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Sample records for electrolyte non-pyrolytically produced

  1. Dendritic surface morphology of palladium hydride produced by electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, Peng; Bursill, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional and high-resolution electron microscopic studies of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride reveal a fascinating variety of surface profile morphologies. The observations provide direct information concerning the surface structure of palladium electrodes and the mechanism of electrolytic deposition of palladium black. Both classical electrochemical mechanisms and recent 'modified diffusion-limited-aggregation' computer simulations are discussed in comparison with the experimental results. 13 refs., 9 figs

  2. Catalytic biorefining of plant biomass to non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil and carbohydrates through hydrogen transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Paola; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-08-11

    Through catalytic hydrogen transfer reactions, a new biorefining method results in the isolation of depolymerized lignin--a non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil--in addition to pulps that are amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared with organosolv lignin, the lignin bio-oil is highly susceptible to further hydrodeoxygenation under low-severity conditions and therefore establishes a unique platform for lignin valorization by heterogeneous catalysis. Overall, the potential of a catalytic biorefining method designed from the perspective of lignin utilization is reported. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mg-containing hydroxyapatite coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cesar Augusto; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Durrant, Steven Frederick; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da, E-mail: cesar.augustoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Delgado-Silva, Adriana de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is promising for the processing of biomaterials because it enables the production of surfaces with adjustable composition and structure. In this work, aimed at the improvement of the bioactivity of titanium, PEO has been used to grow calcium phosphide coatings on titanium substrates. The effects of the addition of magnesium acetate to the electrolytes on the composition of the coatings produced during 120 s on Ti disks using bipolar voltage pulses and solutions of calcium and magnesium acetates and sodium glycerophosphate as electrolytes have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry with Rietveld refinement and profilometry were used to characterize the modified samples. Coatings composed of nearly 50 % of Mg-doped hydroxyapatite have been produced. In certain conditions up to 4% Mg can be incorporated into the coating without any observable significant structural modifications of the hydroxyapatite. (author)

  4. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  5. Tribological and Corrosion Properties of Coatings Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the ZA27 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyin; Mao, Yifan; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Linlin; DaCosta, Herbert

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a continuous and dense coating was deposited on samples of the ZA27 alloy through the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process to improve its wear and corrosion performance. A nontoxic and environmentally friendly inorganic salt, Na2SiO3, is chosen as electrolytes with different concentrations. The effect of the concentration of Na2SiO3 aqueous solutions on the coating performances was investigated. The coatings with 3Al2O3·2SiO2 (mullite), Zn2SiO4 and Al2O3 (either crystal phase or with some amorphous SiO2 phases) were formed by the PEO processes. It was found that the coating thickness increased with the increase in electrolyte concentration. However, the wear and corrosion resistance performance of the coatings did not improve as the coating's thickness increased. This was due to the fact that the coating produced with electrolytes of 10 g/L has a porous structure with large pore size. Among all the samples, coating produced by 15 g/L Na2SiO3 has the best wear and corrosion resistance, which is attributed to its continuous and dense structure with thickness of about 47 μm.

  6. Tribological and Corrosion Properties of Coatings Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the ZA27 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyin; Mao, Yifan; Li, Zhijian; Wang, Linlin; DaCosta, Herbert

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuous and dense coating was deposited on samples of the ZA27 alloy through the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process to improve its wear and corrosion performance. A nontoxic and environmentally friendly inorganic salt, Na2SiO3, is chosen as electrolytes with different concentrations. The effect of the concentration of Na2SiO3 aqueous solutions on the coating performances was investigated. The coatings with 3Al2O3·2SiO2 (mullite), Zn2SiO4 and Al2O3 (either crystal phase or with some amorphous SiO2 phases) were formed by the PEO processes. It was found that the coating thickness increased with the increase in electrolyte concentration. However, the wear and corrosion resistance performance of the coatings did not improve as the coating's thickness increased. This was due to the fact that the coating produced with electrolytes of 10 g/L has a porous structure with large pore size. Among all the samples, coating produced by 15 g/L Na2SiO3 has the best wear and corrosion resistance, which is attributed to its continuous and dense structure with thickness of about 47 μm.

  7. A method for producing electrolyte and heat resistant drilling muds from bentonite clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyev, K; Bedelcheva, A; Uzunova, I

    1979-01-01

    A method is developed for producing clay suspensions, which are resistant to electrolytes, high temperature and pressure, on the basis of bentonite clays with a high content of montmorillonite. The method is based on the subsequent introduction into the suspension of magnesium chloride (calcium chloride) and sodium chloride with intense mixing and maintenance of the high viscosity of the clay mass. The electrolytes are added in a specific order and volume: the magnesium chloride or calcium chloride at 1-3% and the sodium chloride at approximately 30%. The clay suspensions are characterized by high SNS and filtration (40 cm/sup 3/ in 30 min). The operational indicators may be regulated so that they remain in accordance with the required standards.

  8. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  9. Hydrogen evolution in enzymatic photoelectrochemical cell using modified seawater electrolytes produced by membrane desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyunku; Yoon, Jaekyung [Hydrogen Energy Research Center, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Bae, Sanghyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-ri, Hungub-myun, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea); Kim, Chunghwan; Kim, Suhan [Korea Institute of Water and Environment, K-Water, 462-1 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-730 (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    In the near future, potential water shortages are expected to occur all over the world and this problem will have a significant influence on the availability of water for water-splitting processes, such as photocatalysis and electrolysis, as well as for drinking water. For this reason, it has been suggested that seawater could be used as an alternative for the various water industries including hydrogen production. Seawater contains a large amount of dissolved ion components, thus allowing it to be used as an electrolyte in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems for producing hydrogen. Especially, the concentrate (retentate) stream shows higher salinity than the seawater fed to the membrane desalination process, because purified water (fresh water) is produced as the permeate stream and the waste brine is more concentrated than the original seawater. In this study, we investigated the hydrogen evolution rate in a photoelectrochemical system, including the preparation and characterization of an anodized tubular TiO{sub 2} electrode (ATTE) as both the photoanode and the cathode with the assistance of an immobilized hydrogenase enzyme and an external bias (solar cell), and the use of various qualities of seawater produced by membrane desalination processes as the electrolyte. The results showed that the rate of hydrogen evolution obtained using the nanofiltration (NF) retentate in the PEC system is ca. 105 {mu}mol/cm{sup 2} h, showing that this is an effective seawater electrolyte for hydrogen production, the optimum amount of enzyme immobilized on the cathode is ca. 3.66 units per geometrical unit area (1 cm x 1 cm), and the optimum external external bias supplied by the solar cell is 2.0 V. (author)

  10. Compatibility of electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions on long- term implanted dialysis catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, G J

    2007-01-01

    More than 20% of the world's population use a catheter for dialysis, despite guidelines limiting their use. Although the structure and design of the catheters differ by manufacturer, the material used in central venous catheters and peritoneal dialysis catheters are the same across manufacturers. Given the long-term use of these catheters in the dialysis population, the good compatibility of the antiseptics and disinfectants used on the catheters is imperative to prevent failure and cracking of the catheter material. Tensile strengths of commercially available catheters were measured after exposure to commonly used disinfectants. The tensile strength was then compared between the catheters by analyzing the displacement vs. force (N) curves produced during the evaluation. A total of 44 catheter lumens were evaluated. The electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solution, Alcavis 50/ExSept Plus, was the only solution shown to be compatible with all three catheter materials resulting in a deviation of less than 10% for each of the different catheter types. Electrolytically produced sodium hypochlorite solutions were the only solutions in this study that did not alter the physical properties of any of the catheters after long-term exposure.

  11. Influence of the reuse of the electrolytic solution on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of grade 4 titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Cesar A.; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino, E-mail: cesar.augustoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a process able to produce oxide coatings on light metals, such as Al, Ti, V, Mg, Ta and Nb. In this technique, the application of a voltage, in the range of hundreds of volts, between the sample and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte solution produces electrical fields intense enough to breakdown the insulating oxide layer on the sample surface giving rise to micro electric sparks[1]. These micro-arcs can locally melt the substrate alloying it with elements in the electrolyte solution [2]. In this work PEO has been used to produce coatings with high concentration of hydroxyapatite on Grade 4 titanium disks. The treatments were performed in a 1 liter stainless steel tank. The tank wall was used as the cathode and the coatings were produced during 120 s using calcium acetate and sodium glycerophosphate water solutions as electrolyte. The samples were biased with 480 V pulses with frequency and duty cycle of 100 Hz and 60%, respectively. Using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction it has been evaluated the influence of the number of reuses of the solution on the coating properties. The coating produced contains around 85% of HA and it has not been observed any significant changes in their properties when the same solution was reused up to 5 times. [1] A.L. Yerokhin, X. Nie, A. Leyland, A. Matthews, Surf. Coat. Technol. 130 (2000) 195 206. [2] C. A. Antonio, N. C. Cruz, et al. Materials Research. 17(6) 2014; 1427-1433. (author)

  12. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: → Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. → The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. → A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. → The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  14. A Simple Method to Functionalize the Surface of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Produced TiO2 Coatings for Growing Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Huan-Ping; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lin, Jia-Fu; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. • Simple pre-immersion in K 2 HPO 4 could functionalize the surfaces of the TiO 2 . • Such pre-immersion enhanced substantially the growth of hydroxyapatite in SBF. • Growth mechanisms of hydroxyapatite via the pre-immersion have been proposed. • MTT assay shows great osteoblast-like cell activity on the obtained hydroxyapatite. - Abstract: Conventionally, hydrothermal treatment was often used to modify the TiO 2 surface prior to the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) that is one of the most important implant biomaterials. In this work, a simple pre-immersion of the obtained TiO 2 in a weak base, instead of the conventionally high pressure-temperature hydrothermal pre-treatment, was conducted prior to the growth of HA. Firstly, anatase TiO 2 coatings with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation with optimized processing parameters. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission microscopy reveal that the anatase TiO 2 films with porous surfaces were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation. Subsequently, the films were pre-immersed in 0.1–2 M K 2 HPO 4 solutions for only 10 min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the −OH functional groups were generated after such pre-immersion, which could enhance significantly the growth of a single phase of HA in simulated body fluid (SBF). Growth mechanisms of HA via the pre-immersion treatment and soaking in SBF have been proposed. Moreover, the proliferation rate and attachment of the MG-63 osteoblast cells were greatly enhanced on the obtained HA compared to that without the immersion pre-treatment from the MTT assay and morphology analyses. This simple immersion pre-treatment evidently provides an easy route for the growth of HA and has great potential for biomedical applications.

  15. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  16. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  17. Effect of Nano-crystalline Ceramic Coats Produced by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on Corrosion Behavior of AA5083 Aluminum Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayananth, T.; Muthupandi, V.; Rao, S. R. Koteswara

    2010-01-01

    High specific strength offered by aluminum and magnesium alloys makes them desirable in modern transportation industries. Often the restrictions imposed on the usage of these alloys are due to their poor tribological and corrosion properties. However, their corrosion properties can be further enhanced by synthesizing ceramic coating on the substrate through Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process. In this study, nano-crystalline alumina coatings were formed on the surface of AA5083 aluminum alloy test coupons using PEO process in aqueous alkali-silicate electrolyte with and without addition of sodium aluminate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the crystallite size varied between 38 and 46 nm and α- and γ- alumina were the dominant phases present in the coatings. Corrosion studies by potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl revealed that the electrolyte composition has an influence on the corrosion resistance of nano-crystalline oxide layer formed.

  18. Application of sol gel spin coated yttria-stabilized zirconia layers for the improvement of solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by atmospheric plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Lars [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1W5 (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Tang, Zhaolin; Burgess, Alan [Northwest Mettech Corp., 467 Mountain Hwy, North Vancouver, British Columbia, V7J 2L3 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Due to its high thermal stability and purely oxide ionic conductivity, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most commonly used electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Standard electrolyte fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs involve wet ceramic techniques such as tape-casting or screen printing, requiring sintering steps at temperatures above 1300 C. Plasma spraying (PS) may provide a more rapid and cost efficient method to produce SOFCs without sintering. High-temperature sintering requires long processing times and can lead to oxidation of metal alloys used as mechanical supports, or to detrimental interreactions between the electrolyte and adjacent electrode layers. This study investigates the use of spin coated sol gel derived YSZ precursor solutions to fill the pores present in plasma sprayed YSZ layers, and to enhance the surface area for reaction at the electrolyte-cathode interface, without the use of high-temperature firing steps. The effects of different plasma conditions and sol concentrations and solid loadings on the gas permeability and fuel cell performance have been investigated. (author)

  19. Methods for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film for solid state electrolytes and protective electrode coatings for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Meng, Xiangbo

    2018-03-13

    A method for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film configured for use in an anode, cathode, or solid state electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery or a lithium-sulfur battery. The method includes repeating a cycle for a predetermined number of times in an inert atmosphere. The cycle includes exposing a substrate to a first precursor, purging the substrate with inert gas, exposing the substrate to a second precursor, and purging the substrate with inert gas. The film is a metal sulfide.

  20. Data on the optimized sulphate electrolyte zinc rich coating produced through in-situ variation of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, Ojo Sunday Isaac

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a comprehensive effect of particle loading and optimised process parameter on the developed zinc electrolyte was presented. The depositions were performed between 10-30 min at a stirring rate of 200 rpm at room temperature of 30 °C. The effect of coating difference on the properties and interfacial surface was acquired, at a voltage interval between 0.6 and 1.0 V for the coating duration. The framework of bath condition as it influences the coating thickness was put into consideration. Hence, the electrodeposition data for coating thickness, and coating per unit area at constant distance between the anode and cathode with depth of immersion were acquired. The weight gained under varying coating parameter were acquired and could be used for designing and given typical direction to multifunctional performance of developed multifacetal coatings in surface engineering application.

  1. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  2. Diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type produced on steel during vacuum titanizing process combined with the electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Krolikowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion carbide layers produced on steel surface by means of vacuum titanizing process have been studied. A new technological process combining a vacuum titanizing with an electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy has been proposed to increase of corrosion resistance of carbide layers. The effect of preliminary electrolytic deposition of Ni-Mo alloy on the NC10 steel surface on the titanized layer structure and its corrosion resistance has ben investigated. As a result, diffusion complex layers of TiC-Ni-Mo type on NC10 steel surface have been obtained. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on NC10 steel precovered with an electrolytic Ni-Mo alloy coating (70%Ni+30%Mo) revealed a presence of titanium carbide TiC, NiTi, MoTi and trace quantity of austenite. The image of the TiC-Ni-Mo complex layer on NC10 steel surface obtained by means of joined SEM+TEM method and diagrams of elements distribution in the layer diffusion zone have been shown. Concentration of depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the joined EDS+TEM method are shown. Concentration depth profiles of Ti, Ni, Mo, Cr and Fe in the layer diffusion zone obtained by means of the X r ay microanalysis and microhardness of the layer are shown. An X-ray structural analysis of titanized surfaces on the NC10 steel, without Ni-Mo alloy layer, revealed only a substantial presence of titanium carbide TiC. For corrosion resistance tests the steel samples with various diffusion layers and without layers were used: (i) the TiC-Ni-Mo titanized complex layers on NC10 steel, (ii) the TiC titanized carbide layers on the NC10 steel, (iii) the NC10 steel without layers. Corrosion measurements of sample under test have been performed in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 by means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance tests. It has been found that the corrosion resistance of titanized steel samples with the TiC and TiC-Ni-Mo layers is higher than for the steel

  3. A spectroscopic and microstructural study of oxide coatings produced on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, R.O.; Nie, X.; Northwood, D.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation) for production of oxide coatings on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy. ► Two different current modes namely pulsed unipolar and bipolar was used. ► Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to characterize the PEO plasma. ► This is the first attempt to characterize spectroscopically the PEO plasma of Ti and its alloys. ► The discharge behavior effect on the formation and structure of the coating was determined. - Abstract: In this study, we have used PEO (plasma electrolytic oxidation) for the production of oxide coatings on a Ti–6Al–4V alloy at two different current modes, namely pulsed unipolar and bipolar. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible and near UV band (280–800 nm) was used to characterize the PEO plasma. The emission spectra were recorded and the plasma temperature profile versus processing time was constructed using a line intensity ratios method. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the process parameters, including current mode and pulse duration time, on the plasma characteristics, surface morphology and microstructure and corrosion resistance of oxides grown on Ti–6Al–4V by PEO process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the coating microstructure, morphology and phase composition. The corrosion resistance of the coated and uncoated samples was examined by potentiodynamic polarization in a 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that the plasma temperature profiles are significantly influenced by changing the current mode from unipolar to bipolar. The strongest discharges that are initiated at the interface between the substrate and the coating can be reduced or eliminated by using a bipolar current mode. This produces a thinner, denser and more corrosion-resistant coating.

  4. Phenomenological theory of current-producing processes at the solid oxide electrolyte/gas electrode interface: steady-state polarization of fuel-cell electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murygin, I.V.; Chebotin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The polarization of fuel-cell electrodes (mixtures CO + CO 2 and H 2 + H 2 O) in systems with solid oxide electrolytes is discussed. The theory is based upon a process model where the electrode reaction zone can spread along the line of three-phase contact by diffusion of reaction partners and products across the electrolyte/electrode and electrolyte/gas interface

  5. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  6. Influence of the Ti microstructure on anodic self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers produced in ethylene glycol electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, J.M., E-mail: jan.macak@upce.cz [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jarosova, M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Jäger, A. [Department of Structure analysis, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sopha, H. [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Klementová, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the CAS, v.v.i., Husinec-Rez 1001, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The microstructure of Ti substrates investigated by EBSD. • Comparison of polished vs. unpolished substrates was carried out. • Grain orientation influences the uniformity of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • Tubes with different average diameter grow on grains with different orientation. • Grain size and boundaries influence the number of flaws in the tube layers. - Abstract: The relationship between the microstructure of Ti substrates and the anodic growth of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers obtained upon their anodization in the ethylene glycol based electrolytes on these substrates is reported for the first time. Polished Ti sheets with mirror-like surface as well as unpolished Ti foils were considered in this work. Grains with a wide range of crystallographic orientations and sizes were revealed by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and correlated with nanotube growth on both types of substrates. A preferred grain orientation with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface was observed on all substrates. Surfaces of all substrates were anodized for 18 h in ethylene glycol electrolytes containing 88 mM NH{sub 4}F and 1.5% water and thoroughly inspected by SEM. By a precise comparison of Ti substrates before and after anodization, the uniformity of produced self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers was evaluated in regard to the specific orientation of individual grains. Grains with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface turned out to be the most growth-promoting orientation on polished substrates. No orientation was found to be strictly growth-retarding, but sufficient anodization time (24 h) was needed to obtain uniform nanotube layers on all grains without remnant porous initial oxide. In contrast with polished Ti sheets, no specific orientation was found to significantly promote or retard the nanotube growth in the case of unpolished Ti foils. Finally, the difference between the average nanotube diameters of

  7. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  8. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  9. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  10. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  11. Lead-Free Sn-Ce-O Composite Coating on Cu Produced by Pulse Electrodeposition from an Aqueous Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-10-01

    Pulse-electrodeposited Sn-Ce-O composite solder coatings were synthesized on a Cu substrate from an aqueous acidic solution containing stannous sulfate (SnSO4·3H2O), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and Triton X-100 as an additive. The codeposition was achieved by adding nano-cerium oxide powder in varying concentrations from 5 g/L to 20 g/L into the electrolytic bath. Microstructural characterization was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the deposits consist mainly of tetragonal β (Sn) with reduced cerium oxide species. The composite coatings thus obtained exhibit a smaller grain size, possess higher microhardness, and a lower melting point than the monolithic Sn coating. The electrical resistivity of the developed composites increases, however, but lies within the permissible limits for current lead-free solder applications. Also, an optimum balance of properties in terms of microhardness, adhesion, melting point and resistivity can be obtained with 0.9 wt.% cerium oxide in the Sn matrix, which enables potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  12. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  13. Heavy-water extraction from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeRoy, R.L.; Hammerli, M.; Butler, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy water may be produced from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams using a combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process. The method comprises contacting feed water in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas originating partly from a non-electrolytic hydrogen stream and partly from an electrolytic hydrogen stream, so as to enrich the feed water with the deuterium extracted from both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic hydrogen gas, and passing the deuterium water to an electrolyser wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed through the catalyst column. (L.L.)

  14. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  15. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  16. Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

    2010-01-01

    Solid electrolytes have been a long-standing goal of the battery industry since they have been considered safer than flammable liquid electrolytes and are capable of producing batteries with higher energy densities. The latter can be achieved by using a lithium metal anode, which is unstable against liquid electrolytes. Past attempts at polymer electrolytes for lithium-anode batteries have failed due to the formation of lithium dendrites after repeated cycling. To overcome this problem, we ha...

  17. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  18. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  19. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  20. Mechanisms for naphthalene removal during electrolytic aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ramesh K; Flora, Joseph R V; Ferry, John

    2003-02-01

    Batch tests were performed to investigate chemical and physical processes that may result during electrolytic aeration of a contaminated aquifer using naphthalene as a model contaminant. Naphthalene degradation of 58-66% took place electrolytically and occurred at the same rates at a pH of 4 and 7. 1,4-naphthoquinone was identified as a product of the electrolysis. Stripping due to gases produced at the electrodes did not result in any naphthalene loss. Hydrogen peroxide (which may be produced at the cathode) did not have any effect on naphthalene, but the addition of ferrous iron (which may be present in aquifers) resulted in 67-99% disappearance of naphthalene. Chlorine (which may be produced from the anodic oxidation of chloride) can effectively degrade naphthalene at pH of 4, but not at a pH of 7. Mono-, di- and poly chloronaphthalenes were identified as oxidation products. Ferric iron coagulation (due to the oxidation of ferrous iron) did not significantly contribute to naphthalene loss. Overall, electrolytic oxidation and chemical oxidation due to the electrolytic by-products formed are significant abiotic processes that could occur and should be accounted for if bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites via electrolytic aeration is considered. Possible undesirable products such as chlorinated compounds may be formed when significant amounts of chlorides are present.

  1. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  2. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  3. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A study of electrolytic tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, E.K.; Talcott, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium production is being investigated using cathodes made from palladium and its alloys with various surface treatments. Three anode materials have been studied as well as different impurities in the electrolyte. Tritium has been produced in about 10% of the cells studied but there is, as yet, no pattern of behavior that would make the effect predictable. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.

    1976-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur. 4 claims, 2 figures

  8. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  9. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  10. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigara, K; Watanabe, K; Kawamura, K; Kawada, T; Mizusaki, J; Ishigame, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref

  12. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  13. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  14. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  15. Electrolytic plasma processing of steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejar, M.A; Araya, R.N; Baeza, B

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-chemical treatments of steels with plasma is normally carried out in low-pressure ionized gaseous atmospheres. Among the treatments used most often are: nitruration, carburization and boronized. A plasma can also generate at atmospheric pressure. One way to produce it is with an electrochemical cell that works at a relatively high inter-electrode voltage and under conditions of heavy gas generation. This type of plasma is known as electrolytic plasma. This work studies the feasibility of using electrolytic plasma for the surface processing of steels. Two processes were selected: boronized and nitruration., for the hardening of two types of steel: one with low carbon (1020) and one with low alloy (4140). In the case of the nitruration, the 1020 steel was first aluminized. The electrolytes were aqueous solutions of borax for the boronizing and urea for the nitruration. The electrolytic plasmas were classified qualitatively, in relation with their luminosity by low, medium and high intensity. The boronizing was carried out with low intensity plasmas for a period of one hour. The nitruration was performed with plasmas of different intensities and for period of a few minutes to half an hour. The test pieces processed by electrolytic plasma were characterized by micro-hardness tests and X-ray diffraction. The maximum surface hardnesses obtained for the 1020 and 4140 steels were the following: 300 and 700 HV for the boronizing, and 1650 and 1200 HV for the nitruration, respectively. The utilization of an electrolytic plasma permits the surface processing of steels, noticeably increasing their hardness. With this type of plasma some thermo-chemical surface treatments can be done very rapidly as well (CW)

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Stoermer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes using a pulsed DC power source. The microstructure and composition of the PEO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was found that the electrolyte composition has a significant effect on the coating evolution and on the resulting coating characteristics, such as microstructure, composition, coating thickness, roughness and thus on the corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating formed in silicate electrolyte was found to be superior to that formed in phosphate electrolyte in both the short-term and long-term electrochemical corrosion tests.

  17. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  18. A review of electrolyte materials and compositions for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Deng, Yida; Hu, Wenbin; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-11-07

    Electrolytes have been identified as some of the most influential components in the performance of electrochemical supercapacitors (ESs), which include: electrical double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors and hybrid supercapacitors. This paper reviews recent progress in the research and development of ES electrolytes. The electrolytes are classified into several categories, including: aqueous, organic, ionic liquids, solid-state or quasi-solid-state, as well as redox-active electrolytes. Effects of electrolyte properties on ES performance are discussed in detail. The principles and methods of designing and optimizing electrolytes for ES performance and application are highlighted through a comprehensive analysis of the literature. Interaction among the electrolytes, electro-active materials and inactive components (current collectors, binders, and separators) is discussed. The challenges in producing high-performing electrolytes are analyzed. Several possible research directions to overcome these challenges are proposed for future efforts, with the main aim of improving ESs' energy density without sacrificing existing advantages (e.g., a high power density and a long cycle-life) (507 references).

  19. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Conductometry of electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.

    1992-09-01

    A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  1. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  2. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  3. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  4. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  5. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  6. Note: Electrochemical etching of cylindrical nanoprobes using a vibrating electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zeng, Yongbin; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical etching process using a vibrating electrolyte of potassium hydroxide to prepare tungsten cylindrical nanotips is developed. The vibrating electrolyte eases the effects of a diffusion layer and extends the etching area, which aid in the production of cylindrical nanotips. Larger amplitudes and a vibration frequency of 35 Hz are recommended for producing cylindrical nanotips. Nanotips with a tip radius of approximately 43 nm and a conical angle of arctan 0.0216 are obtained

  7. Electrolytic coloration of air-grown sodium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Han Li; Song Cuiying; Guo Meili; Wang Na

    2007-01-01

    Air-grown sodium fluoride crystals were colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which should mainly benefit appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. O 2 - , F, M, N 1 , N 2 color centers and O 2- -F + complexes were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V color center migration was determined. The formation of the color centers was explained

  8. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  9. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  10. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates

  11. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  12. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  13. Electrolytic preconcentration in instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioda, R E; Batley, G E; Lund, W; Wang, J; Leach, S C

    1986-05-01

    The use of electrolytic deposition as a separation and preconcentration step in trace metal analysis is reviewed. Both the principles and applications of the technique are dealt with in some detail. Electrolytic preconcentration can be combined with a variety of instrumental techniques. Special attention is given to stripping voltammetry, potentiometric stripping analysis, different combinations with atomic-absorption spectrometry, and the use of flow-through porous electrodes. It is pointed out that the electrolytic preconcentration technique deserves more extensive use as well as fundamental investigation.

  14. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  16. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  17. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  18. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  19. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  20. Virus-Assembled Flexible Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces for Enhanced Polymer-Based Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-aspect-ratio cobalt-oxide-coated Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV- assembled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE nonstick surfaces were integrated with a solvent-free polymer electrolyte to create an anode-electrolyte interface for use in lithium-ion batteries. The virus-assembled PTFE surfaces consisted primarily of cobalt oxide and were readily intercalated with a low-molecular-weight poly (ethylene oxide (PEO based diblock copolymer electrolyte to produce a solid anode-electrolyte system. The resulting polymer-coated virus-based system was then peeled from the PTFE backing to produce a flexible electrode-electrolyte component. Electrochemical studies indicated the virus-structured metal-oxide PEO-based interface was stable and displayed robust charge transfer kinetics. Combined, these studies demonstrate the development of a novel solid-state electrode architecture with a unique peelable and flexible processing attribute.

  1. Electrolytic formation of technetium complexes with π-acceptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, F.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of pertechnetate was performed in aqueous solution containing π-acceptor ligands. Cyanide and 1,10-phenanthroline were the selected ligands. In both cases, electrolyses produced a cathodic TcO 2 deposit and soluble Tc complexes. When cyanide was the ligand, the complexes formed were [Tc(CN) 6 ] 5- and [TcO 2 (CN) 4 ] 3- . When working with the amine, [Tc(phen) 3 ] 2+ and another positively charged species were found after reaction. Results are compared with previous studies with amines, and the usefulness of the electrolytic route to obtain Tc complexes is evaluated. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  3. Electrochemical testing of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    Electrochemical performance of metal-supported plasma sprayed (PS) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was tested for three nominal electrolyte thicknesses and three electrolyte fabrication conditions to determine the effects of electrolyte thickness and microstructure on open circuit voltage (OCV) and series resistance (R s). The measured OCV values were approximately 90% of the Nernst voltages, and electrolyte area specific resistances below 0.1 Ω cm 2 were obtained at 750 °C for electrolyte thicknesses below 20 μm. Least-squares fitting was used to estimate the contributions to R s of the YSZ bulk material, its microstructure, and the contact resistance between the current collectors and the cells. It was found that the 96% dense electrolyte layers produced from high plasma gas flow rate conditions had the lowest permeation rates, the highest OCV values, and the smallest electrolyte-related voltage losses. Optimal electrolyte thicknesses were determined for each electrolyte microstructure that would result in the lowest combination of OCV loss and voltage loss due to series resistance for operating voltages of 0.8 V and 0.7 V.

  4. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L -1 and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process

  5. Utilization of aloe vera extract as electrolyte for an accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, F.; Sispriatna, D.; Ikhsan, K.; Masrura, M.; Azzahra, S. S.; Mahidin; Supardan, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Aloe vera contains acid, which has the potential to generate electric current. The objective of this research is to study the potency of aloe vera extract as electrolyte for an accumulator. Experimental results showed that aloe vera extract has no a stable value of voltage and currency. The voltage and currency of aloe vera extract were reduced more than 50% for 60 minutes. Then, aloe vera extract was mixed with accu zuur to produce electrolyte solution. The mixture composition of aloe vera extract to accu zuur of 50:50 (v/v) generated stable voltage and currency. The experimental results showed the potential use of aloe vera extract to reduce the chemicals used in a conventional electrolyte solution.

  6. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  7. Equilibrium calculation for the electrolytic reduction process of the ACP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Seo, Chung Seok; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2006-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction process is the most critical process of the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) since most of the chemical reactions take place during this reduction process in a molten salt bath. However, it is very difficult to observe the behavior of all the spent fuel elements by experiments. Therefore, a perspective calculation is required to predict how much the chemicals are distributed between the phases and which forms are stable in each phase. Chemical equilibria take place during the electrolytic reduction process. The reduction process uses a porous magnesia filter and the materials to be reduced are loaded into the filter, which means the filter, the cathode of the electrolytic reduction cell, acts as a packed-bed reactor. Lithium metal is produced by an electrolytic reaction in a molten Li 2 O-LiCl cell and the reaction is denoted as Eq. In this work, attention has been paid to the chemical reactions of Eq. since an electrochemical reaction is controlled easily by the supplied current and the extents of the chemical reactions are determined by considering many candidates species. Uranium oxides, for example, can be reduced to U 4 O 9 , UO 2 , and/or U when U 3 O 8 is fed to the electrolytic reduction process

  8. Effects of electrolytes variation on formation of oxide layers of 6061 Al alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Bon-Heun KOO; Chan-Gyu LEE; Young-Joo KIM; Sung-Hun LEE; Eungsun BYON

    2009-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO) processes were carried out to produce ceramic layers on 6061 aluminum substrates in four kinds of electrolytes such as silicate and aluminate solution with and without sodium fluorosilicate. The PEO processes were carried out under a hybrid voltage (260 V DC combined with 200 V, 60 Hz AC amplitude) at room temperature for 5 min. The composition, microstructure and element distribution analyses of the PEO-treated layers were carried out by XRD and SEM & EDS. The effect of the electrolyte contents on the growth mechanism, element distribution and properties of oxide layers were studied. It is obvious that the layers generated in aluminate solutions show smoother surfaces than those in silicate solutions. Moreover, an addition of fluorine ion can effectively control the layer porosity; therefore, it can enhance the properties of the layers.

  9. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  10. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed

  11. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  12. The installation and dismantling of electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to construction of aluminium electrolytic cells, their installation and dismantling. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  13. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  14. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  15. A self-standing hydrogel neutral electrolyte for high voltage and safe flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, N.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2017-04-01

    The development of safe flexible supercapacitors implies the use of new non-liquid electrolytes for avoiding device leakage which combine mechanical properties and electrochemical performance. In this sense, hydrogel electrolytes composed of a solid non-conductive matrix holding an aqueous electrolytic phase are a reliable solution. In this work, we propose a green physical route for producing self-standing hydrogel films from a PVA polymer based on the freezing/thawing method without using chemical cross-linking agents. Moreover, a neutral electrolytic phase as Na2SO4 is used for reaching higher cell voltages than in an acidic or basic electrolyte. Such new PVA-Na2SO4 hydrogel electrolyte, which also acts as separator, allows reaching voltages windows as high as 1.8 V in a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor with optimal capacitance retention through thousands of cycles. Additionally, in reason of the fast mobility of the ions inside of the polymeric matrix, the hydrogel electrolyte based supercapacitor keeps the power density of the liquid electrolyte device.

  16. Electrolyte effects on the surface chemistry and cellular response of anodized titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Naofumi; Kozuka, Taro; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti samples were anodized using various electrolytes. • Anodization decreased carbon adsorption, improving hydrophilicity. • Improved hydrophilicity led to improved cellular attachment. • Only one electrolyte showed any heteroatom incorporation into the TiO 2 layer. • Choice of electrolyte played no role on the effects of anodization. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium (Ti) material is used to enhance biocompatibility, yet the effects of various electrolytes on surface characteristics and cellular behavior have not been completely elucidated. To investigate this topic, oxide layers were produced on Ti substrates by anodizing them in aqueous electrolytes of (NH 4 ) 2 O·5B 2 O 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 , after which their surface characteristics and cellular responses were examined. Overall, no surface differences between the electrolytes were visually observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the anodized surfaces are composed of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), while incorporation from electrolyte was only observed for (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 . Surface adsorption of carbon contaminants during sterilization was suppressed by anodization, leading to lower water contact angles. The attachment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells was also improved by anodization, as evidenced by visibly enlarged pseudopods. This improved attachment performance is likely due to TiO 2 formation. Overall, electrolyte selection showed no effect on either surface chemistry or cellular response of Ti materials

  17. Carboxymethyl Carrageenan Based Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Jumaah, F.N.; Ghani, M.A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlights the potential of carboxymethyl carrageenan based on iota and kappa to be utilized as host polymer. • The highest conductivity were achieved up to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 by carboxymethyl carrageenan without the addition of plasticizer. • The electrochemical stability windows of the films were electrochemically stable up to 3.0 V. - Abstract: A series of biodegradable carboxymethyl carrageenan based polymer electrolytes, which are carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan (sulphate per disaccharide) and carboxymethyl iota carrageenan (two sulphates per disaccharide), have been prepared by a solution casting technique with different ratios of lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) salts. Interestingly, the lithium ions tended to interact with the carbonyl group in the different modes of symmetry, as observed from reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In the carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan electrolytes, as the concentration of LiNO 3 increased, the asymmetric stretching peak of the carbonyl bond became dominant because it can be observed clearly with the shifting of the peak from 1592 to 1602 cm −1 due to the interaction between the lithium ion and the carbonyl group, while the broad O-H stretching peak became sharp and intense. However, for the carboxymethyl iota carrageenan, the asymmetry stretching mode of the carbonyl group shifted from 1567 to 1599 cm −1 , as the salt concentration increased. The shifting of the C-O-C peak also occurred in the iota-based electrolytes. However, the changes in the peak that represented SO 4 2− symmetric stretching were only detected when the ion pair formation was observed. It was proposed that the peak shifting was due to the presence of the lithium ion pathway, forming a dative bond between the lithium and oxygen in the carbonyl group. Accordingly, as more peak shifting was observed, the number of the ion pathways also increased. This hypothesis was supported by the impedance

  18. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  19. Insulated electrocardiographic electrodes. [without paste electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R. M.; Portnoy, W. A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An integrated system is disclosed including an insulated electrode and an impedance transformer which can be assembled in a small plastic housing and used for the acquisition of electrocardiographic data. The electrode may be employed without a paste electrolyte and may be attached to the body for extended usage without producing skin reaction. The electrode comprises a thin layer of suitable nontoxic dielectric material preferably deposited by radio frequency sputtering onto a conductive substrate. The impedance transformer preferably comprises an operational amplifier having an FET input stage connected in the unity gain configuration which provides a very low lower cut-off frequency, a high input impedance with a very small input bias current, a low output impedance, and a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  1. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  2. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  3. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  4. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  5. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  6. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  7. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Wu Yanru

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. Characteristic OH - spectral band is observed in the absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. Characteristic O - , OH - , U, V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + , F, R 2 and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current-time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration process are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: → Expanded the traditional electrolysis method. → Hydroxyl-doped potassium chloride crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. → Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. → V color centers were produced directly and F and F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  8. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothmann, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces

  9. Transpassive electrodissolution of depleted uranium in alkaline electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1998-03-01

    To aid in removal of oralloy from the nuclear weapons stockpile, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are decontaminating oralloy parts by electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline electrolytes composed of sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. To improve the process, electrodissolution experiments were performed with depleted uranium to understand the effects of various operating parameters. Sufficient precipitate was also produced to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the uranium oxide precipitates from the electrolyte before it enters the decontamination fixture. In preparation for the experiments, a potential-pH diagram for uranium was constructed from thermodynamic data for fully hydrated species. Electrodissolution in unstirred solutions showed that uranium dissolution forms two layers, an acidic bottom layer rich in uranium and an alkaline upper layer. Under stirred conditions results are consistent with the formation of a yellow precipitate of composition UO 3 ·2H 2 O, a six electron process. Amperometric experiments showed that current efficiency remained near 100% over a wide range of electrolytes, electrolyte concentrations, pH, and stirring conditions

  10. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  12. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great efforts over the past decades, thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes in mixed solvents is still a challenge today. The existing modeling frameworks based on activity coefficient models are data-driven and require expert knowledge to be parameterized. It has been suggested...... using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  13. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  14. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  15. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  16. Double-membrane triple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushan, Yan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2018-03-13

    A redox flow battery is provided having a double-membrane (one cation exchange membrane and one anion exchange membrane), triple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and one electrolyte positioned between and in contact with the two membranes). The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte. This design physically isolates, but ionically connects, the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte. The physical isolation offers great freedom in choosing redox pairs in the negative electrolyte and positive electrolyte, making high voltage of redox flow batteries possible. The ionic conduction drastically reduces the overall ionic crossover between negative electrolyte and positive one, leading to high columbic efficiency.

  17. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  18. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  19. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  20. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  1. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.

    2017-12-26

    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  2. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture results of the investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process on some metals (aluminum, titanium, tantalum, magnesium, and zirconium were presented. Whole process involves anodizing metals above the dielectric breakdown voltage where numerous micro-discharges are generated continuously over the coating surface. For the characterization of PEO process optical emission spectroscopy and real-time imaging were used. These investigations enabled the determination of electron temperature, electron number density, spatial density of micro-discharges, the active surface covered by micro-discharges, and dimensional distribution of micro-discharges at various stages of PEO process. Special attention was focused on the results of the study of the morphology, chemical, and phase composition of oxide layers obtained by PEO process on aluminum, tantalum, and titanium in electrolytes containing tungsten. Physicochemical methodes: atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for examining obtained oxide coatings. Also, the application of the obtained oxide coatings, especially the application of TiO2/WO3 coatings in photocatalysis, were discussed.

  4. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  5. High-performance electrolyte in the presence of dextrose and its derivatives for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Liao; Lu, Yi-Fang; Do, Jing-Shan

    Dextrose and its derivatives (e.g. glucose, gluconic acid and gluconic lactone) are added to modify the characteristics of electrolytes used in aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The results show that the conductivity and sparking voltage of the electrolytes are severely affected by the concentration of dextrose gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. In addition, the pH of the electrolyte is only slightly affected by the quantity of gluconic acid and gluconic lactone. The capacitance, dissipation factor, and leakage current of capacitors impregnated with the electrolytes prepared in this work are periodically measured under storage conditions and loading at 105 °C.

  6. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zheng; He Xiangming; Pu Weihua; Wan Chunrong; Jiang Changyin

    2006-01-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries

  7. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  8. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  9. Influence of the type of electrolyte on the morphological and crystallographic characteristics of lead powder particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nebojša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead electrodeposition processes from the basic (nitrate and complex (acetate electrolytes were mutually compared by the scanning electron microscopic and the X-ray diffraction analysis of the produced powder particles. The shape of dendritic particles strongly depended on the type of electrolyte. The dendrites composed of stalk and weakly developed primary branches (the primary type were predominantly formed from the basic electrolyte. The ramified dendrites composed of stalk and of both primary and secondary branches (the secondary type were mainly formed from the complex electrolyte. In the both type of powder particles Pb crystallites were predominantly oriented in the (111 plane. Formation of powder particles of the different shape with the strong (111 preferred orientation was discussed and explained by the consideration of the general characteristics of the growth of a crystal in the electrocrystallization processes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172046: Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of nanostructured functional materials for application in new technologies

  10. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Zheng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xiangming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn; Pu Weihua [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wan Chunrong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang Changyin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-10-25

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries.

  11. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  12. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous ...

  13. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  14. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nishiumi

    2009-01-01

    spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and NH4Cl to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte Al2O3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  15. F4U production by electrolytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban Duque, A.; Gispert Benach, M.; Hernandez Arroyo, F.; Montes Ponce de Leon, M.; Rojas de Diego, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the nuclear fuel cycle program developed at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission it has been studied the electrolytic reduction of U-VI to U-IV. The effect of the materials, electrolyte concentration, pH, current density, cell size and laboratory scale production is studied. The Pilot Plant and the production data are also described. (Author) 18 refs

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  17. Electrolytic production and dispensing of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is undoubtedly the only option that can meet both the California zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standard and the President`s goal of tripling automobile efficiency without sacrificing performance in a standard 5-passenger vehicle. The three major automobile companies are designing and developing FCEVs powered directly by hydrogen under cost-shared contracts with the Department of Energy. Once developed, these vehicles will need a reliable and inexpensive source of hydrogen. Steam reforming of natural gas would produce the least expensive hydrogen, but funding may not be sufficient initially to build both large steam reforming plants and the transportation infrastructure necessary to deliver that hydrogen to geographically scattered FCEV fleets or individual drivers. This analysis evaluates the economic feasibility of using small scale water electrolysis to provide widely dispersed but cost-effective hydrogen for early FCEV demonstrations. We estimate the cost of manufacturing a complete electrolysis system in large quantities, including compression and storage, and show that electrolytic hydrogen could be cost competitive with fully taxed gasoline, using existing residential off-peak electricity rates.

  18. O electrolyte for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Almariri, A.

    2014-09-01

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared in the dark by anodic etching of n+-type (111) silicon substrate in a HF:HCl:C2H5OH:H2O2:H2O electrolyte. The processed PS layer is characterized by means of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle (CA) measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman scattering. The CA of fresh PS layer is found to be ~142°. On aging at ambient conditions, the CA decreases gently to reach ~133° after 3 month, and then it is stabilized for a prolonged time of aging. The visible PL emission from the PS layer also exhibits a good stability against aging time. The FTIR and XPS measurements and analysis show that the stable aged PS layer has rather SiO2-rich surface. The micro/nanostructure nature of the PS layer is revealed from SEM and micro-Raman results and correlated to CA results. Stable hydrophobic surface of oxidized PS layer is attractive for bio-applications. The efficiency of the produced PS layers as an entrapping template for specific immobilization of IgG2a antibody via physical absorption process is demonstrated.

  19. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Potential and costs of electrolytical hydrogen production by secondary energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S. N. M. de; Silva, E. P. da

    1998-01-01

    This paper makes a description of the availability supply secondary hydroelectric power (secondary energy) in the Brazilian interconnected hydroelectric systems, then with the data attained it is made an estimation of electrolytical hydrogen that can be produced by means of Brazilian secondary hydroelectric power. Also are determined the costs of electrolytical hydrogen production, by way of utilisation of the secondary hydroelectric power availability in the hydroelectric system of the South and Southeastern regions, with the variation of hydrogen plant capacity that allow identify the cases where hydrogen can be produced at a lower costs. (author)

  1. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-01-01

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3 SO 3- . The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10 -3 Scm -1 . The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2 O 4 cells

  2. Manufacturing of Electrolyte and Cathode Layers SOFC Using Atmospheric Spraying Method and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulistyo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC has created various interest in many parties, due to its capability to convert gases into electricity. The main requirement of SOFC cell components is to be produced as thin as possible to minimize the losses of electrical resistance, as well as able to support internal and external loads. This paper discusses the procedure of making a thin electrolyte layer, as well as a porous thin layer cathode using atmospheric spraying technique. The procedure of spraying was in room temperature with the process of sintering at temperature of 13500 C held for 3 hours. The SOFC characterization of electrolyte and cathode microstructure was determined by using the SEM, FESEM, XRD and impedance spectroscopy, to measure the impedance of SOFC cells. The results show that the thickness of thin layer electrolyte and porous cathode obtained of about 20 µm and 4 µm, respectively. Also the SOFC cell impedance was measured of 2.3726 x 106 Ω at room temperature. The finding also demonstrated that although the materials (anode, cathode and electrolyte possess different coefficient thermal expansion, there was no evidence of flaking layers which seen the materials remain intact. Thus, the atmospheric spraying method can offer an alternative method to manufacturing of SOFC thin layer electrolyte and cathode. [Key words: SOFC; spraying method; electrolyte; cathode

  3. Effects of supporting electrolyte on galvanic deposition of Cu2O crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lida; Liu Guichang; Xue Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effects of electrolyte on the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals have been investigated. → The chemical nature of supporting electrolyte plays important roles in the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals. → Cubic Cu 2 O crystals are formed in chloride electrolytes. → Truncated octahedral Cu 2 O crystals are produced in nitrate, sulfate and fluoride electrolytes. - Abstract: The effects of introduced supporting electrolyte on the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the chemical nature of supporting electrolytes plays very important roles in the galvanic deposition of Cu 2 O crystals. The chloride stabilizes the (1 0 0) planes of Cu 2 O crystals, resulting in the formation of cubic crystals, while nitrate, sulfate and fluoride stabilize the (1 1 1) planes of Cu 2 O crystals, leading to the deposition of truncated octahedral and octahedral Cu 2 O crystals. It provides a facile way to control the morphology of galvanically obtained Cu 2 O crystals by indirectly adjusting the inorganic adsorption agents.

  4. FY 2000 report on the results of development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems. Development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems (Development of technology for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems); 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no shutsuryoku yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of technologies for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems and waste heat, to spread cogeneration systems incorporating PEFC systems for residential purposes. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The program for high-efficiency peripherals for residential PFEC systems attempts use of GaN-FET as the semiconductor device of wide band gap and high breakdown voltage to realize conversion efficiency over 90% by improving inverter efficiency. Two types of the prototype heat recovery systems are developed for the PEFC, one incorporating a latent heat cooling system and the other a water cooling system, to improve heat recovery efficiency and increase heat recovery temperature. The program for technology to fit PEFC output to energy demand develops hot water supply systems provided with a hot water storage function for stable supply of hot water irrespective of the heat recovery conditions, and also with a back-up function with burners. The program also develops the PEFC system of fine load following characteristics, for which pure hydrogen is used as the fuel to allow the system to instantaneously follow fluctuating loads. The program for high-efficiency partial load operation technology studies a 1kW-class residential PEFC cogeneration system incorporating a power storage device for high-efficiency operation at partial loads, where the former operates in a high output mode while the latter absorbs fluctuating loads. (NEDO)

  5. A Suitable Polysulfide Electrolyte for CdSe Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polysulfide liquid electrolyte is developed for the application in CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs. A solvent consisting of ethanol and water in the ratio of 8 : 2 by volume has been found as the optimum solvent for preparing the liquid electrolytes. This solvent ratio appears to give higher cell efficiency compared to pure ethanol or water as a solvent. Na2S and S give rise to a good redox couple in the electrolyte for QDSSC operation, and the optimum concentrations required are 0.5 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Addition of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN to the electrolyte further enhances the performance. The QDSSC with CdSe sensitized electrode prepared using 7 cycles of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR produces an efficiency of 1.41% with a fill factor of 44% on using a polysulfide electrolyte of 0.5 M Na2S, 0.1 M S, and 0.05 M GuSCN in ethanol/water (8 : 2 by volume under the illumination of 100 mW/cm2 white light. Inclusion of small amount of TiO2 nanoparticles into the electrolyte helps to stabilize the polysulfide electrolyte and thereby improve the stability of the CdSe QDSSC. The CdSe QDs are also found to be stable in the optimized polysulfide liquid electrolyte.

  6. Effect of alumina sol addition to micro-arc oxidation electrolyte on the properties of MAO coatings formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laleh, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour; Shahrabi, T.; Shanghi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oxide coatings were formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy using micro-arc oxidation process in alkaline electrolyte without and with addition of alumina sol. The microstructures and compositions of the MAO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behaviors of the coatings were evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5%NaCl solution. Porosities of the coatings were measured by potentiodynamic polarization tests. It was found that the coating produced in the electrolyte with alumina sol has more compact and uniform morphology than that produced in the electrolyte without alumina sol. The results of corrosion tests showed that the coating formed in electrolyte with alumina sol enhances the corrosion resistance of the substrate significantly. XRD patterns showed that the coating produced in the electrolyte with alumina sol has more MgAl 2 O 4 phase than MgO.

  7. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  8. Electrolytic Preparation of High Dielectric Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hultquist, A. E; Sibert, M. E

    1966-01-01

    .... Some attention is devoted to zirconates, niobates, and tantalates. In addition to barium compounds, the comparable calcium, magnesium, strontium and potassium double oxides are evaluated by the appropriate electrolytic techniques...

  9. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  10. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2007-04-21

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.

  11. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying; Buttner, Ulrich; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime

  12. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  13. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  14. EFFECT OF MULTIPARITY ON ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Serum electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) were measured using standard ... There was also no significant difference in blood pressure among the groups and between ... substances as well as exaggerated response to posture. (Korda, 1987).

  15. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  16. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  17. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  18. Hygiena 3, a Forgotten Project for Electrolytic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryštof Drnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the interwar period, the city of Prague had to resolve the problem of treating the polluted water produced by its citizens. From 1933 - 1936 an ambitious competition was held. The idea behind the competition was to bring in new ideas and projects for a new water treatment station.Hygiena 3 was one of the projects that was submitted. It proposed a treatment procedure based on electrolytic consolidation of contaminants in water into flocks. The project was found to be inventive and interesting but too expensive and not effective. Nevertheless it was evaluated as a well developed proposal and received an award from the city.

  19. Nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen as a transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very attractive transportation fuel in three important ways: it is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine, it produces no greenhouse gases, and it is potentially available anywhere there is water and a clean source of power. The prospect of a clean, widely available transportation fuel has motivated much of the research on hydrogen fuels. This paper is a state-of-the art review of the production, storage, performance, environmental impacts, safety, and cost of nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen for highway vehicles

  20. Electrolytic process for upgrading heavy water (Preprint No. PD-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rammohan, K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1989-04-01

    In the reactor system the heavy water gets depleted in concentration due to leakages, intermixing and vapour collection in boiler vault system etc. Electrolysis of water was used as a secondary plant to enrich the dilute heavy water produced in the primery plant by hydrogen-sulfide-water exchange process. The studies made in the development of this process for the upgrading of downgra ded heavy water by setting up a full size Electrolyser Test Assembly are discussed a nd complete design of a heavy water upgrading plant based on electrolytic process for MAPS and NAPP is described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  2. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  3. Modeling Electrolytically Top-Gated Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković ZL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate doping of a single-layer graphene in the presence of electrolytic top gating. The interfacial phenomenon is modeled using a modified Poisson–Boltzmann equation for an aqueous solution of simple salt. We demonstrate both the sensitivity of graphene’s doping levels to the salt concentration and the importance of quantum capacitance that arises due to the smallness of the Debye screening length in the electrolyte.

  4. Handheld Microneedle-Based Electrolyte Sensing Platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Philip R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rivas, Rhiana [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, David [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Thayne L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, Markku [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shawa, Luay [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Victor H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Ronen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories will provide technical assistance, within time and budget, to Requester on testing and analyzing a microneedle-based electrolyte sensing platform. Hollow microneedles will be fabricated at Sandia and integrated with a fluidic chip using plastic laminate prototyping technology available at Sandia. In connection with commercial ion selective electrodes the sensing platform will be tested for detection of electrolytes (sodium and/or potassium) within physiological relevant concent ration ranges.

  5. Physics of failure based analysis of aluminium electrolytic capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satya Ranjan; Behera, S.K.; Kumar, Sachin; Varde, P.V.; Ravi Kumar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are one of the important devices in various power electronic systems, such as motor drives, uninterruptible power supply, electric vehicles and dc power supply. Electrolytic capacitors are also the integral part of many other electronic devices. One of the primary function of electrolytic capacitors is the smoothing of voltage ripple and storing electrical energy. However, the electrolytic capacitor has the shortest lifespan of components in power electronics. Past experiences show that electrolytic capacitor tends to degrade and fail faster under high electrical or thermal stress conditions during operations. The primary failure mechanism of an electrolytic capacitor is the evaporation of the electrolyte due to electrical or thermal overstress. This leads to the drift in the values of two important parameters-capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the electrolytic capacitor. An attempt has been made to age the electrolytic capacitor and validate the results. The overall goal is to derive the accurate degradation model of the electrolytic capacitor. (author)

  6. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  7. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemically produced alumina as TL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osvay, M.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this work was to compare the TL properties of various electrochemically produced alumina layers (E-AIO) in order to investigate the effect of the electrolyte and the Mg content on the alloys. It has been found that the TL sensitivity of oxidised layers is more influenced by the type of electrolyte, than by the composition of alloy. Hard oxide layer evolved in reduction electrolyte has rather different character compared to other alumina production investigated. The effect of reducing media seems to be very important during preparation of alumina layer. One of the advantages properties of E-AIO is, that it serve a promising method to increase the measuring range of TL method above 10 kGy as well. (author)

  9. Vanadium Electrolyte Studies for the Vanadium Redox Battery-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Cao, Liuyue; Kazacos, Michael; Kausar, Nadeem; Mousa, Asem

    2016-07-07

    The electrolyte is one of the most important components of the vanadium redox flow battery and its properties will affect cell performance and behavior in addition to the overall battery cost. Vanadium exists in several oxidation states with significantly different half-cell potentials that can produce practical cell voltages. It is thus possible to use the same element in both half-cells and thereby eliminate problems of cross-contamination inherent in all other flow battery chemistries. Electrolyte properties vary with supporting electrolyte composition, state-of-charge, and temperature and this will impact on the characteristics, behavior, and performance of the vanadium battery in practical applications. This Review provides a broad overview of the physical properties and characteristics of the vanadium battery electrolyte under different conditions, together with a description of some of the processing methods that have been developed to produce vanadium electrolytes for vanadium redox flow battery applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Selection and development of an easy to process electrolyte for decontamination by electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steringer, A.; Moser, T.

    1989-01-01

    Three different organic electrolytes: formic acid (E 1), oxalic acid (E 2) and acetylacetone (E 3) using potassium bromide (KBr) as the auxiliary electrolyte, were tested in the laboratory for electrochemically dissolving steel and stainless steel. The best results in the preliminary test series were attained with acetylacetone. It ranks among the first for current efficiency, with the produced acetylacetonates having the lowest solubility and thus they settle out of the solution in the form of coarse crystalline products. Tests were made on radioactive reactor components using acetylacetone in a 400 A test facility, to verify and optimize the decontamination factors, the electrolyte service life and the produced waste volume, as well as the respective process parameters. The surface activity of the components ranged from 2 to 10 Bq/cm 2 , and a decontamination factor of 30 was attained. The obtained specific waste volume is 1.1 litre/m 2 of decontaminated surface. A gamma-spectrometric evaluation revealed that the activity in the settled-out metallic acetylacetonate is five times higher than that in the electrolyte. It is only necessary to refill the spent acetylacetonate which makes it then possible to continue to use the electrolyte solution almost unrestrictedly

  11. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I. Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaur, K.C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte. 58 references.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the lithium, thionyl chloride static cell. I - Neutral electrolyte. II - Acid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, K.-C.; Pollard, R.

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical models are presented for a Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C static cell with neutral electrolyte and a Li/SOCl2-C static cell with acid electrolyte. The model for the Li-LiAlCl4/SOCl2-C cell with neutral solution predicts that high internal resistance can develop in the positive electrode as a result of low local porosities which are, in turn, caused by large-volume, solid reaction products. Consequently, the maximum usable cell capacity is dictated by the nonuniformity of the reaction distribution at the front of the positive electrode. In many respects, a cell with acid electrolyte can be regarded as a combination of an equivalent neutral electrolyte system and an acid reservoir. The model for the Li/SOCl2 cell suggests that the cell life depends primarily on the quantity of acid added to the electrolyte.

  14. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X; Boudin, F [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  15. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  16. [Synthesis and Characterization of a Sugar Based Electrolyte for Thin-film Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The work performed during the current renewal period, March 1,1998 focused primarily on the synthesis and characterization of a sugar based electrolyte for thin-film polymer batteries. The initial phase of the project involved developing a suitable sugar to use as the monomer in the polymeric electrolyte synthesis. The monomer has been synthesized and characterized completely. Overall the yield of this material is high and it can be produced in relatively large quantity easily and in high purity. The scheme used for the preparation of the monomer is outlined along with pertinent yields.

  17. Luminescent Polymer Electrolyte Composites Using Silica Coated-Y2O3:Eu as Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent polymer electrolyte composites composed of silica coated Y2O3:Eu in polyethylene glycol (PEG matrix has been produced by initially synthesizing silica coated Y2O3:Eu and mixing with polyethylene glycol in a lithium salt solution. High luminescence intensity at round 600 nm contributed by electron transitions in Eu3+ (5D0 -> 7F0, 5D0 -> 7F1, and 5D0 -> 7F3 transitions were observed. The measured electrical conductivity was comparable to that reported for polymer electrolyte composites prepared using passive fillers (non luminescent. This approach is therefore promising for production of high intensity luminescent polymer electrolyte composites for use in development of hybrid battery/display.

  18. REMOVAL OF COPPER ELECTROLYTE CONTAMINANTS BY ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gabai

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Selective adsorbents have become frequently used in industrial processes. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using adsorption to separate copper refinery electrolyte contaminants, with better results than those obtained with conventional techniques. During copper electrorefinning, many impurities may be found as dissolved metals present in the anode slime which forms on the electrode surface, accumulated in the electrolyte or incorporated into the refined copper on the cathode by deposition. In this study, synthetic zeolites, chelating resins and activated carbons were tested as adsorbents to select the best adsorbent performance, as well as the best operating temperature for the process. The experimental method applied was the finite bath, which consists in bringing the adsorbent into contact with a finite volume of electrolyte while controlling the temperature. The concentration of metals in the liquid phase was continuously monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS

  19. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed.

  20. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  1. Electrolyte solution transport in electropolar nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianbing; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen Xi; Qiao Yu; Zhou Qulan; Li Yibing; Tak, Moonho; Park, Taehyo

    2010-01-01

    Electrolyte transport in nanochannels plays an important role in a number of emerging areas. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations, the fundamental transport behavior of an electrolyte/water solution in a confined model nanoenvironment is systematically investigated by varying the nanochannel dimension, solid phase, electrolyte phase, ion concentration and transport rate. It is found that the shear resistance encountered by the nanofluid strongly depends on these material/system parameters; furthermore, several effects are coupled. The mechanisms of the nanofluidic transport characteristics are explained by considering the unique molecular/ion structure formed inside the nanochannel. The lower shear resistance observed in some of the systems studies could be beneficial for nanoconductors, while the higher shear resistance (or higher effective viscosity) observed in other systems might enhance the performance of energy dissipation devices.

  2. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  3. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu, E-mail: irine.ayu41@ui.ac.id; Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Phone: +62217863516, Fax: +62217863515 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  5. Permeability and Microstructure of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Electrolytes for SOFCs on Various Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-12-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte coatings for solid oxide fuel cells were deposited by suspension plasma spraying using a range of spray conditions and a variety of substrates, including finely structured porous stainless steel disks and cathode layers on stainless steel supports. Electrolyte permeability values and trends were found to be highly dependent on which substrate was used. The most gas-tight electrolyte coatings were those deposited directly on the porous metal disks. With this substrate, permeability was reduced by increasing the torch power and reducing the stand-off distance to produce dense coating microstructures. On the substrates with cathodes, electrolyte permeability was reduced by increasing the stand-off distance, which reduced the formation of segmentation cracks and regions of aligned and concentrated porosity. The formation mechanisms of the various permeability-related coating features are discussed and strategies for reducing permeability are presented. The dependences of electrolyte deposition efficiency and surface roughness on process conditions and substrate properties are also presented.

  6. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-14

    Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping.

  7. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films with controllable properties are highly desirable for improving battery performance. In this paper, a combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study SEI films formed on hard carbon in Li- and Na-ion batteries. It is shown that a stable SEI layer can be designed by precycling an electrode in a desired Li- or Na-based electrolyte, and that ionic transport can be kinetically controlled. Selective Li- and Na-based SEI membranes are produced using Li- or Na-based electrolytes, respectively. The Na-based SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the Li-based SEI shuts off Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI layer with film-forming electrolyte additives, or by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to < 25 mAh g(-1); approximate to 1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh g(-1)). Unusual selective/ preferential transport of Li ions is demonstrated by preforming an SEI layer on the electrode surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion-selective conductors using electrochemical approaches.

  8. Tuning the Solid Electrolyte Interphase for Selective Li- and Na-Ion Storage in Hard Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Fernando A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Yan, Pengfei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Marzouk, Asma [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Wang, Chongmin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Xu, Guiliang [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, P.O. Box 5825 Doha Qatar; Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station TX 77843-3122 USA; Li, Xiaolin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard Richland WA 99354 USA

    2017-03-07

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) with controllable properties are highly desirable to improve battery performance. In this paper, we use a combined experimental and simulation approach to study the SEI formation on hard carbon in Li and Na-ion batteries. We show that with proper additives, stable SEI can be formed on hard carbon by pre-cycling the electrode materials in Li or Na-ion electrolyte. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest that the ion transport in the SEI layer is kinetically controlled and can be tuned by the applied voltage. Selective Na and Li-ion SEI membranes are produced using the Na or Li-ion based electrolytes respectively. The large Na ion SEI allows easy transport of Li ions, while the small Li ion SEI shuts off the Na-ion transport. Na-ion storage can be manipulated by tuning the SEI with film-forming electrolyte additives or preforming a SEI on the electrodes’ surface. The Na specific capacity can be controlled to <25 mAh/g, ~1/10 of the normal capacity (250 mAh/g). Unusual selective/preferential transport of Li-ion is demonstrated by preforming a SEI on the electrode’s surface and corroborated with a mixed electrolyte. This work may provide new guidance for preparing good ion selective conductors using electrochemical approaches in the future.

  9. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi2(PO4)3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO3 and Li2SO4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm-2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm-2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi2(PO4)3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li2SO4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi2(PO4)3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above.

  10. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Composition of highly concentrated silicate electrolytes and ultrasound influencing the plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchen, F.; Rymer, L.-M.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are increasingly in use as lightweight construction materials. However, their inappropriate corrosion and wear resistance often prevent their direct practical use. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a promising, environmentally friendly method to improve the surface characteristics of magnesium materials by the formation of oxide coatings. These PEO layers contain components of the applied electrolyte and can be shifted in their composition by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte constituents. Therefore, in contrast to the use of conventional low concentrated electrolytes, the process results in more stable protective coatings, in which electrolyte species are the dominating constitutes. In the present work, the influence of the composition of highly concentrated alkaline silicate electrolytes with additives of phosphate and glycerol on the quality of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ31 was examined. The effect of ultrasound coupled into the electrolyte bath was also considered. The process was monitored by recording the electrical process variables with a transient recorder and by observation of the discharge phenomena on the sample surface with a camera. The study was conducted on the basis of a design of experiments. The effects of the process parameter variation are considered with regard to the coatings thickness, hardness and corrosion resistance. Information about the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on the considered properties is obtained by an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  12. Room temperature rechargeable polymer electrolyte batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Abraham, K.M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)- and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based Li{sup +}-conductive thin-film electrolytes have been found to be suitable in rechargeable Li and Li-ion cells. Li/Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub y} and carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} cells fabricated with these electrolytes have demonstrated rate capabilities greater than the C-rate and more than 375 full depth cycles. Two-cell carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} bipolar batteries could be discharged at pulse currents as high as 50 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  13. On the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Mazumdar, A.S.; Guha, S.N.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron in oxygenated as well as oxygen-free solutions at different pH were undertaken. Since sup(-e)aq is known to react rapidly with O 2 yielding the transient O 2 - ion, the latter was looked for through its interaction with phosphite ions resulting in their oxidation near the cathode. It appears from the results that in electrolytic processes, the primary electron (esup(-)sub(cathode)) probably reacts directly with reactive solutes like oxygen, bypassing the hydration step. Data obtained in oxygen-free solutions, however, support the possible formation of hydrated electron at least in alkaline solutions. (author)

  14. Effects of Electrolyte on Floating Water Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Hideo Nishiumi; Fumitaka Honda

    2009-01-01

    Fuchs found phenomena that when high voltage is applied to deionized water filled in two contacted beakers, a floating water bridge forms spontaneously. In this paper, we examined flow direction of water bridge and what effects the addition of electrolytes such as NaCl, NaOH, and N H 4 C l to the floating water bridge would give. We found that ionization degree reduced the length of water bridge though insoluble electrolyte A l 2 O 3 had no effect on the length of water bridge.

  15. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ, p-benzoquinone (BQ, co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  16. Electrochemical Preparation of Polyaniline Nanowires with the Used Electrolyte Solution Treated with the Extraction Process and Their Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Wang, Jixiao; Ou, Bin; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2018-02-12

    Electrochemical polymerization of aniline is one of the most promising methods to prepare polyaniline (PANI) materials. However, during this process, the electrolyte solution must be replaced after electropolymerization of a certain time because of the generation and the accumulation of the by-products, which have significant effects on the morphology, purity and properties of PANI products. Treatment and recycling of the used electrolyte solution are worthwhile to study to reduce the high treatment cost of the used electrolyte solution containing aniline and its polymerization by-products. Here, the composition of the used electrolyte solution was separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) in the range of ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) light. The analysis results revealed that the used electrolyte solution consisted of aniline, p-hydroquinone (HQ), p-benzoquinone (BQ), co-oligomers of aniline and p-benzoquinone (CAB) and acid. Then, n-octanol and 2-octanone were selected as extracts to remove HQ, BQ and CAB from the used electrolyte solution. Following that, the recycled electrolyte solution was prepared by adjusting the concentration of aniline and acid of the aqueous phase, and the electrochemical polymerization process was conducted. Finally, the obtained PANI was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the morphology and specific capacitance of PANI produced from the recycled electrolyte solution can be recovered completely. This research paves the way for reusing the used electrolyte solution for aniline electrochemical polymerization.

  17. A Tri-Layer Proton-Conducting Electrolyte for Chemically Stable Operation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Two BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3-δ (BZPY) layers were used to sandwich a BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BCY) layer to produce a tri-layer electrolyte consisting of BZPY/BCY/BZPY. The BZPY layers significantly improved the chemical stability of the BCY electrolyte layer, which was not stable when tested alone, suggesting that the BZPY layer effectively protected the BCY layer from CO2 reaction, which is the major problem of BCY-based materials. A fuel cell with this sandwiched electrolyte supported on a Ni-based composite anode showed a reasonable cell performance, reaching 185 mW cm-2 at 700 oC, in spite of the relatively large electrolyte thickness (about 65 µm).

  18. A Study on the Electrolytic Reduction Mechanism of Uranium Oxide in a LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Hur, Jin Mok; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2003-01-01

    This study proposed a new electrolytic reduction technology that is based on the integration of simultaneous uranium oxide metallization and Li 2 O electrowinning. In this electrolytic reduction reaction, electrolytically reduced Li deposits on cathode and simultaneously reacts with uranium oxides to produce uranium metal showing more than 99% conversion. For the verification of process feasibility, the experiments to obtain basic data on the metallization of uranium oxide, investigation of reaction mechanism, the characteristics of closed recycle of Li 2 O and mass transfer were carried out. This evolutionary electrolytic reduction technology would give benefits over the conventional Li-reduction process improving economic viability such as: avoidance of handling of chemically active Li-LiCl molten salt increase of metallization yield, and simplification of process.

  19. A Tri-Layer Proton-Conducting Electrolyte for Chemically Stable Operation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-10-07

    Two BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3-δ (BZPY) layers were used to sandwich a BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BCY) layer to produce a tri-layer electrolyte consisting of BZPY/BCY/BZPY. The BZPY layers significantly improved the chemical stability of the BCY electrolyte layer, which was not stable when tested alone, suggesting that the BZPY layer effectively protected the BCY layer from CO2 reaction, which is the major problem of BCY-based materials. A fuel cell with this sandwiched electrolyte supported on a Ni-based composite anode showed a reasonable cell performance, reaching 185 mW cm-2 at 700 oC, in spite of the relatively large electrolyte thickness (about 65 µm).

  20. A study on the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, J. S.; Hu, J. M.; Hong, S. S.; Jang, D. S.; Park, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    New electrolytic reduction technology was proposed that is based on the integration of metallization of uranium oxide and Li 2 O electrowinning. In this electrolytic reduction reaction, electrolytically reduced Li deposits on cathode and simultaneously reacts with uranium oxides to produce uranium metal showing more than 99% conversion. For the verification of process feasibility, the experiments to obtain basic data on the metallization of uranium oxide, investigation of reaction mechanism, the characteristics of closed recycle of Li 2 O and mass transfer were carried out. This evolutionary electrolytic reduction technology would give benefits over the conventional Li-reduction process improving economic viability such as: avoidance of handling of chemically active Li-LiCl molten salt, increase of metallization yield, and simplification of process

  1. Electrochemistry Study on PVC-LiClO4 Polymer Electrolyte Supported by Bengkulu Natural Bentonite for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghufira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research bentonite was used as filler to produce polymer electrolyte (PVCLiClO4. Some weight variation of bentonite have been made by addition, such as 0% wt/wt; 5% wt/wt ; 10% wt/wt ; 15% wt/wt ; 20% wt/wt ; and 25% wt/wt of bentonite to the mixture of 0,5 gramof PVC and 0,125 gram of LiClO4. Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was tested using impedance spectroscopy. The result of the research was showed that a mixture of PVCBentonite(10% wt/wt-LiClO4 gives the highest ionic conductivity (4,86 x 10-3 S.Cm-1. This result indicated that the presence of natural bentonite can be used as a filler in the current composite polymer electrolyte and can increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

  2. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  3. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  4. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  5. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  6. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions

  7. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  8. Hybrid Metal/Electrolyte Monolithic Low Temperature SOFCs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The program objective is to develop SOFCs, operating in the 500-700 degrees C range, based on Metal/Electrolyte square cell honeycomb formed by simultaneous powder extrusion of electrolyte and metal...

  9. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  10. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.

    2010-10-22

    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  11. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  12. Galvanic high energy cells with molten electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Kunze, D.; Laig-Hoerstebrock, H.; Panesar, H.; Sterr, G.

    1981-01-01

    To develop a galvanic cell with molten salt electrolyte for electric vehicle propulsion and load leveling as well as to fabricate ten prototype cells with a capacity of at least 150 Ah (5 hour rate) and an energy density of 80 Wh/kg was the objective of this project.

  13. Zinc polymer electrolytes in battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W.P.; Latham, R.J.; Linford, R.G.; Vickers, S.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    We have previously reported results of our studies of structure-conductivity relationships for polymer electrolytes of the form PEO[sub n][center dot]ZnX[sub 2]. In this paper we report the results of investigations of battery systems based on these electrolytes. Results will be presented for OCV and discharge curves for loaded cells of the type: Zn/polymer electrolyte/MnO[sub 2]. We are particularly interested in the speciation between oxidation states of manganese as a function of the degree of cell discharge, and have carried out determinations by chemical methods based on polarography. Preliminary studies indicate the presence of Mn[sup II] in cells discharged at various rates. The discharge times for a series of optimised cells show an exponential decrease with increasing load. This is consistent with a low electrolyte conductivity and less than ideal cathode conductivity, which leads to an increased 'front face' reaction with increasing load

  14. Voltammetry study of quinoxaline in aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Su, Liang; Liou, Catherine; Badel, Andres F.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-01-01

    Organic compounds have recently received considerable attention as active materials in redox flow batteries (RFBs) due to their good electrochemical reversibility, high theoretical energy densities, and promise for low cost production. Until now, organic active material candidates for aqueous RFBs have been limited to the quinone family, a set of aromatic-derived organic molecules, distinguished by an even number of ketone (R−C(=O)−R′) groups. This work aims to elucidate and optimize the electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline, an organic molecule consisting of fused benzene and pyrazine rings, in aqueous electrolytes. More than 30 electrolytes are screened by cyclic voltammetry, and the five most promising electrolytes are investigated further using rotating disk voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline shows pH dependent thermodynamics and reaction mechanisms, while chloride-containing supporting electrolytes greatly enhance solubility. This study sheds light on the promising characteristics of quinoxaline as a low potential compound for aqueous RFBs; quinoxaline has a redox potential of E° ≈ −0.02 V vs. RHE, is soluble up to ∼4.5 M in water, exhibits a two-electron transfer capability, and possesses a low molecular weight (130.15 g mol"−"1), resulting in a theoretical capacity of 410 mAh g"−"1.

  15. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  16. Electrolytic pickling of duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipek, N.; Holm, B.; Pettersson, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Drottning Kristinas vaeg 48, 11428 Stockholm (Sweden); Runnsjoe, G.; Karlsson, M. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, 77422 Avesta (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Pickling of duplex stainless steels has proved to be much more difficult than that of standard austenitic grades. Electrolytic pre-pickling is shown to be a key process towards facilitating the pickling process for material annealed both in the production-line and in laboratory experiments. The mechanism for the neutral electrolytic process on duplex 2205 and austenitic 316 steels has been examined and the oxide scale found to become thinner as a function of electrolytic pickling time. Spallation or peeling of the oxide induced by gas evolution did not play a decisive role. A maximum of about 20% of the current supplied to the oxidised steel surface goes to dissolution reactions whereas about 80% of the current was consumed in oxygen gas production. This makes the current utilisation very poor, particularly against the background of reports that in indirect electrolytic pickling only about 30% of the total current, supplied to the process, actually goes into the strip. A parametric study was therefore carried out to determine whether adjustment of process variables could improve the current utilisation. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  18. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum)

  19. Effectiveness of carnosine on disturbed electrolytes homeostasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to assess the effect of well known antioxidant carnosine on disturbed plasma and intraerythrocytes electrolytes and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by cisplatin. 24 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided into 4 groups: Group I = untreated control; Group II = cisplatin control (received cisplatin at a dose of 3 mg/ ...

  20. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  1. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  2. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  3. Conductivity studies of PEG based polymer electrolyte for applications as electrolyte in ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ravikumar V.; Praveen, D.; Damle, R.

    2018-05-01

    Development of lithium ion batteries employing solid polymer electrolytes as electrolyte material has led to efficient energy storage and usage in many portable devices. However, due to a few drawbacks like lower ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), studies on SPEs for improvement in conductivity still have a good scope. In the present paper, we report the conductivity studies of a new SPE with low molecular weight poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as host polymer in which a salt with larger anion Lithium trifluro methane sulphonate (LTMS). XRD studies have revealed that the salt completely dissociates in the polymer giving a good stable electrolyte at lower salt concentration. Conductivity of the SPEs has been studied as a function of temperature and we reiterate that the conductivity is a thermally activated process and follows Arrhenius type behavior.

  4. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  5. Lipid Peroxidation and Electrolytes in Irradiated Rats Treated with Caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, I.I.; Ahmed, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This Study was conducted to elarify the potential role of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine), a major component of coffee, against damages induced by gamma rays. Thirty adult female albino rats (130+10) were divided into three groups, each of ten animals. The first group acted as control animals. The second was sujected to a single dose of (7) Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The third group was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose (80mg/kg body weight) of caffeine one-hour prior irradiation. Blood samples were collected five time intervals 1,3,7,15 and 30 days post-irradiation. The content of serum lipid peroxides was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Electrolytes as calcium (Ca2 + ), sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) and levels were estimated and Na + /K + ratio was calculated. Also serum enzymes as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransaminases (AST and ALT) activity levels were measured. The data revealed significant increase in TBARS, AST and ALT levels in serum due to irradiation exposure. While, radiation induced significant decrease in serum level of ALP, level of electrolytes Ca 2+ , Ma + , and Na + /K + ratio. On the other hand, group injected intraperitoneally with caffeine pre-irradiation exhibited reduction in the changes produced by gamma-radiation with variable degree. The data showed that this antioxidant confers protection damage inflicted by radiation when given prior to irradiation exposure on the examined parameters

  6. Electrolytic smelting of lunar rock for oxygen, iron, and silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Lindstrom, David J.; Lewis, Robert H.; Semkow, Krystyna W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies of the electrochemical properties of silicate melts such as those available from heating of lunar mare soils indicate that conductivities are high enough for design of a practical electrolytic cell. The nature and kinetics of the electrode reactions, which involve reduction of Fe(++) and Si(IV) and oxidation of silicate anions as the primary, product-forming reactions, are also satisfactory. A survey of the efficiencies for production (amount of product for a given current) of O2, Fe(sup 0), and Si(sup 0) as functions of potential and of electrolyte composition indicate that conditions can be chosen to yield high production efficiencies. We also conclude that electronic conductivity does not occur to a significant extent. Based on these data, a cell with electrodes of 30 sq m in area operating between 1 and 5V with a current between 1.6 and 3.5(10)(exp 5) A for a mean power requirement of 0.54 MW and total energy use of approximately 13 MWhr per 24-hr day would produce 1 ton of O2, 0.81 ton of Fe(sup 0), 0.65 ton of Si(sup 0) (as Fe(sup 0)-Si(sup 0) alloy), and about 3.5 tons of silicate melt of altered composition per 24 hr. Adjustable distance between electrodes could offer flexibility with respect to feedstock and power source.

  7. Electrolytes and Electrodes for Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto

    In order to make Denmark independent of fossil fuels by 2050 the share of renewable energy in electricity production, in particular wind energy, is expected to increase significantly. Since the power output of renewable energy sources heavily fluctuates over time there is a pressing need to find...... technology is based on the Haber-Bosch process, which is energy intensive and requires large-scale plants. One possible way to produce ammonia from sustainable electricity, nitrogen and hydrogen/water is using an electrochemical cell. This thesis studies a number of electrolytes and electrocatalysts...... state proton conductors are briefly reviewed and defect chemistry and partial conductivities of Y-doped BaZrO3-BaCeO3 solid solutions are studied as a function of temperature, pH2O and chemical compositions by means of defect chemistry modelling. BaCe0.2Zr0.6Y0.2O2.9 (BCZY26) is chosen as electrolyte...

  8. Uranium manufacturing process employing the electrolytic reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yoshio; Kazuhare, Manabu; Morimoto, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention related to a uranium manufacturing process that employs the electrolytic reduction method, but particularly to a uranium manufacturing process that employs an electrolytic reduction method requiring low voltage. The process, in which uranium is obtained by means of the electrolytic method and with uranyl acid as the raw material, is prior art

  9. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  10. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  11. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  12. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, R; Sieber, M; Lampke, T; Grund, T; Wielage, B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na 2 SiO 3 ·5H 2 O and K 4 P 2 O 7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum. (paper)

  13. Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-07-07

    A process is described for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H[sub 2]O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg. 1 fig.

  14. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lan; Song, Cuiying; Gu, Hongen

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. The characteristic OH − spectral band is observed in absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. The characteristic O − , OH − , U, V 2 , O 2− −V a + , M L1 , F and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current–time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration processes are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: ► We expanded the traditional electrolysis method. ► Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. ► Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. ► V color centers were produced directly and F as well as F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  15. Effect upon biocompatibility and biocorrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation in trisodium phosphate electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Bae, Tae-Sung; Jang, Yong-Seok; Oh, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Mg-Al-Zn-Ca alloy was conducted via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an electrolyte that included phosphate. Calcium phosphate can be easily induced on the surface of a PEO coating that includes phosphate in a physiological environment because Ca(2+) ions in body fluids can be combined with PO4 (3-). Cytotoxicity of the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with various amounts of Na3PO4 was identified. In particular, the effects that PEO films have upon oxidative stress and differentiation of osteoblast activity were studied. As the concentration of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte increased, the oxide layer was found to become thicker, which increased corrosion resistance. However, the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with over 0.2 M of added Na3PO4 exhibited more microcracks and larger pores than those formed in smaller Na3PO4 concentrations owing to a large spark discharge. A nonuniform oxide film that included more phosphate caused more cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, and overabundant phosphate content in the oxide layer interrupted the differentiation of osteoblasts. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy and the thickness of the oxide layer were increased by the addition of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte for PEO treatment. However, excessive phosphate content in the oxide layer led to oxidative stress, which resulted in reduced cell viability and activity.

  16. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  17. Development and manufacture of printable next-generation gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte for Zn/MnO2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, R; Wang, Z; Wright, P; Wu, C H; Kim, B; Evans, J; Keif, M

    2013-01-01

    While much energy storage research focuses on the performance of individual components, such as the electrolyte or a single electrode, few investigate the electrochemical system as a whole. This research reports on the design, composition, and performance of a Zn/MnO 2 battery as affected by the manufacturing method and next-generation gel polymer electrolyte composed of the ionic liquid [BMIM][Otf], ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder. Materials and manufacturing tests are discussed with a focus on water concentration, surface features as produced by printing processes, and the effect of including a gel polymer phase. Cells produced for this research generated open circuit voltages from 1.0 to 1.3 V. A dry [BMIM][Otf] electrolyte was found to have 87.3 ppm of H 2 O, while an electrolyte produced in ambient conditions contained 12400 ppm of H 2 O. Cells produced in a dry, Ar environment had an average discharge capacity of 0.0137 mAh/cm 2 , while one produced in an ambient environment exhibited a discharge capacity at 0.05 mAh/cm 2 . Surface features varied significantly by printing method, where a doctor blade produced the most consistent features. The preliminary results herein suggest that water, surface roughness, and the gel polymer play important roles in affecting the performance of printed energy storage

  18. Development and manufacture of printable next-generation gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte for Zn/MnO2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R.; Wu, C. H.; Wang, Z.; Kim, B.; Keif, M.; Evans, J.; Wright, P.

    2013-12-01

    While much energy storage research focuses on the performance of individual components, such as the electrolyte or a single electrode, few investigate the electrochemical system as a whole. This research reports on the design, composition, and performance of a Zn/MnO2 battery as affected by the manufacturing method and next-generation gel polymer electrolyte composed of the ionic liquid [BMIM][Otf], ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder. Materials and manufacturing tests are discussed with a focus on water concentration, surface features as produced by printing processes, and the effect of including a gel polymer phase. Cells produced for this research generated open circuit voltages from 1.0 to 1.3 V. A dry [BMIM][Otf] electrolyte was found to have 87.3 ppm of H2O, while an electrolyte produced in ambient conditions contained 12400 ppm of H2O. Cells produced in a dry, Ar environment had an average discharge capacity of 0.0137 mAh/cm2, while one produced in an ambient environment exhibited a discharge capacity at 0.05 mAh/cm2. Surface features varied significantly by printing method, where a doctor blade produced the most consistent features. The preliminary results herein suggest that water, surface roughness, and the gel polymer play important roles in affecting the performance of printed energy storage.

  19. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  20. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  1. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  2. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  3. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  4. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  5. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.J.; Yu, G.; Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. → Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. → Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. → Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm -3 KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  6. Method of electrolytically decontaminating of radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Yamadera, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly reduce the volume of secondary wastes by separating from electrolytes metal ions containing radioactive metal ions dissolved therein in the form of elemental metals of a reduced volume with ease, as well as regenerating the electrolytes for re-use. Method: Contaminated portions at the surface of the radioactive metal wastes are dissolved in electrolytes and, when the metal ion concentration in the electrolytes reaches a predetermined level, the electrolytes are introduced to an acid recovery step and an electrodeposition step. The recovered acid is re-used as the electrolytes, while dissolved metal ions containing radioactive metal ions are deposited as elemental metals in the electrodeposition step. The electrolytes usable herein include those acids easily forming stable complex compounds with the metals or those not forming hydroxides of the contaminated metals. Combination of sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid, sodium chloride and hydrochloride or the like is preferred. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-03-01

    The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada is assessed for the period 1980 to 2025 for large-scale uses only. Present uses of hydrogen, and specifically electrolytic hydrogen, are discussed briefly and hydrogen production processes are summarized. Only hydrogen derived from natural gas, coal, or electrolysis of sater are considered. Cost estimates of electrolytic hydrogen are obtained from a parametric equation, comparing values for unipolar water elecctrklyser technologies with those for bipolar electrolysers. Both by-products of electrolytic hydrogen production, namely heavy water and oxygen, are evaluated. Electrolytic hydrogen, based on non-fossil primary energy sources, is also considered as ankther 'liquid fuel option' for Canada along with the alcohols. The market potential for hydrogen in general and electrolytic hydrogen is assessed. Results show that the market potential for electrolytic hydrogen is large by the year 2025

  8. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  10. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  11. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuzheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Cai, Yixiao [Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kim, Jung-Sik [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Wang, Baoyuan [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Technology, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan (China); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Wang, Jun, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se; Zhang, Yaoming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solar Energy Science and Technology, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Li, Junjiao [Nanjing Yunna Nano Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  12. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  13. Glasslike behavior in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, David A; Hunger, Johannes; Hefter, Glenn; Buchner, Richard; Wynne, Klaas

    2008-04-28

    When salts are added to water, generally the viscosity increases, suggesting that the ions increase the strength of the water's hydrogen-bond network. However, infrared pump-probe measurements on electrolyte solutions have found that ions have no influence on the rotational dynamics of water molecules, implying no enhancement or breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Here, we report optical Kerr effect and dielectric relaxation spectroscopic measurements, which have enabled us to separate the effects of rotational and transitional motions of the water molecules. These data show that electrolyte solutions behave like a supercooled liquid approaching a glass transition in which rotational and translational molecular motions are decoupled. It is now possible to understand previously conflicting viscosity data, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation, and ultrafast infrared spectroscopy in a single unified picture.

  14. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  15. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Man; Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Keqin; Milliken, Christopher

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800°C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800°C was achieved. our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum galiate and achieve higher power density at 800°C from solid oxide fuel cells.

  16. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Man [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Huang Keqin [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Milliken, C. [Cerematec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800 C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800 C was achieved, our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum gallate and achieve higher power density at 800 C from solid oxide fuel cells. (orig.)

  17. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuzheng; Zhu, Bin; Cai, Yixiao; Kim, Jung-Sik; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoming; Li, Junjiao

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable, and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of electrolyte-free fuel cell (EFFC) with single component was invented, which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance, and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed, and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  18. An element with an anhydrous liquid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, K; Isiguro, Y; Ota, K; Sinoda, K; Yamamoto, K

    1983-01-01

    A light element metal of the lithium or sodium type is used in the element, along with a cathode of Mo02 or CuF2 and an anyhdrous liquid electrolyte from an oganic solvent with an ionogenic additive. An adsorbent which has a composition corresponding to the formula Mx/n((A102)x(Si02)y) with zH20, where M is the ion of sodium, potassium or calcium; n is the valency M and x, y and z are the coefficients which show the content of A102, Si02 and H20, respectively, is introduced into the cathode, separator or electrolyte. The element has high storage life.

  19. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  20. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  1. Impedance spectroscopy of ceramic solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Cosentino, I.C.; Florio, D.Z. de; Franca, Y.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has been used to the study of Th O 2 :Y 2 O 3 , Zr O 2 :La 2 O 3 and Zr O 2 :Y 2 O 3 solid electrolytes. The results show that solid solution has been attained, grain boundaries act as oxygen-ion blockers, and the importance of the IS technique to study phase transformation in ceramics. (author)

  2. Solid-state electrolyte for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Sabin

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy has become a primary focus for scientific community since last decade. Great interesting investigations and creative works have been carried out to develop technology for powering our society, including disrupt technology for efficient energy storage and power manage. Supercapacitors (SP) also known as electrochemical double layer capacitors uses high surface area active electrode materials and various electrolytes to achieve capacitance of several order magnitude greater tha...

  3. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  4. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.

  5. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  6. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  7. Anastomotic leak detection by electrolyte electrical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Daniel T; Cline, Adam M; Johnson, Scott B

    2010-08-01

    To characterize a new method of postoperative gastrointestinal leak detection based on electrical resistance changes due to extravasated electrolyte contrast. Postoperative gastrointestinal leak results in increased patient morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs that can be mitigated by early diagnosis. A sensitive and specific diagnostic test that could be performed at the bedside has the potential to shorten the time to diagnosis and thereby improve the quality of treatment. Anaesthetized rats underwent celiotomy and creation of a 5-mm gastrotomy. In experimental animals, electrical resistance changes were measured with a direct current ohmmeter after the introduction of 5 cc of 23.4% NaCl electrolyte solution via gavage and measured with a more sensitive alternating current ohmmeter after the gavage of 1-5 cc of 0.9% NaCl. Comparison was made to negative controls and statistical analysis was performed. Leakage from the gastrotomy induced by as little as 1 cc of gavage-delivered 0.9% NaCl contrast solution was detectable as a statistically significant drop in electrical resistance when compared to results from negative controls. Electrical resistance change associated with electrolyte-gated leak detection is highly sensitive and specific and has the potential to be rapidly translated into clinical settings.

  8. Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T.; Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R b ) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10 -4 Scm -1 for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH 4 NO 3 (50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH 4 NO 3 -PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10 -3 Scm -1 while for the MC-NH 4 NO 3 -EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10 -2 Scm -1 . The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

  9. TRANSPORT MECHANISM STUDIES OF CHITOSAN ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaratnam, S.; Ramesh, K.; Ramesh, S.; Sanusi, A.; Basirun, W.J.; Arof, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of ion-conduction mechanisms in polymers is important for designing better polymer electrolytes for electrochemical devices. In this work, chitosan-ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (chitosan-EC/PC) system with lithium acetate (LiCH 3 COO) and lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) as salts were prepared and characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the ion-conduction mechanism. It was found that the electrolyte system using LiCF 3 SO 3 salt had a higher ionic conductivity, greater dielectric constant and dielectric loss value compared to system using LiCH 3 COO at room temperature. Hence, it may be inferred that the system incorporated with LiCF 3 SO 3 dissociated more readily than LiCH 3 COO. Conductivity mechanism for the systems, 42 wt.% chitosan- 28 wt.% LiCF 3 SO 3 -30 wt.% EC/PC (CLT) and 42 wt.% chitosan-28 wt.% LiCH 3 COO-30 wt.% EC/PC (CLA) follows the overlapping large polaron tunneling (OLPT) model. Results show that the nature of anion size influences the ionic conduction of chitosan based polymer electrolytes. The conductivity values of the CLA system are found to be higher than that of CLT system at higher temperatures. This may be due to the vibration of bigger triflate anions would have hindered the lithium ion movements. FTIR results show that lithium ions can form complexation with polymer host which would provide a platform for ion hopping

  10. Properties of ENR-50 Based Electrolyte System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal, N.; Mohamed, N.S.; Zainal, N.; Idris, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, epoxidized natural rubber 50 (ENR-50) has been used as a host polymer for the preparation of electrolyte system. Attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses showed the presence of lithium salt-ENR interactions. The glass transition temperature displayed an increasing trend with the increase in salt concentration indicating that the ionic conductivity was not influenced by segmental motion of the ENR-50 chains. The increase in glass transition temperature with the addition of salt was due to the formation of transient cross-linking between ENR-50 chains via the coordinated interaction between ENR-50 chains and salt. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity obtained was in the order of 10 -5 S cm -1 for the film containing 50 wt % of lithium salt. The ionic conductivity of this electrolyte system increased with increasing temperature and obeyed the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher behavior. The increase in ionic conductivity of the electrolyte system with salt concentration could also be correlated to the charge carriers concentration and/ or migration rate of charge carriers. (author)

  11. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  12. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  13. Experimental Study of Hydroxy Gas (HHO) Production with Variation in Current, Voltage and Electrolyte Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Noor; Pandey, K. M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, work has been carried out experimentally for the investigation of the effects of variation incurrent, voltage, temperature, chemical concentration and reaction time on the amount of hydroxy gas produced. Further effects on the overall electrolysis efficiency of advance alkaline water is also studied. The hydroxy gas (HHO) has been produced experimentally by the electrolysis of alkaline water with parallel plate electrode of 316L-grade stainless steel. The electrode has been selected on the basis of corrosion resistance and inertness with respect to electrolyte (KOH). The process used for the production of HHO is conventional as compared to the other production processes because of reduced energy consumption, less maintenance and low setup cost. From the experimental results, it has been observed that with increase in voltage, temperature and electrolyte concentration of alkaline solution, the production of hydroxy gas has increased about 30 to 40% with reduction in electrical energy consumption.

  14. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  15. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Zhengyuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Zachman, Michael J. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Choudhury, Snehashis [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Wei, Shuya [School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Ma, Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Yang, Yuan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 USA; Kourkoutis, Lena F. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853 USA; Archer, Lynden A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA; School of Chemical Engineering and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 USA

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm-2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  16. Application of the nanocomposite membrane as electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahreni

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently still in development and commercialization. Several barriers to the commercialization of these Nafion membrane as electrolyte is its very sensitive to humidity fluctuation. Nafion must be modified by making a composite Nafion-SiO 2 -HPA to increase electrolyte resistance against humidity fluctuations during the cell used. Research carried out by mixing Nafion solution with Tetra Ethoxy Ortho Silicate (TEOS) and conductive materials is phosphotungstic acid (PWA) by varying the ratio of Nafion, TEOS and PWA. The membrane is produced by heating a mixture of Nafion, TEOS and PWA by varying the evaporation temperature, time and annealing temperature to obtain the transparent membrane. The resulting membrane was analyzed its physical, chemical and electrochemical properties by applying the membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC at various humidity and temperature of operation. The results showed that at low temperatures (30-90 °C) and high humidity at 100 % RH, pure Nafion membrane is better than composite membrane (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA), but at low humidity condition composite membrane is better than the pure Nafion membrane. It can be concluded that the composite membranes of (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA) can be used as electrolyte of PEMFC operated at low humidity (40 % RH) and temperature between (30-90 °C). (author)

  17. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  18. Nanoporous Hybrid Electrolytes for High-Energy Batteries Based on Reactive Metal Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2017-01-06

    Successful strategies for stabilizing electrodeposition of reactive metals, including lithium, sodium, and aluminum are a requirement for safe, high-energy electrochemical storage technologies that utilize these metals as anodes. Unstable deposition produces high-surface area dendritic structures at the anode/electrolyte interface, which causes premature cell failure by complex physical and chemical processes that have presented formidable barriers to progress. Here, it is reported that hybrid electrolytes created by infusing conventional liquid electrolytes into nanoporous membranes provide exceptional ability to stabilize Li. Electrochemical cells based on γ-Al2O3 ceramics with pore diameters below a cut-off value above 200 nm exhibit long-term stability even at a current density of 3 mA cm−2. The effect is not limited to ceramics; similar large enhancements in stability are observed for polypropylene membranes with less monodisperse pores below 450 nm. These findings are critically assessed using theories for ion rectification and electrodeposition reactions in porous solids and show that the source of stable electrodeposition in nanoporous electrolytes is fundamental.

  19. Effect of substrate and cathode parameters on the properties of suspension plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D.; Tang, Z.; Burgess, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An axial injection suspension plasma spray system has been used to produce layers of fully stabilized yttriastabilized zirconia (YSZ) that could be used as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes. Suspension plasma spraying is a promising technique for the rapid production of coatings with fine microstructures and controlled porosity without requiring a post-deposition heat treatment. This new manufacturing technique to produce SOFC active layers requires the build up of a number of different plasma sprayed SOFC functional layers (cathode, electrolyte and anode) sequentially on top of each other. To understand the influence of the substrate and previouslydeposited coating layers on subsequent coating layer properties, YSZ layers were deposited on top of plasma sprayed composite lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ cathode layers that were first deposited on porous ferritic stainless steel substrates. Three layer half cells consisting of the porous steel substrate, composite cathode, and suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layer were then characterized. A systematic study was performed in order to investigate the effect of parameters such as substrate and cathode layer roughness, substrate surface pore size, and cathode microstructure and thickness on electrolyte deposition efficiency, cathode and electrolyte permeability, and layer microstructure. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamics of electrolytes. III. Activity and osmotic coefficients for 2-2 electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, K.S.; Mayorga, G.

    1974-01-01

    The peculiar behavior of 2-2 and higher valence type electrolytes is discussed in terms of various theories some of which assume, while others do not, an equilibrium between separated ions and ion pairs as distinct chemical species. It is recognized that in some cases a distinct species of inner-shell ion pairs is indicated by spectroscopic or ultrasonic data. Nevertheless, there are many advantages in representing, if possible, the properties of these electrolytes by appropriate virial coefficients and without chemical association equilibria. It is shown that this is possible and is conveniently accomplished by the addition of these equations are given for nine solutes. It is also noted that these equations have been successfully applied to mixed electrolytes involving one component of the 2-2 type. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Enhancing Capacity Performance by Utilizing the Redox Chemistry of the Electrolyte in a Dual-Electrolyte Sodium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Sirugaloor Thangavel; Bae, Hyuntae; Han, Jinhyup; Kim, Youngsik

    2018-05-04

    A strategy is described to increase charge storage in a dual electrolyte Na-ion battery (DESIB) by combining the redox chemistry of the electrolyte with a Na + ion de-insertion/insertion cathode. Conventional electrolytes do not contribute to charge storage in battery systems, but redox-active electrolytes augment this property via charge transfer reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The capacity of the cathode combined with that provided by the electrolyte redox reaction thus increases overall charge storage. An aqueous sodium hexacyanoferrate (Na 4 Fe(CN) 6 ) solution is employed as the redox-active electrolyte (Na-FC) and sodium nickel Prussian blue (Na x -NiBP) as the Na + ion insertion/de-insertion cathode. The capacity of DESIB with Na-FC electrolyte is twice that of a battery using a conventional (Na 2 SO 4 ) electrolyte. The use of redox-active electrolytes in batteries of any kind is an efficient and scalable approach to develop advanced high-energy-density storage systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    , promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of next-generation high-energy batteries. Li 3 PO 4 has been proved to be a good candidate for solid electrolyte, due to its easy in preparation, low cost, high melting temperature and good compatibility with the electrode materials. In the present work, Li 3 PO 4 has been prepared by wet chemical reaction, a simple method with the advantage of recycling a waste product H 3 PO 4 . The crystal structure has been characterized by both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The use of neutron scattering plays important role on observing the light atoms such as lithium ion. The x-ray diffraction results showed the crystal structure of orthorhombic phase P m n 21 (31), that belongs to the β-Li 3 PO 4 , with the lattice parameters are a = 6.123872, b = 5.250211, c = 4.876378. The conductivity of β-Li 3 PO 4 was around 10 −8 S/cm. Furthermore, the future application of the solid electrolyte layer in lithium ion battery will also be considered. It is concluded that the used of local resources on producing the solid electrolyte Li 3 PO 4 for lithium ion battery will give more added values to the researches and national industry

  3. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    , promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of next-generation high-energy batteries. Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been proved to be a good candidate for solid electrolyte, due to its easy in preparation, low cost, high melting temperature and good compatibility with the electrode materials. In the present work, Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has been prepared by wet chemical reaction, a simple method with the advantage of recycling a waste product H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The crystal structure has been characterized by both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The use of neutron scattering plays important role on observing the light atoms such as lithium ion. The x-ray diffraction results showed the crystal structure of orthorhombic phase P m n 21 (31), that belongs to the β-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, with the lattice parameters are a = 6.123872, b = 5.250211, c = 4.876378. The conductivity of β-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was around 10{sup −8} S/cm. Furthermore, the future application of the solid electrolyte layer in lithium ion battery will also be considered. It is concluded that the used of local resources on producing the solid electrolyte Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery will give more added values to the researches and national industry.

  4. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    , promise the potential to replace organic liquid electrolytes and thereby improve the safety of next-generation high-energy batteries. Li3PO4 has been proved to be a good candidate for solid electrolyte, due to its easy in preparation, low cost, high melting temperature and good compatibility with the electrode materials. In the present work, Li3PO4 has been prepared by wet chemical reaction, a simple method with the advantage of recycling a waste product H3PO4. The crystal structure has been characterized by both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The use of neutron scattering plays important role on observing the light atoms such as lithium ion. The x-ray diffraction results showed the crystal structure of orthorhombic phase P m n 21 (31), that belongs to the β-Li3PO4, with the lattice parameters are a = 6.123872, b = 5.250211, c = 4.876378. The conductivity of β-Li3PO4 was around 10-8 S/cm. Furthermore, the future application of the solid electrolyte layer in lithium ion battery will also be considered. It is concluded that the used of local resources on producing the solid electrolyte Li3PO4 for lithium ion battery will give more added values to the researches and national industry.

  5. Membrane with Stable Nanosized Microstructure and Method for Producing same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising in this order a first catalyst layer, an electronically and ionically conducting layer having a nanosized microstructure, and a second catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting layer is formed from...... an electrolyte material, a grain growth inhibitor and/or grain boundary modifier, and a method for producing same....

  6. Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jay Wook

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances in fluid and electrolytes are among the most common clinical problems encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies have reported that fluid and electrolyte imbalances are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. To provide optimal care, health care providers should be familiar with the principles and practice of fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology. Fluid resuscitation should be aimed at restoration of normal...

  7. Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)

    2009-06-15

    ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)

  8. Composite, Polymer-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratner, Mark A

    2001-01-01

    .... Several substantive advances towards new, improved performance electrolyte materials both for low temperature fuel cell applications and for advanced secondary lithium battery materials have been reported...

  9. Influence of electrolyte nature on steel membrane hydrogen permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskij, A.P.; Nazarov, A.P.; Mikhajlovskij, Yu.N.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of electrolyte nature on hydrogen absorption of carbonic steel membrane at its cathode polarization is studied. Electrolyte buffering by anions of subdissociated acids is shown to increase hydrogen flow though the membrane in acid electrolytes. Mechanisms covering dissociation of proton-bearing anion in the electrolyte near-the-electron layer or dissociative adsorption on steel surface are suggested. Effect of proton-bearing bases forming stable complex compounds with iron, is studied. Activation of anode process of iron solution is shown to increase the rate of hydrogen penetration

  10. Lithium current sources with an electrolyte based on aprotonic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shembel, Ye.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Litvinova, V.I.; Martynenko, T.L.; Raykhelson, L.B.; Sokolov, L.A.; Strizhko, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Lithium current sources with an electrolyte based on aprotonic solvents are examined. The effect of the composition of the electrolyte solution on the solubility of SO2 and the excess pressure of the gas above the electrolyte solution is established. The temperature characteristics of the electrolyte are studied from the standpoint of salt solubility, the association between the discharge conditions, the macrostructure of the porous inert cathode and the degree of usage of the active cathode substance of the SO2 as the necessary aspects for solving the problems of optimizing a lithium and SO2 system.

  11. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  12. Physicochemistry of the plasma-electrolyte solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Saito, Kenji; Takemura, Yu-ichiro; Shirai, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric rf plasma discharge was successfully investigated using NaOH or HCl electrolyte solutions as a counter electrode at different pH values. The emission intensities of solution components, self bias, and electron density strongly depend on the pH value of electrolyte. An addition of ethanol to the electrolyte solutions enhanced the dehydration, which markedly promoted the emissions of solution components as well as electrons from the solution. An acidification of the solution was always observed after the plasma exposure and two coexisting mechanisms were proposed to give a reasonable interpretation. The plasma-electrolyte interface was discussed based on a model of hydrogen cycle

  13. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-01-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  14. Carbonate fuel cell endurance: Hardware corrosion and electrolyte management status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    1993-05-01

    Endurance tests of carbonate fuel cell stacks (up to 10,000 hours) have shown that hardware corrosion and electrolyte losses can be reasonably controlled by proper material selection and cell design. Corrosion of stainless steel current collector hardware, nickel clad bipolar plate and aluminized wet seal show rates within acceptable limits. Electrolyte loss rate to current collector surface has been minimized by reducing exposed current collector surface area. Electrolyte evaporation loss appears tolerable. Electrolyte redistribution has been restrained by proper design of manifold seals.

  15. Communication: Modeling electrolyte mixtures with concentration dependent dielectric permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2018-01-01

    We report a new implicit-solvent simulation model for electrolyte mixtures based on the concept of concentration dependent dielectric permittivity. A combining rule is found to predict the dielectric permittivity of electrolyte mixtures based on the experimentally measured dielectric permittivity for pure electrolytes as well as the mole fractions of the electrolytes in mixtures. Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that this approach allows us to accurately reproduce the mean ionic activity coefficients of NaCl in NaCl-CaCl2 mixtures at ionic strengths up to I = 3M. These results are important for thermodynamic studies of geologically relevant brines and physiological fluids.

  16. Aging Methodologies and Prognostic Health Management for Electrolytic Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the ageing mechanisms of electronic components critical avionics systems such as the GPS and INAV are of critical importance. Electrolytic capacitors...

  17. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  19. Electrolytic coloration of O22--doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Wang Na; Guo Meili; Wang Fen; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    O 2 2- -doped NaCl crystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages, which mainly benefit from appropriate coloration temperatures and voltages as well as anode structure of used electrolysis apparatus. Characteristic OH - , U, V 2 m , U A , V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + complex, F, R 1 , R 2 and M absorption bands are observed in absorption spectra of the colored crystals. Production and conversion of color centers in electrolytic coloration is explained. Current-time curves for electrolytic colorations and their relationships with electrolytic colorations were given

  20. Characterization of ion implanted silicon by the electrolytic reverse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueller, J.; Pham, M.T.

    1977-01-01

    The current voltage behaviour of ion implanted silicon electrodes in HF electrolyte is investigated. The electrolytic reverse current, i.e. the reaction rate of the minority carrier limited reactions is found to increase. The current increase depends on the implanted dose and layer stripping. Reason for the increased reverse current can be referred to radiation damage acting as generation centres for minority carriers. Measurement of the electrolytic reverse current can be used for determining damage profiles. Layer stripping is carried out by anodic dissolution in the same electrolyte. The sensitivity of this new method for characterizing ion implanted silicon layers lies at 10 11 to 10 12 atoms/cm 2 . (author)

  1. Postoperative electrolyte management: Current practice patterns of surgeons and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Fernando A; Dueck, Andrew D; Azouz, Solomon M

    2015-07-01

    Managing postoperative electrolyte imbalances often is driven by dogma. To identify areas of improvement, we assessed the practice pattern of postoperative electrolyte management among surgeons and residents. An online survey was distributed among attending surgeons and surgical residents at the University of Toronto. The survey was designed according to a systematic approach for formulating self-administered questionnaires. Questions addressed workload, decision making in hypothetical clinical scenarios, and improvement strategies. Of 232 surveys distributed, 156 were completed (response rate: 67%). The majority stated that junior residents were responsible for managing electrolytes at 13 University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. Supervision was carried out predominately by senior residents (75%). Thirteen percent reported management went unsupervised. Approximately 59% of residents were unaware how often attending surgeons assessed patients' electrolytes. Despite the majority of residents (53.7%) reporting they were never given tools or trained in electrolyte replacement, they considered themselves moderately or extremely confident. The management of hypothetical clinical scenarios differed between residents and attending surgeons. The majority (50.5%) of respondents considered that an electrolyte replacement protocol is the most appropriate improvement strategy. Electrolyte replacement represents an important component of surgeons' workload. Despite reporting that formal training in electrolyte management is limited, residents consider themselves competent; however, their practice is highly variable and often differs from pharmacologic-directed recommendations. Optimizing how postoperative electrolytes are managed in surgical wards requires building a framework that improves knowledge, training, and limits unnecessary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  3. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  4. Low temperature electrochemistry at normal conductor/frozen electrolyte interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowska, Z.; Stimming, U.

    1991-01-01

    The frozen electrolyte technique (FREECE = FRozen Electrolyte ElectroChEmistry) is based on the experimental result that frozen electrolytes are suitable for electrochemical studies. This technique has been used in our laboratory and also by others to investigate interfacial electrochemical behavior. An argument will be given as to why the FREECE technique is advantageous in a number of respects and what kind of electrolyte systems can be used. Reference is made to electrochemical results such as interfacial reactions and double layer properties. 26 refs

  5. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-01-01

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of ≤20 dpm/100 cm 2 swipable and ≤500 dpm/100 cm 2 direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product

  6. Raising the Corrosion Resistance of Low-Carbon Steels by Electrolytic-Plasma Saturation with Nitrogen and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmanov, S. A.; Grishina, E. P.; Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanova, Yu. V.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-05-01

    Structural features of the external oxide layer and internal nitrided, carbonitrided and carburized layers in steels 10, 20 and St3 produced by the method of electrolytic plasma treatment are studied. Specimens of the steels are tested for corrosion in a naturally aerated 1-N solution of sodium chloride. The condition of the metal/sodium chloride solution interface is studied by the method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steels can be raised by anode electrolytic-plasma saturation with nitrogen and carbon. Recommendations are given on the choice of carbonitriding modes for structural steels.

  7. Preparation of thoria calcia solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental procedures for the preparation of thoria-calcia solid electrolytes are described. Cold-pressed specimens pre-sintered at 1400 0 C and sintered at 2000 0 C have been used for thermally stimulated depolarization currents measurements in the temperature range 100 K - 300 K as well as for ionic conductivity measurements in the temperature range RT - 900 K. The detection of a relaxation peak probably due to the reorientation of the Ca'' sub(Th) - V sup(..) sub(O) complex shows that solid solution has been attained. Preliminary results of electrical conductivity are also reported. (Author) [pt

  8. Neutron scattering studies of solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The role which neutron scattering can play in determining the nature of the disorder and the conducting mechanism in the solid electrolytes is discussed. First, some of the general formalism for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering is reviewed, and the quantities which can be measured are pointed out. Then the application of neutron scattering to the studies of three different problems is examined; the anion disorder in the fluorite system, the dynamical behavior in beta-alumina, and the cation diffusion in αAgI are discussed. 8 figures

  9. Electrolytic gettering of tritium from air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Stevens, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have removed 90% of 1 part-per-million tritium gas in air of 25% to 35% humidity by the dc electrical action of the solid proton electrolyte hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP). Gettering takes 5 to 24 hours for a 1 cm 2 HUP disc at 2 to 4 V in a static, 1200 cc gas volume. Hydrogen gas may be used to flush captured tritium through the HUP. Liquid water leaches out the tritium but water vapor is ineffective. This technique promises an alternative to the conventional catalyst/zeolite method

  10. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  11. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  12. Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kipling, J J

    1965-01-01

    Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes provides a general discussion of the subject, which has so far been given little or no attention in current textbooks of physical chemistry. A general view of the subject is particularly needed at a time when we wish to see how far it will be possible to use theories of solutions to explain the phenomena of adsorption. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the types of interface, aspects of adsorption from solution, types of adsorption, and classification of systems. This is followed by separate chapters on experimental methods, adsorption

  13. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  14. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Performance of molten carbonate fuel cells with the electrolyte molded at low pressure (3) The stability of anode microlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, Atsuo; Suzuki, Nobukazu; Murata, Kenji; Shirogami, Tamotsu

    1987-01-01

    It is known that an addition of organic binder to the electrolyte layer which composes a fuel cell enables to produce a large plate of electrolyte even in low temperature and low pressure conditions. However, when the binder is volatilized, bores remain making poor performance as a sepa-rator plate of the reacting gas. In order to prevent the gas permeation, it is necessary to combine a double layered electrode with microporous layers on the electrode surface ajacent to the electrolyte layer. In this study, stability of microporous layers of the anode electrode was examined, and it was found that the microporous layers made by sintering Ni-powders was unstable and dissoluted, but the impregnation of such second element as Chromium oxide, Yttrium oxide, Aluminum oxide into the layer improved the stability. (10 figs, 1 tab, 6 refs)

  16. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  17. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  18. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  19. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-05-07

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  20. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  1. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuphorn, H. (Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany))

    1992-09-15

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects world-wide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles. (orig.).

  2. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of titania nanotubes by anodizing of titanium in fluoride containing electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akhlaq; Haq, Ehsan Ul; Akhtar, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zubair

    2017-11-01

    Titania nanotubular structure was prepared by anodizing titanium metal in the fluoride containing electrolytes and studied for hydrogen reduction using photo electrochemical cell. Potentiodynamic scan was performed before actual anodizing to optimize the anodizing conditions. The morphology of the TiO2 nanotubes was investigated by SEM and the presence of TiO2 nanotubes was confirmed. Raman spectroscopy was done to confirm the different phases present. Hydrogen generation capability was revealed by electrochemical testing in three-electrode system in dark and in visible light at 200 W power using Gamry Potentiostat. The corrosion potential of TiO2 nanotubes produced was found to be more active side in potassium hydroxide solution under visible light than in the dark condition. Cathodic polarization behavior of specimens in the presence of light showed more activity towards hydrogen generation than in dark condition. In comparison, the hydrogen generation capability of specimen anodized in 2H15 electrolyte was higher than specimens anodized in other electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the charge transfer resistance of the nanotubes produced. The results showed that TiO2 nanotubular structure is a promising material for photoelectrochemical cell. Low-charge transfer resistance also depicts that it can be efficiently used to harvest solar energy.

  4. Influence of addition of hydrogen produced on board in the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Matienzo, Jorge M.; Domínguez Valdés, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    A commercial electrolytic cell is assessed for supplying HHO produced on board as additional fuel for a stationary diesel IC engine. The cell uses KOH as electrolytic and is fed by the own battery of the engine. First, different concentrations of KOH used as electrolytic were tested in order to obtain the adequate value for the performance of the cell regarding its temperature and HHO production. The cell plates were connected in different combinations looking for a good productivity. The engine was tested in several load regimes, measuring fuel consumption and others parameters. Results show variable fuel savings, depending on engine load and speed. (author)

  5. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  6. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  7. Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between electrolyte and carbon cathodes during the electrolytic production of aluminium decreases cell life. This paper describes the interaction between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte, based on industrial and laboratory data...

  8. Fuel cells with solid polymer electrolyte and their application on vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, V.

    1996-04-01

    In Russia, solid polymer electrolyte MF-4-SK has been developed for fuel cells. This electrolyte is based on perfluorinated polymer with functional sulfogroups. Investigations on electrolyte properties and electrocatalysts have been carried out.

  9. A study on the electrolytic reduction of U3O8 to uranium metal in LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. S.; Heo, J. M.; Hong, S. S.; Kang, D. S.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    New electrolytic reduction technology was proposed that is based on the intregration of metallization of U 3 O 8 and Li 2 O electrowinning. In this electrolytic reduction reaction, electrolytically reduced Li deposits on cathode and simultaneously reacts with uranium oxide to produce uranium metal showing more than 99% conversion. For the verification of process feasibility, the experiments to obtain basic data on the metallization of uranium oxide, materials for cathode and anode electrode, the characteristics of closed recycle of Li 2 O and mass transfer were carried out. This evolutionary electrolytic reduction technology would give benefits over the conventional Li-reduction process improving economic viability such as: avoidance of handling of chemically active Li-LiCl molten salt, increase of metallization yield, and simplification of process

  10. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites ...

  11. Development and Characterization of Temperature-resistant Polymer Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Acid-doped PBI polymer electrolyte membranes have been developed and characterized for fuel cell applications at temperatures up to 200°C. Electric conductivity as high as 0.13 S/cm is obtained at 160°C at high doping levels. The water osmotic drag coefficient of the polymer electrolyte is found...

  12. Nafion and modified-Nafion membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) employ membrane electrolytes for proton transport during the cell reaction. The membrane forms a key component of the PEFC and its performance is controlled by several physical parameters, viz. water up-take, ion-exchange capacity, proton conductivity and humidity. The article ...

  13. Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lindberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

  14. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile of Mild to Moderate Hypertensive Nigerians: A Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide. ... Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure (BP) and electrolytes of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians ...

  15. Electrolytes concentration patterns in the three trimesters of pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic adaptations of the pregnant woman involve the renal, cardiovascular and other systems of the body. This study aimed at evaluating electrolyte concentrations in the three trimesters of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected by aseptic techniques and the concentrations of electrolytes were determined ...

  16. Properties and structures of electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, G. E.

    1985-01-15

    Rules which have been employed to explain and predict solvent properties of lithium battery electrolytes are described and results reviewed. The equilibrium behavior of moderate to high concentration electrolyte solutions is also reviewed. Recent theoretical approaches to explain the behavior are discussed, and a new theory incorporating contact ion pair concepts into an advanced statistical theory for free ions is proposed.

  17. Maintenance of electrolytic cells with failure technologic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to failures in regular operation of electrolytic cell and ways of their neutralization. Thus, the main failures in regular operation of electrolytic cell, including hot driving, cold driving of tank, carbides formation were studied. The emergency cases in operation of tanks and ways of their neutralization were described.

  18. Method for electrolytic decontamination of radioactive contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Horita, Masami; Onuma, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to an electrolytic decontamination method for radioactive contaminated metals. The contaminated sections are eluted by electrolysis after the surface of a piece of equipment used with radioactive substances has been immersed in an electrolyte. Metal contaminated by radioactive substances acts as the anode

  19. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  20. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  1. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Light emission from organic single crystals operated by electrolyte doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Sakanoue, Tomo; Yomogida, Yohei; Hotta, Shu; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting devices based on electrolytes, such as light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), are solution-processable devices with a very simple structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply this device structure into highly fluorescent organic materials for future printed applications. However, owing to compatibility problems between electrolytes and organic crystals, electrolyte-based single-crystal light-emitting devices have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report on light-emitting devices based on organic single crystals and electrolytes. As the fluorescent materials, α,ω-bis(biphenylyl)terthiophene (BP3T) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) single crystals were selected. Using ionic liquids as electrolytes, we observed clear light emission from BP3T LECs and rubrene EDLTs.

  3. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  5. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  6. Ionogel Electrolytes through Sol-Gel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.

    Electrical energy needs have intensified due to the ubiquity of personal electronics, the decarbonization of energy services through electrification, and the use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite developments in mechanical and thermal methods, electrochemical technologies are the most convenient and effective means of storing electrical energy. These technologies include both electrochemical cells, commonly called batteries, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", which store energy electrostatically. Both device types require an ion-conducting electrolyte. Current devices use solutions of complex salts in organic solvents, leading to both toxicity and flammability concerns. These drawbacks can be avoided by replacing conventional electrolytes with room-temperature molten salts, known as ionic liquids (ILs). ILs are non-volatile, non-flammable, and offer high conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Device mass can be reduced by combining ILs with a solid scaffold material to form an "ionogel," further improving performance metrics. In this work, sol-gel chemistry is explored as a means of forming ionogel electrolytes. Sol-gel chemistry is a solution-based, industrially-relevant, well-studied technique by which solids such as silica can be formed in situ. Previous works used a simple acid-catalyzed sol-gel reaction to create brittle, glassy ionogels. Here, both the range of products that can be accomplished through sol-gel processing and the understanding of interactions between ILs and the sol-gel reaction network are greatly expanded. This work introduces novel ionogel materials, including soft and compliant silica-supported ionogels and PDMS-supported ionogels. The impacts of the reactive formulation, IL identity, and casting time are detailed. It is demonstrated that variations in formulation can lead to rapid gelation and open pore structures in the silica scaffold or slow gelation and more dense silica

  7. Physics based Degradation Modeling and Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors under Electrical Overstress Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes a physics based degradation modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors are critical components in...

  8. Prognostics Health Management and Physics based failure Models for Electrolytic Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes first principles based modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors and MOSFETs are the two major...

  9. Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingliang, TANG; Xianhui, ZHANG; Si-ze, YANG

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

  10. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

    1999-02-09

    A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

  11. Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao M.; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1999-01-01

    A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

  12. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L; Scherer, G G; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  13. Synthesis and characterizations of novel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthad, Chalathorn

    Polymer electrolytes are an important component of many electrochemical devices. The ability to control the structures, properties, and functions of polymer electrolytes remains a key subject for the development of next generation functional polymers. Taking advantage of synthetic strategies is a promising approach to achieve the desired chemical structures, morphologies, thermal, mechanical, and electrochemical properties. Therefore, the major goal of this thesis is to develop synthetic methods for of novel proton exchange membranes and ion conductive membranes. In Chapter 2, new classes of fluorinated polymer- polysilsesquioxane nanocomposites have been designed and synthesized. The synthetic method employed includes radical polymerization using the functional benzoyl peroxide initiator for the telechelic fluorinated polymers with perfluorosulfonic acids in the side chains and a subsequent in-situ sol-gel condensation of the prepared triethoxylsilane-terminated fluorinated polymers with alkoxide precursors. The properties of the composite membranes have been studied as a function of the content and structure of the fillers. The proton conductivity of the prepared membranes increases steadily with the addition of small amounts of the polysilsesquioxane fillers. In particular, the sulfopropylated polysilsesquioxane based nanocomposites display proton conductivities greater than Nafion. This is attributed to the presence of pendant sulfonic acids in the fillers, which increases ion-exchange capacity and offers continuous proton transport channels between the fillers and the polymer matrix. The methanol permeability of the prepared membranes has also been examined. Lower methanol permeability and higher electrochemical selectivity than those of Nafion have been demonstrated in the polysilsesquioxane based nanocomposites. In Chapter 3, the synthesis of a new class of ionic liquid-containing triblock copolymers with fluoropolymer mid-block and imidazolium methacrylate

  14. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... oxidation of ethanol is in principle a promising concept to supply HTPEM-FCs with a sustainable and on large scale available fuel (ethanol from biomass). However, the intermediate temperature tests in the GDE setup show that even on Pt-based catalysts the reaction rates become first significant...... at potentials, which approach the usual cathode potentials of HTPEM-FCs. Therefore, it seems that H3PO4-based fuel cells are not much suited to efficiently convert ethanol in accordance with findings in earlier research papers. Given that HTPEM-FCs can tolerate CO containing reformate gas, focusing research...

  15. Electrochemical characteristics of polyacetylene in organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, A.; Scrosati, B.

    1985-01-15

    The characteristics of the electrochemical doping process of polyacetylene have been investigated in lithium cells using lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate as electrolytic solution. The kinetics of this process are controlled by the diffusion of the dopant species throughout the polymer. Therefore, polyacetylene samples with a highly porous, extended surface should be selected for the development of efficient, rechargeable lithium batteries. In line with this, we have considered foam-type polyacetylene electrodes which have a lower density than the 'classical' Shirakawa-type film electrodes. The electrochemical behaviour of the polyacetylene foam samples has been examined by cyclic voltametry response and constant current, charge-discharge cycles. The results are described in this work.

  16. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-01-01

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate

  17. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  18. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N 2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO 2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes

  19. An Evaluation of Four Electrolyte Models for the Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalodin Momeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of four electrolyte models for prediction the osmotic and activity coefficients of different aqueous salt solutions at 298 K, atmospheric pressure and in a wide range of concentrations are evaluated. In two of these models, (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid e-NRTL and Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid MSA-NRTL, association between ions of opposite charges for simplification purposes is ignored and in the other two ones, (Associative Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid AMSA-NRTL and Binding Mean Spherical Approximation BiMSA association and solvation effects are considered. The predictions of these four models for the osmotic and activity coefficients of electrolyte solutions at 298 K and atmospheric pressure are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. This comparison includes, 28 different aqueous salt solutions including thio-cyanates, perchlorates, nitrates, hydroxides, quaternary ammonium salts and others. The results show, the performance of models that consider association effects are better than others especially for higher salt concentrations. However, the best performance belongs to BiMSA model which has some parameters with physical meaning.

  20. Molecular motion in polymer electrolytes. An investigation of methods for improving the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Mark Ian

    2002-01-01

    Three methods were explored with a view to enhancing the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes; namely the addition of an inert, inorganic filler, the addition of a plasticizer and the incorporation of the electrolyte in the pores of silica matrices. There have been a number of reports, which suggest the addition of nanocrystalline oxides to polymer electrolytes increases the ionic conductivities by about a factor of two. In this thesis studies of the polymer electrolyte NaSCN.P(EO) 8 with added nanocrystalline alumina powder are reported which show no evidence of enhanced conductivity. The addition of a plasticizer to polymer electrolytes will increase the ionic conductivity. A detailed study was made of the polymer electrolytes LiT.P(EO) 10 and LiClO 4 .P(EO) 10 with added ethylene carbonate plasticizer. The conductivities showed an enhancement, however this disappeared on heating under vacuum. The present work suggests that the plasticised system is not thermodynamically stable and will limit the applications of the material. A series of samples were prepared from the polymer electrolyte LiT.P(EO) 8 and a range of porous silicas. The silicas were selected to give a wide range of pore size and included Zeolite Y, ZSM5, mesoporous silica and a range of porous glasses. This gave pore sizes from less than one nm to 50 nm. A variety of experiments, including X-ray diffraction, DSC and NMR, showed that the polymer electrolyte entered to pores of the silica. As a result the polymer was amorphous and the room temperature conductivity was enhanced. The high temperature conductivity was not increased above that for the pure electrolyte. The results suggest that this could be employed in applications, however would require higher conducting electrolytes to be of practical benefit. (author)

  1. The role of electrolyte pH on phase evolution and magnetic properties of CoFeW codeposited films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaferi, Z.; Sharafi, S.; Bahrololoom, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deposition tends to anomalous-induced fashion at higher pH values. • The structure of the coatings depend on electrolyte pH effectively. • Grain size of two-phase structure films is lower than single-phase solid solutions. • Coercivity of the coatings changed by tungsten content and surface defects. • The highest pH value produced coating with superior magnetic behaviour. - Abstract: In this research, nanocrystalline Co–Fe–W alloy coatings were electrodeposited from a citrate-borate bath. The influence of electrolyte pH on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of these films was also studied. By increasing pH value, the amount of iron content increased from 30 to 55 wt.% which indicates anomalous fashion at higher pH electrolytes. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the structure of these films depend on electrolyte pH effectively. However, two-phase structure coatings showed smaller average grain size compared with one- phase solid solutions. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements indicated that the coercivity of the coatings was in the range of 21–76 Oe. However, the highest pH value produced coating with superior magnetic behaviour. Microhardness of the coatings reached its maximum value at about 260HV which is referred to the highest tungsten content.

  2. Titania nanotube powders obtained by rapid breakdown anodization in perchloric acid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Saima; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Titania nanotube (TNT) powders are prepared by rapid break down anodization (RBA) in a 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO 4 ) solution (Process 1), and ethylene glycol (EG) mixture with HClO 4 and water (Process 2). A study of the as-prepared and calcined TNT powders obtained by both processes is implemented to evaluate and compare the morphology, crystal structure, specific surface area, and the composition of the nanotubes. Longer TNTs are formed in Process 1, while comparatively larger pore diameter and wall thickness are obtained for the nanotubes prepared by Process 2. The TNTs obtained by Process 1 are converted to nanorods at 350 °C, while nanotubes obtained by Process 2 preserve tubular morphology till 350 °C. In addition, the TNTs prepared by an aqueous electrolyte have a crystalline structure, whereas the TNTs obtained by Process 2 are amorphous. Samples calcined till 450 °C have XRD peaks from the anatase phase, while the rutile phase appears at 550 °C for the TNTs prepared by both processes. The Raman spectra also show clear anatase peaks for all samples except the as-prepared sample obtained by Process 2, thus supporting the XRD findings. FTIR spectra reveal the presence of O-H groups in the structure for the TNTs obtained by both processes. However, the presence is less prominent for annealed samples. Additionally, TNTs obtained by Process 2 have a carbonaceous impurity present in the structure attributed to the electrolyte used in that process. While a negligible weight loss is typical for TNTs prepared from aqueous electrolytes, a weight loss of 38.6% in the temperature range of 25–600 °C is found for TNTs prepared in EG electrolyte (Process 2). A large specific surface area of 179.2 m 2 g −1 is obtained for TNTs prepared by Process 1, whereas Process 2 produces nanotubes with a lower specific surface area. The difference appears to correspond to the dimensions of the nanotubes obtained by the two processes. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotube

  3. Titania nanotube powders obtained by rapid breakdown anodization in perchloric acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Saima, E-mail: saima.ali@aalto.fi; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2017-05-15

    Titania nanotube (TNT) powders are prepared by rapid break down anodization (RBA) in a 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) solution (Process 1), and ethylene glycol (EG) mixture with HClO{sub 4} and water (Process 2). A study of the as-prepared and calcined TNT powders obtained by both processes is implemented to evaluate and compare the morphology, crystal structure, specific surface area, and the composition of the nanotubes. Longer TNTs are formed in Process 1, while comparatively larger pore diameter and wall thickness are obtained for the nanotubes prepared by Process 2. The TNTs obtained by Process 1 are converted to nanorods at 350 °C, while nanotubes obtained by Process 2 preserve tubular morphology till 350 °C. In addition, the TNTs prepared by an aqueous electrolyte have a crystalline structure, whereas the TNTs obtained by Process 2 are amorphous. Samples calcined till 450 °C have XRD peaks from the anatase phase, while the rutile phase appears at 550 °C for the TNTs prepared by both processes. The Raman spectra also show clear anatase peaks for all samples except the as-prepared sample obtained by Process 2, thus supporting the XRD findings. FTIR spectra reveal the presence of O-H groups in the structure for the TNTs obtained by both processes. However, the presence is less prominent for annealed samples. Additionally, TNTs obtained by Process 2 have a carbonaceous impurity present in the structure attributed to the electrolyte used in that process. While a negligible weight loss is typical for TNTs prepared from aqueous electrolytes, a weight loss of 38.6% in the temperature range of 25–600 °C is found for TNTs prepared in EG electrolyte (Process 2). A large specific surface area of 179.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} is obtained for TNTs prepared by Process 1, whereas Process 2 produces nanotubes with a lower specific surface area. The difference appears to correspond to the dimensions of the nanotubes obtained by the two processes. - Graphical abstract

  4. Effects of Weightlessness on Human Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The changes that occur in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. A number of questions remain to be answered. At a time when plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume are contracted and salt and water intake is unrestricted. ADH does not correct the volume deficit and serum sodium decreases. Change in secretion or activity of a natriuretic factor during spaceflight is one possible explanation. Recent identification of a polypeptide hormone produced in cardiac muscle cells which is natiuretic, is hypotensive, and has an inhibitory effect on renin and aldosterone secretion has renewed interest in the role of a natriuretic factor. The role of this atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in both long- and short-term variation in extracellular volumes and in the inability of the kidney to bring about an escape from the sodium-retaining state accompanying chronic cardiac dysfunction makes it reasonable to look for a role of ANF in the regulation of sodium during exposure to microgravity. Prostaglandin-E is another hormone that may antagonize the action of ADH. Assays of these hormones will be performed on samples from crew members in the future.

  5. Utilization of waste heat from aluminium electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Radovan; Gavlas, Stanislav; Lenhard, Richard; Malcho, Milan; Sedlak, Veroslav; Teie, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    During the aluminium production, 50% of the supplied energy is consumed by the chemical process, and 50% of the supplied energy is lost in form of heat. Heat losses are necessary to maintain a frozen side ledge to protect the side walls, so extra heat has to be wasted. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the process, it is necessary to significantly lower the heat losses dissipated by the furnace's external surface. Goodtech Recovery Technology (GRT) has developed a technology based on the use of heat pipes for utilization energy from the waste heat produced in the electrolytic process. Construction of condenser plays important role for efficient operation of energy systems. The condensation part of the heat pipe is situated on top of the heating zone. The thermal oil is used as cooling medium in the condenser. This paper analyses the effect of different operation condition of thermal oil to thermal performance. From the collected results it is obvious that the larger mass flow and higher temperature cause better thermal performance and lower pressure drop.

  6. Production technology of an electrolyte for Na/S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimke, G.; Mayer, H.; Reckziegel, A.

    1982-05-01

    The trend to develop a cheap electrochemical electric battery and the development of the Na/S system are discussed. The main element in this type of battery is the beta Al2O3 solid electrolyte. Characteristics for this material of first importance are: specific surface, density of green and of sintered material, absence of cracks, gas permeability, resistance to flexion, purity, electrical conductivity, crystal structure and dimensions. Influence of production method on all these characteristics were investigated, e.g., method of compacting powder, tunnel kiln sintering versus static chamber furnace sintering, sintering inside a container or not, and type of kiln material when sintering in a container. In the stationary chamber furnace, beta alumina ceramics were produced with a density of 3.2 g/cm3, a mechanical strength higher than 160 MPa, and an electrical conductivity of about 0.125 Ohm-1cm-1 at 300 C. The best kiln material proved to be MgO and MgAl2O3.MgO ceramics.

  7. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Corrosion of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Chen Chongmu; Shao Yawei; Meng Guozhe; Wang Fuhui; Li Xiaogang; Dong Chaofang

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium was investigated by means of cathodic polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) under aerated and deaerated thin electrolyte layers (TEL) with various thicknesses. Based on shot noise theory and stochastic theory, the EN results were quantitatively analyzed by using the Weibull and Gumbel distribution function, respectively. The results show that the cathodic process of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was dominated by hydrogen reduction. With the decreasing of thin electrolyte layer thickness, cathodic process was retarded slightly while the anodic process was inhibited significantly, which indicated that both the cathodic and anodic process were inhibited in the presence of oxygen. The absence of oxygen decreased the corrosion resistance of pure magnesium in case of thin electrolyte layer. The corrosion was more localized under thin electrolyte layer than that in bulk solution. The results also demonstrate that there exist two kinds of effects for thin electrolyte layer on the corrosion behavior of pure magnesium: (1) the rate of pit initiation was evidently retarded compared to that in bulk solution; (2) the probability of pit growth oppositely increased. The corrosion model of pure magnesium under thin electrolyte layer was suggested in the paper

  9. Electrochemical behavior of ionically crosslinked polyampholytic gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wanyu; Tang Haitao; Ou Ziwei; Wang Hong; Yang Yajiang

    2007-01-01

    An ionic complex of anionic and cationic monomers was obtained by protonation of (N,N-diethylamino)ethylmethacrylate (DEA) with acrylic acid (AAc). Free radical copolymerization of the ionic complex and acrylamide (AAm), yielded the ionically crosslinked polyampholytic gel electrolytes [poly(AAc-DEA-AAm), designated as PADA] using two types of organic solvents containing a lithium salt. The PADA gel electrolyte exhibited good thermal stability shown by the DSC thermogram. The impedance analysis at temperatures ranging from -30 to 75 deg. C indicated that the ionic conductivities of the PADA gel electrolytes were rather close to those of liquid electrolytes. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivities was found to be in accord with the Arrhenius equation. Moreover, the ionic conductivities of PADA gel electrolytes increased with an increase of the molar ratios of cationic/anionic monomers. The ionic conductivities of PADA gels prepared in solvent mixtures of propylene carbonate, ethyl methyl ether and dioxolane (3:1:1, v/v) were higher than those of PADA gels prepared in propylene carbonate only. Significantly, the ionic conductivities of two kinds of PADA gel electrolytes were in the range of 10 -3 and 10 -4 S cm -1 even at -30 deg. C. The electrochemical windows of PADA gel electrolytes measured by cyclic voltammetry were in the range from -1 V to 4.5 V

  10. Impedance Spectroscopy and FTIR Studies of PEG - Based Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anji Reddy Polu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG - ammonium chloride (NH4Cl based polymer electrolytes can be enhanced by incorporating ceramic filler TiO2 into PEG-NH4Cl matrix. The electrolyte samples were prepared by solution casting technique. FTIR studies indicates that the complex formation between the polymer, salt and ceramic filler. The ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy technique. It was observed that the conductivity of the electrolyte varies with TiO2 concentration and temperature. The highest room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte of 7.72×10−6 S cm-1 was obtained at 15% by weight of TiO2 and that without TiO2 filler was found to be 9.58×10−7 S cm−1. The conductivity has been improved by 8 times when the TiO2 filler was introduced into the PEG–NH4Cl electrolyte system. The conductance spectra shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer electrolytes seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values of the polymer electrolytes were reported and the results were discussed. The imaginary part of dielectric constant (εi decreases with increase in frequency in the low frequency region whereas frequency independent behavior is observed in the high frequency region.

  11. Magnesia nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells: An effective recombination suppressant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Shyama Prasad; Bhargava, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MgO loaded electrolyte retards recombination at titania/electrolyte interface. ► Recombination reactions are retarded by adsorption of anions on MgO in electrolyte. ► Zeta potential measurements show anionic adsorption on the surface of MgO. ► MgO loaded electrolyte performs efficiently than TBP containing electrolyte. -- Abstract: Recombination reactions at the photoanode/electrolyte interface reduce the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Unlike modification of titania photoanode by coating with MgO which act as a barrier layer toward recombination, addition of MgO nanopowder to electrolyte prevents recombination through adsorption of anions (triiodide/iodide) from electrolyte. In the present study, the surface charge of MgO has been utilized to adsorb anions from electrolyte. This anionic adsorption onto the MgO nanopowders in electrolyte has been confirmed by zeta potential measurements. MgO retards the recombination reaction as efficiently as 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) which is the most widely used additive in the electrolyte. Higher photocurrent and conversion efficiency is achieved by using MgO loaded electrolyte as compared to TBP added electrolyte. Dark current measurements show that recombination reactions are effectively retarded by use of MgO loaded electrolytes. Open circuit voltage decay measurements also confirm higher electron lifetime at the titania/electrolyte interface in MgO loaded electrolyte based cell as compared to additive free electrolyte based cell

  12. Investigation on neptunium behavior in electrolytic partitioning process of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingxuan; Zhang Jiajun; Tian Baosheng; Jiang Dongliang; Li Zhaoyi; He Jianyu

    1988-01-01

    The electrolytic oxidation-raduction of Np(V, VI) in HNO 3 solution was studied. Experimental results showed that the electrode process of Np(V)-Np(VI) couple is reversible, and the half reaction time of the process mentioned above is about 1.5 minutes under given conditions. The overpotential of reduction of Np(V) is high, which makes it difficult to reduce Np(V) into Np(IV) directly at cathode. Owing to a large quantity of U(IV) produced through electrolysis, it is presaged that neptunium will be mainly in tetravalent state in the electrolytic M-S battery. A new type of electrolytic M-S battery was developed, in which anodes were installed in each settling chamber without any specific anode chamber in the battery. Owing to using of the mechanical stirrer driven by a wheel gear, stage efficiency is high. Demonstration campaign was carried out. It follows from the results that the yield of Pu is 99.90 ∼ 99.99%. Separation factor of U from Pu is 3900 ∼ 33000. Material balance of U and Pu is satisfactory. Heavy accumulation of Np in the battery was observed. Np in the battery is mainly in the tetravalent state. It is believed that it is difficult to recover Np quantitatively from single fluent (e.g. 1BP or 1BU) under normal conditions of partitioning step of the PUREX process

  13. A Review on the Fabrication of Electro spun Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junoh, H.; Jaafar, J.; Norddin, M.N.A.M.; Ismail, A.F.; Othman, M.H.D.; Rahman, M.A.; Yusof, N.; Salleh, W.N.W.; Junoh, H.; Jaafar, J.; Norddin, M.N.A.M.; Ismail, A.F.; Othman, M.H.D.; Rahman, M.A.; Yusof, N.; Salleh, W.N.W.; Hamid Ilbeygi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte which behaves as important indicator for fuel cell’s performance. Research and development (R and D) on fabrication of desirable PEM have burgeoned year by year, especially for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). However, most of the R and Ds only focus on the parent polymer electrolyte rather than polymer inorganic composites. This might be due to the difficulties faced in producing good dispersion of inorganic filler within the polymer matrix, which would consequently reduce the DMFC’s performance. Electro spinning is a promising technique to cater for this arising problem owing to its more widespread dispersion of inorganic filler within the polymer matrix, which can reduce the size of the filler up to nano scale. There has been a huge development on fabricating electrolyte nano composite membrane, regardless of the effect of electro spun nano composite membrane on the fuel cell’s performance. In this present paper, issues regarding the R and D on electro spun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK)/inorganic nano composite fiber are addressed.

  14. Amperometric detector for gas chromatography based on a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinecker, William H; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J; Sandlin, Zechariah D; Cox, James A

    2017-11-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a silica sol-gel solid electrolyte, a working electrode that protrudes into a gas phase, and reference and counter electrodes that contact the solid electrolyte comprises an amperometric detector for gas chromatography. Under potentiostatic conditions, a current related to the concentration of an analyte in the gas phase is produced by its oxidation at the three-phase boundary among the sol-gel, working electrode, and the gas phase. The sol-gel is processed to contain an electrolyte that also serves as a humidistat to maintain a constant water activity even in the presence the gas chromatographic mobile phase. Response was demonstrated toward a diverse set of analytes, namely hydrogen, 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole. Using flow injection amperometry of hydrogen with He as the carrier gas, 90% of the steady-state current was achieved in < 1s at a flow rate of 20mLmin -1 . A separation of 1,2-ethandithiol, phenol, p-cresol, and thioanisole at a 2.2mLmin -1 flow rate was achieved with respective detection limits (k = 3 criterion) of 4, 1, 3, and 70 ppmv when the working electrode potential was 800mV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Based on the Theory of TRIZ Solving the Problem of 18650 Battery Electrolyte Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-hua, Cui; Jiang-ping, Mei; Ling-hua, Zhang; Xiao, Du

    2017-12-01

    As a type of standardized battery cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery is widely used in new energy vehicle industry, It can be produced in large quantities without changing type. Because of its special advantages than others. But due to the pressure of rising capacity, electrolyte filling (which is short for E/L) process has become more and more difficult. While reducing the production efficiency eases the problem of E/L, it also poses performance and security problems. So the issue cannot be solved using the common knowledge of the industry. In this paper, This article does not use lean manufacturing or 6Sigma methods, we use TRIZ theory to analyze the E/L difficulty problem in detail (using causal analysis, technical contradiction analysis, substance - field analysis, physical contradiction analysis and other tools). By creating an atmosphere of vacuum and pressure replace the existing E/L tooling for single cell mechanical structure, through blowing hot air method to increase the temperature of electrolyte, Dissolving the J/R into a electrolyte tank which is full of 0.3Mpa nitrogen. Under the premise of not reducing the production efficiency, at the same time ensuring performance and safety, we try to find out a method to solve the E/L difficulty problem, and would get better application in the construction of new production lines in the new factory.

  16. Photophysics and electrochemistry relevant to photocatalytic water splitting involved at solid–electrolyte interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2016-08-04

    Direct photon to chemical energy conversion using semiconductor-electrocatalyst-electrolyte interfaces has been extensively investigated for more than a half century. Many studies have focused on screening materials for efficient photocatalysis. Photocatalytic efficiency has been improved during this period but is not sufficient for industrial commercialization. Detailed elucidation on the photocatalytic water splitting process leads to consecutive six reaction steps with the fundamental parameters involved: The photocatalysis is initiated involving photophysics derived from various semiconductor properties (1: photon absorption, 2: exciton separation). The generated charge carriers need to be transferred to surfaces effectively utilizing the interfaces (3: carrier diffusion, 4: carrier transport). Consequently, electrocatalysis finishes the process by producing products on the surface (5: catalytic efficiency, 6: mass transfer of reactants and products). Successful photocatalytic water splitting requires the enhancement of efficiency at each stage. Most critically, a fundamental understanding of the interfacial phenomena is highly desired for establishing "photocatalysis by design" concepts, where the kinetic bottleneck within a process is identified by further improving the specific properties of photocatalytic materials as opposed to blind material screening. Theoretical modeling using the identified quantitative parameters can effectively predict the theoretically attainable photon-conversion yields. This article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art theoretical understanding of interfacial problems mainly developed in our laboratory. Photocatalytic water splitting (especially hydrogen evolution on metal surfaces) was selected as a topic, and the photophysical and electrochemical processes that occur at semiconductor-metal, semiconductor-electrolyte and metal-electrolyte interfaces are discussed.

  17. A Review on the Fabrication of Electrospun Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlina Junoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane (PEM is an electrolyte which behaves as important indicator for fuel cell’s performance. Research and development (R&D on fabrication of desirable PEM have burgeoned year by year, especially for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. However, most of the R&Ds only focus on the parent polymer electrolyte rather than polymer inorganic composites. This might be due to the difficulties faced in producing good dispersion of inorganic filler within the polymer matrix, which would consequently reduce the DMFC’s performance. Electrospinning is a promising technique to cater for this arising problem owing to its more widespread dispersion of inorganic filler within the polymer matrix, which can reduce the size of the filler up to nanoscale. There has been a huge development on fabricating electrolyte nanocomposite membrane, regardless of the effect of electrospun nanocomposite membrane on the fuel cell’s performance. In this present paper, issues regarding the R&D on electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK/inorganic nanocomposite fiber are addressed.

  18. Advanced Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han

    Research on solid electrochemical energy storage devices aims to provide high performance, low cost, and safe operation solutions for emerging applications from flexible consumer electronics to microelectronics. Polymer electrolytes, minimizing device sealing and liquid electrolyte leakage, are key enablers for these next-generation technologies. In this thesis, a novel proton-conducing polymer electrolyte system has been developed using heteropolyacids (HPAs) and polyvinyl alcohol for electrochemical capacitors. A thorough understanding of proton conduction mechanisms of HPAs together with the interactions among HPAs, additives, and polymer framework has been developed. Structure and chemical bonding of the electrolytes have been studied extensively to identify and elucidate key attributes affecting the electrolyte properties. Numerical models describing the proton conduction mechanism have been applied to differentiate those attributes. The performance optimization of the polymer electrolytes through additives, polymer structural modifications, and synthesis of alternative HPAs has achieved several important milestones, including: (a) high proton mobility and proton density; (b) good ion accessibility at electrode/electrolyte interface; (c) wide electrochemical stability window; and (d) good environmental stability. Specifically, high proton mobility has been addressed by cross-linking the polymer framework to improve the water storage capability at normal-to-high humidity conditions (e.g. 50-80% RH) as well as by incorporating nano-fillers to enhance the water retention at normal humidity levels (e.g. 30-60% RH). High proton density has been reached by utilizing additional proton donors (i.e. acidic plasticizers) and by developing different HPAs. Good ion accessibility has been achieved through addition of plasticizers. Electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte system has also been investigated and expanded by utilizing HPAs with different heteroatoms

  19. Enhanced performance of ultracapacitors using redox additive-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dharmendra; Kanungo, Jitendra; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) as redox additive had been added to 1 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) electrolyte with an aim of enhancing the capacitance and energy density of ultracapacitors via redox reactions at the interfaces of electrode-electrolyte. Ultracapacitors were fabricated using chemically treated activated carbon as electrode with H2SO4 and H2SO4-KI as an electrolyte. The electrochemical performances of fabricated supercapacitors were investigated by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum capacitance ` C' was observed with redox additives-based electrolyte system comprising 1 M H2SO4-0.3 M KI (1072 F g- 1), which is very much higher than conventional 1 M H2SO4 (61.3 F g- 1) aqueous electrolyte-based ultracapacitors. It corresponds to an energy density of 20.49 Wh kg- 1 at 2.1 A g- 1 for redox additive-based electrolyte, which is six times higher as compared to that of pristine electrolyte (1 M H2SO4) having energy density of only 3.36 Wh kg- 1. The temperature dependence behavior of fabricated cell was also analyzed, which shows increasing pattern in its capacitance values in a temperature range of 5-70 °C. Under cyclic stability test, redox electrolyte-based system shows almost 100% capacitance retention up to 5000 cycles and even more. For comparison, ultracapacitors based on polymer gel electrolyte polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (10 wt%)—{H2SO4 (1 M)-KI (0.3 M)} (90 wt%) have been fabricated and characterized with the same electrode materials.

  20. The effect of microwave drying on polymer electrolyte conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, R.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom)); Linford, R.G. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom)); Pynenburg, R.A.J. (Dept. of Chemistry, De Montfort Univ., Gateway, Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    The morphology and conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on PEO are often substantially modified by the presence of water. A number of different approaches have commonly been used to eliminate water from polymer electrolyte films. The work reported here extends our earlier investigations of the use of microwaves for the rapid drying of solvent cast polymer electrolyte films. Films of PEO[sub n]:NiBr[sub 2] and PEO[sub n]:ZnCl[sub 2] have been prepared by normal casting techniques and then studied using EXAFS, DSC and ac conductivity measurements. (orig.)

  1. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  2. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence induced by sequential hot electron and hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Kalle; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Oskari [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 (Finland); Håkansson, Markus [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari, E-mail: sakari.kulmala@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-03-17

    Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution is proposed to occur when oxide-coated aluminum electrode is anodically pulse-polarized by a voltage pulse train containing sufficiently high-voltage anodic pulses. The effects of anodic pulses are studied by using an aromatic Tb(III) chelate as a probe known to produce intensive hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with plain cathodic pulses and preoxidized electrodes. The presently studied system allows injection of hot electrons and holes successively into aqueous electrolyte solutions and can be utilized in detecting electrochemiluminescent labels in fully aqueous solutions, and actually, the system is suggested to be quite close to a pulse radiolysis system providing hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals as the primary radicals in aqueous solution without the problems and hazards of ionizing radiation. The analytical power of the present excitation waveforms are that they allow detection of electrochemiluminescent labels at very low detection limits in bioaffinity assays such as in immunoassays or DNA probe assays. The two important properties of the present waveforms are: (i) they provide in situ oxidation of the electrode surface resulting in the desired oxide film thickness and (ii) they can provide one-electron oxidants for the system by hole injection either via F- and F{sup +}-center band of the oxide or by direct hole injection to valence band of water at highly anodic pulse amplitudes. - Highlights: • Hot electrons injected into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydrated electrons. • Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution. • Generation of hydroxyl radicals.

  3. New approaches to the design of polymer and liquid electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they do not interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference, and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation complexing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach, since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion complexing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF 3SO 3-. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane-based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2 M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in solubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6×10 -3 S cm -1. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn 2O 4 cells.

  4. Preparation of ceramic coating on Ti substrate by Plasma electrolytic oxidation in different electrolytes and evaluation of its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhfar, M.; Dehghanian, C.; Baradaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic oxide coatings (titania) were produced on Ti by micro-arc oxidation in different aluminate and carbonate based electrolytes. This process was conducted under constant pulsed DC voltage condition. The effect of KOH and NaF in aluminate based solution was also studied. The surface morphology, growth and phase composition of coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior of the coatings was also examined by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sparking initiation voltage (spark voltage) had a significant effect on the form and properties of coatings. Coatings obtained from potassium aluminate based solution had a lower spark voltage, higher surface homogeneity and a better corrosion resistance than the carbonate based solution. Addition of NaF instead of KOH had improper effects on the homogeneity and adhesion of coatings which in turn caused a poor corrosion protection behavior of the oxide layer. AC impedance curves showed two time constants which is an indication of the coatings with an outer porous layer and an inner compact layer.

  5. In situ formation of low friction ceramic coatings on carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation in two types of electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunlong; Jiang Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on Q235 carbon steel was achieved by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in carbonate electrolyte and silicate electrolyte, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphology, phase and elemental composition of PEO coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The bond strength of the coating was determined using a direct pull-off test. The hardness as well as tribological properties of the ceramic coating was primarily studied. The results indicated that the coating obtained in carbonate electrolyte was Fe 3 O 4 , while the coating achieved from silicate electrolyte was proved to be amorphous. Both kinds of coatings showed coarse and porous surface. The Fe 3 O 4 coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte showed a high bonding strength to the substrate up to 20 ± 2 MPa and the value was 15 ± 2 MPa for the amorphous coatings obtained in carbonate electrolyte. The micro hardness of the amorphous coating and the Fe 3 O 4 coating was 1001 Hv and 1413 Hv, respectively, which was more than two and three times as that of the Q235 alloy substrate (415 Hv). The friction coefficient exhibited by amorphous coating and Fe 3 O 4 coating was 0.13 and 0.11, respectively, both lower than the uncoated Q235 substrate which ranged from 0.17 to 0.35.

  6. Mechanistic Study of Electrolyte Additives to Stabilize High-Voltage Cathode–Electrolyte Interface in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Han [Chemical; Maglia, Filippo [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Lamp, Peter [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Amine, Khalil [Chemical; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical

    2017-12-13

    Current developments of electrolyte additives to stabilize electrode-electrolyte interface in Li-ion batteries highly rely on a trial-and-error search, which involves repetitive testing and intensive amount of resources. The lack of understandings on the fundamental protection mechanisms of the additives significantly increases the difficulty for the transformational development of new additives. In this study, we investigated two types of individual protection routes to build a robust cathode-electrolyte interphase at high potentials: (i) a direct reduction in the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte solvent; and (ii) formation of a “corrosion inhibitor film” that prevents severely attack and passivation from protons that generated from the solvent oxidation, even the decomposition of solvent cannot not mitigated. Effect of three exemplary electrolyte additives: (i) lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB); (ii) 3-hexylthiophene (3HT); and (iii) tris(hexafluoro-iso-propyl)phosphate (HFiP), on LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC 622) cathode were investigated to validate our hypothesis. It is demonstrated that understandings of both electrolyte additives and solvent are essential and careful balance between the cathode protection mechanism of additives and their side effects is critical to obtain optimum results. More importantly, this study opens up new directions of rational design of functional electrolyte additives for the next generation high-energy density lithium-ion chemistries.

  7. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  8. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  9. Polarization behavior of lithium electrode in polymetric solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yoshiharu (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Morita, Masayuki (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)); Tsutsumi, Hiromori (Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan))

    1993-04-15

    Complexes of novel polymer matrices and lithium salts have been prepared as polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted poly(methylmethacrylate) (PEO-PMMA) and poly(methylsiloxane) (PMS) were used as the matrices. The conductance behavior of the complexes and the basic polarization characteristics of the lithium electrode in the polymeric electrolytes were studied. As high conductivities as 10[sup -3] S cm[sup -1] were obtained at room temperature for the PMMA-based electrolytes containing some liquid plasticizer. Limiting current densities of 3 to 5 mA cm[sup -2] were observed for the anodic and cathodic polarization of the lithium electrode. The transport number of Li[sup +] was approximately unity in 'single-ion type' PMS-based electrolyte, in which the polarization curve of the lithium electrode showed no current hysteresis. (orig.)

  10. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl 2 O 4 )] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF 6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl 2 O 4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO 2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl 2 O 4 ] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator

  11. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  12. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure and electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-27

    Feb 27, 2015 ... as first‑line antihypertensive drug. ... BP, serum, and urine electrolytes were .... The filtrates were stored in clean plastic containers ... Urine samples were collected and Na+, K+ and Cl− were ..... in order to avoid its abuse.

  13. Synthesis and Test of 'New' Gel-Type Lithium Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In this 6th two-month period we have continued the characterization of PMMA-based electrolyte membranes by examining the phenomena occurring at the interface between these membranes and the lithium...

  14. Exploring electrolyte preference of vanadium nitride supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Zhaohui; Lu, Gang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Wang, Tianhu [School of Electrical Information and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Ge, Yunwang, E-mail: ywgelit@126.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical VN nanostructures were prepared on graphite foam. • Electrolyte preference of VN supercapacitor electrodes was explored. • VN showed better capacitive property in organic and alkaline electrolytes than LiCl. - Abstract: Vanadium nitride hierarchical nanostructures were prepared through an ammonia annealing procedure utilizing vanadium pentoxide nanostructures grown on graphite foam. The electrochemical properties of hierarchical vanadium nitride was tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes. As a result, the vanadium nitride showed better capacitive energy storage property in organic and alkaline electrolytes. This work provides insight into the charge storage process of vanadium nitride and our findings can shed light on other transition metal nitride-based electrochemical energy storage systems.

  15. Surface modification of steels by electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, D.; Paunov, V.; Yordanov, B.; Lazarova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In this work are discussed some experimental data about the influence of applied electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte on the surface structure of steels. The electrical discharge treatment of steel surface in electrolyte gives a modified structure with specific combination of characteristics in result of nonequilibrium transformations. The modification goes by a high energy thermal process in a very small volume on the metallic surface involving melting, vaporisation, activation and alloying in electrical discharges, and after that cooling of this surface with high rate in the electrolyte. The surface layers obtain a different structure in comparison with the metal matrix and are with higher hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. key words: surface modification, electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte, steels

  16. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colon. The medication also contains electrolytes to prevent dehydration and other serious side effects that may be ... be seen through such as water, light colored fruit juice without pulp, clear broth, coffee or tea ...

  17. Process and electrolyte for applying barrier layer anodic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Prevender, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Various metals may be anodized, and preferably barrier anodized, by anodizing the metal in an electrolyte comprising quaternary ammonium compound having a complex metal anion in a solvent containing water and a polar, water soluble organic material. (U.S.)

  18. Can Biochemistry Usefully Guide the Search for Better Polymer Electrolytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Woods Halley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available I review some considerations that suggest that the biochemical products of evolution may provide hints concerning the way forward for the development of better electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries.

  19. Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in Argania spinosa subjected to drought stress and recovery. ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries:.

  20. Novel, Solvent-Free, Single Ion Conductive Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florjanczyk, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    This project report concerns studies on the synthesis of new polymer electrolytes for application in lithium and lithium-ion batteries characterized by limited participation of anions in the transport...

  1. Novel polymeric systems for lithium-ion batteries gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appetecchi, G.B.; Alessandrini, F.; Passerini, S.; Caporiccio, G.; Boutevin, B.; Guida-Pietrasanta, F.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of chemically cross-linked, self-supporting gel-type electrolyte membranes, based on hybrid polyfluorosilicone polymers reinforced with nanosized silica, for lithium-ion battery systems is reported. The polyfluorosilicone materials were selected on the basis of their high chemical and thermal stabilities. The precursors were synthesized with functional groups capable to form inter-molecular cross-linking, thus obtaining three-dimensional polymer matrices. The latter were undergone to swelling processes in (non-aqueous, lithium salt containing) electrolytic solutions to obtain gel-type polymer electrolytes. Several kinds of membranes, based on different types of polyfluorosilicone precursor, were prepared and characterized in terms of swelling behavior, ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability. The properties of the swelled matrices were evaluated as a function of dipping time, temperature, kind of electrolytic solution and cross-linking initiator content

  2. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  3. Simple electrolytic cell for production of elemental fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dides F, M.; Padilla S, U.

    1990-01-01

    It was constructed and tested a simple electrolytic cell for the production of elemental fluorine. The fluorine production is essential in the obtainment of uranium hexafluoride, a compound for the nuclear fuel cycle. (A.C.A.S.)

  4. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  5. Peak power and heavy water production from electrolytic H2 and O2 using CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.; Stevens, W.H.; Bradley, W.J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-04-01

    A combined energy storage - heavy water production system is presented. Off-peak nuclear energy is stored in the form of electrolytic H 2 (and O 2 ) from which a large fraction of the deuterium has been transferred to water in an H 2 /H 2 O deuterium exchange catalytic column. The main features and advantages of the combined electrolysis -catalytic exchange D 2 O process are discussed. Significant quantities of D 2 O could be produced economically at reasonable peak to base power cost ratios. Thirty to forty percent of the primary electric energy should be available for peak energy via either gas-steam turbines or fuel cells. (author)

  6. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H. [Solar Reactor Technologies Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Charge Relaxation Dynamics of an Electrolytic Nanocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ion relaxation dynamics in overlapping electric double layers (EDLs) is critical for the development of efficient nanotechnology-based electrochemical energy storage, electrochemomechanical energy conversion, and bioelectrochemical sensing devices as well as the controlled synthesis of nanostructured materials. Here, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is employed to simulate an electrolytic nanocapacitor subjected to a step potential at t = 0 for various degrees of EDL overlap, solvent viscosities, ratios of cation-to-anion diffusivity, and electrode separations. The use of a novel continuously varying and Galilean-invariant molecular-speed-dependent relaxation time (MSDRT) with the LB equation recovers a correct microscopic description of the molecular-collision phenomena and enhances the stability of the LB algorithm. Results for large EDL overlaps indicated oscillatory behavior for the ionic current density, in contrast to monotonic relaxation to equilibrium for low EDL overlaps. Further, at low solvent viscosities and large EDL overlaps, anomalous plasmalike spatial oscillations of the electric field were observed that appeared to be purely an effect of nanoscale confinement. Employing MSDRT in our simulations enabled modeling of the fundamental physics of the transient charge relaxation dynamics in electrochemical systems operating away from equilibrium wherein Nernst–Einstein relation is known to be violated. PMID:25678941

  8. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  9. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  10. Electrolytic Hydrogen obtaining by a photovoltaic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Condrea, F.; Stanoiu, L.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the developed countries allocate large funds for the financing of some global programs for fundamental and applicative research for development of hydrogen non-conventional production technologies. One of these technologies is the photo-assisted electrolysis. This technology is adopted in the research, which results are presented in this paper. The experimental model includes as basic equipment 100 W photovoltaic source, electrolysis battery press filter type, control unit of the electric energy discharged, accumulator, hydrogen storage unit. Five types of material have been tested for the electrolysis cell diaphragm: asbestos; Netrom- unwoven material from fibers of polypropylene; ion changing composite membrane - polysulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-sulfone (PSS/PSJ) and poly-sulfone support with an active layer of sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK/PSf); ion-exchange membrane made from sulfonated poly-eter cetone (SPEEK). The graphics and results from the test system are presented. The analysis of the experimental results lead to the establishment of the optimal configuration of battery and of the operational conditions of the assembly. The experimental results give the opportunity to obtain electrolytic hydrogen with a photovoltaic source, in an efficient system, and promote the Romanian research at a level of a demonstrative installation

  11. Electrolytic conductivity of synthetic organomineral complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksiezopolska Alicja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the formation of organomineral complexes in soils is very complex and still little known. Examination of the complexes in unaltered form, as isolated from the soil, is very difficult due to the dispersing effect of all extraction agents which break the complexes up, destroying their natural properties. It is much easier to perform most of the tests on preparations of organomineral complexes obtained under laboratory conditions. This paper is concerned with model research on the formation of synthetic complexes of humic acids with minerals: Na-montmorillonite, mica, kaolinite at various pH values (3-7 and in the presence of aluminum ions. The aim of the research was to develop an optimum reaction of suspension for the synthesis of organomineral complexes, to study the role of aluminum ions, and to attempt to determine the degree of their complexity on the basis of the electrolytic conductivity (EC. An important influence of the suspension pH value on the value of EC was observed. The greatest correlation was found in the organomineral preparations with kaolinite and with aluminum (r = 0.93***. Generally, it can be stated that the degree of reaction of humic acids with minerals depended most of all on the type of mineral, on the pH value, and on the presence of aluminum.

  12. The Electrolyte Factor in O2 Reduction Electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-23

    molecule thick and does not seem to interfere with 02 and water/proton transport at this interface. This layer resembles a self-ordered Langmuir - Blodgett ... liquid electrolyte from within the polymer is in contact with the catalyst and completes the ionic circuit between the ionic conducting polymer and the...the free energy of adsorption of H2 0 and ionic components because of the lower effective dielectric constant in the electrolyte phase immediately

  13. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  14. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    composite electrolyte as shown by the thermos- gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity measurements suggest that the addition of DC to the gel...stability of the composite electrolyte as shown by the thermos- gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity measurements suggest that the...2.3. Testing methods and equipment Impedance testing using the Solartron 1260A Impedance/ Gain- phase Analyzer was performed on each cell at

  15. Ion-conductive polymethylmethacrylate gel electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Reiter, Jakub; Velická, Jana; Klápště, Břetislav; Sedlaříková, M.; Dvorak, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 146, 1-2 (2005), s. 436-440 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/3/171/05; GA ČR GA104/02/0731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : polymethylmethacrylate * gel electrolytes * polymer electrolytes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2005

  16. Conductivity of liquid lithium electrolytes with dispersed mesoporous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, K.; Roggenbuck, J.; Krawczyk, N.; Buschmann, H.; Luerßen, B.; Fröba, M.; Janek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conductivity of disperse lithium electrolytes with mesoporous fillers is studied. ► In contrast to other investigations in literature, no conductivity enhancement could be observed for standard battery electrolytes and typical mesoporous fillers in various combinations. ► Disperse electrolytes can become relevant in terms of battery safety. ► Dispersions of silicas and electrolyte with LiPF 6 as conducting salt are not stable, although the silicas were dried prior to preparation and the electrolyte water content was controlled. Surface modification of the fillers improved the stability. ► The observed conductivity decrease varied considerably for various fillers. - Abstract: The electrical conductivity of disperse electrolytes was systematically measured as a function of temperature (0 °C to 60 °C) and filler content for different types of fillers with a range of pore geometry, pore structure and specific surface area. As fillers mesoporous silicas SBA-15, MCM-41 and KIT-6 with pore ranges between 3 nm and 15 nm were dispersed in commercially available liquid lithium electrolytes. As electrolytes 1 M of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) at the ratio 3:7 (wt/wt) and the same solvent mixture with 0.96 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imide (LiTFSI) were used. No conductivity enhancement could be observed, but with respect to safety aspects the highly viscous disperse pastes might be useful. The conductivity decrease varied considerably for the different fillers.

  17. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of A1050 aluminium alloy in homogeneous silicate-alkaline electrolytes with edta{sup 4−} complexes of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La and Ba under alternating polarization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogov, A.B., E-mail: alex-lab@bk.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, 3, Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Scientific and Technical Centre “Pokrytie-A” (OOO), 15, Dzerzhinskogo Ave., Novosibirsk, 630015 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-01

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of coatings containing a number of transition elements by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) on aluminium A1050 alloy. The paper discusses PEO coatings obtained in silicate-alkaline electrolytes containing complexes of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La and Ba with ethylenediaminetetraacetic anion edta{sup 4−}. It is also focused on the chemical basis of the electrolyte components choice and their role in the process of PEO. Possible mechanism of coating formation process is also discussed. Alternating current mode (symmetrical sinusoidal current pulses, initial average current density - 100 mA cm{sup −2}) was used to produce the coatings. The PEO process was characterized by behaviours of the anodic and cathodic peak voltage curves. Coating surfaces and cross sections are studied by optical dark field microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and energy dispersive analysis. - Highlights: • Alkaline homogeneous electrolyte with transition metal-edta{sup 4-} complexes. • Coatings contain Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, La, Ba elements in alumina-silica matrix. • Alternating symmetric sinusoidal current of 100 mA cm{sup −2} was applied. • Borax buffer solution and silicate passivating agent were used.

  18. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnerlich, Markus; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Culver, James N.; Ketchum, Douglas R.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional micro-supercapacitor has been developed using a novel bottom-up assembly method combining genetically modified Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-1Cys), photolithographically defined micropillars and selective deposition of ruthenium oxide on multi-metallic microelectrodes. The three-dimensional microelectrodes consist of a titanium nitride current collector with two functionalized areas: (1) gold coating on the active electrode area promotes TMV-1Cys adhesion, and (2) sacrificial nickel pads dissolve in ruthenium tetroxide plating solution to produce ruthenium oxide on all electrically connected areas. The microfabricated electrodes are arranged in an interdigitated pattern, and the capacitance per electrode has been measured as high as 203 mF cm-2 with solid Nafion electrolyte. The process integration of bio-templated ruthenium oxide with microfabricated electrodes and solid electrolyte is an important advance towards the energy storage needs of mass produced self-sufficient micro-devices.

  19. Properties of electrolytes in the micropores of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastening, Bertel; Heins, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of the composition of aqueous electrolytes in the pore system of activated carbon on the potential has been determined by monitoring the amount of ions exchanged with the external electrolyte upon immersion and upon changing the electrode potential. From the investigation with KF solutions, a quantity δ/√ε = 4 x 10 -10 m is evaluated where δ is half the width of the micropores, and ε the (relative) permittivity. This is in accordance with δ ∼ 1 nm and ε ∼ 7 applying to essentially immobilized water and fits into the results with the other electrolytes. Anions are adsorbed in the cases of sodium perchlorate and potassium hydroxide, while protons are adsorbed in the case of acids (HCl, H 2 SO 4 ). The adsorption of ClO 4 - seems to result from electrostatic interaction with the solid, while H + and OH - are strongly chemisorbed, probably at surface groups like >CO. Ionic mobilities of ions in the micropores have been determined from conductance measurements concerning the pore electrolyte of a single spherical particle of activated carbon. Mobilities are more than one order of magnitude lower than those in bulk electrolyte, probably due to an increased viscosity of the liquid in the narrow pores and/or to the coulombic interaction with charged domains of the solid. The rate of charging of the capacitor (solid/micropore electrolyte) is assisted by macropores distributing ions throughout the carbon material

  20. Solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille; Xie, Yongsong; Hui, Rob; Qu, Wei; Kesler, Olivera; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2008-01-10

    In this work, we have developed solid oxide fuel cells with a bi-layered electrolyte of 2 {mu}m SSZ and 4 {mu}m SDC using tape casting, screen printing, and co-firing processes. The cell reached power densities of 0.54 W cm{sup -2} at 650 C and 0.85 W cm{sup -2} at 700 C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values larger than 1.02 V. The electrical leaking between anode and cathode through an SDC electrolyte has been blocked in the bi-layered electrolyte structure. However, both the electrolyte resistance (R{sub el}) and electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p,a+c}) increased in comparison to cells with single-layered SDC electrolytes. The formation of a solid solution of (Ce, Zr)O{sub 2-x} during sintering process and the flaws in the bi-layered electrolyte structure seem to be the main causes for the increase in the R{sub el} value (0.32 {omega} cm{sup 2}) at 650 C, which is almost one order of magnitude higher than the calculated value. (author)

  1. Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Electrolyte for Electrochemical Polyaniline Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, A. I.; Im, Hyunsik; Jung, Woong; Kim, Hyungsang; Kim, Byungchul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sang; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2013-05-01

    The effect of different wt.% of ionic liquid "1,6-bis (trimethylammonium-1-yl) hexane tetrafluoroborate" in 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte on the supercapacitor properties of polyaniline (PANI) thin film are investigated. The PANI film is synthesized using electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfuric acid. The electrochemical properties of the PANI thin film are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The optimum amount of the ionic liquid is found to be 2 wt.% which provides better ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 259 F/g is obtained using the 2 wt.% electrolyte. This capacitance remains at up to 208 F/g (80% capacity retention) after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA/g. The PANI film in the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte shows small electrochemical resistance, better rate performance and higher cyclability. The increased ionic conductivity of the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed electrolyte causes a reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which can be useful in electrochemically-preferred power devices for better applicability.

  2. Electrochemical Study of Hydrocarbon-Derived Electrolytes for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorden, Zulkarnain A.; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the essential electrochemical properties - capacitive and resistive behaviors - of hydrocarbon-derived electrolytes for supercapacitor application using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrolytes were systematically prepared from three hydrocarbon-derived compounds, which have different molecular structures and functional groups, by treatment with high-concentration sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at room temperature. Two-electrode cells were assembled by sandwiching an electrolyte-containing glass wool separator with two active electrodes of activated carbon sheets. The dc electrical properties of the tested cells in terms of their capacitive behavior were investigated by CV, and in order to observe the frequency characteristics of the constructed cells, EIS was carried out. Compared with the tested cell with only high-concentration H2SO4 as the electrolyte, the cell with the derived electrolytes exhibit a capacitance as high as 135 F/g with an improved overall internal resistance of 2.5 Ω. Through the use of a simple preparation method and low-cost precursors, hydrocarbon-derived electrolytes could potentially find large-scale and higher-rating supercapacitor applications.

  3. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  4. Brightness coatings of zinc-cobalt alloys by electrolytic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julve, E.

    1993-01-01

    Zinc-cobalt alloys provide corrosion resistance for the ferrous based metals. An acidic electrolyte for zinc-cobalt electrodeposition is examined in the present work. The effects of variations in electrolyte composition, in electrolyte temperature, pH and agitation on electrodeposit composition have been studied, as well as the current density influence. It was found that the following electrolyte gave the optimum results: 79 g.1''-1 ZnCl 2 , 15.3 g.1''-1 CoCl 2 .6H 2 O, 160 g.1''-1 KCl, 25 g.1''-1 H 3 BO 3 and 5-10 cm''3.1''-1 of an organic additive (caffeine, coumarin and sodium lauryl-sulphonate). The operating conditions were: pH=5,6 temperature: 30 degree centigree, current density: 0,025-0,035 A. cm''2, anode: pure zinc, agitation: slowly with air and filtration: continuous. The throwing power and cathode current efficiency of the electrolyte were also studied. This electrolyte yielded zinc-cobalt alloys white and lustrous and had a cobalt content of 0,5-0,8% (Author) 3 refs. 5 fig

  5. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  6. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  7. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  8. An artificial interphase enables reversible magnesium chemistry in carbonate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seoung-Bum; Gao, Tao; Harvey, Steve P.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Stokes, Adam; Norman, Andrew; Wang, Chunsheng; Cresce, Arthur; Xu, Kang; Ban, Chunmei

    2018-04-02

    Magnesium-based batteries possess potential advantages over their lithium counterparts. However, reversible Mg chemistry requires a thermodynamically stable electrolyte at low potential, which is usually achieved with corrosive components and at the expense of stability against oxidation. In lithium-ion batteries the conflict between the cathodic and anodic stabilities of the electrolytes is resolved by forming an anode interphase that shields the electrolyte from being reduced. This strategy cannot be applied to Mg batteries because divalent Mg2+ cannot penetrate such interphases. Here, we engineer an artificial Mg2+-conductive interphase on the Mg anode surface, which successfully decouples the anodic and cathodic requirements for electrolytes and demonstrate highly reversible Mg chemistry in oxidation-resistant electrolytes. The artificial interphase enables the reversible cycling of a Mg/V2O5 full-cell in the water-containing, carbonate-based electrolyte. This approach provides a new avenue not only for Mg but also for other multivalent-cation batteries facing the same problems, taking a step towards their use in energy-storage applications.

  9. Fire-extinguishing organic electrolytes for safe batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Watanabe, Eriko; Takada, Koji; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2018-01-01

    Severe safety concerns are impeding the large-scale employment of lithium/sodium batteries. Conventional electrolytes are highly flammable and volatile, which may cause catastrophic fires or explosions. Efforts to introduce flame-retardant solvents into the electrolytes have generally resulted in compromised battery performance because those solvents do not suitably passivate carbonaceous anodes. Here we report a salt-concentrated electrolyte design to resolve this dilemma via the spontaneous formation of a robust inorganic passivation film on the anode. We demonstrate that a concentrated electrolyte using a salt and a popular flame-retardant solvent (trimethyl phosphate), without any additives or soft binders, allows stable charge-discharge cycling of both hard-carbon and graphite anodes for more than 1,000 cycles (over one year) with negligible degradation; this performance is comparable or superior to that of conventional flammable carbonate electrolytes. The unusual passivation character of the concentrated electrolyte coupled with its fire-extinguishing property contributes to developing safe and long-lasting batteries, unlocking the limit toward development of much higher energy-density batteries.

  10. An artificial interphase enables reversible magnesium chemistry in carbonate electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seoung-Bum; Gao, Tao; Harvey, Steve P.; Steirer, K. Xerxes; Stokes, Adam; Norman, Andrew; Wang, Chunsheng; Cresce, Arthur; Xu, Kang; Ban, Chunmei

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium-based batteries possess potential advantages over their lithium counterparts. However, reversible Mg chemistry requires a thermodynamically stable electrolyte at low potential, which is usually achieved with corrosive components and at the expense of stability against oxidation. In lithium-ion batteries the conflict between the cathodic and anodic stabilities of the electrolytes is resolved by forming an anode interphase that shields the electrolyte from being reduced. This strategy cannot be applied to Mg batteries because divalent Mg2+ cannot penetrate such interphases. Here, we engineer an artificial Mg2+-conductive interphase on the Mg anode surface, which successfully decouples the anodic and cathodic requirements for electrolytes and demonstrate highly reversible Mg chemistry in oxidation-resistant electrolytes. The artificial interphase enables the reversible cycling of a Mg/V2O5 full-cell in the water-containing, carbonate-based electrolyte. This approach provides a new avenue not only for Mg but also for other multivalent-cation batteries facing the same problems, taking a step towards their use in energy-storage applications.

  11. A Study on the Effect of Electrolyte Thickness on Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Kwang Bum

    1998-01-01

    Effect of electrolyte layer thickness and increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thining on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel were investigated using EIS and cathodic polarization technique. The electrolyte layer thickness was controlled via two methods : one is mechanical method with microsyringe applying a different amount of electrolyte onto the metal surface to give different electrolyte thickness with the same electrolyte concentration. The other is drying method in which water layer thickness decreases through drying, causing increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thinning. In the region whose corrosion rate is controlled by cathodic reaction, corrosion rate for mechanical method is larger than that for drying method. However, for the electrolyte layers thinner than 20 ∼ 30 m, increase in concentration of electrolyte cause a higher corrosion rate for the case of the mechanical method compared with that of drying method. For a carbon steel covered with 0.1M Na 2 SO 4 , maximum corrosion rate is found at an electrolyte thickness of 45 ∼ 55 μm for mechanical method. However, maximum corrosion rate is found at an electrolyte thickness of 20 ∼ 35 μm for drying method. The limiting current is inversely proportional to electrolyte thickness for electrolyte thicker than 20 ∼ 30 μm. However, further decrease of the electrolyte thickness leads to an electrolyte thickness-independent limiting current reagion, where the oxygen rate is controlled by the solvation of oxygen at the electrolyte/gas interface. Diffusion limiting current for drying method is smaller compared with that for mechanica control. This can be attributed to decreasing in O 2 solubility caused by increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thining

  12. ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, N.H.; Ismail, Y.M. Baba; Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2008-01-21

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl{sub 2} or NH{sub 4}Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl{sub 2} or NH{sub 4}Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm{sup -1} at 3 M ZnCl{sub 2} and 7 M NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 {omega}, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm{sup -2}, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm{sup -2} for ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively. (author)

  13. ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, N. H.; Ismail, Y. M. Baba; Mohamad, A. A.

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm -1 at 3 M ZnCl 2 and 7 M NH 4Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 Ω, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm -2, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm -2 for ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively.

  14. Rotating disk electrode study of borohydride oxidation in a molten eutectic electrolyte and advancements in the intermediate temperature borohydride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2017-08-01

    The electrode kinetics of the NaBH4 oxidation reaction (BOR) in a molten NaOH-KOH eutectic mixture is investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry on electrochemically oxidized Ni at temperatures between 458 K and 503 K. The BH4- diffusion coefficient in the molten alkali eutectic together with the BOR activation energy, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and number of electrons exchanged, are determined. Electrochemically oxidized Ni shows excellent BOR electrocatalytic activity with a maximum of seven electrons exchanged and a transfer coefficient up to one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the formation of NiO as the catalytically active species. The high faradaic efficiency and BOR rate on oxidized Ni anode in the molten electrolyte compared to aqueous alkaline electrolytes is advantageous for power sources. A novel molten electrolyte battery design is investigated using dissolved NaBH4 at the anode and immobilized KIO4 at the cathode. This battery produces a stable open-circuit cell potential of 1.04 V, and a peak power density of 130 mW cm-2 corresponding to a superficial current density of 160 mA cm-2 at 458 K. With further improvements and scale-up borohydride molten electrolyte batteries and fuel cells could be integrated with thermal energy storage systems.

  15. High-Performance Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrolyte Derived from Optimum Combination of Solvent and Lithium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Su Mi; Suk, Jungdon; Kim, Do Youb; Kang, Yongku; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-10-01

    To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal. But, when TMS is combined with typical lithium salts, its performance is far from satisfactory. However, the TMS electrolyte containing LiNO 3 exhibits a very low overpotential, which minimizes the side reactions and shows high oxygen efficiency. LSV-DEMS study confirms that the TMS-LiNO 3 electrolyte efficiently produces NO 2 - , which initiates a redox shuttle reaction. Interestingly, this NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction derived from the LiNO 3 salt is not very effective in solvents other than TMS. Compared with other common Li-O 2 solvents, TMS seems optimum solvent for the efficient use of LiNO 3 salt. Good compatibility with lithium metal, high dielectric constant, and low donicity of TMS are considered to be highly favorable to an efficient NO 2 - /NO 2 redox reaction, which results in a high-performance Li-O 2 battery.

  16. Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation to improve the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dahye [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Kim, Yonghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Busan 46742 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wonsub, E-mail: wschung1@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation was performed using dispersed CuO particles in convectional PEO electrolyte. • Thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods, respectively. • Deposited copper oxide on the surface of the Al substrate was enhanced the corrosion resistance and the emissivity compared with the conventional PEO. - Abstract: A composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed for enhancing the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al alloy by dispersing cupric oxide (CuO) particles in a conventional PEO electrolyte. Cu-based oxides (CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) formed by composite PEO increased the emissivity of the substrate to 0.892, and made the surface being dark color, similar to a black body, i.e., an ideal radiator. In addition, the corrosion resistance was analyzed using potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. An optimum condition of 10 ampere per square decimeter (ASD) current density and 30 min processing time produced appropriate surface morphologies and coating thicknesses, as well as dense Cu- and Al-based oxides that constituted the coating layers.

  17. Preparation and corrosion resistance of a nanocomposite plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on Mg-1%Ca alloy formed in aluminate electrolyte containing titania nano-additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daroonparvar, Mohammadreza; Yajid, M. A. M.; Yusof, N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Titania nanoparticles were utilized as suspension in alkaline aluminate electrolyte to form nanocomposite coatings on magnesium alloy containing 1 wt% calcium by plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Microhardness, wettability, potentiodynamic polarization, wettability, electrochemical impedance...

  18. Polymer electrolytes based on aromatic lithium sulfonyl-imide compounds; Electrolytes polymeres a base de sulfonylimidures de lithium aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibel, L.; Bayoudh, S. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron; Baudry, P. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H. [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Herlem, G. [UFR de Sciences et Techniques, L.E.S., 25 - Besancon (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents ionic conductivity results obtained with polymer electrolytes and also with propylene carbonate solutions. The domain of electrochemical activity of this salt has been determined using cycle volt-amperometry in propylene carbonate. Preliminary experiments on the stability of the polymer electrolyte with respect to the lithium electrode have been carried out for a possible subsequent use in lithium batteries. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  19. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  20. Polymer electrolytes based on aromatic lithium sulfonyl-imide compounds; Electrolytes polymeres a base de sulfonylimidures de lithium aromatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reibel, L; Bayoudh, S [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron; Baudry, P [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Majastre, H [Bollore Technologies, 29 - Quimper (France); Herlem, G [UFR de Sciences et Techniques, L.E.S., 25 - Besancon (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents ionic conductivity results obtained with polymer electrolytes and also with propylene carbonate solutions. The domain of electrochemical activity of this salt has been determined using cycle volt-amperometry in propylene carbonate. Preliminary experiments on the stability of the polymer electrolyte with respect to the lithium electrode have been carried out for a possible subsequent use in lithium batteries. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  1. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short.

  2. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti 3 O 5 , and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti 2 O 5 and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short

  3. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  4. Electrolyte diffusion in compacted montmorillonite engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1985-09-01

    The bentonite-based engineered barrier or packing is a proposed component of several designs conceived to dispose of high-level nuclear waste in geologic repositories. Once radionuclides escape the waste package, they must first diffuse through the highly impermeable clay-rich barrier before they reach the host repository. To determine the effectiveness of the packing as a sorption barrier in the transient release period and as a mass-transfer barrier in the steady release period over the geologic time scales involved in nuclear waste disposal, a fundamental understanding of the diffusion of electrolytes in compacted clays is required. We present, and compare with laboratory data, a model quantifying the diffusion rates of cationic cesium and uncharged tritium in compacted montmorillonite clay. Neutral tritium characterizes the geometry (i.e., tortuosity) of the particulate gel. After accounting for cation exchange, we find that surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of cation transport, with an approximate surface diffusion coefficient of 2 x 10 -6 cm 2 /s for cesium. This value increases slightly with increasing background ionic strength. The implications of this work for the packing as a migration barrier are twofold. During the transient release period, K/sub d/ values are of little importance in retarding ion migration. This is because sorption also gives rise to a surface diffusion path, and it is surface diffusion which controls the diffusion rate of highly sorbing cations in compacted montmorillonite. During the steady release period, the presence of surface diffusion leads to a flux through the packing which is greatly enhanced. In either case, if surface diffusion is neglected, the appropriate diffusion coefficient of ions in compacted packing will be in considerable error relative to current design recommendations. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Accelerated Aging in Electrolytic Capacitors for Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Saha, Sankalita; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this work is the analysis of different degradation phenomena based on thermal overstress and electrical overstress accelerated aging systems and the use of accelerated aging techniques for prognostics algorithm development. Results on thermal overstress and electrical overstress experiments are presented. In addition, preliminary results toward the development of physics-based degradation models are presented focusing on the electrolyte evaporation failure mechanism. An empirical degradation model based on percentage capacitance loss under electrical overstress is presented and used in: (i) a Bayesian-based implementation of model-based prognostics using a discrete Kalman filter for health state estimation, and (ii) a dynamic system representation of the degradation model for forecasting and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation. A leave-one-out validation methodology is used to assess the validity of the methodology under the small sample size constrain. The results observed on the RUL estimation are consistent through the validation tests comparing relative accuracy and prediction error. It has been observed that the inaccuracy of the model to represent the change in degradation behavior observed at the end of the test data is consistent throughout the validation tests, indicating the need of a more detailed degradation model or the use of an algorithm that could estimate model parameters on-line. Based on the observed degradation process under different stress intensity with rest periods, the need for more sophisticated degradation models is further supported. The current degradation model does not represent the capacitance recovery over rest periods following an accelerated aging stress period.

  6. Feasibility of Using an Electrolysis Cell for Quantification of the Electrolytic Products of Water from Gravimetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Dabke, Rajeev B

    2018-01-01

    A gravimetric method for the quantitative assessment of the products of electrolysis of water is presented. In this approach, the electrolysis cell was directly powered by 9 V batteries. Prior to electrolysis, a known amount of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was added to the cathode compartment, and an excess amount of KHCO 3 was added to the anode compartment electrolyte. During electrolysis, cathode and anode compartments produced OH - (aq) and H + (aq) ions, respectively. Electrolytically produced OH - (aq) neutralized the KHP, and the completion of this neutralization was detected by a visual indicator color change. Electrolytically produced H + (aq) reacted with HCO 3 - (aq) liberating CO 2 (g) from the anode compartment. Concurrent liberation of H 2 (g) and O 2 (g) at the cathode and anode, respectively, resulted in a decrease in the mass of the cell. Mass of the electrolysis cell was monitored. Liberation of CO 2 (g) resulted in a pronounced effect of a decrease in mass. Experimentally determined decrease in mass (53.7 g/Faraday) agreed with that predicted from Faraday's laws of electrolysis (53.0 g/Faraday). The efficacy of the cell was tested to quantify the acid content in household vinegar samples. Accurate results were obtained for vinegar analysis with a precision better than 5% in most cases. The cell offers the advantages of coulometric method and additionally simplifies the circuitry by eliminating the use of a constant current power source or a coulometer.

  7. Automatic devices for electrochemical water treatment with cooling of electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trišović Tomislav Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common disinfectants for water treatment are based on chlorine and its compounds. Practically, water treatments with chlorine compounds have no alternative, since they provide, in comparison to other effective processes such as ozonization or ultraviolet irradiation, high residual disinfection capacity. Unfortunately, all of chlorine-based compounds for disinfection tend to degrade during storage, thus reducing the concentration of active chlorine. Apart from degradation, additional problems are transportation, storage and handling of such hazardous compounds. Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the development of electrochemical devices for in situ production of chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite as efficient disinfectants for water treatment. The most important part of such a device is the electrochemical reactor. Electrochemical reactor uses external source of direct current in order to produce disinfectants in electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes. Construction of an electrochemical device for water treatment is based on evaluation of optimal conditions for electrochemical reactions during continues production of disinfectants. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost electrochemical device for the production of disinfectant, active chlorine, at the place of its usage, based on newly developed technical solutions and newest commercial components. The projected electrochemical device was constructed and mounted, and its operation was investigated. Investigations involved both functionality of individual components and device in general. The major goal of these investigations was to achieve maximal efficiency in extreme condition of elevated room temperature and humidity with a novel device construction involving coaxial heat exchanger at the solution inlet. Room operation of the proposed device was investigated when relative humidity was set to 90% and the ambient temperature of 38°C. The obtained

  8. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  9. Characterization of positive electrode/electrolyte interphase in lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupre, N.; Martin, J.F.; Soudan, P.; Guyomard, D. [Inst.des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Nantes (France)

    2008-07-01

    Lithium batteries appear to be the most viable energy source for portable electronic devices because of their energy density. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) between the negative electrode and the electrolyte of a Li-ion battery monitors the overall battery behaviour in terms of irreversible capacity loss, charge transfer kinetics and storage properties. This paper reported on a study that examined the influence of the storage atmosphere and the formation of a protective surface layer on the electrochemical performance. The objective was to better understand the interfacial problems controlling the long term life duration and cyclability. The positive/electrolyte interphase evolution was followed upon aging/cycling using 7Li MAS NMR, XPS and impedance spectroscopy. This very novel and uncommon technique was used to characterize the growth and evolution of the surface of some electrode materials for lithium batteries, due to contact with the ambient atmosphere or electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. LiFePO4 and LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 were chosen for the studies because they are among the most promising candidates for positive electrodes for future lithium batteries. The reaction of LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 with the ambient atmosphere or LiPF6 electrolyte is extremely fast and leads to an important amount of lithium-containing diamagnetic species. The NMR spectra provided valuable structural information on the interaction between the interphase and the active material after contact with electrolyte or along electrochemical cycling. MAS NMR was shown to be a very promising tool to monitor phenomena taking place at the interface between electrode and electrolyte in lithium batteries. The study showed the affect of the potential on the strength of the interaction between the surface layer and the active material and the partial removal of this layer along the electrochemical cycling. 11 refs.

  10. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  11. Electronic properties of electrolyte/anodic alumina junction during porous anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrublevsky, I. [Department of Microelectronics, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6 Brovka Street, Minsk 220013 (Belarus)]. E-mail: nil-4-2@bsuir.edu.by; Jagminas, A. [Institute of Chemistry, A. Gostauto 9, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Schreckenbach, J. [Institut fuer Chemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany); InnoMat GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Goedel, Werner A. [Institut fuer Chemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Chemnitz D-09107 (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The growth of porous oxide films on aluminum (99.99% purity), formed in 4% phosphoric acid was studied as a function of the anodizing voltage (23-53 V) using a re-anodizing technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study. The chemical dissolution behavior of freshly anodized and annealed at 200 deg. C porous alumina films was studied. The obtained results indicate that porous alumina has n-type semiconductive behavior during anodizing in 4% phosphoric acid. During anodising, up to 39 V in the barrier layer of porous films, one obtains an accumulation layer (the thickness does not exceed 1 nm) where the excess electrons have been injected into the solid producing a downward bending of the conductive and valence band towards the interface. The charge on the surface of anodic oxide is negative and decreases with growing anodizing voltage. At the anodizing voltage of about 39 V, the charge on the surface of anodic oxide equals to zero. Above 39 V, anodic alumina/electrolyte junction injects protons from the electrolyte. These immobile positive charges in the surface layer of oxide together with an ionic layer of hydroxyl ions concentrated near the interface create a field, which produces an upward bending of the bands.

  12. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  13. About the Compatibility between High Voltage Spinel Cathode Materials and Solid Oxide Electrolytes as a Function of Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Lincoln; Windmüller, Anna; Tsai, Chih-Long; Richards, William D; Ma, Qianli; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Guillon, Olivier; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-10-12

    The reactivity of mixtures of high voltage spinel cathode materials Li 2 NiMn 3 O 8 , Li 2 FeMn 3 O 8 , and LiCoMnO 4 cosintered with Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 and Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 electrolytes is studied by thermal analysis using X-ray-diffraction and differential thermoanalysis and thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry. The results are compared with predicted decomposition reactions from first-principles calculations. Decomposition of the mixtures begins at 600 °C, significantly lower than the decomposition temperature of any component, especially the electrolytes. For the cathode + Li 6.6 La 3 Zr 1.6 Ta 0.4 O 12 mixtures, lithium and oxygen from the electrolyte react with the cathodes to form highly stable Li 2 MnO 3 and then decompose to form stable and often insulating phases such as La 2 Zr 2 O 7 , La 2 O 3 , La 3 TaO 7 , TiO 2 , and LaMnO 3 which are likely to increase the interfacial impedance of a cathode composite. The decomposition reactions are identified with high fidelity by first-principles calculations. For the cathode + Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 mixtures, the Mn tends to oxidize to MnO 2 or Mn 2 O 3 , supplying lithium to the electrolyte for the formation of Li 3 PO 4 and metal phosphates such as AlPO 4 and LiMPO 4 (M = Mn, Ni). The results indicate that high temperature cosintering to form dense cathode composites between spinel cathodes and oxide electrolytes will produce high impedance interfacial products, complicating solid state battery manufacturing.

  14. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical separation of oxygen from air is a promising application for oxide conductor solid electrolytes. However, several important specifications are required in order to obtain an efficient separation device. First of all, the electrolyte material must exhibit a high conductivity at moderate temperature. From this point of view, a new family of materials called BIMEVOX ideally fulfils this condition. Secondly, a typical separation device must comport two electrodes on opposite faces of the electrolyte. These electrodes must act as electronic collectors but also, at the cathodic side, as an oxygen dissociation catalyst. BIMEVOX electrolytes exhibit ionic conductivity values that can allow work at temperature below 500C. The classical electrode approach, like in solid oxide fuel cells, consists in using a specific mixed oxide, for instance strontium lanthanum manganite or cobaltite. However, the lower the temperature, the lower the efficiency of these electrodes which quickly appears as the limiting factor. In previous work on bismuth lead oxide electrolytes, we proposed a new approach that consists of using the surface of the bismuth-based electrolyte itself as the catalyst, the electron collection being then performed by a co-sintered metallic grid. This `in-situ` electrode system provides many advantages, particularly it eliminates the problem of the chemical compatibility between electrode and electrolyte materials. Taking into account the presence of both catalytic vanadium and bismuth cations in BIMEVOX, we checked under these conditions the separation of oxygen from air for different electrolytes (BICOVOX, BICUVOX, BIZNVOX) at various temperatures in the range 430-600C. For instance, using a BICOVOX pellet with a gold grid inserted on each side makes it possible to separate oxygen with nearly 100% efficiency for current density values up to 1000 mA/cm{sup -2}. For higher intensity values, the faradic efficiency progressively but reversibly decreases

  15. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindorf, John F.

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  16. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  17. Oral rehydration therapy for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2011-01-01

    Preoperative fluid and electrolyte management is usually performed by intravenous therapy. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of surgical patients. The study consisted of two studies, designed as a prospective observational study. In a pilot study, 20 surgical patients consumed 1000 mL of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia. Parameters such as serum electrolyte concentrations, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) as an index of renal blood flow, volume of esophageal-pharyngeal fluid and gastric fluid (EPGF), and patient satisfaction with ORT were assessed. In a follow-up study to assess the safety of ORT, 1078 surgical patients, who consumed ORS until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia, were assessed. In the pilot study, water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate were effectively and safely supplied by ORT. The FENa value was increased at 2 h following ORT. The volume of EPGF collected following the induction of anesthesia was 5.3±5.6 mL. In the follow-up study, a small amount of vomiting occurred in one patient, and no aspiration occurred in the patients. These results suggest that ORT is a safe and effective therapy for the preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of selected surgical patients.

  18. Enhanced supercapacitance of activated vertical graphene nanosheets in hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahoo, Gopinath; Polaki, S. R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kamruddin, M.; Mathews, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors are becoming the workhorse for emerging energy storage applications due to their higher power density and superior cycle life compared to conventional batteries. The performance of supercapacitors depends on the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and interaction between them. Owing to the beneficial interconnected porous structure with multiple conducting channels, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) have proved to be leading supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach based on the combination of surface activation and a new organo-aqueous hybrid electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in H2SO4, to achieve significant enhancement in supercapacitor performance of VGN. As-synthesized VGN exhibits an excellent supercapacitance of 0.64 mF/cm2 in H2SO4. However, identification of a novel electrolyte for performance enhancement is the subject of current research. The present manuscript demonstrates the potential of the hybrid electrolyte in enhancing the areal capacitance (1.99 mF/cm2) with excellent retention (only 5.4% loss after 5000 cycles) and Coulombic efficiency (93.1%). In addition, a five-fold enhancement in the capacitance of VGNs (0.64 to 3.31 mF/cm2) with a reduced internal resistance is achieved by the combination of KOH activation and the hybrid electrolyte.

  19. Piperidinium tethered nanoparticle-hybrid electrolyte for lithium metal batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Korf, Kevin S.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the synthesis of novel piperidinium-based ionic liquid tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes and investigate their physical and electrochemical properties. Hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PP-TFSI) were blended with propylene carbonate-1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide (LiTFSI). We employed NMR analysis to confirm the successful creation of the hybrid material. Dielectric and rheological measurements show that these electrolytes exhibit exceptional room-temperature DC ionic conductivity (10-2 to 10 -3 S cm-1) as well as high shear mechanical moduli (105 to 106 Pa). Lithium transference numbers were found to increase with particle loading and to reach values as high as 0.22 at high particle loadings where the particle jam to form a soft glassy elastic medium. Analysis of lithium electrodeposits obtained in the hybrid electrolytes using SEM and EDX spectra show that the SiO2-PP-TFSI nanoparticles are able to smooth lithium deposition and inhibit lithium dendrite proliferation in Li metal batteries. LTOSiO2-PP-TFSI/PC in 1 M LiTFSILi half-cells based on the SiO2-PP-TFSI hybrid electrolytes exhibit attractive voltage profiles and trouble-free extended cycling behavior over more than 1000 cycles of charge and discharge. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  1. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  2. Solid polymer composite electrolytes for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S M.J.; Mikhailenko, S D; Kaliaguine, S

    1998-07-01

    Composite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell technology were prepared from solid state proton conductors and polymer binders. The polymers were partially sulfonated and non-sulfonated polysulfone (PS), porous polyetherimide (PEI) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). As proton conductors H-chabazite, tungstophosphoric acid and its Na-salt and non-stoichiometric boron phosphate were employed. All membranes prepared using sulfonated PS as a binder with sulfonation degree higher than 50% were found to be mechanically unstable. They possess however reasonably high conductivity up to 6{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. Introducing the tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) into the nonsulfonated porous PS makes possible to obtain strong and flexible membranes with s=4{times}10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, while use of boron phosphate in that case results in the conductivity of about 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. Porous PEI impregnated with aqueous solution of TPA retains its original tensile strength and exhibited the conductivity s=2{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. It however fell to 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} S/cm when the binder was modified with 2% of propionic acid, which caused a decrease in polymer pore size. Incorporation of the sodium acid salt of TPA into PEI allows one to obtain a composite with reasonably good mechanical properties and a conductivity of ca 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm for membranes prepared by the cast method. Using the phase inversion technique for preparation of the membranes of the same composition makes possible to increase their conductivity up to 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. When boron phosphate was used in lieu of TPA salt the conductivity obtained is still higher reaching 3{times}10{sup {minus}5} and 3{times}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm for membranes prepared by cast and phase inversion techniques respectively. The PMMA based membranes were mechanically stable even when a solid content reached 55wt.%. Among PMMA membranes the highest conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm was registered for

  3. Study of the carbon material / electrolyte interface; Etude de l`interface materiau carbone / electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genies, S.; Yazami, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d`Electrochimie et d`Electrometallurgie, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France); Frison, J.C. [CNET, Centre de Recherches de Lannion, 22 (France); Ledran, J. [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is the comparative study of the properties of the natural graphite/liquid organic electrolyte interface by impedance spectroscopy with respect to different lithium salts (LiX with X = ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, BF{sub 4}{sup -}, CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}, N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -}, PF{sub 6}{sup -}). The evolution of the interface properties during the first electrochemical reduction suggests different mechanisms of formation of passivation films. A more stable, thin and homogenous film seems to develop when the LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} or LiPF{sub 6} lithium salts are used. The chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium in graphite has been determined by impedance spectroscopy. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  4. Study of the carbon material / electrolyte interface; Etude de l`interface materiau carbone / electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genies, S; Yazami, R [Ecole Nationale Superieure d` Electrochimie et d` Electrometallurgie, 38 - Saint-Martin-d` Heres (France); Frison, J C [CNET, Centre de Recherches de Lannion, 22 (France); Ledran, J [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work is the comparative study of the properties of the natural graphite/liquid organic electrolyte interface by impedance spectroscopy with respect to different lithium salts (LiX with X = ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, BF{sub 4}{sup -}, CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup -}, N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}{sup -}, PF{sub 6}{sup -}). The evolution of the interface properties during the first electrochemical reduction suggests different mechanisms of formation of passivation films. A more stable, thin and homogenous film seems to develop when the LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} or LiPF{sub 6} lithium salts are used. The chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium in graphite has been determined by impedance spectroscopy. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  5. Controlling turbulent drag across electrolytes using electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lee, Alpha A

    2017-07-01

    Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge that is crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic friction across electrolytes under shear beyond the transition to turbulence. We develop a novel, highly parallelised numerical method for solving the coupled Navier-Stokes Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation. Our results show that turbulent drag cannot be controlled across dilute electrolytes using static electric fields alone. The limitations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism hint at ways in which turbulent drag could be controlled using electric fields.

  6. Homogeneous lithium electrodeposition with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lorenzo; von Zamory, Jan; Koch, Stephan L; Kalhoff, Julian; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we report on the electroplating and stripping of lithium in two ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes, namely N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (Pyr14FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), and mixtures thereof, both on nickel and lithium electrodes. An improved method to evaluate the Li cycling efficiency confirmed that homogeneous electroplating (and stripping) of Li is possible with TFSI-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of native surface features on lithium, directly observable via scanning electron microscope imaging, was used to demonstrate the enhanced electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability, that is, fast cathodic reactivity of this class of electrolytes and the suppressed dendrite growth. Finally, the induced inhomogeneous deposition enabled us to witness the SEI cracking and revealed previously unreported bundled Li fibers below the pre-existing SEI and nonrod-shaped protuberances resulting from Li extrusion.

  7. Characteristics of MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is to be applied to the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is though to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid. In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed from the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO{sub 2} purging. (author)

  8. Destabilization Mechanism of Ionic Surfactant on Curcumin Nanocrystal against Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC, d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The average diameter of particles, microscopic appearance, and sedimentation of each preparation was observed and compared. Each stabilizer demonstrated a different degree of inhibition of particle aggregation under electrolyte-containing simulated gastrointestinal (GIT fluid. Non-ionic stabilizers (PVA, PVP, and TPGS were shown to preserve the nanosuspension stability against electrolytes. In contrast, strong ionic surfactants such as SDS were found to be very sensitive to electrolytes. The results can provide useful information for the formulators to choose the most suitable stabilizers by considering the nature of stabilizers and physiological characteristics of the target site of the drug.

  9. Printed environmentally friendly supercapacitors with ionic liquid electrolytes on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, F.; Keskinen, J.; Remonen, T.; von Hertzen, L.; Jansson, E.; Tappura, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wilén, C.-E.; Österbacka, R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally friendly supercapacitors are fabricated using commercial grade aluminum coated paper as a substrate and symmetrical activated carbon electrodes as large area electrodes. Different choline chloride-based eutectic solvents are used as electrolyte. These are inexpensive, environmentally friendly and have a larger operating window compared to that of water electrolytes. As the entire device is printed and the materials used are inexpensive, both small- and large-area power sources can be fabricated to be used in cheap, disposable and recyclable devices. Supercapacitors with different eutectic solvents are measured using cyclic charge-discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements and compared to one widely used and one "green" imidazolium ionic liquid; EMIM:TFSI and EcoEng 212™, respectively. A mixture of ethylene glycol and choline chloride, Glyceline™, show the highest capacitance and power densities of the electrolytes being tested, including the imidazolium alternatives.

  10. The Impact of Strong Cathodic Polarization on SOC Electrolyte Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreka, Kosova; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising reversible energy conversion/storage technologies is that of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells (SOFC/SOEC, collectively termed SOC). Long term durability is typically required for such devises to become economically feasible, hence considerable amount of work has...... of impurities at the grain boundaries, electrode poisoning, delamination or cracks of the electrolyte etc., have been observed in cells operated at such conditions, lowering the lifetime of the cell1,2. High polarizations are observed at the electrolyte/cathode interface of an electrolysis cell operated at high...... current density. In case of a cell voltage above 1.6 V, p-type and n-type electronic conductivity are often observed at the anode and cathode respectively3. Hence, a considerable part of the current is lost as leakage through the electrolyte, thus lowering the efficiency of the cell considerably....

  11. Electrolytic treatment of liquid waste containing ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, R.; Ogawa, N.; Ohtsuka, K.; Ohuchi, J.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made on the safe decomposition of ammonium nitrate, which is the main component of α-liquid waste from plutonium fuel facilities, by means of electrolytic reduction and thermal decomposition. In the first stage, ammonium nitrate is reduced to ammonium nitrite by electrolytic reduction using an electrolyser with a cation exchange membrane as a diaphragm. In the second stage, ammonium nitrite is decomposed to N 2 and H 2 O. The alkaline region and a low temperature are preferable for electrolytic reduction and the acidic region and high temperature for thermal decomposition. A basis was established for an ammonium nitrate treatment system in aqueous solution through the operation of a bench-scale unit, and the operating data obtained was applied to the basic design of a 10-m 3 /a facility. (author)

  12. Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Yang, Johnny [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Carroll, Kyler [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Clemons, Owen [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Strand, Diedre [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Substantial improvement in the energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries is required to meet the future needs for electric and plug-in electric vehicles (EV and PHEV). Present day lithium ion battery technology is based on shuttling lithium between graphitic carbon and inorganic oxides. Non-graphitic anodes, such as silicon can provide significant improvements in energy density but are currently limited in cycle life due to reactivity with the electrolyte. Wildcat/3M proposes the development of non-carbonate electrolyte formulations tailored for silicon alloy anodes. Combining these electrolytes with 3M’s anode and an NMC cathode will enable up to a 20% increase in the volumetric cell energy density, while still meeting the PHEV/EV cell level cycle/calendar life goals.

  13. On the theory of the electroreduction of solid oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotin, V.N.; Brajnin, M.I.; Solov'eva, L.M.; Pakhnutov, I.A.; Lukach, Yu.S.

    1986-01-01

    The process of direct current passage through the cell with MOsub(2)+MeOsub(r) solid electrolyte (M-Zr, Hf, Ce, Th; Me-Ca, Sr, Sc, Y, lanthanides), a blockage cathode and a reversible anode is considered; it leads to electrolyte deviation from stoichiometric composition to insufficient oxygen content. The degree of this deviation and n-type electron conductivity proportional to it, depending on coordinate and time, is described by the nonlinear differential equation of the diffusion type. Electron conductivity of the electrolyte near the cathode increases in time approximating to the limiting value proportional to current conducted. As the distance to the cathode increases electron conductivity reduces by the exponential law, which transforms to a linear one in due course

  14. Application of proton conducting polymeric electrolytes to electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masayuki; Qiao, Jin-Li; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Non-aqueous polymeric gel complexes composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymethacrylate (PEO-PMA) dissolving anhydrous H 3 PO 4 have been examined as solid electrolytes of electrochemical capacitors. High ionic conductivity of ∼10 -3 S cm -1 (at 70 deg. C) was obtained for non-aqueous gel systems based on PEO-PMA with proper amounts of organic plasticizers. The ionic conductivity depended on the composition of the gel, especially on the content of the dopant H 3 PO 4 . A test cell of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was assembled using the present gel electrolyte with activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth electrodes. It gave as high capacity as that obtained for the capacitor using an aqueous liquid electrolyte. High rate capability was obtained for the cell operating at 90 deg. C

  15. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  16. Microhardness of anodic aluminum oxide formed in an alkaline electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanygina, O. N.; Filyak, M. M.

    2017-04-01

    The microhardness of anodic aluminum oxide formed by anodizing of aluminum sheet in electrolyte on the basis of sodium hydroxide has been determined experimentally. The microhardness of the hard film/soft substrate system has been estimated by three approaches: indentation geometry (length of diagonals) in film surfaces, the sum of the hardnesses of the film and the surface with allowance for the indentation surface area and geometry, and with allowance for the indentation depth. It is demonstrated that the approach accounting for the indentation depth makes it possible to eliminate the influence of the substrate. It is established that the microhardness of the films formed in alkaline electrolytes is comparable with that formed in acid electrolytes.

  17. Study of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Aluminum Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Agureev

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Coatings, with a thickness of up to 75 µm, were formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO under the alternating current electrical mode in a silicate-alkaline electrolyte on aluminum composites without additives and alloyed with copper (1–4.5%. The coatings’ structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear backscattering spectrometry, and XRD analysis. The coatings formed for 60 min were characterized by excessive aluminum content and the presence of low-temperature modifications of alumina γ-Al2O3 and η-Al2O3. The coatings formed for 180 min additionally contained high-temperature corundum α-Al2O3, and aluminum inclusions were absent. The electrochemical behavior of coated composites and uncoated ones in 3% NaCl was studied. Alloyage of aluminum composites with copper increased the corrosion current density. Plasma electrolytic oxidation reduced it several times.

  18. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  19. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  20. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on whisker or microfibrils polyoxyethylene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, Fannie, E-mail: fannie.alloin@lepmi.grenoble-inp.f [LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); D' Aprea, Alessandra [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); LEPMI, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, Grenoble-INP-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5631, BP 75, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Kissi, Nadia El [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dufresne, Alain [Ecole Internationale du Papier, de la communication imprimee et des Biomateriaux, PAGORA- Grenoble-INP, BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Bossard, Frederic [Laboratoire de Rheologie, Grenoble-INP-UJF, UMR 5520, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes composed of high molecular weight poly(oxyethylene) PEO as a matrix, LiTFSI as lithium salt and ramie, cotton and sisal whiskers with high aspect ratio and sisal microfibrils (MF), as reinforcing phase were prepared by casting-evaporation. The morphology of the composite electrolytes was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and their thermal behavior (characteristic temperatures, degradation temperature) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Nanocomposite electrolytes based on PEO reinforced by whiskers and MF sisal exhibited very high mechanical performance with a storage modulus of 160 MPa at high temperature. A weak decrease of the ionic conductivity was observed with the incorporation of 6 wt% of whiskers. The addition of microfibrils involved a larger decrease of the conductivity. This difference may be associated to the more restricted PEO mobility due to the addition of entangled nanofibers.

  1. Corrosion-electrochemical characteristics of oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coatings formed by electrolytic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashov, N.D.; Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Medova, I.L.; Duradzhi, V.N.; Plavnik, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The composition, structure, microhardness and corrosion-electrochemical properties of oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coatings on titanium in 5n H 2 SO 4 , 50 deg, produced by the method of chemical-heat treatment in electrolytic plasma, containing saturation components of nitrogen and carbon, were investigated. It is shown that the coatings produced have increased hardness, possess high corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid solution at increased temperature, as to their electrochemcial behaviour they are similar to titanium carbide and nitride respectively. It is shown that high corrosion resistance is ensured by electrochemical mechanism of the oxide-carbide and oxide-nitride coating protection

  2. SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND OUTCOME IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana VIEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%, magnesium in 21 (20.8%, chlorine in 21 (20.8%, potassium in 14 (13.8%, calcium in 11 (10.9 % and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%. The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007. CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.

  3. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-06-07

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service-temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, we report such wide-temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the ethylene carbonate (EC) content in the ternary solvent system of EC, propylene carbonate (PC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) with LiPF 6 salt and CsPF 6 additive. An extended service-temperature range from -40 to 60 °C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNi 0.80 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 , NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room temperature and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated together with the ionic conductivity and phase-transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF 6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt) with 0.05 M CsPF 6 , which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite∥NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite∥LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 . This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the high capacity retention (68%) at -40 °C and C/5 rate, significantly higher than that (20%) of the conventional LIB electrolyte, and the nearly identical stable cycle life as the conventional LIB electrolyte at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 60 °C.

  4. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William

    2010-01-01

    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane

  5. Initial study of Nickel Electrolyte for EnFACE Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayatno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel electrolyte for a micro-pattern transfer process without photolithography, EnFACE, has been developed. Previous work on copper deposition indicated that a conductivity of ~2.7 Sm-1 is required. Electrochemical parameters of electrolyte i.e. current density and overpotential are also crucial to govern a successful pattern replication. Therefore, the investigation focused on the measurement of physicochemical properties and electrochemical behaviour of the electrolyte at different nickel concentrations and complexing agents of chloride and sulfamate. Nickel electrolytes containing sulfamate, chloride and combined sulfamate-chloride with concentrations between 0.14 M and 0.3 M were investigated. Physicochemical properties i.e. pH and conductivity were measured to ensure if they were in the desired value. The electrochemical behaviour of the electrolytes was measured by polarisation experiments in a standard three-electrode cell. The working electrode was a copper disc (surface area of 0.196 cm2 and the counter electrode was platinum mesh. The potential was measured againts a saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. The experiments were carried out at various scan rate and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE rotation speed to see the effect of scan rate and agitation. Based on the measured physicochemical properties, the electrolyte of 0.19 M nickel sulfamate was chosen for experimentation. Polarisation curve of agitated solution suggested that overall nickel electrodeposition reaction is controlled by a combination of kinetics and mass transfer.  Reduction potential of nickel was in the range of -0.7 to -1.0 V. The corresponding current densities for nickel deposition were in the range of -0.1 to -1.5 mA cm-2.

  6. Raman spectral and electrochemical studies of lithium/electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odziemkowski, M

    1922-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, corrosion potential-time transients and Normal Raman spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the lithium-lithium salt, organic solvent, interfacial region. An in-situ cutting technique was developed to expose lithium metal. In-situ optical and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to examine the morphology of the lithium electrode surface during exposure at open circuit and after anodic polarization. The main reaction product detected by in-situ Raman spectroscopy in the system/lithium/LiAsF[sub 6], tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte was polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). The conditions for the polymerization reaction in the presence of lithium metal have been determined. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) decomposition reaction mechanisms are discussed. Decomposition reaction products have been determined as arsenic (II) oxide, As[sub 2]O[sub 3] (arsenolite) and arsenious oxyfluoride AsF[sub 2]-O-AsF[sub 2]. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed a substantial shift of the corrosion potential towards positive values and only a moderate increase of anodic dissolution current for in-situ cut lithium metal. Corrosion potential-time merits have been measured. The following electrolytes have been investigated: LiAsF[sub 6], LiPF[sub 6], LiClO[sub 4], and Li(CF[sub 3]SO[sub 2])[sub 2]N in THF, 2Me-THF, and propylene carbonate (PC). The transients permit the ranking of the reactivity of the electrolytes. These measurements have shed light on understanding the stability of various stability and and solvents in contact with lithium. Compared to purified electrolytes, small amounts of water shift the corrosion potential towards even more positive values. Intensive anodic cycling of a Li electrode in unpurified LiAsF[sub 6]/THF electrolyte leads to the breakdown of a surface film/films. While at the open circuit potential (OCP), water in this same electrolyte leads to crack formation in the bulk lithium electrode.

  7. Managing Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening. Treatment of metabolic acidosis and nutritional support is frequently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikerling, M.; Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    We provide a phenomenological description of proton conductance in polymer electrolyte membranes, based on contemporary views of proton transfer processes in condensed media and a model for heterogeneous polymer electrolyte membrane structure. The description combines the proton transfer events...... in a single pore with the total pore-network performance and, thereby, relates structural and kinetic characteristics of the membrane. The theory addresses specific experimentally studied issues such as the effect of the density of proton localization sites (equivalent weight) of the membrane material...

  9. Electrolytic 99TcO4- reduction at inert electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrolytic pertechnetate reduction at inert electrodes was studied as an alternative procedure for synthesizing Tc complexes. Pertechnetate reduction was carried out in aqueous media using different aminated ligands (en, dien, trien and 1,3-dap) forming [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + type complexes. Simultaneously with synthesis of the desired Tc complex, TcO 2 was electrodeposited onto the cathode. Conversion of TcO 4 - to Tc complex and TcO 2 was studied as a function of several variables (kind and concentration of supporting electrolyte, ligand concentration, pH, current and electrolysis time). (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Investigation of alkaline-cyanide electrolytes of zinc plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaburova, V.P.; Kolotij, O.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Current values in their maxima on anodic potential curves of Cd, Sn and Zn in galvanizing electrolytes with equilibrium concentrations of free cyanide and hydroxide ions were compared. Anode signal of Cd in the presence of Zn complexes intensifies due to their lability and, therefore, it reflects not only the presence of free cyanide, but zinc complex ions, as well, in the solution mentioned. This is one of the reasons for a high information content of the signal in case of multicomponent analysis of cyanide galvanizing electrolytes

  11. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig

  12. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    The use of renewable energy sources is on the rise, as new energy generating technologies continue to become more efficient and economical. Furthermore, the advantages of an energy infrastructure which relies more on sustainable and renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly apparent. The most readily available of these renewable energy sources, wind and solar energy in particular, are naturally intermittent. Thus, to enable the continued expansion and widespread adoption of renewable energy generating technology, a cost-effective energy storage system is essential. Additionally, the market for electric/hybrid electric vehicles, which both require efficient energy storage, continues to grow as more consumers seek to reduce their consumption of gasoline. These vehicles, however, remain quite expensive, due primarily to costs associated with storing the electrical energy. High-voltage and thermally stable Li-ion battery technology is a promising solution for both grid-level and electric vehicle energy storage. Current limitations in materials, however, limit the energy density and safe operating temperature window of the battery. Specifically, the state-of-the-art electrolyte used in Li-ion batteries is not compatible with recently developed high-voltage positive electrodes, which are one of the most effectual ways of increasing the energy density. The electrolyte is also thermally unstable above 50 °C, and prone to thermal runaway reaction if exposed to prolonged heating. The lithium salt used in such electrolytes, LiPF6, is a primary contributor to both of these issues. Unfortunately, an improved lithium salt which meets the myriad property requirements for Li-ion battery electrolytes has eluded researchers for decades. In this study, a renewed effort to find such a lithium salt was begun, using a recently developed methodology to rapidly screen for desirable properties. Four new lithium salts and one relatively new but uncharacterized lithium salt were

  14. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  15. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  16. Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott; Gudlavalleti, Sauri; Quek, Shu Ching; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Powers, James Daniel

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

  17. Alkoxide-based magnesium electrolyte compositions for magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun

    2018-01-30

    Alkoxide magnesium halide compounds having the formula: RO--Mg--X (1) wherein R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon group that is unsubstituted, or alternatively, substituted with one or more heteroatom linkers and/or one or more heteroatom-containing groups comprising at least one heteroatom selected from fluorine, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and silicon; and X is a halide atom. Also described are electrolyte compositions containing a compound of Formula (1) in a suitable polar aprotic or ionic solvent, as well as magnesium batteries in which such electrolytes are incorporated.

  18. Analysis and discussion on the experimental data of electrolyte analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinYu; Jiang, JunJie; Liu, MengJun; Li, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    In the subsequent verification of electrolyte analyzer, we found that the instrument can achieve good repeatability and stability in repeated measurements with a short period of time, in line with the requirements of verification regulation of linear error and cross contamination rate, but the phenomenon of large indication error is very common, the measurement results of different manufacturers have great difference, in order to find and solve this problem, help enterprises to improve quality of product, to obtain accurate and reliable measurement data, we conducted the experimental evaluation of electrolyte analyzer, and the data were analyzed by statistical analysis.

  19. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...... trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF). The polymer electrode material was polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS). The cells were of the form, Li / PAN : EC : PC : LiCF3SO3 / PPy : DBS. Polymer electrodes of three different thicknesses were studied using cycling at different scan rates. All cells...

  20. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghy, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    An article made of a zirconium alloy can be electrolytically plated with a layer of a metal such as copper, nickel or chromium when the article is free of any loosely adhering film formed during an activation step. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution of ammonium bifluoride and sulfuric acid. Next the loosely adhering film formed in the first step is removed by chemical treatment, ultrasonic cleaning, or by swabbing the surface with cotton or an organic material. Finally the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution in the presence of an electrode receiving current