is found to be in direct relation with the thermodynamic state of the fluid. The effects of near-critical property variations and the operating pressure on the formation process of the streaming structures are also investigated. Irregular streaming patterns with significantly higher streaming velocities are observed for near-pseudo-critical states at operating pressures close to the critical pressure. However, these structures quickly re-orient to the typical Rayleigh streaming patterns with the increase operating pressure.

  17. Coherent acoustic phonon oscillation accompanied with backward acoustic pulse below exciton resonance in a ZnO epifilm on oxide-buffered Si(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Liu, Wei-Rein; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump–probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator. (paper)

  18. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  19. Note: surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small changes of temperature: a thermometric "magnifying glass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtal, R G; Medved, A V

    2014-02-01

    Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small changes of temperature from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally.

  20. Helicity amplitudes and electromagnetic decays of hyperon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauteren, T. van; Ryckebusch, J.; Metsch, B.; Petry, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present results for the helicity amplitudes of the lowest-lying hyperon resonances Y * , computed within the framework of the Bonn Constituent-Quark model, which is based on the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The seven parameters entering the model were fitted to the best-known baryon masses. Accordingly, the results for the helicity amplitudes are genuine predictions. Some hyperon resonances are seen to couple more strongly to a virtual photon with finite Q 2 than to a real photon. Other Y * 's, such as the S 01 (1670) Λ-resonance or the S 11 (1620) Σ-resonance, couple very strongly to real photons. We present a qualitative argument for predicting the behaviour of the helicity asymmetries of baryon resonances at high Q 2 . (orig.)

  1. A dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.

  2. Resonance oscillations of nonreciprocal long-range van der Waals forces between atoms in electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkunov, Yury

    2018-03-01

    We study theoretically the van der Waals interaction between two atoms out of equilibrium with an isotropic electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that at large interatomic separations, the van der Waals forces are resonant, spatially oscillating, and nonreciprocal due to resonance absorption and emission of virtual photons. We suggest that the van der Waals forces can be controlled and manipulated by tuning the spectrum of artificially created random light.

  3. A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-05-07

    Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.

  4. Environmental Light and Its Relationship with Electromagnetic Resonances of Biomolecular Interactions, as Predicted by the Resonant Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Cosic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The meaning and influence of light to biomolecular interactions, and consequently to health, has been analyzed using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM. The RRM proposes that biological processes/interactions are based on electromagnetic resonances between interacting biomolecules at specific electromagnetic frequencies within the infra-red, visible and ultra-violet frequency ranges, where each interaction can be identified by the certain frequency critical for resonant activation of specific biological activities of proteins and DNA. We found that: (1 the various biological interactions could be grouped according to their resonant frequency into super families of these functions, enabling simpler analyses of these interactions and consequently analyses of influence of electromagnetic frequencies to health; (2 the RRM spectrum of all analyzed biological functions/interactions is the same as the spectrum of the sun light on the Earth, which is in accordance with fact that life is sustained by the sun light; (3 the water is transparent to RRM frequencies, enabling proteins and DNA to interact without loss of energy; (4 the spectrum of some artificial sources of light, as opposed to the sun light, do not cover the whole RRM spectrum, causing concerns for disturbance to some biological functions and consequently we speculate that it can influence health.

  5. Acoustic transmission resonance and suppression through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhifeng; Jin Guojun

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of acoustic waves passing through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays. The acoustic transmission resonance and suppression are observed. There are three mechanisms responsible for the transmission resonance: the excitation of geometrically induced acoustic surface waves, the Fabry-Perot resonance in a hole cavity (I-FP resonance) and the Fabry-Perot resonance between two plates (II-FP resonance). We can differentiate these mechanisms via the dispersion relation of acoustic modes supported by the double-layer structure. It is confirmed that the coupling between two single-layer perforated plates, associated with longitudinal interval and lateral displacement, plays a crucial role in modulating the transmission properties. The strong coupling between two plates can induce the splitting of the transmission peak, while the decoupling between plates leads to the appearance of transmission suppression. By analyzing the criterion derived for transmission suppression, we conclude that it is the destructive interference between the diffracted waves and the direct transmission waves assisted by the I-FP resonance of the first plate that leads to the decoupling between plates and then the transmission suppression.

  6. Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance probed by an ultrashort pulse train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A A; De Araujo, Luis E E

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the interaction between an ultrashort pulse train and a three-level atom driven by a cw laser. We show that the pulse train can be employed to observe spectra of Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance that are time and frequency resolved. The observation of subnatural linewidth features associated with the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance is described. The temporal evolution of electromagnetically induced transparency of the pulse train is shown to exhibit new and different features compared to that of the related phenomenon of coherent population trapping. By matching the tooth separation of the frequency comb associated with the pulse train to that of the Autler-Townes doublet, quantum beats between the doublet components can be induced. We show that coherent accumulation of excitation plays a major role in the two studied phenomena.

  7. Electromagnetic transitions between giant resonances within a continuum-RPA approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodin, VA; Dieperink, AEL

    2002-01-01

    A general continuum-RPA approach is developed to describe electromagnetic transitions between giant resonances. Using a diagrammatic representation for the three-point Green's function, an expression for the transition amplitude is derived which allows one to incorporate effects of mixing of single

  8. Application of an Integrated and Self-contained Electromagnetic Acoustic Recorder for Monitoring the Rock Mass Structure and Development of Geodynamic Processes in Ore Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespal’ko Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a block diagram of the recorder of electromagnetic and acoustic signals. The recorder provides monitoring of electromagnetic and acoustic signals under changing stress-strain state of heterogeneous materials and rocks. The analog amplifier input sensitivity of electromagnetic signals in 4 channels is 10 μV, that of the electromagnetic signal intensity is 10 μ and that of acoustic signals is 50 μV. The operating frequency range of recording is (1÷100 kHz. The averaging of electromagnetic and acoustic signal amplitudes is performed within 1 or 5 seconds. The data on electromagnetic and acoustic emission materials is recorded in digital format in the internal memory of the recorder. The recorder operates off-line within 7 days. Repeated testing of the recorder in natural conditions of the Tashtagol mine showed that the changes in the amplitude and frequency parameters of electromagnetic signals (EMC indicate the structural damage in mines made of rocks which differ in their electrical properties. Measurements of the intensity of electromagnetic signals enable monitoring the changes in the stress-strain state of rocks during and after blasting and other geodynamic phenomena.

  9. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  10. A numerically efficient damping model for acoustic resonances in microfluidic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, P., E-mail: hahnp@ethz.ch; Dual, J. [Institute of Mechanical Systems (IMES), Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Bulk acoustic wave devices are typically operated in a resonant state to achieve enhanced acoustic amplitudes and high acoustofluidic forces for the manipulation of microparticles. Among other loss mechanisms related to the structural parts of acoustofluidic devices, damping in the fluidic cavity is a crucial factor that limits the attainable acoustic amplitudes. In the analytical part of this study, we quantify all relevant loss mechanisms related to the fluid inside acoustofluidic micro-devices. Subsequently, a numerical analysis of the time-harmonic visco-acoustic and thermo-visco-acoustic equations is carried out to verify the analytical results for 2D and 3D examples. The damping results are fitted into the framework of classical linear acoustics to set up a numerically efficient device model. For this purpose, all damping effects are combined into an acoustofluidic loss factor. Since some components of the acoustofluidic loss factor depend on the acoustic mode shape in the fluid cavity, we propose a two-step simulation procedure. In the first step, the loss factors are deduced from the simulated mode shape. Subsequently, a second simulation is invoked, taking all losses into account. Owing to its computational efficiency, the presented numerical device model is of great relevance for the simulation of acoustofluidic particle manipulation by means of acoustic radiation forces or acoustic streaming. For the first time, accurate 3D simulations of realistic micro-devices for the quantitative prediction of pressure amplitudes and the related acoustofluidic forces become feasible.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency in planar metamaterials based on guided mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaru; Chen, Hang; Li, Xiangjun; Hong, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    We present and numerically demonstrate a novel, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar metamaterials (MMs) based on guided mode resonance (GMR). The unit cell of the MM consists of two metallic ring resonators. The GMR with high quality factor (Q) is achieved by changing the distance between the two rings of the MM. Narrow EIT-like spectral response is realized by coupling between a high Q GMR and a low Q dipolar resonance of the MM. Our work could provide another efficient way towards the realization of EIT with large group index using very simple structures.

  12. Double-resonance optical-pumping effect and ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency signal without Doppler background in cesium atomic vapour cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bao-Dong; Gao Jing; Liang Qiang-Bing; Wang Jie; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2011-01-01

    In a Doppler-broadened ladder-type cesium atomic system (6S 1/2 -6P 3/2 -8S 1/2 ), this paper characterizes electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in two different experimental arrangements, and investigates the influence of the double-resonance optical-pumping (DROP) effect on EIT in both arrangements. When the probe laser is weak, DROP is explicitly suppressed. When the probe laser is moderate, population of the intermediate level (6P 3/2 F' = 5) is remarkable, therefore DROP is mixed with EIT. An interesting bimodal spectrum with the broad component due to DROP and the narrow part due to EIT has been clearly observed in cesium 6S 1/2 F = 4−6P 3/2 F' = 5−8S 1/2 F″ = 4 transitions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Effect of inhomogeneous temperature fields on acoustic streaming structures in resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in 2D rectangular resonant channels filled with a fluid with a spatial temperature distribution is studied within this work. An inertial force is assumed for driving the acoustic field; the temperature inhomogeneity is introduced by resonator walls with prescribed temperature distribution. The method of successive approximations is employed to derive linear equations for calculation of primary acoustic and time-averaged secondary fields including the streaming velocity. The model equations have a standard form which allows their numerical integration using a universal solver; in this case, COMSOL Multiphysics was employed. The numerical results show that fluid temperature variations in the direction perpendicular to the resonator axis influence strongly the streaming field if the ratio of the channel width and the viscous boundary layer thickness is big enough; the streaming in the Rayleigh vortices can be supported as well as opposed, which can ultimately lead to the appearance of additional vortices.

  14. Subcritical Hopf Bifurcation and Stochastic Resonance of Electrical Activities in Neuron under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xuan Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The FitzHugh–Nagumo model is improved to consider the effect of the electromagnetic induction on single neuron. On the basis of investigating the Hopf bifurcation behavior of the improved model, stochastic resonance in the stochastic version is captured near the bifurcation point. It is revealed that a weak harmonic oscillation in the electromagnetic disturbance can be amplified through stochastic resonance, and it is the cooperative effect of random transition between the resting state and the large amplitude oscillating state that results in the resonant phenomenon. Using the noise dependence of the mean of interburst intervals, we essentially suggest a biologically feasible clue for detecting weak signal by means of neuron model with subcritical Hopf bifurcation. These observations should be helpful in understanding the influence of the magnetic field to neural electrical activity.

  15. Toward wideband steerable acoustic metasurfaces with arrays of active electroacoustic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissek, Hervé; Rivet, Etienne; Laurence, Thomas; Fleury, Romain

    2018-03-01

    We introduce an active concept for achieving acoustic metasurfaces with steerable reflection properties, effective over a wide frequency band. The proposed active acoustic metasurface consists of a surface array of subwavelength loudspeaker diaphragms, each with programmable individual active acoustic impedances allowing for local control over the different reflection phases over the metasurface. The active control framework used for controlling the reflection phase over the metasurface is derived from the Active Electroacoustic Resonator concept. Each unit-cell simply consists of a current-driven electrodynamic loudspeaker in a closed box, whose acoustic impedance at the diaphragm is judiciously adjusted by connecting an active electrical control circuit. The control is known to achieve a wide variety of acoustic impedances on a single loudspeaker diaphragm used as an acoustic resonator, with the possibility to shift its resonance frequency by more than one octave. This paper presents a methodology for designing such active metasurface elements. An experimental validation of the achieved individual reflection coefficients is presented, and full wave simulations present a few examples of achievable reflection properties, with a focus on the bandwidth of operation of the proposed control concept.

  16. Broadband Acoustic Transmission Enhancement through a Structured Stiff Plate with Locally Resonant Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Liang Bin; Zou Xin-Ye; Cheng Jian-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Broadband acoustic transmission enhancement (ATE) is realized for a periodically structured stiff plate without any opening that is conventionally thought to be only capable of supporting narrowband ATE, by introducing locally resonant (LR) elements. This exotic phenomenon is interpreted by analyzing the vibration pattern of the structure-induced LR modes, and is well modeled by a simple 'spring-mass' system which reveals the contribution of the LR effect to the important broadband performance. Our findings should help to better understand the physical mechanism of ATE and may have potential impact on ultrasonic applications such as broadband acoustic filters or compact acoustic devices in subwavelength scale

  17. Analysis and experimental study on the effect of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic levitation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Liu, Jianfang; Lv, Qingqing; Gu, Shoudong; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Li, Minjiao; Zhang, Shasha

    2016-09-01

    The influence of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic standing wave-based levitation device (acoustic levitation device hereinafter) is studied by analyzing the acoustic pressure and levitation force of four types of acoustic levitation devices without a resonance tube and with resonance tubes of different radii R using ANSYS and MATLAB. Introducing a resonance tube either enhances or weakens the levitation strength of acoustic levitation device, depending on the resonance tube radii. Specifically, the levitation force is improved to a maximum degree when the resonance tube radius is slightly larger than the size of the reflector end face. Furthermore, the stability of acoustic levitation device is improved to a maximum degree by introducing a resonance tube of R=1.023λ. The experimental platform and levitation force measurement system of the acoustic levitation device with concave-end-face-type emitter and reflector are developed, and the test of suspended matters and liquid drops is conducted. Results show that the Φ6.5-mm steel ball is suspended easily when the resonance tube radius is 1.023λ, and the Φ5.5-mm steel ball cannot be suspended when the resonance tube radius is 1.251λ. The levitation capability of the original acoustic levitation device without a resonance tube is weakened when a resonance tube of R=1.251λ is applied. These results are consistent with the ANSYS simulation results. The levitation time of the liquid droplet with a resonance tube of R=1.023λ is longer than without a resonance tube. This result is also supported by the MATLAB simulation results. Therefore, the performance of acoustic levitation device can be improved by introducing a resonant tube with an appropriate radius.

  18. Analysis and experimental study on the effect of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic levitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic standing wave-based levitation device (acoustic levitation device hereinafter is studied by analyzing the acoustic pressure and levitation force of four types of acoustic levitation devices without a resonance tube and with resonance tubes of different radii R using ANSYS and MATLAB. Introducing a resonance tube either enhances or weakens the levitation strength of acoustic levitation device, depending on the resonance tube radii. Specifically, the levitation force is improved to a maximum degree when the resonance tube radius is slightly larger than the size of the reflector end face. Furthermore, the stability of acoustic levitation device is improved to a maximum degree by introducing a resonance tube of R=1.023λ. The experimental platform and levitation force measurement system of the acoustic levitation device with concave-end-face-type emitter and reflector are developed, and the test of suspended matters and liquid drops is conducted. Results show that the Φ6.5-mm steel ball is suspended easily when the resonance tube radius is 1.023λ, and the Φ5.5-mm steel ball cannot be suspended when the resonance tube radius is 1.251λ. The levitation capability of the original acoustic levitation device without a resonance tube is weakened when a resonance tube of R=1.251λ is applied. These results are consistent with the ANSYS simulation results. The levitation time of the liquid droplet with a resonance tube of R=1.023λ is longer than without a resonance tube. This result is also supported by the MATLAB simulation results. Therefore, the performance of acoustic levitation device can be improved by introducing a resonant tube with an appropriate radius.

  19. Fabrication and RF characterization of zinc oxide based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raju; Bansal, Deepak; Agrawal, Vimal Kumar; Rangra, Kamaljit; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2018-06-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) to improve the performance characteristics for RF filter and sensing application. Zinc oxide as a piezoelectric (PZE) material was deposited on an aluminum bottom electrode using an RF magnetron sputtering, at room temperature, and gold as top electrode for the resonator. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) setup was used for bulk silicon etching to make back side cavity to confine the acoustic signals. The transmission characteristics show that the FBARs have a central frequency at 1.77 GHz with a return loss of -10.7 dB.

  20. Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.

  1. Resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves in transition anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong

    2017-11-27

    We study the mode conversion and resonant absorption phenomena occurring in a slab of a stratified anisotropic medium, optical axes of which are tilted with respect to the direction of inhomogeneity, using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation. When the tilt angle is zero, mode conversion occurs if the longitudinal component of the permittivity tensor, which is the one in the direction of inhomogeneity in the non-tilted case, varies from positive to negative values within the medium, while the transverse component plays no role. When the tilt angle is nonzero, the wave transmission and absorption show an asymmetry under the sign change of the incident angle in a range of the tilt angle, while the reflection is always symmetric. We calculate the reflectance, the transmittance and the absorptance for several configurations of the permittivity tensor and find that resonant absorption is greatly enhanced when the medium from the incident surface to the resonance region is hyperbolic than when it is elliptic. For certain configurations, the transmittance and absorptance curves display sharp peaks at some incident angles determined by the tilt angle.

  2. An exploration in acoustic radiation force experienced by cylindrical shells via resonance scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    In nonlinear acoustic regime, a body insonified by a sound field is known to experience a steady force that is called the acoustic radiation force (RF). This force is a second-order quantity of the velocity potential function of the ambient medium. Exploiting the sufficiency of linear solution representation of potential function in RF formulation, and following the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of the resonant field and a background (non-resonant) component, we will show that the radiation force is a composition of three components: background part, resonant part and their interaction. Due to the nonlinearity effects, each part contains the contribution of pure partial waves in addition to their mutual interaction. The numerical results propose the residue component (i.e., subtraction of the background component from the RF) as a good indicator of the contribution of circumferential surface waves in RF. Defining the modal series of radiation force function and its components, it will be shown that within each partial wave, the resonance contribution can be synthesized as the Breit-Wigner form for adequately none-close resonant frequencies. The proposed formulation may be helpful essentially due to its inherent value as a canonical subject in physical acoustics. Furthermore, it may make a tunnel through the circumferential resonance reducing effects on radiation forces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of underwater decoupling properties of a locally resonant acoustic metamaterial coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ling-Zhi; Xiao Yong; Wen Ji-Hong; Yang Hai-Bin; Wen Xi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical solution for the vibration and sound radiation of a semi-infinite plate covered by a decoupling layer consisting of locally resonant acoustic metamaterial. Formulations are derived based on a combination use of effective medium theory and the theory of elasticity for the decoupling material. Theoretical results show good agreements between the method developed in this paper and the conventional finite element method (FEM), but the method of this paper is more efficient than FEM. Numerical results also show that system with acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer exhibits significant noise reduction performance at the local resonance frequency of the acoustic metamaterial, and such performance can be ascribed to the vibration suppression of the base plate. It is demonstrated that the effective density of acoustic metamaterial decoupling layer has a great influence on the mechanical impedance of the system. Furthermore, the resonance frequency of locally resonant structure can be effectively predicted by a simple model, and it can be significantly affected by the material properties of the locally resonant structure. (paper)

  4. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-02-18

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  5. Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a method based on FEM and FDTD for the study of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array (EMAT. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the eddy current problem for the meander coil used in an EMAT, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution originally intended for circular coils. The analytical solution resulting from this novel adaptation exploits the large radius extrapolation and shows several advantages over the finite element method (FEM, especially in the higher frequency regime. The calculated Lorentz force density from the analytical EM solver is then coupled to the ultrasonic simulations, which exploit the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method to describe the propagation of ultrasound waves, in particular for Rayleigh waves. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time-domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle, which can produce performance parameters for an EMAT array, facilitating the optimum design of such sensors.

  6. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C, contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of crucial importance and a very challenging task as well. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs are a promising, non-contact technology of transducers that has the potential to be used for the inspection of large structures at high temperatures by exciting Guided Waves. In this paper, a study regarding the potential use of EMATs in this application and their performance at high temperature is presented. A Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM EMAT with a racetrack coil, designed to excite Shear Horizontal waves (SH0, has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated at both room and high temperatures.

  7. Electromagnetic Acoustic Test of the Artificial Defects for a Plate-type Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Yoon Sang; Cheong, Yong Moo

    2011-01-01

    Most research and test reactors use the nuclear fuel plates which are consisted of a fuel meat in aluminum alloy. Last year, KAERI signed a deal with the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission to build the research reactor and have to supply the plate-type nuclear fuels. For the demands of world market, KAERI started the research and development of the plate-type fuel elements and endeavored to achieve a localization of the plate-type fuel fabrication. For the inspection of plate-type fuel elements to be used in Research Reactors, an immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic technique was applied. This inspection was done under immersion condition, so a nuclear fuel was immersed to be prone to corrosion and needed to have time and cost due to an additional process. The sample that will be examined is a non-ferromagnetic material such as aluminum with a good acousto-elastic property, which requires an effective inspection of a bond quality for a nuclear fuel under a manufacturing environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology for an automated inspection of a nuclear fuel without water

  8. Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map based on acoustic resonance frequency of suction muffler in compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Experimental validation of Energy Efficiency Design Map. • Suggestion regarding the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency. • Sensitivity analysis of the Energy Efficiency Ratio with respect to acoustic pressure. • Suggestion regarding the hybrid coupling method for acoustic analysis in compressor. - Abstract: The volumetric efficiency of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine and compressor can be increased by properly adjusting the acoustic resonance frequency of the suction muffler or the suction valve timing without any additional equipment or power source. This effect is known as acoustic supercharging. However, the energy efficiency has become more important than the volumetric efficiency because of the energy shortage issue and factors influencing consumers’ purchasing decisions. Therefore, methods for increasing the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of IC engine and compressor should be considered. In this study, a systematic method for improving the energy efficiency using the acoustic effect in the suction part of the compressor used in refrigerators and air conditioners was developed for the first time. This effect is named as the Acoustically Supercharged Energy Efficiency (ASEE). For the ASEE, first, a hybrid coupling method was suggested for the acoustical analysis in the suction part of the compressor. Next, an Energy Efficiency Design Map (EEDM) was proposed. This can serve as a design guide for suction mufflers in terms of the energy efficiency. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) and total massflow rate with respect to the acoustic pressure were conducted to identify the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the suction valve motion. This provides the physical background for the EEDM

  9. Tunable band gaps in acoustic metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng-Bing; Wen Ji-Hong; Wang Gang; Wen Xi-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezoelectric patches are employed to control the wave propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial. The performance is characterized by the finite element method. More importantly, we propose an approach to solving the conventional issue of the nonlinear eigenvalue problem, and give a convenient solution to the dispersion properties of 2D metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunts in this article. Based on this modeling method, the dispersion relations of a 2D metamaterial with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos are calculated. The results show that the internal resonances of the shunting system split the dispersion curves, thereby forming a locally resonant band gap. However, unlike the conventional locally resonant gap, the vibrations in this locally resonant gap are unable to be completely localized in oscillators consisting of shunting inductors and piezo-patches

  10. Streptavidin Modified ZnO Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator for Detection of Tumor Marker Mucin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Guo, Peng; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-09-01

    A ZnO-based film bulk acoustic resonator has been fabricated using a magnetron sputtering technology, which was employed as a biosensor for detection of mucin 1. The resonant frequency of the thin-film bulk acoustic resonator was located near at 1503.3 MHz. The average electromechanical coupling factor {K}_{eff}^2 and quality factor Q were 2.39 % and 224, respectively. Using the specific binding system of avidin-biotin, the streptavidin was self-assembled on the top gold electrode as the sensitive layer to indirectly test the MUC1 molecules. The resonant frequency of the biosensor decreases in response to the mass loading in range of 20-500 nM. The sensor modified with the streptavidin exhibits a high sensitivity of 4642.6 Hz/nM and a good selectivity.

  11. Tunneling effects in resonant acoustic scattering of an air bubble in unbounded water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ G. SIMÃO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problem of acoustic scattering of a gaseous spherical bubble immersed within unbounded liquid surrounding is considered in this work. The theory of partial wave expansion related to this problem is revisited. A physical model based on the analogy between acoustic scattering and potential scattering in quantum mechanics is proposed to describe and interpret the acoustical natural oscillation modes of the bubble, namely, the resonances. In this context, a physical model is devised in order to describe the air water interface and the implications of the high density contrast on the various regimes of the scattering resonances. The main results are presented in terms of resonance lifetime periods and quality factors. The explicit numerical calculations are undertaken through an asymptotic analysis considering typical bubble dimensions and underwater sound wavelengths. It is shown that the resonance periods are scaled according to the Minnaert’s period, which is the short lived resonance mode, called breathing mode of the bubble. As expected, resonances with longer lifetimes lead to impressive cavity quality Q-factor ranging from 1010 to 105. The present theoretical findings lead to a better understanding of the energy storage mechanism in a bubbly medium.

  12. Demonstration of acoustic resonances in a cylindrical cavity applying the photoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, N. L.; Vallespi, A. S.; Zajarevich, N. M.; Peuriot, A. L.; Slezak, V. B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present some experiments which can be performed in college or on the first courses of university to acquire knowledge about resonant acoustical phenomena in closed cavities in a tangible way, through experiments based on the photoacoustic effect in gases. This phenomenon consists in the generation of acoustic waves after optical excitation of an absorbing gas and further local heating of the non-absorbing surrounding gas by energy exchange through collisions between molecules of both species. Simple experiments, performed with daily live elements, can be very useful for teachers and students to get in touch with the phenomenon of acoustic resonances with the addition of concepts about light-matter interaction. The setups consist of the resonant cavity, the illumination source and the signal detection-acquisition scheme. In this paper a closed glass test tube is used as the resonant cavity and is filled with a mixture of nitrogen dioxide and air. The illumination is performed by a pulsed power LED modulated at different resonant frequencies of the cavity. A microphone inside the tube is connected to an oscilloscope which displays the photoacoustic signal. The LED is moved along the tube showing how different resonant modes can be excited.

  13. Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural

  14. Random matrix theory and acoustic resonances in plates with an approximate symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Ellegaard, C.; Jackson, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a random matrix model of systems with an approximate symmetry and present the spectral fluctuation statistics and eigenvector characteristics for the model. An acoustic resonator like, e.g., an aluminum plate may have an approximate symmetry. We have measured the frequency spectrum and...

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency with wide band in all-dielectric microstructure based on Mie resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Dong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that a broadband electromagnetically induced transparency–like (EIT-like) effect can be achieved in an all-dielectric microstructure consisting of a dielectric bar and six dielectric bricks. With proper excitations, the dielectric bar and bricks serve as bright and dark elements via the Mie electric and magnetic resonances, respectively. In particular, the mutual couplings between the Mie electric and magnetic resonances induce a broad transparency window. The nature of resonances of the broadband EIT-like effect in an all-dielectric microstructure is investigated by numerical simulation and a coupled oscillator model. Results reveal that significant enhancement of coupling interactions between dielectric resonators leads to a broadband EIT-like effect. Such a dielectric EIT-like structure is promising for future applications in nonlinear optics, slow light devices, and filters. (paper)

  16. Multi-resonant electromagnetic shunt in base isolation for vibration damping and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yalu; Liu, Yilun; Zuo, Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts applied to base isolation for dual-function vibration damping and energy harvesting. Two multi-mode shunt circuit configurations, namely parallel and series, are proposed and optimized based on the H2 criteria. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the relative displacement between the base and the primary structure is minimized. Practically, this will improve the safety of base-isolated buildings subjected the broad bandwidth ground acceleration. Case studies of a base-isolated building are conducted in both the frequency and time domains to investigate the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts under recorded earthquake signals. It shows that both multi-mode shunt circuits outperform traditional single mode shunt circuits by suppressing the first and the second vibration modes simultaneously. Moreover, for the same stiffness ratio, the parallel shunt circuit is more effective at harvesting energy and suppressing vibration, and can more robustly handle parameter mistuning than the series shunt circuit. Furthermore, this paper discusses experimental validation of the effectiveness of multi-resonant electromagnetic shunts for vibration damping and energy harvesting on a scaled-down base isolation system.

  17. On the contribution of circumferential resonance modes in acoustic radiation force experienced by cylindrical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    A body insonified by a constant (time-varying) intensity sound field is known to experience a steady (oscillatory) force that is called the steady-state (dynamic) acoustic radiation force. Using the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of a resonance field and a background (non-resonance) component, we show that the radiation force acting on a cylindrical shell may be synthesized as a composition of three components: background part, resonance part and their interaction. The background component reveals the pure geometrical reflection effects and illustrates a regular behavior with respect to frequency, while the others demonstrate a singular behavior near the resonance frequencies. The results illustrate that the resonance effects associated to partial waves can be isolated by the subtraction of the background component from the total (steady-state or dynamic) radiation force function (i.e., residue component). In the case of steady-state radiation force, the components are exerted on the body as static forces. For the case of oscillatory amplitude excitation, the components are exerted at the modulation frequency with frequency-dependant phase shifts. The results demonstrate the dominant contribution of the non-resonance component of dynamic radiation force at high frequencies with respect to the residue component, which offers the potential application of ultrasound stimulated vibro-acoustic spectroscopy technique in low frequency resonance spectroscopy purposes. Furthermore, the proposed formulation may be useful essentially due to its intrinsic value in physical acoustics. In addition, it may unveil the contribution of resonance modes in the dynamic radiation force experienced by the cylindrical objects and its underlying physics.

  18. Accelerated optimizations of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer with artificial neural networks as metamodels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs are noncontact transducers generating ultrasonic waves directly in the conductive sample. Despite the advantages, their transduction efficiencies are relatively low, so it is imperative to build accurate multiphysics models of EMATs and optimize the structural parameters accordingly, using a suitable optimization algorithm. The optimizing process often involves a large number of runs of the computationally expensive numerical models, so metamodels as substitutes for the real numerical models are helpful for the optimizations. In this work the focus is on the artificial neural networks as the metamodels of an omnidirectional EMAT, including the multilayer feedforward networks trained with the basic and improved back propagation algorithms and the radial basis function networks with exact and nonexact interpolations. The developed neural-network programs are tested on an example problem. Then the model of an omnidirectional EMAT generating Lamb waves in a linearized steel plate is introduced, and various approaches to calculate the amplitudes of the displacement component waveforms are discussed. The neural-network metamodels are then built for the EMAT model and compared to the displacement component amplitude (or ratio of amplitudes surface data on a discrete grid of the design variables as the reference, applying a multifrequency model with FFT (fast Fourier transform/IFFT (inverse FFT processing. Finally the two-objective optimization problem is formulated with one objective function minimizing the ratio of the amplitude of the S0-mode Lamb wave to that of the A0 mode, and the other objective function minimizing as the negative amplitude of the A0 mode. Pareto fronts in the criterion space are solved with the neural-network models and the total time consumption is greatly decreased. From the study it could be observed that the radial basis function network with exact interpolation has the best

  19. Spatial confinement of acoustic and optical waves in stubbed slab structure as optomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changsheng, E-mail: lcs135@163.com; Huang, Dan; Guo, Jierong

    2015-02-20

    We theoretically demonstrate that acoustic waves and optical waves can be spatially confined in the same micro-cavity by specially designed stubbed slab structure. The proposed structure presents both phononic and photonic band gaps from finite element calculation. The creation of cavity mode inside the band gap region provides strong localization of phonon and photon in the defect region. The practical parameters to inject cavity and work experimentally at telecommunication range are discussed. This structure can be precisely fabricated, hold promises to enhance acousto-optical interactions and design new applications as optomechanical resonator. - Highlights: • A resonator simultaneously supports acoustic and optical modes. • Strong spatial confinement and slow group velocity. • Potential to work as active optomechanical resonator.

  20. Sound Transmission Loss Through a Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panel with Integrated Acoustic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Zalewski, Bart F; Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the effect of structurally integrated resonators on the transmission loss of a sandwich panel. The sandwich panel has facesheets over a corrugated core, which creates long aligned chambers that run parallel to the facesheets. When ports are introduced through the facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as low-frequency acoustic resonators. By integrating the resonators within the structure they contribute to the static load bearing capability of the panel while also attenuating noise. An analytical model of a panel with embedded resonators is derived and compared with numerical simulations. Predictions show that acoustic resonators can significantly improve the transmission loss of the sandwich panel around the natural frequency of the resonators. In one configuration with 0.813 m long internal chambers, the diffuse field transmission loss is improved by more than 22 dB around 104 Hz. The benefit is achieved with no added mass or volume relative to the baseline structure. The embedded resonators are effective because they radiate sound out-of-phase with the structure. This results in destructive interference, which leads to less transmitted sound power.

  1. Some observations of the pressure distribution in a tube bank for conditions of self generated acoustic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Donaldson, I.S.; McKnight, W.

    1979-01-01

    The results for mean and fluctuating pressure distributions around tubes in an in-line tube bank are presented for both non-resonant and self-excited acoustic standing wave resonant flow regimes. It is readily deduced that the nature of the flow in the bank is dramatically altered with the onset of acoustic resonance. The velocity gradients which appear across the bank with the onset of resonance would suggest regions of flow recirculation in the bank although no evidence of this was found. The spectra of fluctuating pressure on the duct roof in the bank and on tubes deep in the bank exhibited coherent peaks only during resonance. (author)

  2. Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR) method for acoustic power estimation: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR), a new method for acoustic power estimation, is introduced with emphasis on therapeutic high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) monitoring applications. Advantages of this approach over existing practices include fast response; electrical and magnetic inertness, and hence MRI compatibility; portability; high damage threshold and immunity to vibration and interference; low cost; etc. The angle of incidence should be fixed for accurate measurement. However, the transducer-detector pair can be aligned in any direction with respect to the force of gravity. In this sense, the operation of the device is orientation independent. The acoustic response of a pneumatically coupled pair of Helmholtz resonators, with one of them acting as the sensor head, is used for the estimation of acoustic power. The principle is valid in the case of pulsed/ burst as well as continuous ultrasound exposure, the former being more sensitive and accurate. An electro-acoustic theory has been developed for describing the dynamics of pressure flow and resonance in the system considering various thermo- viscous loss mechanisms. Experimental observations are found to be in agreement with theoretical results. Assuming the window damage threshold (~10 J·mm(-2)) and accuracy of RF power estimation are the upper and lower scale-limiting factors, the performance of the device was examined for an RF power range of 5 mW to 100 W with a HIFU transducer operating at 1.70 MHz, and an average nonlinearity of ~1.5% was observed. The device is also sensitive to sub-milliwatt powers. The frequency response was analyzed at 0.85, 1.70, 2.55, and 3.40 MHz and the results are presented with respective theoretical estimates. Typical response time is in the millisecond regime. Output drift is about 3% for resonant and 5% for nonresonant modes. The principle has been optimized to demonstrate a general-purpose acoustic power meter.

  3. [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibelalde del Castillo, E

    2013-12-01

    The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Acousto-plasmofluidics: Acoustic modulation of surface plasmon resonance in microfluidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We acoustically modulated the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs of metal nanostructures integrated within microfluidic systems. An acoustically driven micromixing device based on bubble microstreaming quickly and homogeneously mixes multiple laminar flows of different refractive indices. The altered refractive index of the mixed fluids enables rapid modulation of the LSPRs of gold nanodisk arrays embedded within the microfluidic channel. The device features fast response for dynamic operation, and the refractive index within the channel is tailorable. With these unique features, our “acousto-plasmofluidic” device can be useful in applications such as optical switches, modulators, filters, biosensors, and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  5. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  6. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao, E-mail: wzc@scnu.edu.cn; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-08

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  7. The influence of wall resonances on the levitation of objects in a single-axis acoustic processing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B. B.

    1980-01-01

    Instabilities were observed in high temperature, single axis acoustic processing chambers. At certain temperatures, strong wall resonances were generated within the processing chamber itself and these transverse resonances were thought sufficient to disrupt the levitation well. These wall resonances are apparently not strong enough to cause instabilities in the levitation well.

  8. Micro-Electromechanical Acoustic Resonator Coated with Polyethyleneimine Nanofibers for the Detection of Formaldehyde Vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a promising strategy to combine the micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic resonator and the nanostructured sensitive fibers for the detection of low-concentration formaldehyde vapor. The polyethyleneimine nanofibers were directly deposited on the resonator surface by a simple electrospinning method. The film bulk acoustic resonator working at 4.4 GHz acted as a sensitive mass loading platform and the three-dimensional structure of nanofibers provided a large specific surface area for vapor adsorption and diffusion. The ultra-small mass change induced by the absorption of formaldehyde molecules onto the amine groups in polyethyleneimine was detected by measuring the frequency downshift of the film bulk acoustic resonator. The proposed sensor exhibits a fast, reversible and linear response towards formaldehyde vapor with an excellent selectivity. The gas sensitivity and the detection limit were 1.216 kHz/ppb and 37 ppb, respectively. The study offers a great potential for developing sensitive, fast-response and portable sensors for the detection of indoor air pollutions.

  9. An electromagnetic induced transparency-like scheme for wireless power transfer using dielectric resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.

    2017-02-01

    Similar to the hybridization of three atoms, three coupled resonators interact to form bonding, anti-bonding, and non-bonding modes. The non-bonding mode enables an electromagnetic induced transparency like transfer of energy. Here, the non-bonding mode, resulting from the strong electric coupling of two dielectric resonators and an enclosure, is exploited to show that it is feasible to transfer power over a distance comparable to the operating wavelength. In this scheme, the enclosure acts as a mediator. The strong coupling permits the excitation of the non-bonding mode with high purity. This approach is different from resonant inductive coupling, which works in the sub-wavelength regime. Optimal loads and the corresponding maximum efficiency are determined using two independent methods: Coupled Mode Theory and Circuit modelling. It is shown that, unlike resonant inductive coupling, the figure of merit depends on the enclosure quality and not on the load, which emphasizes the role of the enclosure as a mediator. Briefly after the input excitation is turned on, the energy in the receiver builds up via all coupled and spurious modes. As time elapses, all modes except the non-bonding cease to sustain. Due to the strong coupling between the dielectrics and the enclosure, such systems have unique properties such as high and uniform efficiency over large distances and minimal fringing fields. These properties suggest that electromagnetic induced transparency like schemes that rely on the use of dielectric resonators can be used to power autonomous systems inside an enclosure or find applications when exposure to the fields needs to be minimal. Finite Element computations are used to verify the theoretical predictions by determining the transfer efficiency, field profile, and coupling coefficients for two different systems. It is shown that the three resonators must be present for efficient power transfer; if one or more are removed, the transfer efficiency reduces

  10. Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself.

  11. The Effects of Perlite Concentration and Coating Thickness of the Polyester Nonwoven Structures on Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Also Electromagnetic Radiation Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda EYUPOGLU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the improvement of the thermal and acoustic insulation and also electromagnetic radiation properties of polyester (PET nonwoven fabric (NWF with 180 g/m2 weight was investigated. For this purpose, PET NWF was coated with perlite stone powder having 210 – 590 µm particle size using polyurethane (PU based coating. Five different concentrations from 1 to 5 % of perlite stone powder were applied to the surface of PET NWF having five different thicknesses. And then the effect of perlite concentration and its thickness to thermal, acoustic and electromagnetic radiation properties were studied. It was found that the addition of perlite stone powder increased the thermal and acoustic insulation properties of PET NWF. Furthermore, the addition of perlite stone powder does not affect the electromagnetic radiation properties of samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17562

  12. A perfect Fresnel acoustic reflector implemented by a Fano-resonant metascreen

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.

    2018-04-10

    We propose a perfectly reflecting acoustic metasurface which is designed by replacing the curved segments of the traditional Fresnel reflector by flat Fano-resonant sub-wavelength unit cells. To preserve the original Fresnel focusing mechanism, the unit cell phase follows a specific phase profile which is obtained by applying the generalized Snell\\'s law and Fermat\\'s principle. The reflected curved phase fronts are thus created at the air-metasurface boundary by tailoring the metasurface dispersion as dictated by Huygens\\' principle. Since the unit cells are implemented by sub-wavelength double slit-shaped cavity resonators, the impinging sound waves are perfectly reflected producing acoustic focusing with negligible absorption. We use plane-wave solution and full-wave simulations to demonstrate the focusing effects. The simulation results closely follow the analytical predictions.

  13. A perfect Fresnel acoustic reflector implemented by a Fano-resonant metascreen

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.; Siddiqui, O.; Farhat, Mohamed; Khelif, A.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a perfectly reflecting acoustic metasurface which is designed by replacing the curved segments of the traditional Fresnel reflector by flat Fano-resonant sub-wavelength unit cells. To preserve the original Fresnel focusing mechanism, the unit cell phase follows a specific phase profile which is obtained by applying the generalized Snell's law and Fermat's principle. The reflected curved phase fronts are thus created at the air-metasurface boundary by tailoring the metasurface dispersion as dictated by Huygens' principle. Since the unit cells are implemented by sub-wavelength double slit-shaped cavity resonators, the impinging sound waves are perfectly reflected producing acoustic focusing with negligible absorption. We use plane-wave solution and full-wave simulations to demonstrate the focusing effects. The simulation results closely follow the analytical predictions.

  14. Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Qi, Dong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths

  15. A perfect Fresnel acoustic reflector implemented by a Fano-resonant metascreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M.; Siddiqui, O.; Farhat, M.; Khelif, A.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a perfectly reflecting acoustic metasurface which is designed by replacing the curved segments of the traditional Fresnel reflector by flat Fano-resonant sub-wavelength unit cells. To preserve the original Fresnel focusing mechanism, the unit cell phase follows a specific phase profile which is obtained by applying the generalized Snell's law and Fermat's principle. The reflected curved phase fronts are thus created at the air-metasurface boundary by tailoring the metasurface dispersion as dictated by Huygens' principle. Since the unit cells are implemented by sub-wavelength double slit-shaped cavity resonators, the impinging sound waves are perfectly reflected producing acoustic focusing with negligible absorption. We use plane-wave solution and full-wave simulations to demonstrate the focusing effects. The simulation results closely follow the analytical predictions.

  16. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS): ARS300 operations manual, software version 2.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-25

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a nondestructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ARS technique is a fast, safe, and nonintrusive technique that is particularly useful when a large number of objects need to be tested. Any physical object, whether solid, hollow, or fluid filled, has many modes of vibration. These modes of vibration, commonly referred to as the natural resonant modes or resonant frequencies, are determined by the object`s shape, size, and physical properties, such as elastic moduli, speed of sound, and density. If the object is mechanically excited at frequencies corresponding to its characteristic natural vibrational modes, a resonance effect can be observed when small excitation energies produce large amplitude vibrations in the object. At other excitation frequencies, i.e., vibrational response of the object is minimal.

  17. Application of acoustic micro-resonators in quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huadan; Dong, Lei; Wu, Hongpeng; Yin, Xukun; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-01-01

    During the past 15 years since the first report of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), QEPAS has become one of the leading optical techniques for trace chemical gas sensing. This paper is a review of the current state-of-the art of QEPAS. QEPAS based spectrophones with different acoustic micro-resonators (AmR) configurations employing both standard quartz tuning forks (QTFs) and custom-made QTFs are summarized and discussed in detail.

  18. Time dependence of resonance γ-radiation modulated by acoustic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Arakelyan, A.R.; Gabrielyan, R.G.; Kocharyan, L.A.; Grigoryan, G.R.; Slavinskii, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the time dependence of the γ-resonance absorption line intensity in case of modulation by acoustic waves are presented. 57 Co was used as source and a stainless steel foil was chosen as an absorber. The time dependences of the counting rate of the resonant γ-quanta corresponding to excitations with 3400 Hz and with 1.5 or 7 V at the vibrosystem transducer are plotted. The measurements show that the method has principal advantages over the conventional Moessbauer spectroscopy

  19. Varying the agglomeration position of particles in a micro-channel using Acoustic Radiation Force beyond the resonance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Olivier; Aider, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    It is well-known that particles can be focused at mid-height of a micro-channel using Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) tuned at the resonance frequency (h=λ/2). The resonance condition is a strong limitation to the use of acoustophoresis (particles manipulation using acoustic force) in many applications. In this study we show that it is possible to focus the particles anywhere along the height of a micro-channel just by varying the acoustic frequency, in contradiction with the resonance condition. This result has been thoroughly checked experimentally. The different physical properties as well as wall materials have been changed. The wall materials is finally the only critical parameters. One of the specificity of the micro-channel is the thickness of the carrier and reflector layer. A preliminary analysis of the experimental results suggests that the acoustic focusing beyond the classic resonance condition can be explained in the framework of the multilayered resonator proposed by Hill [1]. Nevertheless, further numerical studies are needed in order to confirm and fully understand how the acoustic pressure node can be moved over the entire height of the micro channel by varying the acoustic frequency. Despite some uncertainties about the origin of the phenomenon, it is robust and can be used for improved acoustic sorting or manipulation of particles or biological cells in confined set-ups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Frequency and magnetic field mapping of magnetoelastic spin pumping in high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Polzikova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first observation of microvolt-scale inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE dc voltage driven by an acoustic spin pumping (ASP in a bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-YIG(1-GGG-YIG(2-Pt structure. When 2 mW power is applied to an Al-ZnO-Al transducer, the voltage VISHE ∼ 4 μV in the Pt film is observed as a result of resonant ASP from YIG(2 to Pt in the area ∼ 170 μm. The results of frequency and magnetic field mapping of VISHE(f,H together with reflectivity of the resonator show an obvious agreement between the positions of the voltage maxima and BAW resonance frequencies fn(H on the (f, H plane. At the same time a significant asymmetry of the VISHE(fn(H value in reference to the magnetoelastic resonance (MER line fMER(H position is revealed, which is explained by asymmetry of the magnetoelastic waves dispersion law.

  1. Frequency and magnetic field mapping of magnetoelastic spin pumping in high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzikova, N. I.; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Luzanov, V. A.; Raevskiy, A. O.; Kotov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first observation of microvolt-scale inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) dc voltage driven by an acoustic spin pumping (ASP) in a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-YIG(1)-GGG-YIG(2)-Pt structure. When 2 mW power is applied to an Al-ZnO-Al transducer, the voltage VISHE ˜ 4 μV in the Pt film is observed as a result of resonant ASP from YIG(2) to Pt in the area ˜ 170 μm. The results of frequency and magnetic field mapping of VISHE(f,H) together with reflectivity of the resonator show an obvious agreement between the positions of the voltage maxima and BAW resonance frequencies fn(H) on the (f, H) plane. At the same time a significant asymmetry of the VISHE(fn(H)) value in reference to the magnetoelastic resonance (MER) line fMER(H) position is revealed, which is explained by asymmetry of the magnetoelastic waves dispersion law.

  2. Flexible structured high-frequency film bulk acoustic resonator for flexible wireless electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Changjian; Shu, Yi; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shu-Rong; Chan, Mansun

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics have inspired many novel and very important applications in recent years and various flexible electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, circuits, sensors, and radiofrequency (RF) passive devices including antennas and inductors have been reported. However, the lack of a high-performance RF resonator is one of the key bottlenecks to implement flexible wireless electronics. In this study, for the first time, a novel ultra-flexible structured film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is proposed. The flexible FBAR is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride (AlN) for acoustic wave excitation. Both the shear wave and longitudinal wave can be excited under the surface interdigital electrodes configuration we proposed. In the case of the thickness extension mode, a flexible resonator with a working frequency as high as of 5.2325 GHz has been realized. The resonators stay fully functional under bending status and after repeated bending and re-flattening operations. This flexible high-frequency resonator will serve as a key building block for the future flexible wireless electronics, greatly expanding the application scope of flexible electronics. (paper)

  3. Topologically protected one-way edge mode in networks of acoustic resonators with circulating air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Xu; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Recent explorations of topology in physical systems have led to a new paradigm of condensed matters characterized by topologically protected states and phase transition, for example, topologically protected photonic crystals enabled by magneto-optical effects. However, in other wave systems such as acoustics, topological states cannot be simply reproduced due to the absence of similar magnetics-related sound–matter interactions in naturally available materials. Here, we propose an acoustic topological structure by creating an effective gauge magnetic field for sound using circularly flowing air in the designed acoustic ring resonators. The created gauge magnetic field breaks the time-reversal symmetry, and therefore topological properties can be designed to be nontrivial with non-zero Chern numbers and thus to enable a topological sonic crystal, in which the topologically protected acoustic edge-state transport is observed, featuring robust one-way propagation characteristics against a variety of topological defects and impurities. Our results open a new venue to non-magnetic topological structures and promise a unique approach to effective manipulation of acoustic interfacial transport at will. (paper)

  4. Scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by small impedance bodies of arbitrary shapes applications to creating new engineered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...

  5. Electromagnetic properties of inner double walled carbon nanotubes investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, M.; Abou-Hamad, E.; Alabedi, G.; Al-Taie, I.; Kim, Y.; Wagberg, T.; Goze-Bac, C.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analytical technique was used to investigate the double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) electromagnetic properties of inner walls. The local magnetic and electronic properties of inner nanotubes in DWNTs were analyzed using 25% 13C enriched C 60 by which the effect of dipolar coupling could be minimized. The diamagnetic shielding was determined due to the ring currents on outer nanotubes in DWNTs. The NMR chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation studies reveal the metallic properties of the inner nanotubes with a signature of the spin-gap opening below 70 K.

  6. Combined electromagnetic and photoreaction modeling of CLD-1 photobleaching in polymer microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyi; Poon, Joyce K. S.; Liang, Wei; Yariv, Amnon; Zhang, Cheng; Dalton, Larry R.

    2005-08-01

    By combining a solid-state photoreaction model with the modal solutions of an optical waveguide, we simulate the refractive index change due to the photobleaching of CLD-1 chromophores in an amorphous polycarbonate microring resonator. The simulation agrees well with experimental results. The photobleaching quantum efficiency of the CLD-1 chromophores is determined to be 0.65%. The combined modeling of the electromagnetic wave propagation and photoreaction precisely illustrates the spatial and temporal evolution of the optical properties of the polymer material as manifested in the refractive index and their effects on the modal and physical properties of the optical devices.

  7. Resonant interaction of electromagnetic wave with plasma layer and overcoming the radiocommunication blackout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.

  8. Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javan, Ali; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Lee Hwang; Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance in a Doppler-broadened system. It is shown here that for relatively low intensity of the driving field the EIT linewidth is proportional to the square root of intensity and is independent of the Doppler width, similar to the laser-induced line narrowing effect described by Feld and Javan. In the limit of high intensity we recover the usual power-broadening case where the EIT linewidth is proportional to the intensity and inversely proportional to the Doppler width

  9. Phonon-magnon resonant processes with relevance to acoustic spin pumping

    KAUST Repository

    Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-23

    The recently described phenomenon of resonant acoustic spin pumping is due to resonant coupling between an incident elastic wave and spin waves in a ferromagnetic medium. A classical one-dimensional discrete model of a ferromagnet with two forms of magnetoelastic coupling is treated to shed light on the conditions for resonance between phonons and magnons. Nonlinear phonon-magnon interactions in the case of a coupling restricted to diagonal terms in the components of the spin degrees of freedom are analyzed within the framework of the multiple timescale perturbation theory. In that case, one-phonon-two-magnon resonances are the dominant mechanism for pumping. The effect of coupling on the dispersion relations depends on the square of the amplitude of the phonon and magnon excitations. A straightforward analysis of a linear phonon-magnon interaction in the case of a magnetoelastic coupling restricted to off-diagonal terms in the components of the spins shows a one-phonon to one-magnon resonance as the pumping mechanism. The resonant dispersion relations are independent of the amplitude of the waves. In both cases, when an elastic wave with a fixed frequency is used to stimulate magnons, application of an external magnetic field can be used to approach resonant conditions. Both resonance conditions exhibit the same type of dependency on the strength of an applied magnetic field.

  10. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaiyet Iftekharul Haque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D printing and two-dimensional (2D printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency.

  11. Improved measurements of elastic properties at acoustic resonant frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.; Shillinglaw, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The choice of specimens of rectangular cross section for determination of dynamic elastic moduli by the resonant bar technique is often dictated by specimen fabrication problems. The specimen of rectangular cross section lends itself to accurate determination of elastic vibration shapes by a method in which a simple noncontacting optical transducer is used. The unequivocal indexing of the various vibration modes obtained in this way more than compensates for the added computational difficulties associated with rectangular geometry. The approximations used in the calculations of Young's modulus and the shear modulus for bars of rectangular cross section are tested experimentally and it is shown that high precision can be obtained. Determinations of changes in dynamic elastic moduli with temperature or stress are also described. (author)

  12. Observation of Fano resonance and classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in toroidal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Song; Yang, Helin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Cong, Lonqing; Singh, Ranjan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    Toroidal multipoles have recently been explored in various scientific communities, ranging from atomic and molecular physics, electrodynamics, and solid-state physics to biology. Here we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a three-dimensional toroidal metamaterial where two different toroidal dipoles along orthogonal directions have been observed. The chosen toroidal metamaterial also simultaneously supports Fano resonance and the classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena in the transmission spectra that originate from the electric-toroidal dipole and electric-magnetic dipole destructive interference. The intriguing properties of the toroidal resonances may open up avenues for applications in toroidal moments generator, sensing and slow-light devices. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Adiabatic description of capture into resonance and surfatron acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M; Vainchtein, D L

    2010-12-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the surfatron acceleration of nonrelativistic charged particles by electromagnetic waves. The acceleration is caused by capture of particles into resonance with one of the waves. We investigate capture for systems with one or two waves and provide conditions under which the obtained results can be applied to systems with more than two waves. In the case of a single wave, the once captured particles never leave the resonance and their velocity grows linearly with time. However, if there are two waves in the system, the upper bound of the energy gain may exist and we find the analytical value of that bound. We discuss several generalizations including the relativistic limit, different wave amplitudes, and a wide range of the waves' wavenumbers. The obtained results are used for qualitative description of some phenomena observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency-like metamaterials with coupled split ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2017-08-01

    We present a metamaterial configuration exhibiting single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like properties. The unit cell of the single band EIT-like metamaterial consists of a multi-split ring resonator surrounded by a split ring resonator. The multi-split ring resonator acts as a quasi-dark or dark resonator, depending on the polarization of the incident wave, and the split ring resonator serves as the bright resonator. Combination of these two resonators results in a single band EIT-like transmission inside the stop band. EIT-like transmission phenomenon is also clearly observed in the measured transmission spectrum at almost the same frequencies for vertical and horizontal polarized waves, and the numerical results are verified for normal incidence. Moreover, multi-band transmission windows are created within a wide band by combining the two slightly different single band EIT-like metamaterial unit cells that exhibit two different coupling strengths inside a supercell configuration. Group indices as high as 123 for single band and 488 for tri-band transmission, accompanying with high transmission rates (over 80%), are achieved, rendering the metamaterial very suitable for multi-band slow light applications. It is shown that the group delay of the propagating wave can be increased and dynamically controlled by changing the polarization angle. Multi-band EIT-like transmission is also verified experimentally, and a good agreement with simulations is obtained. The proposed novel methodology for obtaining multi-band EIT, which takes advantage of a supercell configuration by hosting slightly different configured unit cells, can be utilized for easily formation and manipulation of multi-band transmission windows inside a stop band.

  15. Autler-Townes effect in a strongly driven electromagnetically induced transparency resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Li Xiaoli; Han Li; Fu Guangsheng; Manson, Neil B.; Suter, Dieter; Wei Changjiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear behavior of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance subject to a coherent driving field. The EIT is associated with a Λ three-level system where two hyperfine levels within an electronic ground state are coupled to a common excited state level by a coupling field and a probe field. In addition there is an radio-frequency (rf) field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. The paper contrasts two different situations. In one case the rf-driven transition shares a common level with the probed transition and in the second case it shares a common level with the coupled transition. In both cases the EIT resonance is split into a doublet and the characteristics of the EIT doublet are determined by the strength and frequency of the rf-driving field. The doublet splitting originates from the rf-field induced dynamic Stark effect and has close analogy with the Autler-Townes effect observed in three-level pump-probe spectroscopy study. The situation changes when the rf field is strong and the two cases are very different. One is analogous to two Λ three-level systems with EIT resonance associated with each. The other corresponds to a doubly driven three-level system with rf-field-induced electromagnetically induced absorption resonance. The two situations are modeled using numerical solutions of the relevant equation of motion of density matrix. In addition a physical account of their behaviors is given in terms of a dressed state picture

  16. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the plasma near electron cyclotron resonance: Undulator-induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations

  17. [Electromagnetic interference in the current era of cardiac implantable electronic devices designed for magnetic resonance environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Valentina; Santini, Luca; Forleo, Giovanni B; Della Rocca, Domenico; Panattoni, Germana; Scali, Marta; Schirripa, Valentina; Danisi, Nicola; Ammirati, Fabrizio; Santini, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades we are observing a continuous increase in the number of patients wearing cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). At the same time, we face daily with a domestic and public environment featured more and more by the presence and the utilization of new emitters and finally, more medical procedures are based on electromagnetic fields as well. Therefore, the topic of the interaction of devices with electromagnetic interference (EMI) is increasingly a real and actual problem.In the medical environment most attention is paid to magnetic resonance, nevertheless the risk of interaction is present also with ionizing radiation, electrical nerve stimulation and electrosurgery. In the non-medical environment, most studies reported in the literature focused on mobile phones, metal detectors, as well as on headphones or digital players as potential EMI sources, but many other instruments and tools may be intentional or non-intentional sources of electromagnetic fields.CIED manufacturers are more and more focusing on new technological features in order to make implantable devices less susceptible to EMI. However, patients and emitter manufacturers should be aware that limitations exist and that there is not complete immunity to EMI.

  18. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors.

  19. A portable blood plasma clot micro-elastometry device based on resonant acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, C R; Li, Ling; Wolberg, Alisa S; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal blood clot stiffness is an important indicator of coagulation disorders arising from a variety of cardiovascular diseases and drug treatments. Here, we present a portable instrument for elastometry of microliter volume blood samples based upon the principle of resonant acoustic spectroscopy, where a sample of well-defined dimensions exhibits a fundamental longitudinal resonance mode proportional to the square root of the Young's modulus. In contrast to commercial thromboelastography, the resonant acoustic method offers improved repeatability and accuracy due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the resonant vibration. We review the measurement principles and the design of a magnetically actuated microbead force transducer applying between 23 pN and 6.7 nN, providing a wide dynamic range of elastic moduli (3 Pa-27 kPa) appropriate for measurement of clot elastic modulus (CEM). An automated and portable device, the CEMport, is introduced and implemented using a 2 nm resolution displacement sensor with demonstrated accuracy and precision of 3% and 2%, respectively, of CEM in biogels. Importantly, the small strains (diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring.

  20. Single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by dielectric obstacles from a resonance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.J.

    1987-03-01

    A new application of the singularity expansion method (SEM) is explored. This application combines the classical theory of wave propagation through a multiple-scattering environment and the SEM. Because the SEM is generally considered to be a theory for describing surface currents on conducting scatters, extensions are made which permit, under certain conditions, a singularity expansion representation for the electromagnetic field scattered by a dielectric scatterer. Application of this expansion is then made to the multiple-scattering case using both single and multiple interactions. A resonance scattering tensor form is used for the SEM description which leds to an associated tensor form for the solution to the multiple-scattering problem with each SEM pole effect appearing explicitly. The coherent field is determined for both spatial and SEM parameter random variations. A numerical example for the case of an ensemble of dielectric spheres which possess frequency-dependent loss is also made. Accurate resonance expansions for the single-scattering problem are derived, and resonance trajectories based on the Debye relaxation model for the refractive index are introduced. Application of these resonance expansions is then made to the multiple-scattering results for a slab containing a distribution of spheres with varying radii. Conditions are discussed which describe when the hybrid theory is appropriate. 53 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs

  1. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  2. Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoudache, Samira; Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Pennec, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study based on the transmissions of optical and acoustic waves normally impinging to a periodic perforated silicon plate when the embedded medium is a liquid and show the existence of Fano-like resonances in both cases. The signature of the resonances appears as well-defi...... of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes.......-defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation...

  3. Homogenization of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials towards an emergent enriched continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, A; Kouznetsova, V G; Geers, M G D

    This contribution presents a novel homogenization technique for modeling heterogeneous materials with micro-inertia effects such as locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Linear elastodynamics is used to model the micro and macro scale problems and an extended first order Computational Homogenization framework is used to establish the coupling. Craig Bampton Mode Synthesis is then applied to solve and eliminate the microscale problem, resulting in a compact closed form description of the microdynamics that accurately captures the Local Resonance phenomena. The resulting equations represent an enriched continuum in which additional kinematic degrees of freedom emerge to account for Local Resonance effects which would otherwise be absent in a classical continuum. Such an approach retains the accuracy and robustness offered by a standard Computational Homogenization implementation, whereby the problem and the computational time are reduced to the on-line solution of one scale only.

  4. Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoudache, Samira [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Moiseyenko, Rayisa [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Physics, Building 309, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Pennec, Yan, E-mail: yan.pennec@univ-lille1.fr; Rouhani, Bahram Djafari [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Khater, Antoine [Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), UMR CNRS 6283, l' UNAM, Université du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Lucklum, Ralf [Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems (IMOS), Otto-von-Guericke-University, P.O. Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Tigrine, Rachid [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2016-03-21

    We perform a theoretical study based on the transmissions of optical and acoustic waves normally impinging to a periodic perforated silicon plate when the embedded medium is a liquid and show the existence of Fano-like resonances in both cases. The signature of the resonances appears as well-defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes.

  5. Interior and exterior resonances in acoustic scattering. pt. 1 - spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunaurd, G.C.; Tanglis, E.; Uberall, H.; Brill, D.

    1983-01-01

    In acoustic scattering from elastic objects, resonance features appear in the returned echo at frequencies at which the object's eigenfrequencies are located, which are explained by the excitation of 'interior' creeping waves. Corresponding resonance terms may be split off from the total scattering amplitude, leaving behind an apparently nonresonant background amplitude. This is demonstrated here for scatterers of spherical geometry and in a companion paper also for scatterers of arbitrary geometry, by using the T-matrix approach. For the case of near-impenetrable spheres, it is subsequently shown that the background amplitude can be split further into specularly reflected contributions, plus highly attenuated resonance terms which are explained by the excitation of 'exterior' (Franz-type) creeping waves. The singularity structure of the scattering function is shown mathematically, by using the R-matrix approach of the nuclear-scattering theory, as that of a meromorphic function 'without' any additional 'entire function' (as had been postulated by the singularity expansion method)

  6. Acoustic resonances of fluid-immersed elastic cylinders and spheroids: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Jan; Überall, Herbert; Bao, X. L.

    2002-05-01

    Frequency resonances in the scattering of acoustic waves from a target object are caused by the phase matching of surface waves repeatedly encircling the object. This is exemplified here by considering elastic finite cylinders and spheroids, and the phase-matching condition provides a means of calculating the complex resonance frequencies of such objects. Tank experiments carried out at Catholic University, or at the University of Le Havre, France by G. Maze and J. Ripoche, have been interpreted using this approach. The experiments employed sound pulses to measure arrival times, which allowed identification of the surface paths taken by the surface waves, thus giving rise to resonances in the scattering amplitude. A calculation of the resonance frequencies using the T-matrix approach showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental resonance frequencies that were either measured directly (as at Le Havre), or that were obtained by the interpretation of measured arrival times (at Catholic University) using calculated surface wave paths, and the extraction of resonance frequencies therefrom, on the basis of the phase-matching condition. Results for hemispherically endcapped, evacuated steel cylinders obtained in a lake experiment carried out by the NSWC were interpreted in the same fashion.

  7. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  8. Tsunami mitigation by resonant triad interaction with acoustic-gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Tsunamis have been responsible for the loss of almost a half million lives, widespread long lasting destruction, profound environmental effects, and global financial crisis, within the last two decades. The main tsunami properties that determine the size of impact at the shoreline are its wavelength and amplitude in the ocean. Here, we show that it is in principle possible to reduce the amplitude of a tsunami, and redistribute its energy over a larger space, through forcing it to interact with resonating acoustic-gravity waves. In practice, generating the appropriate acoustic-gravity modes introduces serious challenges due to the high energy required for an effective interaction. However, if the findings are extended to realistic tsunami properties and geometries, we might be able to mitigate tsunamis and so save lives and properties. Moreover, such a mitigation technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's energy.

  9. Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.

  10. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  11. Electromagnetically induced reflectance and Fano resonance in one dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athe, Pratik; Srivastava, Sanjay; Thapa, Khem B.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate the generation of optical Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced reflectance (EIR) in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal (1D SPC) by numerical simulation using transfer matrix method as analysis tool. We investigated the optical response of 1D SPC structure consisting of alternate layer of two different superconductors and observed that the optical spectra of this structure exhibit two narrow reflectance peaks with zero reflectivity of sidebands. Further, we added a dielectric cap layer to this 1D SPC structure and found that addition of dielectric cap layer transforms the line shape of sidebands around the narrow reflectance peaks which leads to the formation of Fano resonance and EIR line shape in reflectance spectra. We also studied the effects of the number of periods, refractive index and thickness of dielectric cap layer on the lineshape of EIR and Fano resonances. It was observed that the amplitude of peak reflectance of EIR achieves 100% reflectance by increasing the number of periods.

  12. Coupled electromagnetic acoustic and thermal-flow modeling of an induction motor of railway traction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasquelle, A.; Le Besnerais, J.; Harmand, S.; Hecquet, M.; Brisset, S.; Brochet, P.; Randria, A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to optimize the design of an enclosed induction machine of railway traction, a multi-physical model is developed taking into account electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal-flow phenomena. The electromagnetic model is based on analytical formulations and allows calculating the losses. The thermal-flow modeling is based on an equivalent thermal circuit which has the feature to consider the flow structure inside the machine. In this way, a numerical study has been carried out to evaluate this internal flow structure depending on the rotational speed. The results of the multi-physical model are confronted with experimental results.

  13. Magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation of tunable three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen

    2018-03-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.

  14. Resonant modal group theory of membrane-type acoustical metamaterials for low-frequency sound attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng

    2015-09-01

    In order to overcome the influence of the structural resonance on the continuous structures and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure which can effectively isolate the low-frequency noises, an elastic membrane structure was proposed. In the low-frequency range below 500 Hz, the sound transmission loss (STL) of this membrane type structure is greatly higher than that of the current sound insulation material EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copo) of vehicle, so it is possible to replace the EVA by the membrane-type metamaterial structure in practice engineering. Based on the band structure, modal shapes, as well as the sound transmission simulation, the sound insulation mechanism of the designed membrane-type acoustic metamaterials was analyzed from a new perspective, which had been validated experimentally. It is suggested that in the frequency range above 200 Hz for this membrane-mass type structure, the sound insulation effect was principally not due to the low-level locally resonant mode of the mass block, but the continuous vertical resonant modes of the localized membrane. So based on such a physical property, a resonant modal group theory is initially proposed in this paper. In addition, the sound insulation mechanism of the membrane-type structure and thin plate structure were combined by the membrane/plate resonant theory.

  15. Acoustic resonator providing fixed points of temperature between 0.1 and 2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmela, Anssi; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Sebedash, Alexander; Rysti, Juho

    2009-01-01

    Below 2 K the speed of second sound in mixtures of liquid 3 He and 4 He first increases to a maximum of 30-40 m/s at about 1 K and then decreases again at lower temperatures to values below 15 m/s. The exact values depend on the concentration and pressure of the mixture. This can be exploited to provide fixed points in temperature by utilizing a resonator with appropriate dimensions and frequency to excite standing waves in the resonator cavity filled with helium mixture. We demonstrate that commercially mass produced quartz tuning forks can be used for this purpose. They are meant for frequency standards operating at 32 kHz. Their dimensions are typically of order 1 mm matching the wavelength of the second sound in helium mixtures at certain values of temperature. Due to the complicated geometry, we observe some 20 sharp acoustic resonances in the range 0.1l 2 K having temperature resolution of order 1 μK. The quartz resonators are cheap, compact, simple to implement, easy to measure with great accuracy, and, above all, they are not sensitive to magnetic field, which is a great advantage compared to fixed point devices based on superconductivity transitions. The reproducibility of the resonance pattern upon thermal cycling remains to be verified.

  16. Wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sheng, Meiping; Ding, Xiaodong; Yan, Xiaowei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents analysis on wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance. The metamaterial is designed to have lateral local resonance systems attached to a homogeneous plate. Relevant theoretical analysis, numerical modelling and application prospect are presented. Results show that the metamaterial has two complete band gaps for flexural wave absorption and vibration attenuation. Damping can smooth and lower the metamaterial’s frequency responses in high frequency ranges at the expense of the band gap effect, and as an important factor to calculate the power flow is thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the effective mass density becomes negative and unbounded at specific frequencies. Simultaneously, power flow within band gaps are dramatically blocked from the power flow contour and power flow maps. Results from finite element modelling and power flow analysis reveal the working mechanism of the flexural wave attenuation and power flow blocked within the band gaps, where part of the flexural vibration is absorbed by the vertical resonator and the rest is transformed through four-link-mechanisms to the lateral resonators that oscillate and generate inertial forces indirectly to counterbalance the shear forces induced by the vibrational plate. The power flow is stored in the vertical and lateral local resonance, as well as in the connected plate.

  17. Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for performing dynamic elastography of soft tissue samples. By sensing nanoscale displacements with optical coherence tomography, a chirped, modulated force is applied to acquire the mechanical spectrum of a tissue sample within a few seconds. This modulated force is applied via magnetic nanoparticles, named 'nanotransducers', which are diffused into the tissue, and which contribute negligible inertia to the soft tissue mechanical system. Using this novel system, we observed that excised tissues exhibit mechanical resonance modes which are well described by a linear damped harmonic oscillator. Results are validated by using cylindrical tissue phantoms of agarose in which resonant frequencies (30-400 Hz) are consistent with longitudinal modes and the sample boundary conditions. We furthermore show that the Young's modulus can be computed from their measured resonance frequencies, analogous to resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for stiff material analysis. Using this new technique, named magnetomotive resonant acoustic spectroscopy (MRAS), we monitored the relative stiffening of an excised rat liver during a chemical fixation process.

  18. Circuit-field coupled finite element analysis method for an electromagnetic acoustic transducer under pulsed voltage excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Kuan-Sheng; Huang Song-Ling; Zhao Wei; Wang Shen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) under voltage excitation and considers the non-uniform distribution of the biased magnetic field. A complete model of EMATs including the non-uniform biased magnetic field, a pulsed eddy current field and the acoustic field is built up. The pulsed voltage excitation is transformed to the frequency domain by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). In terms of the time harmonic field equations of the EMAT system, the impedances of the coils under different frequencies are calculated according to the circuit-field coupling method and Poynting's theorem. Then the currents under different frequencies are calculated according to Ohm's law and the pulsed current excitation is obtained by inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT). Lastly, the sequentially coupled finite element method (FEM) is used to calculate the Lorentz force in the EMATs under the current excitation. An actual EMAT with a two-layer two-bundle printed circuit board (PCB) coil, a rectangular permanent magnet and an aluminium specimen is analysed. The coil impedances and the pulsed current are calculated and compared with the experimental results. Their agreement verified the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, the influences of lift-off distances and the non-uniform static magnetic field on the Lorentz force under pulsed voltage excitation are studied. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic pulses by metal nanospheres in the vicinity of a Fano-like resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapenko, V.A.; Svita, S.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    In the work, radiation scattering by metal nanospheres in a dielectric matrix in case of ultrashort and long electromagnetic pulses is studied theoretically. Spectral efficiencies of backward and forward scattering by silver nanospheres in glass are calculated with the use of experimental data on the dielectric permittivity of silver. The presence of Fano-like resonances in spectral dependences of scattering efficiency caused by interference of dipole and quadrupole scatterings is shown. Backward and forward scattering of ultrashort pulses is calculated and analyzed. The obtained dependences of the total probability of scattering (during all time of the action of a pulse) on pulse duration demonstrate an essential distinction between an ultrashort case and a long pulse limit

  20. Tunable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in graphene-ring resonators system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Zengxing; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Wendong; Yan, Shubin

    2016-12-12

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical ways has shown great potential in optical delay and quantum-information technology due to its flexible design and easy implementation. The chief drawback for these devices is the bad tunability. Here we demonstrate a tunable optical transparency system formed by graphene-silicon microrings which could control the transparent window by electro-optical means. The device consists of cascaded coupled ring resonators and a graphene/graphene capacitor which integrated on one of the rings. By tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheets, we can modulate the round-trip ring loss so that the transparency window can be dynamically tuned. The results provide a new method for the manipulation and transmission of light in highly integrated optical circuits and quantum information storage devices.

  1. Numerical optimization approach for resonant electromagnetic vibration transducer designed for random vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreemann, Dirk; Hoffmann, Daniel; Folkmer, Bernd; Manoli, Yiannos

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a design and optimization strategy for resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices. An analytic expression for the magnetic field of cylindrical permanent magnets is used to build up an electromagnetic subsystem model. This subsystem is used to find the optimal resting position of the oscillating mass and to optimize the geometrical parameters (shape and size) of the magnet and coil. The objective function to be investigated is thereby the maximum voltage output of the transducer. An additional mechanical subsystem model based on well-known equations describing the dynamics of spring–mass–damper systems is established to simulate both nonlinear spring characteristics and the effect of internal limit stops. The mechanical subsystem enables the identification of optimal spring characteristics for realistic operation conditions such as stochastic vibrations. With the overall transducer model, a combination of both subsystems connected to a simple electrical circuit, a virtual operation of the optimized vibration transducer excited by a measured random acceleration profile can be performed. It is shown that the optimization approach results in an appreciable increase of the converter performance

  2. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  3. Synthesis, multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance and electromagnetic absorption properties of hcp-cobalt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz

  4. Acoustic resonance scattering by a system of concentrically multilayered shells: the inherent background and resonance coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, M S; Lee, S H

    1999-01-01

    The inherent background coefficients that exactly describe the background amplitudes in the scattered field have been presented for the scattering of plane acoustic waves by a system of concentrically multilayered solid and/or fluid shells submerged in a fluid. The coefficients have been obtained by replacing the mechanical surface admittance function with the zero-frequency limit of the admittance function for the analogous fluid system, where the shear wave speeds in the solid layers are set to zero. By taking advantage of the concept of incoming and outgoing waves, we find the surface admittance function for the fluid system in such a form that the analytical generalization for any number of layers and the physical interpretation are very easy. The background coefficients obtained are independent of the bulk wave speeds in the system: they depend on the mass densities and the thickness of the shells. With increasing frequency, the inherent background undergoes a transition from the soft to the rigid backgr...

  5. Absorption of acoustic waves by sunspots. II - Resonance absorption in axisymmetric fibril models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical calculations of acoustic waves scattered by sunspots which concentrate on the absorption at the magnetohydrodynamic Alfven resonance are extended to the case of a flux-tube embedded in a uniform atmosphere. The model is based on a flux-tubes of varying radius that are highly structured, translationally invariant, and axisymmetric. The absorbed fractional energy is determined for different flux-densities and subphotospheric locations with attention given to the effects of twist. When the flux is highly concentrated into annuli efficient absorption is possible even when the mean magnetic flux density is low. The model demonstrates low absorption at low azimuthal orders even in the presence of twist which generally increases the range of wave numbers over which efficient absorption can occur. Resonance absorption is concluded to be an efficient mechanism in monolithic sunspots, fibril sunspots, and plage fields.

  6. Acoustically Triggered Disassembly of Multilayered Polyelectrolyte Thin Films through Gigahertz Resonators for Controlled Drug Release Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled drug release has a high priority for the development of modern medicine and biochemistry. To develop a versatile method for controlled release, a miniaturized acoustic gigahertz (GHz resonator is designed and fabricated which can transfer electric supply to mechanical vibrations. By contacting with liquid, the GHz resonator directly excites streaming flows and induces physical shear stress to tear the multilayered polyelectrolyte (PET thin films. Due to the ultra-high working frequency, the shear stress is greatly intensified, which results in a controlled disassembling of the PET thin films. This technique is demonstrated as an effective method to trigger and control the drug release. Both theory analysis and controlled release experiments prove the thin film destruction and the drug release.

  7. Light-induced ion-acoustic instability of rarefied plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, I.V.; Sizykh, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    A new method of ion-acoustic instability excitation under the effect of coherent light, resonance to ion quantum transitions on collisionless plasma, is suggested. The light-induced ion-acoustic instability (LIIAI) considered is based on the induced progressive nonequilibrium resonance particles in the field of travelling electromagnetic wave. Principal possibility to use LIIAI in high-resolution spectroscopy and in applied problems of plasma physics, related to its instability, is pointed out

  8. Acoustic transparency and opacity using Fano Interferences in Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Khelif, A.

    2015-08-04

    We investigate both experimentally and theoretically how to generate the acoustical analogue of the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. This phenomenon arises from Fano resonances originating from constructive and destructive interferences of a narrow discrete resonance with a broad spectral line or continuum. Measurements were realized on a double-cavity structure by using a Kundt’s Tube. Transmission properties reveal an asymmetric lineshape of the transmission that leads to acoustic transparency.

  9. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  10. A high-performance lab-on-a-chip liquid sensor employing surface acoustic wave resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustanovich, K.; Yantchev, V.; Kirejev, V.; Jeffries, G. D. M.; Lobovkina, T.; Jesorka, A.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate herein a new concept for lab-on-a-chip in-liquid sensing, through integration of surface acoustic wave resonance (SAR) in a one-port configuration with a soft polymer microfluidic delivery system. In this concept, the reflective gratings of a one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator are employed as mass loading-sensing elements, while the SAW transducer is protected from the measurement environment. We describe the design, fabrication, implementation, and characterization using liquid medium. The sensor operates at a frequency of 185 MHz and has demonstrated a comparable sensitivity to other SAW in-liquid sensors, while offering quality factor (Q) value in water of about 250, low impedance and fairly low susceptibility to viscous damping. For proof of principle, sensing performance was evaluated by means of binding 40 nm neutravidin-coated SiO2 nanoparticles to a biotin-labeled lipid bilayer deposited over the reflectors. Frequency shifts were determined for every step of the affinity assay. Demonstration of this integrated technology highlights the potential of SAR technology for in-liquid sensing.

  11. Reconstruction of an acoustic pressure field in a resonance tube by particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuu, K; Hasegawa, S

    2015-11-01

    A technique for estimating an acoustic field in a resonance tube is suggested. The estimation of an acoustic field in a resonance tube is important for the development of the thermoacoustic engine, and can be conducted employing two sensors to measure pressure. While this measurement technique is known as the two-sensor method, care needs to be taken with the location of pressure sensors when conducting pressure measurements. In the present study, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is employed instead of a pressure measurement by a sensor, and two-dimensional velocity vector images are extracted as sequential data from only a one- time recording made by a video camera of PIV. The spatial velocity amplitude is obtained from those images, and a pressure distribution is calculated from velocity amplitudes at two points by extending the equations derived for the two-sensor method. By means of this method, problems relating to the locations and calibrations of multiple pressure sensors are avoided. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy of the present method, the experiments are conducted employing the conventional two-sensor method and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Then, results by the proposed method are compared with those obtained with the two-sensor method and LDV.

  12. Resonant Scattering of Relativistic Outer Zone Electrons by Plasmaspheric Plume Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen-Peng, Su; Hui-Nan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density (PSD) evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1–3 orders of magnitude in 5h, supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm. The significant precipitation loss of ∼MeV electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands. The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons (> 5 MeV) is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O + band at lower pitch-angles, as well as the EMIC waves in H + and He + bands at larger pitch-angles. Moreover, a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band

  13. Non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for car-key applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hehn, T.; Thewes, M.; Kuehne, I.; Frey, A.; Scholl, G.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for application in a remote car-key, to extend the lifetime of the battery or even to realize a fully energy autonomous, maintenance-free car-key product. Characteristic for a car-key are low frequency and large amplitude motions during normal daily operation. The basic idea of this non-resonant generator is to use a round flat permanent magnet moving freely in a round flat cavity, which is packaged on both sides by printed circuit boards embedded with multi-layer copper coils. The primary goal of this structure is to easily integrate the energy harvester with the existing electrical circuit module into available commercial car-key designs. The whole size of the energy harvester is comparable to a CR2032 coin battery. To find out the best power-efficient and optimal design, several magnets with different dimensions and magnetizations, and various layouts of copper coils were analysed and built up for prototype testing. Experimental results show that with an axially magnetized NdFeB magnet and copper coils of design variant B a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.1V can be observed.

  14. A novel noncontact electromagnetic field-based sensor for the monitoring of resonant fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Si-Byung; Yun, Gun Jin; Binienda, Wieslaw; Carletta, Joan; Kim, Dong-Han

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a prototype of an electromagnetic field-based (EFB) vibration sensor that uses a novel sensing technique to monitor the resonant fatigue testing of a conductive and/or ferromagnetic target specimen is presented. The distance from the target to a coil within the sensor affects the impedance of the coil. The electronic circuitry for the sensor consists of a relaxation oscillator, an embedded microprocessor module and a high-speed digital-to-analog converter. The impedance of the coil determines the frequency of oscillation of the relaxation oscillator's output, so that vibration of the target causes changes in the oscillation frequency. A timer in the embedded microprocessor module is used to count the oscillations, producing a digital signal that indicates the coil-to-target distance. The digital signal is instantaneously converted to an analog signal to produce the sensor's output. The key technologies proposed include: (1) a novel timer counting method using the input capture functionality and timer of the embedded microprocessor module and (2) significant simplification of the analog electronic circuitry. The performance of the proposed sensor has been verified using AISI 1095 carbon steel and Al6061–T6 aluminum alloy specimens during resonant fatigue tests. The sensor shows a good linearity between displacement amplitudes and output voltages

  15. A new mode of acoustic NDT via resonant air-coupled emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodov, Igor; Dillenz, Alexander; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Resonant modes of non-destructive testing (NDT) which make use of local damage resonance (LDR) have been developed recently and demonstrated a significant increase in efficiency and sensitivity of hybrid inspection techniques by laser vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography, and shearography. In this paper, a new fully acoustic version of resonant NDT is demonstrated for defects in composite materials relevant to automotive and aviation applications. This technique is based on an efficient activation of defect vibrations by using a sonic/ultrasonic wave matched to a fundamental LDR frequency of the defect. On this condition, all points of the faulty area get involved in synchronous out-of-plane vibrations which produce a similar in-phase wave motion in ambient air. This effect of resonant air-coupled emission results in airborne waves emanating from the defect area, which can be received by a commercial microphone (low LDR frequency) or an air-coupled ultrasonic transducer (high frequency LDR). A series of experiments confirm the feasibility of both contact and non-contact versions of the technique for NDT and imaging of simulated and realistic defects (impacts, delaminations, and disbonds) in composites.

  16. Experimental research of the influence of the strength of ore samples on the parameters of an electromagnetic signal during acoustic excitation in the process of uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorovich, L. V.; Bespal`ko, A. A.; Fedotov, P. I.

    2018-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic responses (EMRe) generated during uniaxial compression of rock samples under excitation by deterministic acoustic pulses are presented and discussed. Such physical modeling in the laboratory allows to reveal the main regularities of electromagnetic signals (EMS) generation in rock massive. The influence of the samples mechanical properties on the parameters of the EMRe excited by an acoustic signal in the process of uniaxial compression is considered. It has been established that sulfides and quartz in the rocks of the Tashtagol iron ore deposit (Western Siberia, Russia) contribute to the conversion of mechanical energy into the energy of the electromagnetic field, which is expressed in an increase in the EMS amplitude. The decrease in the EMS amplitude when the stress-strain state of the sample changes during the uniaxial compression is observed when the amount of conductive magnetite contained in the rock is increased. The obtained results are important for the physical substantiation of testing methods and monitoring of changes in the stress-strain state of the rock massive by the parameters of electromagnetic signals and the characteristics of electromagnetic emission.

  17. Interior and exterior resonances in acoustic scattering. pt. 2 - Targets of arbitrary shape (T-matrix approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberall, H.; Gaunaurd, G.C.; Tanglis, E.

    1983-01-01

    The T-matrix approach, which describes the scattering of acoustic waves (or of other waves) from objects of arbitrary shape and geometry, is here 'married' to the resonance scattering theory in order to obtain the (complex) resonance frequencies of an arbitrary shaped target. For the case of nearly impenetrable targets the partial-wave scattering amplitudes are splitted into terms corresponding to 'internal' resonances, plus an apparently nonresonant background amplitude which, however, contains the broad resonances caused by 'external' diffracted (or Franz-type, creeping) waves, in addition to geometrically reflected and refracted (ray) contributions

  18. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  19. Acoustic resonance scattering from a multilayered cylindrical shell with imperfect bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M; Hasheminejad, Seyyed M

    2009-12-01

    The method of wave function expansion is adopted to study the three dimensional scattering of a time-harmonic plane progressive sound field obliquely incident upon a multi-layered hollow cylinder with interlaminar bonding imperfection. For the generality of solution, each layer is assumed to be cylindrically orthotropic. An approximate laminate model in the context of the modal state equations with variable coefficients along with the classical T-matrix solution technique is set up for each layer to solve for the unknown modal scattering and transmission coefficients. A linear spring model is used to describe the interlaminar adhesive bonding whose effects are incorporated into the global transfer matrix by introduction of proper interfacial transfer matrices. Following the classic acoustic resonance scattering theory (RST), the scattered field and response to surface waves are determined by constructing the partial waves and obtaining the non-resonance (backgrounds) and resonance components. The solution is first used to investigate the effect of interlayer imperfection of an air-filled and water submerged bilaminate aluminium cylindrical shell on the resonances associated with various modes of wave propagation (i.e., symmetric/asymmetric Lamb waves, fluid-borne A-type waves, Rayleigh and Whispering Gallery waves) appearing in the backscattered spectrum, according to their polarization and state of stress. An illustrative numerical example is also given for a multi-layered (five-layered) cylindrical shell for which the stiffness of the adhesive interlayers is artificially varied. The sensitivity of resonance frequencies associated with higher mode numbers to the stiffness coefficients is demonstrated to be a good measure of the bonding strength. Limiting cases are considered and fair agreements with solutions available in the literature are established.

  20. Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Destrempes, François; Chayer, Boris; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation. Coupled to an analytical model of wave scattering, the ability of the proposed method to characterize the viscoelasticity of a mimicked venous thrombosis in the acute phase is demonstrated. Experiments with a gelatin-agar inclusion sample of known viscoelasticity are performed for validation and establishment of the proof of concept. In addition, an inversion method is applied in vitro for the kinetic monitoring of the blood coagulation process of six human blood samples obtained from two volunteers. The computed elasticity and viscosity values of blood samples at the end of the 90 min kinetics were estimated at 411  ±  71 Pa and 0.25  ±  0.03 Pa · s for volunteer #1, and 387  ±  35 Pa and 0.23  ±  0.02 Pa · s for volunteer #2, respectively. The proposed method allowed reproducible time-varying thrombus viscoelastic measurements from samples having physiological dimensions.

  1. Modelling of magneto-acoustic resonance in ferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichurin, M I; Petrov, V M; Averkin, S V; Filippov, A V [Institute for Electronic Information Systems, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod 173003 (Russian Federation); Liverts, E [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva 84105 (Israel); Mandal, S; Srinivasan, G [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)

    2009-11-07

    A model is discussed for magnetoelectric (ME) effects in a single-crystal ferrite-piezoelectric bilayer on a substrate. The specific focus is on coupling at magneto-acoustic resonance (MAR) at the coincidence of ferromagnetic resonance in the ferrite and thickness modes of the electromechanical resonance in the piezoelectric. The clamping effect of the substrate has been considered in determining the ME voltage coefficient and applied to a model system of a bilayer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate. The theory predicts a giant ME effect at MAR due to interaction and transfer of energy between elastic modes and the uniform precession spin-wave mode. It is shown that the ME coupling strength decreases with increasing substrate thickness. Estimates for YIG-PZT for nominal film parameters predict MAR at 5 GHz and ME coefficients on the order of 5-70 V cm{sup -1} Oe{sup -1}. The phenomenon is of importance for the realization of multifunctional ME sensors and transducers operating at microwave frequencies.

  2. Study on flow-induced acoustic resonance in symmetrically located side-branches using dynamic PIV technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Inagaki, Terumi; Nishi, Yasuyuki; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonance in a piping system containing closed coaxial side-branches was investigated experimentally. Resonance characteristics of the piping system were examined by a microphone. The results revealed that the resonance frequencies of the shear layer instability were locked in corresponding to the natural frequencies of the side-branches. Phase-averaged velocity fields were obtained two-dimensionally in the junction of coaxial side-branches by dynamic particle image velocimetry (PIV), while the acoustic resonance was induced at the first and second hydrodynamic modes. Patterns of jet correspond to two hydrodynamic modes were derived from the phase-averaged velocity fields. The dynamic PIV can acquire time-series velocity fluctuations, then, two-dimensional phase delay maps under resonance and off-resonance conditions in the junction of coaxial side-branches were obtained. Experimental results show that the proposed phase delay map method costs less experiment and computation time and achieves a better accuracy and repetition than the phase-locking technique. In addition, the phase delay map method can obtain phase difference under the different frequency components. This is important when two different acoustic modes were induced in one experimental condition. (author)

  3. Acoustic noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging reduces pain unpleasantness ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Y; Bentley, D E; Watson, A; Jones, A K P

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive studies. Unfortunately, the scanner produces acoustic noise during the image acquisition process. Interference from acoustic noise is known to affect auditory, visual and motor processing, raising the possibility that acoustic interference may also modulate processing of other sensory modalities such as pain. With the increasing use of fMRI in the investigation of the mechanisms of pain perception, particularly in relation to attention, this issue has become highly relevant. Pain is a complex experience, composed of sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative components. The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of MRI scanner noise, compared to white noise, on the affective (unpleasantness) and the sensory-discriminative (localisation) components of pain. Painful radiant heat from a CO(2) laser was delivered to the skin of the right forearm in 24 healthy volunteers. The volunteers attended to either pain location or pain unpleasantness during three conditions: i) no noise, ii) exposure to MRI scanner noise (85 dB) or iii) exposure to white noise (85 dB). Both MRI scanner noise and white noise significantly reduced unpleasantness ratings (from 5.1 +/- 1.6 in the control condition to 4.7 +/- 1.5 (P = 0.002) and 4.6 +/- 1.6 (P white noise respectively), whereas the ability to localise pain was not significantly affected (from 85.4 +/- 9.2% correct in the control condition to 83.1 +/- 10.3% (P = 0.06) and 83.9 +/- 9.5% (P = 0.27) with MRI scanner and white noise respectively). This phenomenon should be taken into account in the design of fMRI studies into human pain perception.

  4. Acoustically modulated magnetic resonance imaging of gas-filled protein nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George J.; Farhadi, Arash; Szablowski, Jerzy O.; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Barnes, Samuel R.; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2018-05-01

    Non-invasive biological imaging requires materials capable of interacting with deeply penetrant forms of energy such as magnetic fields and sound waves. Here, we show that gas vesicles (GVs), a unique class of gas-filled protein nanostructures with differential magnetic susceptibility relative to water, can produce robust contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and that this contrast can be inactivated with ultrasound in situ to enable background-free imaging. We demonstrate this capability in vitro, in cells expressing these nanostructures as genetically encoded reporters, and in three model in vivo scenarios. Genetic variants of GVs, differing in their magnetic or mechanical phenotypes, allow multiplexed imaging using parametric MRI and differential acoustic sensitivity. Additionally, clustering-induced changes in MRI contrast enable the design of dynamic molecular sensors. By coupling the complementary physics of MRI and ultrasound, this nanomaterial gives rise to a distinct modality for molecular imaging with unique advantages and capabilities.

  5. Resonant magneto-acoustic switching: influence of Rayleigh wave frequency and wavevector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewski, P.; Camara, I. S.; Biarrotte, N.; Becerra, L.; von Bardeleben, J.; Savero Torres, W.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Thevenard, L.

    2018-06-01

    We show on in-plane magnetized thin films that magnetization can be switched efficiently by 180 degrees using large amplitude Rayleigh waves travelling along the hard or easy magnetic axis. Large characteristic filament-like domains are formed in the latter case. Micromagnetic simulations clearly confirm that this multi-domain configuration is compatible with a resonant precessional mechanism. The reversed domains are in both geometries several hundreds of , much larger than has been shown using spin transfer torque- or field-driven precessional switching. We show that surface acoustic waves can travel at least 1 mm before addressing a given area, and can interfere to create magnetic stripes that can be positioned with a sub-micronic precision.

  6. Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed by Acoustic and Electromagnetic Observations of the 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, J. B.; Steele, A. L.; Ruiz, M. C.; Brand, B. D.

    2018-04-01

    During the powerful July 2013 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, we recorded exceptionally high amplitude, long-period infrasound (1,600-Pa peak-to-peak amplitude, 5.5-s period) on sensors within 2 km of the vent alongside electromagnetic signals from volcanic lightning serendipitously captured as interference. This explosion was one of Tungurahua's most powerful vulcanian eruptions since recent activity began in 1999, and its acoustic wave is among the most powerful volcanic infrasound ever recorded anywhere. We use these data to quantify erupted volume from the main explosion and to classify postexplosive degassing into distinct emission styles. Additionally, we demonstrate a highly effective method of recording lightning-related electromagnetic signals alongside infrasound. Detailed chronologies of powerful vulcanian eruptions are rare; this study demonstrates that diverse eruptive processes can occur in such eruptions and that near-vent infrasound and electromagnetic data can elucidate them.

  7. Arguments for fundamental emission by the parametric process L yields T + S in interplanetary type III bursts. [langmuir, electromagnetic, ion acoustic waves (L, T, S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of low frequency ion acoustic-like waves associated with Langmuir waves present during interplanetary Type 3 bursts are used to study plasma emission mechanisms and wave processes involving ion acoustic waves. It is shown that the observed wave frequency characteristics are consistent with the processes L yields T + S (where L = Langmuir waves, T = electromagnetic waves, S = ion acoustic waves) and L yields L' + S proceeding. The usual incoherent (random phase) version of the process L yields T + S cannot explain the observed wave production time scale. The clumpy nature of the observed Langmuir waves is vital to the theory of IP Type 3 bursts. The incoherent process L yields T + S may encounter difficulties explaining the observed Type 3 brightness temperatures when Langmuir wave clumps are incorporated into the theory. The parametric process L yields T + S may be the important emission process for the fundamental radiation of interplanetary Type 3 bursts.

  8. Optimization of a Focusable and Rotatable Shear-Wave Periodic Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers for Plates Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaochun; Qiu, Gongzhe

    2017-11-24

    Due to the symmetry of conventional periodic-permanent-magnet electromagnetic acoustic transducers (PPM EMATs), two shear (SH) waves can be generated and propagated simultaneously in opposite directions, which makes the signal recognition and interpretation complicatedly. Thus, this work presents a new SH wave PPM EMAT design, rotating the parallel line sources to realize the wave beam focusing in a single-direction. The theoretical model of distributed line sources was deduced firstly, and the effects of some parameters, such as the inner coil width, adjacent line sources spacing and the angle between parallel line sources, on SH wave focusing and directivity were studied mainly with the help of 3D FEM. Employing the proposed PPM EMATs, some experiments are carried out to verify the reliability of FEM simulation. The results indicate that rotating the parallel line sources can strength the wave on the closing side of line sources, decreasing the inner coil width and the adjacent line sources spacing can improve the amplitude and directivity of signals excited by transducers. Compared with traditional PPM EMATs, both the capacity of unidirectional excitation and directivity of the proposed PPM EMATs are improved significantly.

  9. Optimization of a Focusable and Rotatable Shear-Wave Periodic Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers for Plates Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the symmetry of conventional periodic-permanent-magnet electromagnetic acoustic transducers (PPM EMATs, two shear (SH waves can be generated and propagated simultaneously in opposite directions, which makes the signal recognition and interpretation complicatedly. Thus, this work presents a new SH wave PPM EMAT design, rotating the parallel line sources to realize the wave beam focusing in a single-direction. The theoretical model of distributed line sources was deduced firstly, and the effects of some parameters, such as the inner coil width, adjacent line sources spacing and the angle between parallel line sources, on SH wave focusing and directivity were studied mainly with the help of 3D FEM. Employing the proposed PPM EMATs, some experiments are carried out to verify the reliability of FEM simulation. The results indicate that rotating the parallel line sources can strength the wave on the closing side of line sources, decreasing the inner coil width and the adjacent line sources spacing can improve the amplitude and directivity of signals excited by transducers. Compared with traditional PPM EMATs, both the capacity of unidirectional excitation and directivity of the proposed PPM EMATs are improved significantly.

  10. Feasible approach of contactless power transfer technology combined with HTS coils based on electromagnetic resonance coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon Do; Yim, Seong Woo; Hwang, Si Dole

    2013-01-01

    The contactless power transfer (CPT) systems have been recently gaining popularity widely since it is an available option to realize the power delivery and storage with connector-free devices across a large air gap. Especially, the CPT with electromagnetic resonance coupling method is possible to exchange energy within 2 m efficiently. However, the power transfer efficiency of CPT in commercialized products has been limited because the impedance matching of coupled coils is sensitive. As a reasonable approach, we combined the CPT system with HTS wire technology and called as, superconducting contactless power transfer (SUCPT) system. Since the superconducting coils have an enough current density, the superconducting antenna and receiver coils at CPT system have a merit to deliver and receive a mass amount of electric energy. In this paper, we present the feasibility of the SUCPT system and examine the transmission properties of SUCPT phenomenon between room temperature and very low temperature at 77 K as long as the receiver is within 1.0 m distance.

  11. Electromagnetic structure of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L. S.; Camalich, J. Martin; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We present a calculation of the leading SU(3)-breaking O(p 3 ) corrections to the electromagnetic moments and charge radius of the lowest-lying decuplet resonances in covariant chiral perturbation theory. In particular, the magnetic dipole moment of the members of the decuplet is predicted fixing the only low-energy constant (LEC) present up to this order with the well-measured magnetic dipole moment of the Ω - . We predict μ Δ ++ =6.04(13) and μ Δ + =2.84(2), which agree well with the current experimental information. For the electric quadrupole moment and the charge radius, we use state-of-the-art lattice QCD results to determine the corresponding LECs, whereas for the magnetic octupole moment there is no unknown LEC up to the order considered here, and we obtain a pure prediction. We compare our results with those reported in large N c , lattice QCD, heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, and other models.

  12. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Ito, Koichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu [Research Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@graduate.chiba-u.jp

    2010-04-21

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 deg. C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg{sup -1}, which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 deg. C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 deg. C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 deg. C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  13. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Ito, Koichi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 deg. C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg -1 , which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 deg. C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 deg. C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 deg. C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  14. Advances in Forecasting and Prevention of Resonances Between Coolant Acoustical Oscillations and Fuel Rod Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich [NPP, NPEI, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str. Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    To prevent the appearance of the conditions for resonance interaction between the fluid flow and the reactor internals (RI), fuel rod (FR ) and fuel assemblies (FA) it is necessary to de-tune Eigen frequency of coolant pressure oscillations (EFCPO) and natural frequency of mechanical element's oscillations and also of the system which is formed by the comprising of these elements. Other words it is necessary to de-tune acoustic resonance frequency and natural frequencies of RI, FR and FA. While solving these problems it is necessary to have a theoretical and settlement substantiation of an oscillation frequency band of the coolant outside of which there is no resonant interaction with structure vibrations. The presented work is devoted to finding the solution of this problem. There are results of an estimation of width of such band as well as the examples of a preliminary quantitative estimation of Q - factors of coolant acoustic oscillatory circuit formed by the equipment of the NPP. Abnormal growth of intensity of pressure pulsations in a mode with definite value of reactor capacity have been found out by measurements on VVER - 1000 reactor. This phenomenon has been found out casually and its original reason had not been identified. Paper shows that disappearance of this effect could be reached by realizing outlet of EFCPO from so-called, pass bands of frequencies (PBF). PBF is located symmetrical on both parties from frequency of own oscillations of FA. Methods, algorithms of calculations and quantitative estimations are developed for EFCPO, Q and PBF in various modes of operation NPP with VVER-1000. Results of calculations allow specifying area of resonant interaction EFCPO with vibrations of FR, FA and a basket of reactor core. For practical realization of the received results it is offered to make corresponding additions to the design documentation and maintenance instructions of the equipment of the NPP with VVER-1000. The improvement of these documents

  15. Evaluation of acoustic resonance at branch section in main steam line. Part 2. Proposal of method for predicting resonance frequency in steam flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Morita, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches are sometimes encountered in power plants. Acoustic standing waves with large amplitude pressure fluctuation in closed side-branches are excited by the unstable shear layer which separates the mean flow in the main piping from the stagnant fluid in the branch. In U.S. NPP, the steam dryer had been damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration under a power uprating condition. Our previous research developed the method for evaluating the acoustic resonance at the branch sections in actual power plants by using CFD. In the method, sound speed in wet steam is evaluated by its theory on the assumption of homogeneous flow, although it may be different from practical sound speed in wet steam. So, it is necessary to consider and introduce the most suitable model of practical sound speed in wet steam. In addition, we tried to develop simplified prediction method of the amplitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation in wet steam flow. Our previous experimental research clarified that resonance amplitude of fluctuating pressure at the top of the branch in wet steam. However, the resonance frequency in steam condition could not be estimated by using theoretical equation as the end correction in steam condition and sound speed in wet steam is not clarified as same reason as CFD. Therefore, in this study, we tried to evaluate the end correction in each dry and wet steam and sound speed of wet steam from experimental results. As a result, method for predicting resonance frequency by using theoretical equation in each wet and dry steam condition was proposed. (author)

  16. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  17. INFLUENCE OF DYNAMIC MAGNETIZATION TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC-ACOUSTIC TRANSFORMATION WITH WAVEGUIDE CONTROL RODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zlobin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantage of the electromagnetic-acoustic (EMA method receiving ultrasonic waves are low efficiency. The traditional way to enhance its effectiveness is increase the bias field. The aim of the study was research the way to improve the efficiency of the EMA transformation, using a time-varying bias field.The researches held with the help of a specially designed installation that allows the magnetization to be performed by a constant and alternating magnetic field (dynamic bias, synchronously with the passage of the received pulse. The object of the study were rods made of different grades of steel with a diameter of 4–6 mm, in which the symmetrical zero mode S0 of the rod wave was excited by the EMA method (in the frequency range of about 40 kHz. A comparative analysis of the amplitudes and form pulses of multiple reflections during static and dynamic reversal of magnetization and with a full cycle of magnetization reversal conducted.The result of the efficiency measurements EMA reception during static and dynamic bias found a significant (up to 5 times increase in the signal amplitude on the receiving transducer. Taking into account that the main contribution to the excitation mechanism and the reception mechanism made the magnetostrictive effect on low frecuncy, it can assumed that using a dynamic bias field is impacting significant on the effective mobility of magnetic domains (that is changes the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of the material. It is established that it is possible to monitor steel at lower values of the bias field, and, consequently, to reduce the mass dimensions of the magnetic system.Thus, in the course of the researchers found of effect of dynamic bias and effect of dynamic bias increase acoustic pulse amplitude of the signal of the received EMA method. Using this method will improve the quality EMA testing by creating more efficient EMA transducer. Taking into account that the value of the detected effect

  18. Acoustic loss and frequency stability studies of gamma- and proton-irradiated alpha-quartz crystal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the radiation-induced effects in alpha-quartz crystal resonators and distinguishes the various acoustic losses responsible for the frequency susceptibility over these dose ranges. Simulation of low-earth-orbit proton radiation was accomplished with protons from the Harvard University Cyclotron using a novel proton-beam modulator, which was designed to emulate a 10-120 MeV proton spectrum for the radiation susceptibility and acoustic-loss studies on AT quartz resonators. Quartz resonators having aluminum defect center concentrations between 0.01 and 19 ppm experienced proton-induced frequency shifts not correlated to their aluminum impurity content. It was also found that AT quartz resonators of the electrode-less BVA design experienced the smallest frequency shifts. Experiments conducted with 1.25-MeV gamma rays from a cobalt 60 source demonstrated identical frequency shifts in quartz, indicating that the energy losses of gamma rays and protons in quartz over the examined dose and energy ranges were similar. Acoustic-loss measurements conducted over the 0.3-70 K range revealed that the phonon-phonon and two-level energy excitation peaks near 20 and 5 K, respectively, were not affected by proton or cobalt 60 radiation

  19. Flaw Detection using Electromagneticc Acourstic Resonance for a Tube of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Yong Kwon; Choi, Sang Hoon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We present preliminary experimental verification of the proposed method and show that the defects on steel tubes can be detected based on changes in resonant frequencies. The result of this study showed that the electromagnetic acoustic resonance technique can detect notch defects on the tube and the changes in resonant frequencies are approximately proportional to the width of defect.

  20. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2012-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IV, Part B: Applications to Quantum and Solid State Physics provides an introduction to the various applications of quantum mechanics to acoustics by describing several processes for which such considerations are essential. This book discusses the transmission of sound waves in molten metals. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.

  1. Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalon, E.

    1989-01-01

    Electron acceleration by electromagnetic fields propagating in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. It is found that high-amplitude short wavelength electrostatic waves are generated by the incident electromagnetic fields that penetrate the radio window. These waves can very efficiently transfer their energy to the electrons if the incident frequency is near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pophof, B.; Brix, G.

    2017-01-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  3. Graphene as an active virtually massless top electrode for RF solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (SMR-BAW) resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Marius; Hoffmann, René; Lebedev, Vadim; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical and electrical losses induced by an electrode material greatly influence the performance of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. Graphene as a conducting and virtually massless 2D material is a suitable candidate as an alternative electrode material for BAW resonators which reduces electrode induced mechanical losses. In this publication we show that graphene acts as an active top electrode for solidly mounted BAW resonators (BAW-SMR) at 2.1 GHz resonance frequency. Due to a strong decrease of mass loading and its remarkable electronic properties, graphene demonstrates its ability as an ultrathin conductive layer. In our experiments we used an optimized graphene wet transfer on aluminum nitride-based solidly mounted resonator devices. We achieved more than a triplication of the resonator’s quality factor Q and a resonance frequency close to an ‘unloaded’ resonator without metallization. Our results reveal the direct influence of both, the graphene quality and the graphene contacting via metal structures, on the performance characteristic of a BAW resonator. These findings clearly show the potential of graphene in minimizing mechanical losses due to its virtually massless character. Moreover, they highlight the advantages of graphene and other 2D conductive materials for alternative electrodes in electroacoustic resonators for radio frequency applications.

  4. Development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave device for the characterization of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Florian; Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Gizeli, Electra; Roach, Paul; Newton, Michael I; McHale, Glen

    2009-01-01

    It is known that acoustic sensor devices, if operated in liquid phase, are sensitive not just to the mass of the analyte but also to various other parameters, such as size, shape, charge and elastic constants of the analyte as well as bound and viscously entrained water. This can be used to extract valuable information about a biomolecule, particularly if the acoustic device is combined with another sensor element which is sensitive to the mass or amount of analyte only. The latter is true in good approximation for various optical sensor techniques. This work reports on the development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave sensor system which is designed for the investigation of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA. Results for the deposition of neutravidin and DNA are reported

  5. In Situ Evaluation of Density, Viscosity and Thickness of Adsorbed Soft Layers by Combined Surface Acoustic Wave and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, L.; Friedt, J. -M.; Zhou, C.; Bertrand, P.

    2003-01-01

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is...

  6. Ultrasonic Resonance of Metallic Spheres at Elevated Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , W.

    1996-01-01

    A unique ultrasonic system has been constructed for measuring resonant frequencies and damping of metallic spheres at elevated temperatures. This system employs electromagnetic-acoustic transduction, with a solenoid coil surrounding the sphere in a uniform magnetic field. Temperature is measured with an optical pyrometer. Since the acoustic and temperature measurements are noncontacting, the uncertainties associated with external damping are relatively small. The resonant frequency and Q of t...

  7. Contactless transport of matter in the first five resonance modes of a line-focused acoustic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2012-02-01

    The first five resonance modes for transport of matter in a line-focused acoustic levitation system are investigated. Contactless transport was achieved by varying the height between the radiating plate and the reflector. Transport and levitation of droplets in particular involve two limits of the acoustic forces. The lower limit corresponds to the minimum force required to overcome the gravitational force. The upper limit corresponds to the maximum acoustic pressure beyond which atomization of the droplet occurs. As the droplet size increases, the lower limit increases and the upper limit decreases. Therefore to have large droplets levitated, relatively flat radiation pressure amplitude during the translation is needed. In this study, using a finite element model, the Gor'kov potential was calculated for different heights between the reflector and the radiating plate. The application of the Gor'kov potential was extended to study the range of droplet sizes for which the droplets can be levitated and transported without atomization. It was found that the third resonant mode (H(3)-mode) represents the best compromise between high levitation force and smooth pattern transition, and water droplets of millimeter radius can be levitated and transported. The H(3)-mode also allows for three translation lines in parallel. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  9. A visualization study of flow-induced acoustic resonance in a branched pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tones. It may occur in pipe branches leading to safety valves or to boiler relief valves. The outbreak mechanism of the cavity tone has been known by phase-averaged measurement in previous researches, while the relation between sound propagation and flow field is still unclear due to the difficulty of detecting instantaneous pressure field. High time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the pressure field and the relation mentioned above. In this report, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. A High-Time-Resolved PIV technique was applied to measure a gas-flow in a cavity-tone. Air flow containing an oil mist as tracer particles was measured using a high frequency pulse laser and a high-speed camera. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the flow field two-dimensionally and simultaneously with the pressure measurement at multi-points and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation should be clarified. (author)

  10. Suppression of an acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a liquid-filled spherical shell resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonzaga, Joel B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Gaitan, D Felipe

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the suppression of an approximately radial (radially symmetric) acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a water-filled, spherical shell resonator. The resonator, which has a 1-in. wall thickness and a 9.5-in. outer diameter, was externally driven by a small transducer bolted to the external wall. Experiments showed that for the range of drive frequencies (19.7-20.6 kHz) and sound speeds in water (1520-1570 m/s) considered in this paper, a nonradial (radially nonsymmetric) mode was also excited, in addition to the radial mode. Furthermore, as the sound speed in the liquid was changed, the resonance frequency of the nonradial mode crossed with that of the radial one and the amplitude of the latter was greatly reduced near the crossing point. The crossing of the eigenfrequency curves of these two modes was also predicted theoretically. Further calculations demonstrated that while the radial mode is an acoustic one associated with the interior fluid, the nonradial mode is an elastic one associated with the shell. Thus, the suppression of the radial acoustic mode is apparently caused by the overlapping with the nonradial elastic mode near the crossing point.

  11. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  12. Velocity-space diffusion due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reija

    1991-01-01

    The velocity-space diffusion equation describing distortion of the velocity distribution function due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized plasma is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by perturbation theory. The conservation laws for total energy and momentum densities of waves and particles are verified, and the time evolutions of the energy and momentum densities of particles are given in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave coupling coefficient in the kinetic wave equation. (author)

  13. Theoretical investigation of resonance frequencies in long wavelength electromagnetic wave scattering process from plasma prolate and oblate spheroids placed in a dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Response of a prolate spheroid plasma and/or an oblate spheroid plasma in presence of long wavelength electromagnetic wave has been studied. The resonance frequencies of these objects are obtained and it is found that they reduce to the resonance frequency of spherical cold plasma. Moreover, the resonant frequencies of prolate spheroid plasma and oblate spheroid plasma covered by a dielectric are investigated as well. Furthermore, their dependency on dielectric permittivity and geometry dimensions is simulated.

  14. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  15. Electromagnetic design of a β=0.4 superconducting spoke resonator for a high intensity proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Krishnagopal, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Here we present electromagnetic design simulations of a superconducting single-spoke resonator with a geometrical beta of 0.4 and operating at 325 MHz for a high intensity proton linac (HIPL). The spoke equatorial and base parameters were optimized to minimize the peak electric and peak magnetic fields and maximize the shunt impedance, while keeping the same resonant frequency. Variation of the surface magnetic fields was investigated as a function of the spoke base shape, and it was found that an elliptical profile is preferred over a circular or racecourse profile with E peak /E acc =4.71, E peak /E acc =4.33 (mT/(MV/m)) and R/Q=272 Ω. (author)

  16. Acoustic resonances in microfluidic chips: full-image micro-PIV experiments and numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsäter, S M; Jensen, T Glasdam; Bruus, H; Kutter, J P

    2007-10-01

    We show that full-image micro-PIV analysis in combination with images of transient particle motion is a powerful tool for experimental studies of acoustic radiation forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic chambers under piezo-actuation in the MHz range. The measured steady-state motion of both large 5 microm and small 1 microm particles can be understood in terms of the acoustic eigenmodes or standing ultra-sound waves in the given experimental microsystems. This interpretation is supported by numerical solutions of the corresponding acoustic wave equation.

  17. Elastic Characterization of Transparent and Opaque Films, Multilayers and Acoustic Resonators by Surface Brillouin Scattering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carlotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS for this aim are reviewed in this paper, addressing the various situations that may occur for the different types of structures. In particular, the experimental methodology and the amount of information that can be obtained depending on the transparency or opacity of the film material, as well as on the ratio between the film thickness and the light wavelength, are discussed. A generalization to the case of multilayered samples is also provided, together with an outlook on the capability of the recently developed micro-focused scanning version of the surf-BLS technique, which opens new opportunities for the imaging of the spatial profile of the acoustic field in acoustic resonators and in artificially patterned metamaterials, such as phononic crystals.

  18. Resonant and off-resonant transients in electromagnetically induced transparency: Turn-on and turn-off dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Smith, T.B.; Echaniz, S.R. de; Durrant, A. V.; Marangos, J.P.; Segal, D.M.; Vaccaro, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a wide-ranging theoretical and experimental study of nonadiabatic transient phenomena in a Λ electromagnetically induced transparency system when a strong coupling field is rapidly switched on or off. The theoretical treatment uses a Laplace transform approach to solve the time-dependent density matrix equation. The experiments are carried out in a 87 Rb magneto-optical trap. The results show transient probe gain in parameter regions not previously studied, and provide insight into the transition dynamics between bare and dressed states

  19. Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. za Fiziku); Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1981-12-01

    Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams.

  20. Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S.; Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams. (author)

  1. Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS): A rapid test for enteric coating thickness and integrity of controlled release pellet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarsi, Anas; Dillon, Amy; McSweeney, Seán; Krüse, Jacob; Griffin, Brendan; Devine, Ken; Sherry, Patricia; Henken, Stephan; Fitzpatrick, Stephen; Fitzpatrick, Dara

    2018-04-12

    There are no rapid dissolution based tests for determining coating thickness, integrity and drug concentration in controlled release pellets either during production or post-production. The manufacture of pellets requires several coating steps depending on the formulation. The sub-coating and enteric coating steps typically take up to six hours each followed by additional drying steps. Post production regulatory dissolution testing also takes up to six hours to determine if the batch can be released for commercial sale. The thickness of the enteric coating is a key factor that determines the release rate of the drug in the gastro-intestinal tract. Also, the amount of drug per unit mass decreases with increasing thickness of the enteric coating. In this study, the coating process is tracked from start to finish on an hourly basis by taking samples of pellets during production and testing those using BARDS (Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy). BARDS offers a rapid approach to characterising enteric coatings with measurements based on reproducible changes in the compressibility of a solvent due to the evolution of air during dissolution. This is monitored acoustically via associated changes in the frequency of induced acoustic resonances. A steady state acoustic lag time is associated with the disintegration of the enteric coatings in basic solution. This lag time is pH dependent and is indicative of the rate at which the coating layer dissolves. BARDS represents a possible future surrogate test for conventional USP dissolution testing as its data correlates directly with the thickness of the enteric coating, its integrity and also with the drug loading as validated by HPLC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced numerical technique for analysis of surface and bulk acoustic waves in resonators using periodic metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Natalya F.

    2014-09-01

    A numerical technique characterized by a unified approach for the analysis of different types of acoustic waves utilized in resonators in which a periodic metal grating is used for excitation and reflection of such waves is described. The combination of the Finite Element Method analysis of the electrode domain with the Spectral Domain Analysis (SDA) applied to the adjacent upper and lower semi-infinite regions, which may be multilayered and include air as a special case of a dielectric material, enables rigorous simulation of the admittance in resonators using surface acoustic waves, Love waves, plate modes including Lamb waves, Stonely waves, and other waves propagating along the interface between two media, and waves with transient structure between the mentioned types. The matrix formalism with improved convergence incorporated into SDA provides fast and robust simulation for multilayered structures with arbitrary thickness of each layer. The described technique is illustrated by a few examples of its application to various combinations of LiNbO3, isotropic silicon dioxide and silicon with a periodic array of Cu electrodes. The wave characteristics extracted from the admittance functions change continuously with the variation of the film and plate thicknesses over wide ranges, even when the wave nature changes. The transformation of the wave nature with the variation of the layer thicknesses is illustrated by diagrams and contour plots of the displacements calculated at resonant frequencies.

  3. On dynamics of resonant charged particles in cyclotron electromagnetic wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, N.M.; Izhovkina, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The model of time and spatial separation of resonance and nonresonance particles with quasimonochromatic wave packets during their propagation in the magnetosphere is presented. In regions with elevated geomagnetic field gradients and.or in waveguide channels such separation can result in diffusion increase of resonance particles by the pitch angle and create ''little peaks'' in the distribution function tail

  4. Topological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  5. General expressions and physical origin of the coupling coefficient of arbitrary tuned coupled electromagnetic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra (Australia); Tervo, Richard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada); Mattar, Saba M., E-mail: mattar@unb.ca [Chemistry Department, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada)

    2015-11-21

    The theory and operation of various devices and systems, such as wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling, magneto-inductive wave devices, magnetic resonance spectroscopy probes, and metamaterials can rely on coupled tuned resonators. The coupling strength is usually expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient κ, which can have electrical κ{sub E} and/or magnetic κ{sub M} components. In the current article, general expressions of κ are derived. The relation between the complex Poynting equation in its microscopic form and κ is made and discussed in detail. It is shown that κ can be expressed in terms of the interaction energy between the resonators' modes. It thus provides a general form that combines the magnetic and electric components of κ. The expressions make it possible to estimate the frequencies and fields of the coupled modes for arbitrarily oriented and spaced resonators. Thus, enabling the calculation of system specific parameters such as the transfer efficiency of wireless power transfer systems, resonator efficiency for electron spin resonance probes, and dispersion relations of magneto-inductive and stereo-metamaterials structures.

  6. General expressions and physical origin of the coupling coefficient of arbitrary tuned coupled electromagnetic resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Tervo, Richard J.; Mattar, Saba M.

    2015-01-01

    The theory and operation of various devices and systems, such as wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling, magneto-inductive wave devices, magnetic resonance spectroscopy probes, and metamaterials can rely on coupled tuned resonators. The coupling strength is usually expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient κ, which can have electrical κ E and/or magnetic κ M components. In the current article, general expressions of κ are derived. The relation between the complex Poynting equation in its microscopic form and κ is made and discussed in detail. It is shown that κ can be expressed in terms of the interaction energy between the resonators' modes. It thus provides a general form that combines the magnetic and electric components of κ. The expressions make it possible to estimate the frequencies and fields of the coupled modes for arbitrarily oriented and spaced resonators. Thus, enabling the calculation of system specific parameters such as the transfer efficiency of wireless power transfer systems, resonator efficiency for electron spin resonance probes, and dispersion relations of magneto-inductive and stereo-metamaterials structures

  7. Models of the Dynamics of Spatially Separated Broadband Electromagnetic Fields Interacting with Resonant Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basharov, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The Markov model of spontaneous emission of an atom localized in a spatial region with a broadband electromagnetic field with zero photon density is considered in the conditions of coupling of the electromagnetic field with the broadband field of a neighboring space. The evolution operator of the system and the kinetic equation for the atom are obtained. It is shown that the field coupling constant affects the rate of spontaneous emission of the atom, but is not manifested in the atomic frequency shift. The analytic expression for the radiative decay constant for the atom is found to be analogous in a certain sense to the expression for the decay constant for a singly excited localized ensemble of identical atoms in the conditions when the effect of stabilization of its excited state by the Stark interaction with the vacuum broadband electromagnetic field is manifested. The model is formulated based on quantum stochastic differential equations of the non- Wiener type and the generalized algebra of the Ito differential of quantum random processes.

  8. Study on electromagnetic characteristics of the magnetic coupling resonant coil for the wireless power transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxian; Liu, Yiping; Wei, Yonggeng; Song, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The resonant coil design is taken as the core technology in the magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission system, which achieves energy transmission by the coupling of the resonant coil. This paper studies the effect of the resonant coil on energy transmission and the efficiency of the system. Combining a two-coil with a three-coil system, the optimum design method for the resonant coil is given to propose a novel coil structure. First, the co-simulation methods of Pspice and Maxwell are used. When the coupling coefficient of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between system transmission efficiency, output power, and frequency is analyzed. When the self-inductance of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between the performance and frequency of the system transmission is analyzed. Then, two-coil and three-coil structure models are built, and the parameters of the magnetic field of the coils are calculated and analyzed using the finite element method. In the end, a dual E-type simulation circuit model is used to optimize the design of the novel resonance coil. The co-simulation results show that the coupling coefficients of the two-coil, three-coil, and novel coil systems are 0.017, 0.17 and 0.0126, respectively. The power loss of the novel coil is 16.4 mW. There is an obvious improvement in the three-coil system, which shows that the magnetic leakage of the field and the energy coupling are relatively small. The new structure coil has better performance, and the load loss is lower; it can improve the system output power and transmission efficiency.

  9. The use of acoustically tuned resonators to improve the sound transmission loss of double-panel partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. M.; Fahy, F. J.

    1988-07-01

    Double-leaf partitions are often utilized in situations requiring low weight structures with high transmission loss, an example of current interest being the fuselage walls of propeller-driven aircraft. In this case, acoustic excitation is periodic and, if one of the frequencies of excitation lies in the region of the fundamental mass-air-mass frequency of the partition, insulation performance is considerably less than desired. The potential effectiveness of tuned Helmholtz resonators connected to the partition cavity is investigated as a method of improving transmission loss. This is demonstrated by a simple theoretical model and then experimentally verified. Results show that substantial improvements may be obtained at and around the mass-air-mass frequency for a total resonator volume 15 percent of the cavity volume.

  10. Electromagnetic Resonance in Biological Form: A Role for Fields in Morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietak, Alexis M

    2011-01-01

    In morphogenesis, the mechanisms through which homogeneous, symmetric collectives of self-same cells are able to consistently and precisely establish long-range pattern remain an open question of scientific research. This work explores the hypothesis of developing biological structures as dielectric microwave resonators, using plant leaves as a working example. A finite element analysis (FEA) model was designed to determine if suitable resonant modes were physically possible for geometric and electrical parameters similar to those of developing leaf tissue. Using the FEA model, resonant EM modes with patterns of relevance to developing leaf vein modalities were detected. Here I show how the single physical mechanism of EM resonance can self-consistently account for different kinds of key symmetry-breaking operations characteristic of a variety of leaf vascular patterns. On account of the existence of shared geometric signatures in a leaf's vascular pattern and the electric field component of EM resonant modes supported by a leaf-like structure, further theoretical and experimental investigations are warranted. Significantly, this hypothesis is not limited to leaf vascular patterning, but may be applicable to a variety of morphogenetic phenomena in a number of living systems.

  11. Resonant excitation and the decay of autoionization states in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, A.I.; Kazakov, A.E.; Fedorov, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms involving resonant excitation of the auto-ionization state is studied. The evolution of the total ionization probability, its dependence on the frequency of the resonance radiation and also the photoelectron energy spectrum are investigated. It is shown that the energy of the final state of the system may be localized either in the vicinity of E approximately Esub(α), where Esub(α) is the auto-ionization energy, or in the vicinity of E approximately Esub(α)+h/2πω where h/2πω is the quantum energy of the resonance radiation. The photoelectron specturum in the region E approximately Esub(α)+h/2πω as a whole is similar to the electron spectrum on photoionization of atoms involving resonance excitation of the bound state. A strong effect on the photoelectron spectrum in the region E approximately Esub(α) is exerted by interference of various decay channels of the ground state in the resonance field which leads to the appearance in the spectrum of a characteristic structure of the Fano type. Interence also affects the widths of the two spectral curves, the relatve amount of electrons in the two energy ranges and also other characteristics of the ionization process. It is shown that the presence of a noninterfering photoionization channel of the autoionization state ensures the finiteness of the swidths and heights of the spectral curves and the absence of complete ''coherency merging''

  12. Apparatus and method for non-contact, acoustic resonance determination of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D.N.; Wray, W.O.

    1994-12-27

    The apparatus and method for measuring intraocular pressure changes in an eye under investigation by detection of vibrational resonances therein. An ultrasonic transducer operating at its resonant frequency is amplitude modulated and swept over a range of audio frequencies in which human eyes will resonate. The output therefrom is focused onto the eye under investigation, and the resonant vibrations of the eye observed using a fiber-optic reflection vibration sensor. Since the resonant frequency of the eye is dependent on the pressure therein, changes in intraocular pressure may readily be determined after a baseline pressure is established. 3 figures.

  13. Resonant e+e- production by time-varying electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Tiktopoulos, G.

    1990-01-01

    As pointed out by Cornwall and Tiktopoulos (CT) strong, time-varying electric fields may produce e + e - pairs in a resonant fashion. This effect could be related to the sharp peaks in the e + e - spectrum observed in the GSI heavy-ion collision experiments. We attempt to go beyond the case of spatially uniform fields discussed by CT. We find that resonant e + e - production indeed takes place for electric fields derived from four-potentials of the form A 1 =A 2 =A 0 =0, A 3 =δ(t)b(x 3 ) provided by b(x) has discontinuities with a jump at least equal to π. (orig.)

  14. Effect of nonlinearity of spin interaction with electromagnetic resonance field on characteristics of polarized nuclear target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertij, A.A.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shestopalov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of incident nuclear particle beam with J = 1/2 (neutrons) spin and (J = 1/2) protons with the target substance is considered. It is shown that neutron polarization at the target exit and neutron transparency (G) of the target depend significantly on incident wave amplitude level and physical parameter values which characterize the target, such as target temperature, resonator mirror reflection factor, number of spins interacting with the field, etc. Under interaction of neutrons with a target resonator which features a high mirror reflection factor and low losses for absorption which is not related to magnetic dipole absorption, a bistable response of neutron polarization and G manifests itself. 1 ref

  15. Electromagnetic torques in the core and resonant excitation of decadal polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Jon E.

    2005-02-01

    Motion of the rotation axis of the Earth contains decadal variations with amplitudes on the order of 10 mas. The origin of these decadal polar motions is unknown. A class of rotational normal modes of the core-mantle system termed torsional oscillations are known to affect the length of day (LOD) at decadal periods and have also been suggested as a possible excitation source for the observed decadal polar motion. Torsional oscillations involve relative motion between the outer core and the surrounding solid bodies, producing electromagnetic torques at the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). It has been proposed that the ICB torque can explain the excitation of the approximately 30-yr-period polar motion termed the Markowitz wobble. This paper uses the results of a torsional oscillation model to calculate the torques generated at Markowitz and other decadal periods and finds, in contrast to previous results, that electromagnetic torques at the ICB can not explain the observed polar motion.

  16. Changes in mitochondrial functioning with electromagnetic radiation of ultra high frequency as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Anatoly; Selyuk, Marina; Gafurov, Marat; Lukin, Sergei; Potaskalova, Viktoria; Sidorik, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of ultra high frequency (UHF) in the doses equivalent to the maximal permitted energy load for the staffs of the radar stations on the biochemical processes that occur in the cell organelles. Liver, cardiac and aorta tissues from the male rats exposed to non-thermal UHF EMR in pulsed and continuous modes were studied during 28 days after the irradiation by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods including a spin trapping of superoxide radicals. The qualitative and quantitative disturbances in electron transport chain (ETC) of mitochondria are registered. A formation of the iron-nitrosyl complexes of nitric oxide (NO) radicals with the iron-sulphide (FeS) proteins, the decreased activity of FeS-protein N2 of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex and flavo-ubisemiquinone growth combined with the increased rates of superoxide production are obtained. (i) Abnormalities in the mitochondrial ETC of liver and aorta cells are more pronounced for animals radiated in a pulsed mode; (ii) the alterations in the functioning of the mitochondrial ETC cause increase of superoxide radicals generation rate in all samples, formation of cellular hypoxia, and intensification of the oxide-initiated metabolic changes; and (iii) electron paramagnetic resonance methods could be used to track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the mitochondrial ETC caused by the UHF EMR.

  17. Nonlinear self-precession and wavenumber shift of electromagnetic waves under resonance and of Alfven waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1979-01-01

    Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)

  18. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  19. Comparing the magnetic resonant coupling radiofrequency stimulation to the traditional approaches: Ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Sai Ho; Pradhan, Raunaq; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the design concept of magnetic resonant coupling has been adapted to electromagnetic therapy applications such as non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) stimulation. This technique can significantly increase the electric field radiated from the magnetic coil at the stimulation target, and hence enhancing the current flowing through the nerve, thus enabling stimulation. In this paper, the developed magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) stimulation, magnetic stimulation (MS) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are compared. The differences between the MRC RF stimulation and other techniques are presented in terms of the operating mechanism, ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis. The ev-vivo tissue voltage measurement experiment is performed on the compared devices based on measuring the voltage induced by electromagnetic induction at the tissue. The focusing effect, E field and voltage induced across the tissue, and the attenuation due to the increase of separation between the coil and the target are analyzed. The electromagnetic stimulation will also be performed to obtain the electric field and magnetic field distribution around the biological medium. The electric field intensity is proportional to the induced current and the magnetic field is corresponding to the electromagnetic induction across the biological medium. The comparison between the MRC RF stimulator and the MS and TENS devices revealed that the MRC RF stimulator has several advantages over the others for the applications of inducing current in the biological medium for stimulation purposes.

  20. Comparing the magnetic resonant coupling radiofrequency stimulation to the traditional approaches: Ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Ho Yeung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the design concept of magnetic resonant coupling has been adapted to electromagnetic therapy applications such as non-invasive radiofrequency (RF stimulation. This technique can significantly increase the electric field radiated from the magnetic coil at the stimulation target, and hence enhancing the current flowing through the nerve, thus enabling stimulation. In this paper, the developed magnetic resonant coupling (MRC stimulation, magnetic stimulation (MS and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS are compared. The differences between the MRC RF stimulation and other techniques are presented in terms of the operating mechanism, ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis. The ev-vivo tissue voltage measurement experiment is performed on the compared devices based on measuring the voltage induced by electromagnetic induction at the tissue. The focusing effect, E field and voltage induced across the tissue, and the attenuation due to the increase of separation between the coil and the target are analyzed. The electromagnetic stimulation will also be performed to obtain the electric field and magnetic field distribution around the biological medium. The electric field intensity is proportional to the induced current and the magnetic field is corresponding to the electromagnetic induction across the biological medium. The comparison between the MRC RF stimulator and the MS and TENS devices revealed that the MRC RF stimulator has several advantages over the others for the applications of inducing current in the biological medium for stimulation purposes.

  1. Comparing the magnetic resonant coupling radiofrequency stimulation to the traditional approaches: Ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Sai Ho; Pradhan, Raunaq; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Recently, the design concept of magnetic resonant coupling has been adapted to electromagnetic therapy applications such as non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) stimulation. This technique can significantly increase the electric field radiated from the magnetic coil at the stimulation target, and hence enhancing the current flowing through the nerve, thus enabling stimulation. In this paper, the developed magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) stimulation, magnetic stimulation (MS) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are compared. The differences between the MRC RF stimulation and other techniques are presented in terms of the operating mechanism, ex-vivo tissue voltage measurement and electromagnetic simulation analysis. The ev-vivo tissue voltage measurement experiment is performed on the compared devices based on measuring the voltage induced by electromagnetic induction at the tissue. The focusing effect, E field and voltage induced across the tissue, and the attenuation due to the increase of separation between the coil and the target are analyzed. The electromagnetic stimulation will also be performed to obtain the electric field and magnetic field distribution around the biological medium. The electric field intensity is proportional to the induced current and the magnetic field is corresponding to the electromagnetic induction across the biological medium. The comparison between the MRC RF stimulator and the MS and TENS devices revealed that the MRC RF stimulator has several advantages over the others for the applications of inducing current in the biological medium for stimulation purposes.

  2. Resonant circuit which provides dual frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a ring magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the cosinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. the control circuit generates cosinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio frequency acceleration of the particles in the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency cosine wave and thereafter the electromagnets are reset with a higher frequency half cosine wave. Flat-bottom and flat-top wave shaping circuits maintain the magnetic guide field in a relatively time-invariant mode during times when the particles are being injected into the ring magnets and when the particles are being ejected from the ring magnets.

  3. Sensitivity of Acoustic Resonance Properties to a Change in Volume of Piriform Sinuses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radolf, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 821, č. 2016 (2016), s. 671-676 ISSN 1662-7482 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P579 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : piriform sinus * vocal tract model * biomechanics of voice * formant frequency Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  4. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  5. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  6. Increase in effectiveness of low frequency acoustic liners by use of coupled Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of Helmholtz resonators in a low-frequency absorber array was studied as a means for increasing the effectiveness for absorbing low-frequency core engine noise. The equations for the impedance of the coupled-resonator systems were developed in terms of uncoupled-resonator parameters, and the predicted impedance for a parallel-coupled scheme is shown to compare favorably with measurements from a test model. In addition, attenuation measurements made in a flow duct on test coupled-resonator panels are shown to compare favorably with predicted values. Finally, the parallel-coupled concept is shown to give significantly more attenuation than that of a typical uncoupled resonator array of the same total volume.

  7. A film bulk acoustic resonator-based high-performance pressure sensor integrated with temperature control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengying; Zhao, Zhan; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presented a high-performance pressure sensor based on a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). The support film of the FBAR chip was made of silicon nitride and the part under the resonator area was etched to enhance the sensitivity and improve the linearity of the pressure sensor. A micro resistor temperature sensor and a micro resistor heater were integrated in the chip to monitor and control the operating temperature. The sensor chip was fabricated, and packaged in an oscillator circuit for differential pressure detection. When the detected pressure ranged from  −100 hPa to 600 hPa, the sensitivity of the improved FBAR pressure sensor was  −0.967 kHz hPa −1 , namely  −0.69 ppm hPa −1 , which was 19% higher than that of existing sensors with a complete support film. The nonlinearity of the improved sensor was less than  ±0.35%, while that of the existing sensor was  ±5%. To eliminate measurement errors from humidity, the temperature control system integrated in the sensor chip controlled the temperature of the resonator up to 75 °C, with accuracy of  ±0.015 °C and power of 20 mW. (paper)

  8. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...

  9. A design procedure for an acoustic mirror providing dual reflection of longitudinal and shear waves in Solidly Mounted BAW Resonators (SMRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    The quality factor of the traditional Solidly Mounted Resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, as the traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects longitudinal waves but not shear waves. Modern mirrors do reflect both waves, but design rules for such mirrors have not been published so far.

  10. Sound absorption of a new oblique-section acoustic metamaterial with nested resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-02-01

    This study designs and investigates high-efficiency sound absorption of new oblique-section nested resonators. Impedance tube experiment results show that different combinations of oblique-section nest resonators have tunable low-frequency bandwidth characteristics. The sound absorption mechanism is due to air friction losses in the slotted region and the sample structure resonance. The acousto-electric analogy model demonstrates that the sound absorption peak and bandwidth can be modulated over an even wider frequency range by changing the geometric size and combinations of structures. The proposed structure can be easily fabricated and used in low-frequency sound absorption applications.

  11. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favrel, A; Landry, C; Müller, A; Yamamoto, K; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro-acoustic

  12. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  13. Contactless, probeless and non-titrimetric determination of acid-base reactions using broadband acoustic resonance dissolution spectroscopy (BARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M Rizwan; McSweeney, Sean; Krüse, Jacob; Vos, Bastiaan; Fitzpatrick, Dara

    2018-02-12

    pH determination is a routine measurement in scientific laboratories worldwide. Most major advances in pH measurement were made in the 19th and early 20th century. pH measurements are critical for the determination of acid base reactions. This study demonstrates how an acid-base reaction can be monitored without the use of a pH probe, indicator and titres of reagent. The stoichiometric reaction between carbonate and HCl acid yields specific quantities of CO 2 , which causes reproducible changes to the compressibility of the solvent. This in turn slows down the speed of sound in solution which is induced by a magnetic follower gently tapping the inner wall of the vessel. As a consequence the frequencies of the acoustic resonances in the vessel are reduced. This approach is called Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS) which harnesses this phenomenon for many applications. The acid-carbonate experiments have also been validated using H 2 SO 4 acid and using both potassium and sodium counterions for the carbonate. This method can be used to interrogate strong acid-base reactions in a rapid and non-invasive manner using carbonate as the base. The data demonstrate the first example of a reactant also acting as an indicator. The applicability of the method to weak acids has yet to be determined. A novel conclusion from the study is that a person with a well-trained ear is capable of determining the concentration and pH of a strong acid just by listening. This brings pH measurement into the realm of human perception.

  14. The use of acoustically tuned resonators to improve the sound transmission loss of double panel partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. M.; Fahy, F. J.

    1986-10-01

    The effectiveness of tuned Helmholtz resonators connected to the partition cavity in double-leaf partitions utilized in situations requiring low weight structures with high transmission loss is investigated as a method of improving sound transmission loss. This is demonstrated by a simple theoretical model and then experimentally verified. Results show that substantial improvements may be obtained at and around the mass-air-mass frequency for a total resonator volume 15 percent of the cavity volume.

  15. Inhibition of Salmonella typhi growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves at resonance frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, M A; Mohamed, S A; Abdelbacki, A M; El-Sharkawy, A H

    2014-08-01

    Typhoid is a serious disease difficult to be treated with conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a new method for the control of Salmonella typhi growth, through the interference with the bioelectric signals generated from the microbe during cell division by extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves (ELF-EMW-ELF-EM) at resonance frequency. Isolated Salmonella typhi was subjected to square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) with different modulation frequencies from two generators with constant carrier frequency of 10 MHz, amplitude of 10 Vpp, modulating depth ± 2 Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V m(-1) at 37°C. Both the control and exposed samples were incubated at the same conditions during the experiment. The results showed that there was highly significant inhibition effect for Salm. typhi exposed to 0·8 Hz QAMW for a single exposure for 75 min. Dielectric relaxation, TEM and DNA results indicated highly significant changes in the molecular structure of the DNA and cellular membrane resulting from the exposure to the inhibiting EM waves. It was concluded that finding out the inhibiting resonance frequency of ELF-EM waves that deteriorates Salm. typhi growth will be promising method for the treatment of Salm. typhi infection either in vivo or in vitro. This new non-invasive technique for treatment of bacterial infections is of considerable interest for the use in medical and biotechnological applications. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Localised surface plasmon-like resonance generated by microwave electromagnetic waves in pipe defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Wissam M.; Nima, Zeid A.; Sandgren, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Localised surface plasmon (LSP)-like resonance phenomena were simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics™, and the electric field enhancement was evaluated in eight pipe defects using the microwave band from 1.80 to 3.00 GHz and analysed by finite element analysis (FEA). The simulation was carried out, in each defect case, on a pipe that has 762 mm length and 152.4 mm inner diameter, and 12.7 mm pipe wall thickness. Defects were positioned in the middle of the pipe and were named as follows; SD: Square Defect, FCD: fillet corner defect, FD: fillet defect, HCD: half circle defect, TCD: triangle corner defect, TD: triangle defect, ZD: zigzag defect, GD: gear defect. The LSP electric field, and scattering parametric (S21, and S11) waves were evaluated in all cases and found to be strongly dependent on the size and the shape of the defect rather than the pipe and or the medium materials.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by 3G mobile phones on rat brains: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M; Turtay, M G; Oguzturk, H; Samdanci, E; Turkoz, Y; Tasdemir, S; Alkan, A; Bakir, S

    2012-06-01

    The effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by a third-generation (3G) mobile phone (MP) on rat brain tissues were investigated in terms of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), biochemistry, and histopathological evaluations. The rats were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 is composed of 3G-EMR-exposed rats (n = 9) and Group 2 is the control group (n = 9). The first group was subjected to EMR for 20 days. The control group was not exposed to EMR. Choline (Cho), creatinin (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were evaluated by MRS. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometric method. Histopathological analyses were carried out to evaluate apoptosis in the brain tissues of both groups. In MRS, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were not significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Neither the oxidative stress parameters, CAT and GSH-Px, nor the number of apoptotic cells were significantly different between Groups 1 and 2. Usage of short-term 3G MP does not seem to have a harmful effect on rat brain tissue.

  18. Electromagnetic Components of Auroral Hiss and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Polar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    DE-1 has frequently observed waves in the whistler and lower hybrid frequencies range. Besides the electrostatic components, these waves also exhibit electromagnetic components. It is generally believed that these waves are excited by the electron acoustic instability and the electron-beam-driven lower hybrid instability. Because the electron acoustic and the lower hybrid waves are predominately electrostatic waves, they cannot account for the observed electromagnetic components. In this work, it is suggested that these electromagnetic components can be explained by waves that are generated near the resonance cone and that propagate away from the source. The role that these electromagnetic waves can play in particle acceleration processes at low altitude is discussed.

  19. Development and test of the e+e- pair spectrometer for the detection of the electromagnetic decay of the E0 giant resonance state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Morinobu, S.; Ikegami, H.

    1978-01-01

    A lens type pair spectrometer of electron and positron has been developed and tested in order to detect the electromagnetic decay (pair creation) of the E0 giant resonance state. It was found from the one day machine time test (targets: natural Mo and Pb, beam:α, 70 MeV) that the improvement of the apparatus is necessary for getting a definite information on the yield of high energy electron pairs. (author)

  20. Resonant Interaction, Approximate Symmetry, and Electromagnetic Interaction (EMI) in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2007-03-01

    Only recently (talk by P.A. Mosier-Boss et al, in this session) has it become possible to trigger high energy particle emission and Excess Heat, on demand, in LENR involving PdD. Also, most nuclear physicists are bothered by the fact that the dominant reaction appears to be related to the least common deuteron(d) fusion reaction,d+d ->α+γ. A clear consensus about the underlying effect has also been illusive. One reason for this involves confusion about the approximate (SU2) symmetry: The fact that all d-d fusion reactions conserve isospin has been widely assumed to mean the dynamics is driven by the strong force interaction (SFI), NOT EMI. Thus, most nuclear physicists assume: 1. EMI is static; 2. Dominant reactions have smallest changes in incident kinetic energy (T); and (because of 2), d+d ->α+γ is suppressed. But this assumes a stronger form of SU2 symmetry than is present; d+d ->α+γ reactions are suppressed not because of large changes in T but because the interaction potential involves EMI, is dynamic (not static), the SFI is static, and because the two incident deuterons must have approximate Bose Exchange symmetry and vanishing spin. A generalization of this idea involves a resonant form of reaction, similar to the de-excitation of an atom. These and related (broken gauge) symmetry EMI effects on LENR are discussed.

  1. Acoustic anomalies in the resonant ultrasound spectra of La2-x SrxCuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrao, J.L.; Lei, M.; Migliori, A.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy is a novel technique for the simultaneous determination of a solid's elastic moduli. Measurements of the resonant ultrasound spectra of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 for several values of x are reported. Anomalies associated with the nonstoichiometric (x>0) doped superconductor have been observed. These anomalies indicate that the absence of short-wavelength translational invariance at the Brillouin-zone edge is being coupled into the zone center. Measurements of the stoichiometric (x=0) insulator will also be discussed. [This work was performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Switchable and tunable film bulk acoustic resonator fabricated using barium strontium titanate active layer and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} acoustic reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbrockey, N. M., E-mail: sbrockey@structuredmaterials.com; Tompa, G. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kalkur, T. S.; Mansour, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80933 (United States); Khassaf, H.; Yu, H.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S. P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A solidly mounted acoustic resonator was fabricated using a Ba{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}TiO{sub 3} (BST) film deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device was acoustically isolated from the substrate using a Bragg reflector consisting of three pairs of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} layers deposited by chemical solution deposition. Transmission electron microscopy verified that the Bragg reflector was not affected by the high temperatures and oxidizing conditions necessary to process high quality BST films. Electrical characterization of the resonator demonstrated a quality factor (Q) of 320 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (K{sub t}{sup 2}) of 7.0% at 11 V.

  3. Phonon-magnon resonant processes with relevance to acoustic spin pumping

    KAUST Repository

    Deymier, P. A.; Vasseur, J. O.; Runge, K.; Manchon, Aurelien; Bou-Matar, O.

    2014-01-01

    as the pumping mechanism. The resonant dispersion relations are independent of the amplitude of the waves. In both cases, when an elastic wave with a fixed frequency is used to stimulate magnons, application of an external magnetic field can be used to approach

  4. Analysis and optimization of acoustic wave micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, O.; Zahr, A. H.; Orlianges, J.-C.; Crunteanu, A.; Chatras, M.; Blondy, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, fabrication, and test results of ZnO-based contour-mode micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. The inter-digitated (IDT) type micro-resonators are fabricated on ZnO films and suspended top of 2 μm thick silicon membranes using silicon-on insulator technology. We analyze several possibilities of increasing the quality factor (Q) and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) of the devices by varying the numbers and lengths of the IDT electrodes and using different thicknesses of the ZnO layer. We designed and fabricated IDTs of different finger numbers (n = 25, 40, 50, and 80) and lengths (L = 100/130/170/200 μm) for three different thicknesses of ZnO films (200, 600, and 800 nm). The measured Q factor confirms that reducing the length and the number of IDT fingers enables us to reach better electrical performances at resonant frequencies around 700 MHz. The extracted results for an optimized micro-resonator device having an IDT length of 100 μm and 40 finger electrodes show a Q of 1180 and a kt2 of 7.4%. We demonstrate also that the reduction of the ZnO thickness from 800 nm to 200 nm increases the quality factor from 430 to 1600, respectively, around 700 MHz. Experimental data are in very good agreement with theoretical simulations of the fabricated devices

  5. Measurement of pipe wall thinning by ultra acoustic resonance technique using optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takehiro; Machijima, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the novel system for Pipe Wall Thickness measurement which is combined EAMT(Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) and Optical Fiber Sensor. The conventional ultrasonic thickness meter is using in pipe wall thickness measurement. However, it is necessary to remove a heat insulator from pipe line. A characteristic of this novel system is that it is possible to measure without removing a heat insulator and on-line monitoring, because of measurement probe is attached between pipe surface and heat insulator. As a result of measured with this system, we could measure 30 mm thickness of carbon and stainless steel at the maximum and pipe specimen of elbow shape. Heat-resistant characteristic confirmed at 200 degrees C until about 7000 hours. (author)

  6. Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Leighton, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    The scattering cross-section σs of a gas bubble of equilibrium radius R0 in liquid can be written in the form σs =4π R02 / [(ω12 / ω2 -1)2 + δ2], where ω is the excitation frequency, ω1 is the resonance frequency, and δ is a frequency-dependent dimensionless damping coefficient. A persistent

  7. Thermal magnetic resonance: physics considerations and electromagnetic field simulations up to 23.5 Tesla (1GHz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Lukas; Oezerdem, Celal; Hoffmann, Werner; Lindt, Tessa van de; Periquito, Joao; Ji, Yiyi; Ghadjar, Pirus; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and most aggressive malign brain tumor. The 5-year survival rate after tumor resection and adjuvant chemoradiation is only 10 %, with almost all recurrences occurring in the initially treated site. Attempts to improve local control using a higher radiation dose were not successful so that alternative additive treatments are urgently needed. Given the strong rationale for hyperthermia as part of a multimodal treatment for patients with glioblastoma, non-invasive radio frequency (RF) hyperthermia might significantly improve treatment results. A non-invasive applicator was constructed utilizing the magnetic resonance (MR) spin excitation frequency for controlled RF hyperthermia and MR imaging in an integrated system, which we refer to as thermal MR. Applicator designs at RF frequencies 300 MHz, 500 MHz and 1GHz were investigated and examined for absolute applicable thermal dose and temperature hotspot size. Electromagnetic field (EMF) and temperature simulations were performed in human voxel models. RF heating experiments were conducted at 300 MHz and 500 MHz to characterize the applicator performance and validate the simulations. The feasibility of thermal MR was demonstrated at 7.0 T. The temperature could be increased by ~11 °C in 3 min in the center of a head sized phantom. Modification of the RF phases allowed steering of a temperature hotspot to a deliberately selected location. RF heating was monitored using the integrated system for MR thermometry and high spatial resolution MRI. EMF and thermal simulations demonstrated that local RF hyperthermia using the integrated system is feasible to reach a maximum temperature in the center of the human brain of 46.8 °C after 3 min of RF heating while surface temperatures stayed below 41 °C. Using higher RF frequencies reduces the size of the temperature hotspot significantly. The opportunities and capabilities of thermal magnetic resonance for RF hyperthermia interventions

  8. Thermal magnetic resonance: physics considerations and electromagnetic field simulations up to 23.5 Tesla (1GHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lukas; Oezerdem, Celal; Hoffmann, Werner; van de Lindt, Tessa; Periquito, Joao; Ji, Yiyi; Ghadjar, Pirus; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-09-22

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and most aggressive malign brain tumor. The 5-year survival rate after tumor resection and adjuvant chemoradiation is only 10 %, with almost all recurrences occurring in the initially treated site. Attempts to improve local control using a higher radiation dose were not successful so that alternative additive treatments are urgently needed. Given the strong rationale for hyperthermia as part of a multimodal treatment for patients with glioblastoma, non-invasive radio frequency (RF) hyperthermia might significantly improve treatment results. A non-invasive applicator was constructed utilizing the magnetic resonance (MR) spin excitation frequency for controlled RF hyperthermia and MR imaging in an integrated system, which we refer to as thermal MR. Applicator designs at RF frequencies 300 MHz, 500 MHz and 1GHz were investigated and examined for absolute applicable thermal dose and temperature hotspot size. Electromagnetic field (EMF) and temperature simulations were performed in human voxel models. RF heating experiments were conducted at 300 MHz and 500 MHz to characterize the applicator performance and validate the simulations. The feasibility of thermal MR was demonstrated at 7.0 T. The temperature could be increased by ~11 °C in 3 min in the center of a head sized phantom. Modification of the RF phases allowed steering of a temperature hotspot to a deliberately selected location. RF heating was monitored using the integrated system for MR thermometry and high spatial resolution MRI. EMF and thermal simulations demonstrated that local RF hyperthermia using the integrated system is feasible to reach a maximum temperature in the center of the human brain of 46.8 °C after 3 min of RF heating while surface temperatures stayed below 41 °C. Using higher RF frequencies reduces the size of the temperature hotspot significantly. The opportunities and capabilities of thermal magnetic resonance for RF hyperthermia

  9. Instabilities and prediction of the acoustic resonance of flows with wall injection; Instabilites et prevision de l'accrochage acoustique des ecoulements avec injection parietale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avalon, G. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 91 - Palaiseau (France); Casalis, G. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1998-07-01

    Aero-acoustic coupling that occurs inside solid propellant rocket engines can lead to a longitudinal acoustic mode resonance of the combustion chamber. This phenomenon, which can have various origins, in analyzed using the Vecla test facility and the theory of linear stability of flows. Different comparisons between the hot-wire measurements performed and the theory of stability confirm the presence of intrinsic instabilities for this type of flow. The instability allows to selectively amplify a given range of frequencies which depends on the injection velocity and on the conduit height. The results obtained seem to indicate that when this frequency range does not comprise the longitudinal acoustic mode or the first harmonics, the flow becomes turbulent downstream. (J.S.)

  10. Electromagnetic Fields in Reverberant Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonating electromagnetic (EM) fields has been commonly and successfully exploited in reverberation chambers (RC) for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, as well as modeling multipath environments. Although largely successful, the currently used statistical

  11. Theoretical interpretation of a case study: Acoustic resonance in an archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jorge; Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    It is well-known that the stairways of some Mexican archaeological sites, like Chichen-Itza or Teotihuacan, present an interesting sound reflection and resonance phenomenon which causes a special audible effect. In this paper, mathematical modeling of this situation is presented, and the practical phenomenon is discussed from a theoretical standpoint. More than an end in itself, the idea is, once this validated model is obtained, to use the results for the analysis of a more extensive architectural environment in order to establish whether this kind of phenomenon would have been purposely introduced in the design of the site. This will be presented in future publications.

  12. Acoustic resonance at the dawn of life: musical fundamentals of the psychoanalytic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Judith

    2015-11-01

    This paper uses a case vignette to show how musical elements of speech are a crucial source of information regarding the patient's emotional states and associated memory systems that are activated at a given moment in the analytic field. There are specific psychoacoustic markers associated with different memory systems which indicate whether a patient is immersed in a state of creative intersubjective relatedness related to autobiographical memory, or has been triggered into a traumatic memory system. When a patient feels immersed in an atmosphere of intersubjective mutuality, dialogue features a rhythmical and tuneful form of speech featuring improvized reciprocal imitation, theme and variation. When the patient is catapulted into a traumatic memory system, speech becomes monotone and disjointed. Awareness of such acoustic features of the traumatic memory system helps to alert the analyst that such a shift has taken place informing appropriate responses and interventions. Communicative musicality (Malloch & Trevarthen 2009) originates in the earliest non-verbal vocal communication between infant and care-giver, states of primary intersubjectivity. Such musicality continues to be the primary vehicle for transmitting emotional meaning and for integrating right and left hemispheres. This enables communication that expresses emotional significance, personal value as well as conceptual reasoning. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  14. Determination of the Boltzmann constant using a quasi-spherical acoustic resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Laurent; Sparasci, Fernando; Truong, Daniel; Guillou, Arnaud; Risegari, Lara; Himbert, Marc E

    2011-10-28

    The paper reports a new experiment to determine the value of the Boltzmann constant, k(B)=1.3806477(17)×10(-23) J K(-1), with a relative standard uncertainty of 1.2 parts in 10(6). k(B) was deduced from measurements of the velocity of sound in argon, inside a closed quasi-spherical cavity at a temperature of the triple point of water. The shape of the cavity was achieved using an extremely accurate diamond turning process. The traceability of temperature measurements was ensured at the highest level of accuracy. The volume of the resonator was calculated from measurements of the resonance frequencies of microwave modes. The molar mass of the gas was determined by chemical and isotopic composition measurements with a mass spectrometer. Within combined uncertainties, our new value of k(B) is consistent with the 2006 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) value: (k(B)(new)/k(B_CODATA)-1)=-1.96×10(-6), where the relative uncertainties are u(r)(k(B)(new))=1.2×10(-6) and u(r)(k(B_CODATA))=1.7×10(-6). The new relative uncertainty approaches the target value of 1×10(-6) set by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry as a precondition for redefining the unit of the thermodynamic temperature, the kelvin.

  15. Tunneling effect in cavity-resonator-coupled arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hua; Xu Zhuo; Qu Shao-Bo; Zhang Jie-Qiu; Wang Jia-Fu; Liang Chang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The quantum tunneling effect (QTE) in a cavity-resonator-coupled (CRC) array was analytically and numerically investigated. The underlying mechanism was interpreted by treating electromagnetic waves as photons, and then was generalized to acoustic waves and matter waves. It is indicated that for the three kinds of waves, the QTE can be excited by cavity resonance in a CRC array, resulting in sub-wavelength transparency through the narrow splits between cavities. This opens up opportunities for designing new types of crystals based on CRC arrays, which may find potential applications such as quantum devices, micro-optic transmission, and acoustic manipulation. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Circuit quantum acoustodynamics with surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Riccardo; Kockum, Anton F; Patterson, Andrew; Behrle, Tanja; Rahamim, Joseph; Tancredi, Giovanna; Nori, Franco; Leek, Peter J

    2017-10-17

    The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level. It has recently been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities in the quantum regime. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is coupled to a SAW cavity, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We use measurements of the AC Stark shift between the two systems to determine the coupling strength, which is in agreement with a theoretical model. This quantum acoustodynamics architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the 10 5 times slower mechanical waves.In this work, Manenti et al. present measurements of a device in which a tuneable transmon qubit is piezoelectrically coupled to a surface acoustic wave cavity, realising circuit quantum acoustodynamic architecture. This may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices.

  17. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  18. Using Combined X-ray Computed Tomography and Acoustic Resonance to Understand Supercritical CO2 Behavior in Fractured Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    Distribution of supercritical (sc) CO2 has a large impact on its flow behavior as well as on the properties of seismic waves used for monitoring. Simultaneous imaging of scCO2 distribution in a rock core using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and measurements of seismic waves in the laboratory can help understand how the distribution evolves as scCO2 invades through rock, and the resulting seismic signatures. To this end, we performed a series of laboratory scCO2 core-flood experiments in intact and fractured anisotropic Carbon Tan sandstone samples. In these experiments, we monitored changes in the CO2 saturation distribution and sonic-frequency acoustic resonances (yielding both seismic velocity and attenuation) over the course of the floods. A short-core resonant bar test system (Split-Hopkinson Resonant Bar Apparatus) custom fit into a long X-ray transparent pressure vessel was used for the seismic measurements, and a modified General Electric medical CT scanner was used to acquire X-ray CT data from which scCO2 saturation distributions were determined. The focus of the experiments was on the impact of single fractures on the scCO2 distribution and the seismic properties. For this reason, we examined several cases including 1. intact, 2. a closely mated fracture along the core axis, 3. a sheared fracture along the core axis (both vertical and horizontal for examining the buoyancy effect), and 4. a sheared fracture perpendicular to the core axis. For the intact and closely mated fractured cores, Young's modulus declined with increasing CO2 saturation, and attenuation increased up to about 15% CO2 saturation after which attenuation declined. For cores having wide axial fractures, the Young's modulus was lower than for the intact and closely mated cases, however did not change much with CO2 pore saturation. Much lower CO2 pore saturations were achieved in these cases. Attenuation increased more rapidly however than for the intact sample. For the core

  19. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  20. Development of the ion-acoustic turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma following induced ls-scattering near the lower hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Sapozhnikov, A.V.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Skvortsova, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The development and nonlinear saturation of ion-acoustic turbulent oscillat tions excited in a plasma by high frequency pumping wave have been experimentall investigated. As a result of investigations into the interaction between obliqu ue Langmuir waves and a magnetoactive plasma near the lower hybrid resonance performed under the regime of HF-pumping wave pulse generation the following c conclusions are drawn: 1) dynamic characteristics of the development of ion-acou tic turbulent oscillations point to the induced ls-scattering process and the de ependence of the rate of this process on the level of initial superthermal ion-acoustic noises, 2) a nonlinear process limiting the of ion-acoustic turbule ence intensity growth is probably the process of induced sound wave scattering on ions followed by the unstable wave energy transfer over the spectrum into the e lower frequency region. Various mechanisms are responsible for excitation of on acoustic waves and HF-waves near the pumping wave frequency (red satellite)

  1. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Farid; Izhar

    2015-02-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5-1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143-470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz-16.7 kHz).

  2. State of the art in acoustic energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2015-01-01

    For portable and embedded smart, wireless electronic systems, energy harvesting from the ambient energy sources has gained immense interest in recent years. Several ambient energies exist in the environment of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that include thermal, solar, vibration and acoustic energy. This paper presents the recent development in the field of acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs). AEHs convert the acoustic energy into useful electrical energy for the operation of autonomous wireless sensors. Mainly, two types of AEHs (electromagnetic and piezoelectric based) have been developed and reported in literature. The power produced by the reported piezoelectric AEHs ranges from 0.68 pW to 30 mW; however, the power generation of the developed electromagnetic AEHs is in the range of 1.5–1.96 mW. The overall size of most of the developed piezoelectric and electromagnetic AEHs are quite comparable and in millimeter scale. The resonant frequencies of electromagnetic AEHs are on the lower side (143–470 Hz), than that of piezoelectric AEHs (146 Hz–16.7 kHz). (topical review)

  3. Acoustic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Landau Quasi-energy Spectrum Destruction for an Electron in Both a Static Magnetic Field and a Resonant Electromagnetic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs

  5. Morphology of the spectral resonance structure of the electromagnetic background noise in the range of 0.1–4 Hz at L = 5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous observations of fluctuations of the geomagnetic field at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (L = 5.2 were used for a comprehensive morphological study of the spectral resonance structure (SRS seen in the background electromagnetic noise in the frequency range of 0.1–4.0 Hz. It is shown that the occurrence rate of SRS is higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. The occurrence rate is higher in winter than in summer. The SRS frequencies and the difference between neighbouring eigenfrequencies (the frequency scale increase towards nighttime and decrease towards daytime. Both frequency scale and occurrence rate exhibit a clear tendency to decrease from minimum to maximum of the solar activity cycle. It is found that the occurrence rate of SRS decreases when geomagnetic activity increases. The SRS is believed to be a consequence of a resonator for Alfvén waves, which is suggested to exist in the upper ionosphere. According to the theory of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR, characteristics of SRS crucially depend on electron density in the F-layer maximum, as well as on the altitudinal scale of the density decay above the maximum.We compared the SRS morphological properties with predictions of the IAR theory. The ionospheric parameters needed for calculation were obtained from the ionosphere model (IRI-95, as well as from measurements made with the ionosonde in Sodankylä. We conclude that, indeed, the main morphological properties of SRS are explained on the basis of the IAR theory. The measured parameters of SRS can be used for improving the ionospheric models.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; wave propagation – Radio Science (electromagnetic noise and interference

  6. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  7. Influence of Actively Controlled Heat Release Timing on the Performance and Operational Characteristics of a Rotary Valve, Acoustically Resonant Pulse Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of heat release timing on the performance and operational characteristics of a rotary valve, acoustically resonant pulse combustor is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Simulation results are obtained by solving the quasi-1D Navier-Stokes equations with forced volumetric heat addition. Experimental efforts modify heat release timing through modulated fuel injection and modification of the fluid dynamic mixing. Results indicate that the heat release timing has a profound effect on the operation and efficiency of the pulse combustor and that this timing can be difficult to control experimentally.

  8. Influence of Actively Controlled Heat Release Timing on the Performance and Operational Characteristics of a Rotary Valve, Acoustically Resonant Pulse Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-01-05

    The influence of heat release timing on the performance and operational characteristics of a rotary valve, acoustically resonant pulse combustor is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Simulation results are obtained by solving the quasi-1D Navier-Stokes equations with forced volumetric heat addition. Experimental efforts modify heat release timing through modulated fuel injection and modification of the fluid dynamic mixing. Results indicate that the heat release timing has a profound effect on the operation and efficiency of the pulse combustor and that this timing can be difficult to control experimentally.

  9. Numerical studies of radiofrequency of the electromagnetic radiation power absorption in paediatrics undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Subaar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging current operating frequencies are above 100 kHz which is converted to heat through resistive tissue losses during imaging. The imaging is coupled with a concurring increase in temperature in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain has seen a rising clinical request during diagnosis and therefore become imperative that its safety issues be assessed. This study modelled Pennes' classical bio-heat equation using Finite Difference Method (FDM approach and with the help of MATLAB programming language, predicted three dimensional steady state temperature distributions in patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-four paediatric patients' referred for (head brain magnetic resonance imaging scan at 37 Military Hospital and the Diagnostic Center Limited, Ghana, pre-scan and post-scan temperatures were measured at the right tympanic. The numerically steady state temperature distribution during magnetic resonance imaging shows that there is excessive temperature elevation at the skin surface of the patients. The resulting skin heating during magnetic resonance imaging can reach dangerous level which suggests that the ohmic heating of tissue is greatest at the surface and minimal at the center of the patient's brain. Though the experimental results show that patients brain temperature increase after imaging, all measured temperatures were within acceptable safe levels.

  10. 气液同轴式喷嘴声学特性数值研究%Numerical Study of Characteristics of Gas Liquid Coaxial Injector as Acoustic Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红辉; 聂万胜

    2017-01-01

    采用线性声学理论,将液体火箭发动机气液同轴式喷嘴分别简化为1/4波长谐振管和1/2一波长谐振管,研究得出常温条件下喷嘴长度和入口射流条件对燃烧室一阶切向声学模态的抑制规律.结果表明:当喷嘴一阶纵向模态频率与需要抑制的燃烧室声学模态频率相等时,对于喷嘴入口射流处于壅塞的状态1/4纵向模态波长长度喷嘴的抑制能力最大;反之,1/2纵向模态波长长度喷嘴的抑制能力最大.两种喷嘴的抑制能力均随喷嘴直径增加而增大.研究结果可为喷嘴长度和入口射流条件优化设计、燃烧室声学振荡抑制提供参考.%The gas-liquid injector of the rocket engine was simplified to a quarter-wave resonator and a half-wave resonator respectively by adopting linear acoustic analysis.Acoustic-damping effect of the length and inlet jet of the injector on the first tangential mode of the chamber was found for ambient condition.It is found that when the first order longitudinal mode frequency of the injector is equal to the acoustic mode frequency of the combustion chamber intended for damping,for the inlet jet is choked,the optimum length of the injector to maximize damping capacity is near quarter of a full wavelength of the first longitudinal mode traveling in the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping,on the contrary,the length of the injector is near half of a full wavelength of the first longitudinal mode traveling in the injector.The research results can provide reference for the optimum design of the length and inlet jet of the injectors,and acoustic damping of the combustion chamber.

  11. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  12. Strong interaction between dye molecule and electromagnetic field localized around 1 Nm3 at gaps of nanoparticle dimers by plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S.

    2017-11-01

    Electronic transition rates of a molecule located at a crevasse or a gap of a plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) dimer are largely enhanced up to the factor of around 106 due to electromagnetic (EM) coupling between plasmonic and molecular electronic resonances. The coupling rate is determined by mode density of the EM fields at the crevasse and the oscillator strength of the local electronic resonance of a molecule. The enhancement by EM coupling at a gap of plasmonic NP dimer enables us single molecule (SM) Raman spectroscopy. Recently, this type of research has entered a new regime wherein EM enhancement effects cannot be treated by conventional theorems, namely EM mechanism. Thus, such theorems used for the EM enhancement effect should be re-examined. We here firstly summarize EM mechanism by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is common in EM enhancement phenomena. Secondly, we focus on recent two our studies on probing SM fluctuation by SERS within the spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scales. Finally, we discuss the necessity of re-examining the EM mechanism with respect to two-fold breakdowns of the weak coupling assumption: the breakdown of Kasha's rule induced by the ultra-fast plasmonic de-excitation and the breakdown of the weak coupling by EM coupling rates exceeding both the plasmonic and molecular excitonic dephasing rates.

  13. Spatial structure of standing wave electromagnetic fields at the lower harmonics of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 326-337 ISSN 0039-3169 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) HPRI 200100132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * full-wave numerical simulation * EISCAT measurements * standing wave oscillations Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  14. Polarization characteristics of standing wave electromagnetic fields at the ionospheric Alfvén resonator lower harmonics: altitude profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 338-341 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * EMIC waves * EISCAT measurements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  15. Combined passive acoustic mapping and magnetic resonance thermometry for monitoring phase-shift nanoemulsion enhanced focused ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crake, Calum; Meral, F. Can; Burgess, Mark T.; Papademetriou, Iason T.; McDannold, Nathan J.; Porter, Tyrone M.

    2017-08-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has the potential to enable precise, image-guided noninvasive surgery for the treatment of cancer in which tumors are identified and destroyed in a single integrated procedure. However, success of the method in highly vascular organs has been limited due to heat losses to perfusion, requiring development of techniques to locally enhance energy absorption and heating. In addition, FUS procedures are conventionally monitored using MRI, which provides excellent anatomical images and can map temperature, but is not capable of capturing the full gamut of available data such as the acoustic emissions generated during this inherently acoustically-driven procedure. Here, we employed phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNE) embedded in tissue phantoms to promote cavitation and hence temperature rise induced by FUS. In addition, we incorporated passive acoustic mapping (PAM) alongside simultaneous MR thermometry in order to visualize both acoustic emissions and temperature rise, within the bore of a full scale clinical MRI scanner. Focal cavitation of PSNE could be resolved using PAM and resulted in accelerated heating and increased the maximum elevated temperature measured via MR thermometry compared to experiments without nanoemulsions. Over time, the simultaneously acquired acoustic and temperature maps show translation of the focus of activity towards the FUS transducer, and the magnitude of the increase in cavitation and focal shift both increased with nanoemulsion concentration. PAM results were well correlated with MRI thermometry and demonstrated greater sensitivity, with the ability to detect cavitation before enhanced heating was observed. The results suggest that PSNE could be beneficial for enhancement of thermal focused ultrasound therapies and that PAM could be a critical tool for monitoring this process.

  16. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  17. Acoustic Levitation With One Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.

    1987-01-01

    Higher resonator modes enables simplification of equipment. Experimental acoustic levitator for high-temperature containerless processing has round cylindrical levitation chamber and only one acoustic transducer. Stable levitation of solid particle or liquid drop achieved by exciting sound in chamber to higher-order resonant mode that makes potential well for levitated particle or drop at some point within chamber.

  18. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guianvarc' h, Cecile; Pitre, Laurent [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie LNE/Cnam, 61 rue du Landy, 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France); Gavioso, Roberto M.; Benedetto, Giuliana [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); Bruneau, Michel [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613, av. Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-15

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.

  19. In situ evaluation of density, viscosity, and thickness of adsorbed soft layers by combined surface acoustic wave and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Laurent A; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Zhou, Cheng; Bertrand, Patrick

    2006-06-15

    We show the theoretical and experimental combination of acoustic and optical methods for the in situ quantitative evaluation of the density, the viscosity, and the thickness of soft layers adsorbed on chemically tailored metal surfaces. For the highest sensitivity and an operation in liquids, a Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a hydrophobized gold-coated sensing area is the acoustic method, while surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the same gold surface as the optical method is monitored simultaneously in a single setup for the real-time and label-free measurement of the parameters of adsorbed soft layers, which means for layers with a predominant viscous behavior. A general mathematical modeling in equivalent viscoelastic transmission lines is presented to determine the correlation between experimental SAW signal shifts and the waveguide structure including the presence of the adsorbed layer and the supporting liquid from which it segregates. A methodology is presented to identify from SAW and SPR simulations the parameters representatives of the soft layer. During the absorption of a soft layer, thickness or viscosity changes are observed in the experimental ratio of the SAW signal attenuation to the SAW signal phase and are correlated with the theoretical model. As application example, the simulation method is applied to study the thermal behavior of physisorbed PNIPAAm, a polymer whose conformation is sensitive to temperature, under a cycling variation of temperature between 20 and 40 degrees C. Under the assumption of the bulk density and the bulk refractive index of PNIPAAm, thickness and viscosity of the film are obtained from simulations; the viscosity is correlated to the solvent content of the physisorbed layer.

  20. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  1. Intrinsic line shape of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions synchronized by an internal cavity resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Alexei

    2013-03-01

    Stacks of intrinsic Josephson-junctions are realized in mesas fabricated out of layered superconducting single crystals, such as Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (BSCCO). Synchronization of phase oscillations in different junctions can be facilitated by the coupling to the internal cavity mode leading to powerful and coherent electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz frequency range. An important characteristic of this radiation is the shape of the emission line. A finite line width appears due to different noise sources leading to phase diffusion. We investigated the intrinsic line shape caused by the thermal noise for a mesa fabricated on the top of a BSCCO single crystal. In the ideal case of fully synchronized stack the finite line width is coming from two main contributions, the quasiparticle-current noise inside the mesa and the fluctuating radiation in the base crystal. We compute both contributions and conclude that for realistic mesa's parameters the second mechanism typically dominates. The role of the cavity quality factor in the emission line spectrum is clarified. Analytical results were verified by numerical simulations. In real mesa structures part of the stack may not be synchronized and chaotic dynamics of unsynchronized junctions may determine the real line width. Work supported by UChicago Argonne, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  3. Mapping groundwater reserves in northwestern Cambodia with the combined use of data from lithologs and time-domain-electromagnetic and magnetic-resonance soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Remi; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Lun, Sambo; Arnout, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Lack of access to water is the primary constraint to development in rural areas of northwestern Cambodia. Communities lack water for both domestic and irrigation purposes. To provide access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focused on drilling shallow boreholes but they have not had a clear understanding of groundwater potential. The goal of this study has been to improve hydrogeological knowledge of two districts in Oddar Meanchey Province by analyzing borehole lithologs and geophysical data sets. The comparison of 55 time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings and lithologs, as well as 66 magnetic-resonance soundings (MRS) with TEM soundings, allows a better understanding of the links between geology, electrical resistivity and hydrogeological parameters such as the specific yield (S y) derived from MRS. The main findings are that water inflow and S y are more related to electrical resistivity and elevation than to the litholog description. Indeed, conductive media are associated with a null value of S y, whereas resistive rocks at low elevation are always linked to strictly positive S y. A new methodology was developed to create maps of groundwater reserves based on 612 TEM soundings and the observed relationship between resistivity and S y. TEM soundings were inverted using a quasi-3D modeling approach called `spatially constrained inversion'. Such maps will, no doubt, be very useful for borehole siting and in the economic development of the province because they clearly distinguish areas of high groundwater-reserves potential from areas that lack reserves.

  4. Using nuclear magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetics to characterise water distribution beneath an ice covered volcanic crater: the case of Sherman Crater Mt. Baker Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Martin, Kathryn; Finn, Carol A.; Bloss, Benjamin; Horton, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Surface and laboratory Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements combined with transient electromagnetic (TEM) data are powerful tools for subsurface water detection. Surface NMR (sNMR) and TEM soundings, laboratory NMR, complex resistivity, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were all conducted to characterise the distribution of water within Sherman Crater on Mt. Baker, WA. Clay rich rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken volcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-travelled, destructive debris flows. Detecting the presence and volume of shallow groundwater is critical for evaluating these landslide hazards. The TEM data identified a low resistivity layer (conditions which would allow for sNMR detection of the clay layer are investigated. Using current instrumentation the combined analysis of the TEM and sNMR data allow for valuable characterisation of the groundwater system in the crater. The sNMR is able to reduce the uncertainty of the TEM in regards to the presence of a bulk water layer, a valuable piece of information in hazard assessment.

  5. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; hide

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, Pmethods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  6. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  7. Ion-acoustic plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Y.; Silin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is developed of the nonlinear state that is established in a plasma as a result of development of ion-acoustic instability. Account is taken simultaneously of the linear induced scattering of the waves by the ions and of the quasilinear relaxation of the electrons by the ion-acoustic pulsations. The distribution of the ion-acoustic turbulence in frequency and in angle is obtained. An Ohm's law is established and expressions are obtained for the electronic heat flux and for the relaxation time of the electron temperature in a turbulent plasma. Anomalously large absorption and scattering of the electromagnetic waves by the ion-acoustic pulsations is predicted

  8. Biophysical control of the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens using extremely low frequency electromagnetic waves at resonance frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, M Ali; El-Gebaly, Reem H; Mohamed, Shaimaa A; Abdelbacki, Ashraf M M

    2017-12-09

    Isolated Agrobacterium tumefaciens was exposed to different extremely low frequencies of square amplitude modulated waves (QAMW) from two generators to determine the resonance frequency that causes growth inhibition. The carrier was 10 MHz sine wave with amplitude ±10 Vpp which was modulated by a second wave generator with a modulation depth of ± 2Vpp and constant field strength of 200 V/m at 28 °C. The exposure of A. tumefaciens to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min inhibited the bacterial growth by 49.2%. In addition, the tested antibiotics became more effective against A. tumefaciens after the exposure. Furthermore, results of DNA, dielectric relaxation and TEM showed highly significant molecular and morphological changes due to the exposure to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min. An in-vivo study has been carried out on healthy tomato plants to test the pathogenicity of A. tumefaciens before and after the exposure to QAMW at the inhibiting frequency. Symptoms of crown gall and all pathological symptoms were more aggressive in tomato plants treated with non-exposed bacteria, comparing with those treated with exposed bacteria. We concluded that, the exposure of A. tumefaciens to 1.0 Hz QAMW for 90 min modified its cellular activity and DNA structure, which inhibited the growth and affected the microbe pathogenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...

  10. An overview of landmine detection with emphasis on electromagnetic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Yogadhish

    2003-04-01

    Human suffering caused by antipersonnel landmines left over from previous conflicts has only recently received significant public exposure. However, considerable amount of research on how to detect and deal with buried landmines has been carried out at least since the second world war. The research has encompassed a wide range of technologies and large sums of money have been spent. Despite these efforts there is still no operationally satisfactory solution, especially to the detection problem. This lack of success is attributable to the difficulty of the problem and the high degree of effectiveness demanded of any proposed solution. The many landmine detection approaches can be divided into two broad categories: (1)approaches primarily aimed at detecting the casing of the landmine (physical properties of its explosive content may also have some influence) and (2)approaches aimed at directly detecting the explosive contents. Examples of techniques belonging to the first group are electromagnetic induction, ground probing radar and other high frequency electromagnetic techniques, acoustics and other mechanical techniques, and infrared. Trace explosive vapour detection, thermalneutron activation and nuclear quadrupole resonance are examples of the second group. Following a brief introduction to nature of the landmine problem and the many technologies that have been explored to solve it, the presentation will focus on some of the detection approaches based on electromagnetic techniques. In particular, the state of the art in electromagnetic induction detection will be reviewed and required future research and development in this area will be presented.

  11. Interpretation of acoustic parameters obtained by EMAR measurement for non-destructive hydrogen concentration measurement in Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Uchida, Katsuya; Miyazaki, Akihiro; Ishii, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An obvious quantitative relation between hydrogen concentrations in zirconium alloy and acoustic anisotropy parameters obtained by the electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) method was reported. To elucidate the mechanism, the acoustic parameters were calculated based on the elastic theory and the equation of motion. The acoustic parameters of obtained by the EMAR method were interpreted quantitatively using the anisotropic elastic constants of the specimen, and value calculated from texture data for non-hydrogen charged specimens showed good agreement with those obtained by the EMAR method. Calculated temperature dependence of the acoustic anisotropy for the non-hydrogen charged specimen also agreed well with that by the EMAR method. The consistencies demonstrated that the absolute values of the acoustic parameters for non-hydrogen charged specimen can be calculated from both the texture data of (0002) pole figure and the elastic constants of the specimen. Hydrogen addition up to approximately 650ppm was found not to change the original (0002) pole figure and, correspondingly, no hydrogen concentration dependence of the acoustic parameters was obtained from the calculation. These results implied that the zirconium hydride itself played an important role for the change in the acoustic parameters of the hydrogen charged specimens, and the importance of obtaining the information on the elastic constants of the zirconium hydride was pointed out. (author)

  12. Acoustic integrated extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we der...

  13. Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave resonator fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Qian, Lirong; Fu, Sulei; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Phase velocities (V p), electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2), quality factors (Q), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) of Rayleigh wave (0th mode) and first- and second-order Sezawa wave (1st and 2nd modes, respectively) for different piezoelectric film thickness-to-wavelength (h ZnO /λ) ratios were systematically studied. Results demonstrated that one-port SAW resonators fabricated on the ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were promising for high-frequency SAW applications with moderate K 2 and TCF values. A high K 2 of 2.44% associated with a V p of 5182 m s‑1 and a TCF of  ‑41.8 ppm/°C was achieved at h ZnO /λ  =  0.41 in the 1st mode, while a large V p of 7210 m s‑1 with a K 2 of 0.19% and a TCF of  ‑36.4 ppm/°C was obtained for h ZnO /λ  =  0.31 in the 2nd mode. Besides, most of the parameters were reported for the first time and will be helpful for the future design and optimization of SAW devices fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structures.

  14. Dual-Mode Gas Sensor Composed of a Silicon Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor and a Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator: A Case Study in Freons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a novel dual-mode gas sensor system which comprises a silicon nanoribbon field effect transistor (Si-NR FET and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR. We investigate their sensing characteristics using polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and demonstrate that polarity has a significant effect on the response of the Si-NR FET sensor, and only a minor effect on the FBAR sensor. In this dual-mode system, qualitative discrimination can be achieved by analyzing polarity with the Si-NR FET and quantitative concentration information can be obtained using a polymer-coated FBAR with a detection limit at the ppm level. The complementary performance of the sensing elements provides higher analytical efficiency. Additionally, a dual mixture of two types of freons (CFC-113 and HCFC-141b is further analyzed with the dual-mode gas sensor. Owing to the small size and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-compatibility of the system, the dual-mode gas sensor shows potential as a portable integrated sensing system for the analysis of gas mixtures in the future.

  15. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  16. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  17. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  18. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  19. Elastic relaxations associated with the Pm3m-R3c transition in LaA103 III: superattenuation of acoustic resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carpenter, M A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Buckley, A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Taylor, P A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Mcknight, R E A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE

    2009-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy has been used to characterize elastic softening and a variety of new acoustic dissipation processes associated with the Pm{bar 3}m {leftrightarrow} R{bar 3}c transition in single crystal and ceramic samples of LaAlO{sub 3}. Softening of the cubic structure ahead of the transition point is not accompanied by an increase in dissipation but follows different temperature dependences for the bulk modulus, 1/3(C{sub 11} + 2C{sub 12}), and the shear components 1/2(C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}) and C{sub 44} as if the tilting instability contains two slightly different critical temperatures. The transition itself is marked by the complete disappearance of resonance peaks (superattenuation), which then reappear below {approx}700 K in spectra from single crystals. Comparison with low frequency, high stress data from the literature indicate that the dissipation is not due to macroscopic displacement of needle twins. An alternative mechanism, local bowing of twin walls under low dynamic stress, is proposed. Pinning of the walls with respect to this displacement process occurs below {approx}350 K. Anelasticity maps, analogous to plastic deformation mechanism maps, are proposed to display dispersion relations and temperature/frequency/stress fields for different twin wall related dissipation mechanisms. An additional dissipation process, with an activation energy of 43 {+-} 6 kJ.mole{sup -1}, occurs in the vicinity of 250 K. The mechanism for this is not known, but it is associated with C{sub 44} and therefore appears to be related in some way to the cubic {leftrightarrow} rhombohedral transition at {approx}817 K. Slight softening in the temperature interval {approx}220 {yields} 70 K of resonance peaks determined by shear elastic constants hints at an incipient E{sub g} ferroelastic instability in LaAlO{sub 3}. The softening interval ends with a further dissipation peak at {approx} 60 K, the origin of which is discussed in terms of freezing of atomic

  20. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....

  1. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  2. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  3. Production of a recombinant phospholipase A2 in Escherichia coli using resonant acoustic mixing that improves oxygen transfer in shake flasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Reynoso-Cereceda, Greta I; Pérez-Rodriguez, Saumel; Restrepo-Pineda, Sara; González-Santana, Jesus; Olvera, Alejandro; Zavala, Guadalupe; Alagón, Alejandro; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2017-07-25

    Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. With the aim to improve mixing and aeration in shake flask cultures, we analyzed cultures subjected to OM and the novel resonant acoustic mixing (RAM) by applying acoustic energy to E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3): a producer of recombinant phospholipase A2 (rPLA2) from Micrurus laticollaris snake venom. Comparing OM with RAM (200 rpm vs. 7.5g) at the same initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a ≈ 80 h -1 ) ~69% less biomass was obtained with OM compared with RAM. We analyzed two more conditions increasing agitation until maximal speed (12.5 and 20g), and ~1.6- and ~1.4-fold greater biomass was obtained as compared with cultures at 7.5g. Moreover, the specific growth rate was statistically similar in all cultures carried out in RAM, but ~1.5-fold higher than that in cultures carried out under OM. Almost half of the glucose was consumed in OM, whereas between 80 and 100% of the glucose was consumed in RAM cultures, doubling biomass per glucose yields. Differential organic acid production was observed, but acetate production was prevented at the maximal RAM (20g). The amount of rPLA2 in both, OM and RAM cultures, represented 38 ± 5% of the insoluble protein. A smaller proportion of α-helices and β-sheet of purified inclusion bodies (IBs) were appreciated by ATR-FTIR from cultures carried out under OM, than those from RAM. At maximal agitation by RAM, internal E. coli localization patterns of protein aggregation changed, as well as, IBs proteolytic degradation, in conjunction with the formation of small external vesicles, although these changes did not significantly affect the cell survival response. In moderate-cell-density recombinant E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) cultures, the agitation increases in

  4. Extraction of Overt Verbal Response from the Acoustic Noise in a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan by Use of Segmented Active Noise Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwan-Jin; Prasad, Parikshit; Qin, Yulin; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A method to extract the subject's overt verbal response from the obscuring acoustic noise in an fMRI scan is developed by applying active noise cancellation with a conventional MRI microphone. Since the EPI scanning and its accompanying acoustic noise in fMRI are repetitive, the acoustic noise in one time segment was used as a reference noise in suppressing the acoustic noise in subsequent segments. However, the acoustic noise from the scanner was affected by the subject's movements, so the reference noise was adaptively adjusted as the scanner's acoustic properties varied in time. This method was successfully applied to a cognitive fMRI experiment with overt verbal responses. PMID:15723385

  5. Factors associated with successful magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound treatment: efficiency of acoustic energy delivery through the skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Zadicario, Eyal; Rachmilevitch, Itay; Tlusty, Tal; Vitek, Shuki; Chang, Jin Woo

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) was recently introduced as treatment for movement disorders such as essential tremor and advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Although deep brain target lesions are successfully generated in most patients, the target area temperature fails to increase in some cases. The skull is one of the greatest barriers to ultrasonic energy transmission. The authors analyzed the skull-related factors that may have prevented an increase in target area temperatures in patients who underwent MRgFUS. The authors retrospectively reviewed data from clinical trials that involved MRgFUS for essential tremor, idiopathic PD, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Data from 25 patients were included. The relationships between the maximal temperature during treatment and other factors, including sex, age, skull area of the sonication field, number of elements used, skull volume of the sonication field, and skull density ratio (SDR), were determined. Among the various factors, skull volume and SDR exhibited relationships with the maximum temperature. Skull volume was negatively correlated with maximal temperature (p = 0.023, r(2) = 0.206, y = 64.156 - 0.028x, whereas SDR was positively correlated with maximal temperature (p = 0.009, r(2) = 0.263, y = 49.643 + 11.832x). The other factors correlate with the maximal temperature, although some factors showed a tendency to correlate. Some skull-related factors correlated with the maximal target area temperature. Although the number of patients in the present study was relatively small, the results offer information that could guide the selection of MRgFUS candidates.

  6. Gravitoelectromagnetic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagas, Christos G.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation has a rather long research history. It is well known, in particular, that gravity-wave distortions can drive propagating electromagnetic signals. Since forced oscillations provide the natural stage for resonances to occur, gravitoelectromagnetic resonances have been investigated as a means of more efficient gravity-wave detection methods. In this report, we consider the coupling between the Weyl and the Maxwell fields on a Minkowski background, which also applies to astrophysical environments where gravity is weak, at the second perturbative level. We use covariant methods that describe gravitational waves via the transverse component of the shear, instead of pure-tensor metric perturbations. The aim is to calculate the properties of the electromagnetic signal, which emerges from the interaction of its linear counterpart with an incoming gravitational wave. Our analysis shows how the wavelength and the amplitude of the gravitationally driven electromagnetic wave vary with the initial conditions. More specifically, for certain initial data, the amplitude of the induced electromagnetic signal is found to diverge. Analogous, diverging, gravitoelectromagnetic resonances were also reported in cosmology. Given that, we extend our Minkowski space study to cosmology and discuss analogies and differences in the physics and in the phenomenology of the Weyl-Maxwell coupling between the aforementioned two physical environments.

  7. Time-domain numerical computations of electromagnetic fields in cylindrical co-ordinates using the transmission line matrix: evaluation of radiaion losses from a charge bunch passing through a pill-box resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, J.; Robson, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    The two dimensional transmission line matrix (TLM) numerical method has been adapted to compute electromagnetic field distributions in cylindrical co-ordinates and it is applied to evaluate the radiation loss from a charge bunch passing through a 'pill-box' resonator. The computer program has been developed to calculate not only the total energy loss to the resonator but also that component of it which exists in the TM 010 mode. The numerically computed results are shown to agree very well with the analytically derived values as found in the literature which, therefore, established the degree of accuracy that is obtained with the TLM method. The particular features of computational simplicity, numerical stability and the inherently time-domain solutions produced by the TLM method are cited as additional, attractive reasons for using this numerical procedure in solving such problems. (Auth.)

  8. Improved acoustic levitation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, L. H.; Johnson, J. L.; Oran, W. A.; Reiss, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Concave driver and reflector enhance and shape levitation forces in acoustic resonance system. Single-mode standing-wave pattern is focused by ring element situated between driver and reflector. Concave surfaces increase levitating forces up to factor of 6 as opposed to conventional flat surfaces, making it possible to suspend heavier objects.

  9. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  10. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  11. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  12. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  13. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  14. Electromagnetic modeling in accelerator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Through the years, electromagnetic modeling using computers has proved to be a cost-effective tool for accelerator designs. Traditionally, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has been limited to resonator and magnet designs in two dimensions. In recent years with the availability of powerful computers, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has advanced significantly. Through the above conferences, it is apparent that breakthroughs have been made during the last decade in two important areas: three-dimensional modeling and time-domain simulation. Success in both these areas have been made possible by the increasing size and speed of computers. In this paper, the advances in these two areas will be described

  15. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  16. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  17. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  18. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  19. Contributed Review: Recent developments in acoustic energy harvesting for autonomous wireless sensor nodes applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Khattak, Muhammad Umair

    2016-02-01

    Rapid developments in micro electronics, micro fabrication, ultra-large scale of integration, ultra-low power sensors, and wireless technology have greatly reduced the power consumption requirements of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) and make it possible to operate these devices with energy harvesters. Likewise, other energy harvesters, acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs), have been developed and are gaining swift interest in last few years. This paper presents a review of AEHs reported in the literature for the applications of WSNs. Based on transduction mechanism, there are two types of AEHs: piezoelectric acoustic energy harvesters (PEAEHs) and electromagnetic acoustic energy harvesters (EMAEHs). The reported AEHs are mostly characterized under the sound pressure level (SPL) that ranges from 45 to 161 dB. The range for resonant frequency of the produced AEHs is from 146 Hz to 24 kHz and these produced 0.68 × 10-6 μW to 30 mW power. The maximum power (30 mW) is produced by a PEAEH, when the harvester is subjected to a SPL of 161 dB and 2.64 kHz frequency. However, for EMAEHs, the maximum power reported is about 1.96 mW (at 125 dB and 143 Hz). Under the comparable SPLs, the power production by the reported EMAEHs is relatively better than that of PEAEHs, moreover, due to lower resonant frequency, the EMAEHs are more feasible for the low frequency band acoustical environment.

  20. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  1. Electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth's upper atmosphere (review)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Khantadze; G. V. Jandieri; G. V. Jandieri; A. Ishimaru; T. D. Kaladze; Zh. M. Diasamidze

    2010-01-01

    A complete theory of low-frequency MHD oscillations of the Earth's weakly ionized ionosphere is formulated. Peculiarities of excitation and propagation of electromagnetic acoustic-gravity, MHD and planetary waves are considered in the Earth's ionosphere. The general dispersion equation is derived for the magneto-acoustic, magneto-gravity and electromagnetic planetary waves in the ionospheric E- and F-regions. The action of the geomagnetic field on the propagation of acous...

  2. Simulating the Resonant Acoustic Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    temperature excursions and void formation. High shear mixing can easily cause fluid cavitation , the sudden formation and catastrophic collapse of tiny voids...high viscosities, this fact does not preclude organized rotational or unstable fluid motion. Purely hydrodynamic instabilities such as Rayleigh...laminar flow equations. Mixing processes for this model are driven by viscous hydrodynamics . Figure 3. Slices of (a) vertical velocity and (b

  3. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  4. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  5. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  7. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  8. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  9. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  10. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    SPLs) both in ... several ambient energies such as wind, thermal, vibration, and solar are available and have been successfully trans- ..... mentsTM data acquisition (DAQ) card and NI LabVIEW software is used to acquire the signals from the ...

  11. Polarization dependence of double-resonance optical pumping and electromagnetically induced transparency in the 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transition of 87Rb atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2011-01-01

    The polarization dependence of double-resonance optical pumping (DROP) in the ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the 5S 1/2 -5P 3/2 -5D 5/2 transition of 87 Rb atoms is studied. The transmittance spectra in the 5S 1/2 (F=2)-5P 3/2 (F'=3)-5D 5/2 (F''=2,3,4) transition were observed as caused by EIT, DROP, and saturation effects in the various polarization combinations between the probe and coupling lasers. The features of the double-structure transmittance spectra in the 5S 1/2 (F=2)-5P 3/2 (F'=3)-5D 5/2 (F''=4) cycling transition were attributed to the difference in saturation effect according to the transition routes between the Zeeman sublevels and the EIT according to the two-photon transition probability.

  12. Nuclear reorientation in static and radio-frequency electro-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbers, D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reorientation by external electromagnetic fields is treated using Fano's irreducible tensor formulation of the problem. Although the main purpose of this paper is the description of the effects of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on an ensemble of oriented nuclei in the presence of a crystal electric field gradient (efg), the results are applicable to all types of nuclear or atomic orientation or angular correlation work. The theory is applied to a number of exemplary cases: magnetic field dependence of nuclear orientation in the presence of quadrupole interactions; sign determination in electric quadrupole coupling; line shapes of nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) signals; quadrupole splitting and multiquantum transitions in NMR with oriented nuclei. (orig./WBU) [de

  13. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  14. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  15. Investigation of Procedures for Automatic Resonance Extraction from Noisy Transient Electromagnetics Data. Volume III. Translation of Prony’s Original Paper and Bibliography of Prony’s Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-17

    Van Blaricum, "On the Source of Parameter Bias in Prony’s Method," 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 1980. Auton, J.R., "An Unbiased...Method for the Estimation of the SEM Parameters of an Electromagnetic System," 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 1980. Auton, J.R. and M.L...34 1980 NEM Conference, Disneyland Hotel, August 5-7, 1980. Chuang, C.W. and D.L. Moffatt, "Complex Natural Responances of Radar Targets via Prony’s

  16. Acoustic effects of single electrostatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzech, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharges, depending on their character, can emit different types of energy, resulting in different effects. Single electrostatic discharges besides generation of electromagnetic pulses are also the source of N acoustic waves. Their specified parameters depending on amount of discharging charge enable determination of value of released charge in a function of acoustic descriptor (e.g. acoustic pressure). Presented approach is the basics of acoustic method for measurement of single electrostatic discharges, enabling direct and contactless measurement of value of charge released during ESD. Method for measurement of acoustic effect of impact of a single electrostatic discharge on the environment in a form of pressure shock wave and examples of acoustic descriptors in a form of equation Q=f(p a ) are described. The properties of measuring system as well as the results of regression static analyses used to determine the described relationships are analysed in details. (paper)

  17. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields; Magnetresonanztomographie. Neuere Studien zur biologischen Wirkung statischer Magnetfelder und hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pophof, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer Wirkungen und Risiken ionisierender und nichtionisierender Strahlung, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wurden neue Studien zu biologischen Wirkungen starker statischer Magnetfelder und zu thermischen Effekten hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Feldern, wie sie bei der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) verwendet werden, publiziert. Viele dieser Studien sind noch nicht in aktuelle Sicherheitsempfehlungen eingeflossen. Wissenschaftliche Publikationen ab dem Jahr 2010 zur biologischen Wirkung statischer und elektromagnetischer Felder

  19. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2017-12-15

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric

  20. Absorption of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by plasma in electromagnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    Absorption of electromagnetic waves in plasma of the electromagnetic trap is investigated. An integro-differential equation describing the behaviour of the electrical and magnetic fields of the wave is obtained. The wave has a component along the plasma inhomogeneity axis. Solution of this equation is found within the low frequency range corresponding to the anomalous skin-effect. The possibility of ion-acoustic waves excitation is demonstrated. Expressions are found for reflection, absorption and transformation coefficients

  1. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  2. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  3. Anomalous acoustic dispersion in architected microlattice metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    KröDel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    The ability to control dispersion in acoustic metamaterials is crucial to realize acoustic filtering and rectification devices as well as perfect imaging using negative refractive index materials. Architected microlattice metamaterials immersed in fluid constitute a versatile platform for achieving such control. We investigate architected microlattice materials able to exploit locally resonant modes of their fundamental building blocks that couple with propagating acoustic waves. Using analytical, numerical and experimental methods we find that such lattice materials show a hybrid dispersion behavior governed by Biot's theory for long wavelengths and multiple scattering theory when wave frequency is close to the resonances of the building block. We identify the relevant geometric parameters to alter and control the group and phase velocities in this class of acoustic metamaterials. Furthermore, we fabricate small-scale acoustic metamaterial samples using high precision SLA additive manufacturing and test the resulting materials experimentally using a customized ultrasonic setup. This work paves the way for new acoustic devices based on microlattice metamaterials.

  4. Coupled elasto-electromagnetic waves in bounded piezoelectric structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Clezio, E Le [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2007-12-15

    The work studies theoretically the effect of electromagnetic wave generation on the acoustic wave reflection/transmission in anisotropic materials possessing piezoelectric properties. We are concerned with quasi-normal incidence at angles {theta}{sub i} {>=} v{sub a}/v{sub el} {approx} 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, where v{sub a} and v{sub el} are the typical velocities of the acoustic and electromagnetic waves. It is shown that electromagnetic and acoustic waves are able to interact strongly despite a huge difference in velocities so that the wave behavior of time-dependent electric fields can drastically change the coefficients of mode conversion. In particular, examples exist of the situations where the acoustic wave must be totally reflected but quasi-electrostatic calculations predict almost total transmission.

  5. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  6. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  7. Manipulation of biomimetic objects in acoustic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Castro , Angelica

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains 9 chapters making a total of 205 pages including articles. The articles are menctioned throughout the work and are listed as annexes. These articles were produced during the PhD.; Levitation is a promising tool for contactless guiding and non-toxic manipulation. Acoustic levitation by ultrasonic standing waves (USW) allows micron-scale particle manipulation in acoustic resonators. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the possibilities given by the acoustic levitatio...

  8. Acoustic Metacages for Omnidirectional Sound Shielding

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chen; Xie, Yangbo; Li, Junfei; Cummer, Steven A.; Jing, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Conventional sound shielding structures typically prevent fluid transport between the exterior and interior. A design of a two-dimensional acoustic metacage with subwavelength thickness which can shield acoustic waves from all directions while allowing steady fluid flow is presented in this paper. The structure is designed based on acoustic gradient-index metasurfaces composed of open channels and shunted Helmholtz resonators. The strong parallel momentum on the metacage surface rejects in-pl...

  9. The interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an inhomogeneous plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacina, J.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1982-07-01

    In connection with the problem of plasma heating by high-frequency waves a numerical code was developed which makes it possible to study the incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneous plasma slab. Using a one-dimensional model, non-magnetized plasma is described by means of two-fluid equations with finite electron pressure and with the adiabatic condition for all processes. It is shown that at normal incidence of a wave on a cold plasma, the wave is reflected from the region of plasma resonance. A standing wave arises which generates an electrostatic standing wave of a double frequency. At the same time the density gradient sharply rises in this region. In a warm plasma the incident wave again creates a standing wave but nonlinear perturbations propagate from the region of plasma resonance at ion acoustic velocity to the whole plasma volume. In this case the density gradient does not change very much. In the region of plasma resonance ion acoustic waves are also generated. (author)

  10. Proposed frustrated-total-reflection acoustic sensing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Modulation of electromagnetic energy transmission through a frustrated-total-reflection device by pressure-induced changes in the index of refraction is proposed for use as an acoustic detector. Maximum sensitivity occurs for angles of incidence near the critical angle. The minimum detectable pressure in air is limited by Brownian noise. Acoustic propagation losses and diffraction of the optical beam by the acoustic signal limit the minimum acoustic wavelength to lengths of the order of the spatial extent of the optical beam. The response time of the method is fast enough to follow individual acoustic waves

  11. Baffling or Baffled: Improve Your Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoo, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents techniques for evaluating the acoustics (reverberation time, and standing waves and resonance phenomena) of a band performance room. Gives instructions for building and placing inexpensive baffles (free-standing, portable sound barriers) to correct room defects. (SJL)

  12. Levitation With a Single Acoustic Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Pair of reports describes acoustic-levitation systems in which only one acoustic resonance mode excited, and only one driver needed. Systems employ levitation chambers of rectangular and cylindrical geometries. Reports first describe single mode concept and indicate which modes used to levitate sample without rotation. Reports then describe systems in which controlled rotation of sample introduced.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  14. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called ‘Faraday cage effect’). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells. PMID:27279775

  15. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, D. P.; Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called `Faraday cage effect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells.

  16. Generation of ion-acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves in an RF helicon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A. S.; Markov, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    A study is made of the generation of ion-acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves in a discharge excited in an external magnetic field by an electromagnetic wave in the whistler frequency range (ω LH He , where ω LH = √(ω He ω Hi ) and ω He and ω Hi are the electron and ion gyrofrequencies, respectively). The excitation of acoustic waves is attributed to the decay of a high-frequency hybrid mode forming a plasma waveguide into low-frequency acoustic waves and new high-frequency waves that satisfy both the decay conditions and the waveguide dispersion relations. The excitation of acoustic waves is resonant in character because the conditions for the generation of waveguide modes and for the occurrence of the corresponding nonlinear wave processes should be satisfied simultaneously. An unexpected effect is the generation of magnetoacoustic waves by whistlers. A diagnostic technique is proposed that allows one to determine the thermal electron velocity by analyzing decay conditions and dispersion relations for waves in the discharge channel

  17. In-line and Real-time Monitoring of Resonant Acoustic Mixing by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometric Technology for Process Analytical Technology Applications in Pharmaceutical Powder Blending Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoma; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Ashizawa, Kazuhide; Otsuka, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Resonant acoustic ® mixing (RAM) technology is a system that performs high-speed mixing by vibration through the control of acceleration and frequency. In recent years, real-time process monitoring and prediction has become of increasing interest, and process analytical technology (PAT) systems will be increasingly introduced into actual manufacturing processes. This study examined the application of PAT with the combination of RAM, near-infrared spectroscopy, and chemometric technology as a set of PAT tools for introduction into actual pharmaceutical powder blending processes. Content uniformity was based on a robust partial least squares regression (PLSR) model constructed to manage the RAM configuration parameters and the changing concentration of the components. As a result, real-time monitoring may be possible and could be successfully demonstrated for in-line real-time prediction of active pharmaceutical ingredients and other additives using chemometric technology. This system is expected to be applicable to the RAM method for the risk management of quality.

  18. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  19. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  20. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  1. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  2. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  3. Implementation of acoustic demultiplexing with membrane-type metasurface in low frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Liu, Peng; Hou, Zewei; Pei, Yongmao

    2017-04-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing technology, adopted to increase the information density, plays a significant role in optical communication. However, in acoustics, a similar function can be hardly implemented due to the weak dispersion in natural acoustic materials. Here, an acoustic demultiplexer, based on the concept of metasurfaces, is proposed for splitting acoustic waves and propagating along different trajectories in a low frequency range. An acoustic metasurface, containing multiple resonant units, is designed with various phase profiles for different frequencies. Originating from the highly dispersive properties, the resonant units are independent and merely work in the vicinity of their resonant frequencies. Therefore, by combing multiple resonant units appropriately, the phenomena of anomalous reflection, acoustic focusing, and acoustic wave bending can occur in different frequencies. The proposed acoustic demultiplexer has advantages on the subwavelength scale and the versatility in wave control, providing a strategy for separating acoustic waves with different Fourier components.

  4. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Han, Xiaole; Xia, Dong; Liu, Taolin; Lang, Hao

    2018-01-13

    Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  5. Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.

  6. Generation of strong electromagnetic power at 35 GHz from the interaction of a resonant cavity with a relativistic electron beam generated by a free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thibaut

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of electron-positron linear colliders must reach the TeV energy range. For this, one requires an adequate RF power source to feed the accelerating cavities of the collider. One way to generate this source is to use the Two Beam Accelerator concept in which the RF power is produced in resonant cavities driven by an intense bunched beam. In this thesis, I present the experimental results obtained at the CEA/CESTA using an electron beam generated by an induction linac. First, some studies were performed with the LELIA induction linac (2.2 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as a buncher at 35 GHz. A second part relates the experiment made with the PIVAIR induction linac (7 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) in order to measure the RF power extracted from a resonant cavity at 35 GHz, which is driven by the bunches produced in the FEL. One can also find a simple theoretical modeling of the beam-cavity interaction, and the numerical results dealing with the design of the cavity we tested. (author) [fr

  7. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  8. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  9. A programmable nonlinear acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metamaterials with specifically designed lattices can manipulate acoustic/elastic waves in unprecedented ways. Whereas there are many studies that focus on passive linear lattice, with non-reconfigurable structures. In this letter, we present the design, theory and experimental demonstration of an active nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, the dynamic properties of which can be modified instantaneously with reversibility. By incorporating active and nonlinear elements in a single unit cell, a real-time tunability and switchability of the band gap is achieved. In addition, we demonstrate a dynamic “editing” capability for shaping transmission spectra, which can be used to create the desired band gap and resonance. This feature is impossible to achieve in passive metamaterials. These advantages demonstrate the versatility of the proposed device, paving the way toward smart acoustic devices, such as logic elements, diode and transistor.

  10. Multipole resonance in the interaction of a spherical Ag nanoparticle with an emitting dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia-Dong; Song Feng; Zhang Jun; Wang Feng-Xiao; Wang Li-Chao; Liu Shu-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The effect of multipole resonance in the interaction between a spherical metallic nanoparticle (MNP) and an emitting dipole is studied with the Mie theory. The results show that the absorption peak of the MNP with respect to the field of the emitting dipole is blue-shifted with the decrease of the spacing between MNP and emitting dipole due to the enhanced multipole resonance. At a short distance, the enhanced multipole terms of scattering are not obvious compared with the dipole term. For the decay rate of the emitting dipole, multipole resonance brings about the enhancement of it largely at short spacing. For the radiative decay rate, the behavior is quite different. The dipole term is dominant at a short spacing, and the multipole term is dominant at a larger spacing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Acoustic energy harvesting by piezoelectric curved beams in the cavity of a sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Wu, Liang-Yu; Chen, Lien-Wen; Liu, Chia-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic energy harvesting by piezoelectric curved beams in the cavity of a sonic crystal is investigated. A resonant cavity of the sonic crystal is used to localize the acoustic wave as the acoustic waves are incident into the sonic crystal at the resonant frequency. The piezoelectric curved beam is placed in the resonant cavity and vibrated by the acoustic wave. The energy harvesting can be achieved as the acoustic waves are incident at the resonant frequency. A model for energy harvesting of the piezoelectric curved beam is also developed to predict the output voltage and power of the energy harvesting. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical

  12. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  13. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  14. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  15. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  16. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  17. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  18. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  19. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  20. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor