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Sample records for electrode surface modification

  1. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  2. The effects of surface modification on carbon felt electrodes for use in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observed the physical and chemical changes on the surface of carbon felts after various surface modifications. ► The surface area and chemistry of functional groups formed on the surface of carbon felt are critical to determine the kinetics of the redox reactions of vanadium ions. ► By incorporation of the surface modifications into the electrode preparation, the electrochemical activity of carbon felts could be notably enhanced. - Abstract: The surface of carbon felt electrodes has been modified for improving energy efficiency of vanadium redox flow batteries. For comparative purposes, the effects of various surface modifications such as mild oxidation, plasma treatment, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrochemical properties of carbon felt electrodes were investigated at optimized conditions. The cell energy efficiency was improved from 68 to 75% after the mild oxidation of the carbon felt at 500 °C for 5 h. This efficiency improvement could be attributed to the increased surface area of the carbon felt electrode and the formation of functional groups on its surface as a result of the modification. On the basis of various structural and electrochemical characterizations, a relationship between the surface nature and electrochemical activity of the carbon felt electrodes is discussed.

  3. Effect of surface roughness and surface modification of indium tin oxide electrode on its potential response to tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Md. Zaved Hossain; Nakanishi, Takuya; Kuroiwa, Shigeki; Hoshi, Yoichi; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine factors affecting potential response of ITO electrode to tryptophan. → Surface roughness of ITO electrode affects the stability of its rest potential. → Surface modification is effective for ITO electrode with a certain roughness. → Optimum values of work function exist for potential response of ITO to tryptophan. - Abstract: The effect of surface modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode on its potential response to tryptophan was investigated for ITO substrates with different surface roughness. It was found that a small difference in surface roughness, between ∼1 and ∼2 nm of R a evaluated by atomic force microscopy, affects the rest potential of ITO electrode in the electrolyte. A slight difference in In:Sn ratio at the near surface of the ITO substrates, measured by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy is remarkable, and considered to relate with surface roughness. Interestingly, successive modification of the ITO surface with aminopropylsilane and disuccinimidyl suberate, of which essentiality to the potential response to indole compounds we previously reported, improved the stability of the rest potential and enabled the electrodes to respond to tryptophan in case of specimens with R a values ranging between ∼2 and ∼3 nm but not for those with R a of ∼1 nm. It was suggested that there are optimum values of effective work function of ITO for specific potential response to tryptophan, which can be obtained by the successive modification of ITO surface.

  4. Concatenation of electrochemical grafting with chemical or electrochemical modification for preparing electrodes with specific surface functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal; Novak, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Surface modified electrodes are used in electro-analysis, electro-catalysis, sensors, biomedical applications, etc. and could also be used in batteries. The properties of modified electrodes are determined by the surface functionality. Therefore, the steps involved in the surface modification of the electrodes to obtain specific functionality are of prime importance. We illustrate here bridging of two routes of surface modifications namely electrochemical grafting, and chemical or electrochemical reduction. First, by electrochemical grafting an organic moiety is covalently immobilized on the surface. Then, either by chemical or by electrochemical route the terminal functional group of the grafted moiety is transformed. Using the former route we prepared lithium alkyl carbonate (-O(CH 2 ) 3 OCO 2 Li) modified carbon with potential applications in batteries, and employing the latter we prepared phenyl hydroxyl amine (-C 6 H 4 NHOH) modified carbon which may find application in biosensors. Benzyl alcohol (-C 6 H 4 CH 2 OH) modified carbon was prepared by both chemical as well as electrochemical route. We report combinations of conjugating the two steps of surface modifications and show how the optimal route of terminal functional group modification depends on the chemical nature of the moiety attached to the surface in the electrochemical grafting step.

  5. Concatenation of electrochemical grafting with chemical or electrochemical modification for preparing electrodes with specific surface functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Pallavi; Maire, Pascal [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Novak, Petr, E-mail: petr.novak@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Section Electrochemical Energy Storage, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-04-01

    Surface modified electrodes are used in electro-analysis, electro-catalysis, sensors, biomedical applications, etc. and could also be used in batteries. The properties of modified electrodes are determined by the surface functionality. Therefore, the steps involved in the surface modification of the electrodes to obtain specific functionality are of prime importance. We illustrate here bridging of two routes of surface modifications namely electrochemical grafting, and chemical or electrochemical reduction. First, by electrochemical grafting an organic moiety is covalently immobilized on the surface. Then, either by chemical or by electrochemical route the terminal functional group of the grafted moiety is transformed. Using the former route we prepared lithium alkyl carbonate (-O(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OCO{sub 2}Li) modified carbon with potential applications in batteries, and employing the latter we prepared phenyl hydroxyl amine (-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}NHOH) modified carbon which may find application in biosensors. Benzyl alcohol (-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 2}OH) modified carbon was prepared by both chemical as well as electrochemical route. We report combinations of conjugating the two steps of surface modifications and show how the optimal route of terminal functional group modification depends on the chemical nature of the moiety attached to the surface in the electrochemical grafting step.

  6. Surface modification of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, C.M., E-mail: Christian.Julien@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), UMR 8234, 75005 Paris (France); Mauger, A. [Institut de Minéralogie de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), UPMC Univ. Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Groult, H. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), UMR 8234, 75005 Paris (France); Zaghib, K. [Energy Storage and Conversion, Research Institute of Hydro-Québec, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S1 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    The advanced lithium-ion batteries are critically important for a wide range of applications, from portable electronics to electric vehicles. The research on their electrodes aims to increase the energy density and the power density, improve the calendar and the cycling life, without sacrificing the safety issues. A constant progress through the years has been obtained owing to the surface treatment of the particles, in particular the coating of the nanoparticles with a layer that protects the core region from side reactions with the electrolyte, prevents the loss of oxygen, and the dissolution of the metal ions in the electrolyte, or simply improve the conductivity of the powder. The purpose of the present work is to present the different surface modifications that have been tried for three families of positive electrodes: layered, spinel and olivine frameworks that are currently considered as promising materials. The role of the different coats used to improve either the surface conductivity, or the thermal stability, or the structural integrity is discussed. - Highlights: • Report the various surface modifications tried for the positive electrodes of Li-ion batteries. • The role of different coats used to improve the conductivity, or the thermal stability, or the structural integrity. • Improvement of electrochemical properties of electrodes after coating or surface treatment.

  7. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis and Surface Modification of Electrode Materials for Renewable Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Shuo; Tao, Li; Wang, Ruilun; El Hankari, Samir; Chen, Ru; Wang, Shuangyin

    2018-02-14

    Renewable energy technology has been considered as a "MUST" option to lower the use of fossil fuels for industry and daily life. Designing critical and sophisticated materials is of great importance in order to realize high-performance energy technology. Typically, efficient synthesis and soft surface modification of nanomaterials are important for energy technology. Therefore, there are increasing demands on the rational design of efficient electrocatalysts or electrode materials, which are the key for scalable and practical electrochemical energy devices. Nevertheless, the development of versatile and cheap strategies is one of the main challenges to achieve the aforementioned goals. Accordingly, plasma technology has recently appeared as an extremely promising alternative for the synthesis and surface modification of nanomaterials for electrochemical devices. Here, the recent progress on the development of nonthermal plasma technology is highlighted for the synthesis and surface modification of advanced electrode materials for renewable energy technology including electrocatalysts for fuel cells, water splitting, metal-air batteries, and electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, etc. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranton, Steve; Belanger, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions

  9. In situ generation of diazonium cations in organic electrolyte for electrochemical modification of electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranton, Steve [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada); Belanger, Daniel [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Case Postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3P8 (Canada)], E-mail: belanger.daniel@uqam.ca

    2008-10-01

    The modification of glassy carbon electrode was achieved by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium cations in acetonitrile. The in situ generation of 4-nitrophenyl diazonium cations in acetonitrile was investigated by spectroscopic methods. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed slow kinetics for the reaction of 4-nitroaniline with tert-butylnitrite in acetonitrile to form the corresponding diazonium cation. As a result, a coupling reaction, which implies a consumption of the amine and loss of the already formed diazonium cations, was evidenced by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic study allowed the optimization of the in situ diazonium cations generation prior to the modification step. The electrochemical modification of the carbon electrodes with 4-nitrophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and anthraquinone groups was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting grafted layer were characterized by electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetric behaviour during the electrochemical grafting was very similar to the one observed for an isolated diazonium salt dissolved in acetonitrile. In the case of the anthraquinone-modified electrode, the use of acetonitrile, into which the corresponding amine is soluble but not in aqueous media, allowed for its grafting by the in situ approach. The barrier properties of these grafted layers are similar to those obtained from isolated diazonium salts. Finally, the chemical composition of the grafted layers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface coverage in the range 5-7 x 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -2} was estimated for films grown in our experimental conditions.

  10. Surface modification and electrochemical properties of activated carbons for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Qiu, Wenmei; Xu, Jingcai; Han, Yanbing; Jin, Hongxiao; Jin, Dingfeng; Peng, Xiaoling; Hong, Bo; Li, Ji; Ge, Hongliang; Wang, Xinqing

    2015-12-01

    Modifications with different acids (HNO3, H2SO4, HCl and HF, respectively) were introduced to treat the activated carbons (ACs) surface. The microstructures and surface chemical properties were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ASAP, Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The ACs electrode-based supercapacitors were assembled with 6 mol ṡ L-1 KOH electrolyte. The electrochemical properties were studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that although the BET surface area of modified ACs decreased, the functional groups were introduced and the ash contents were reduced on the surface of ACs, receiving larger specific capacitance to initial AC. The specific capacitance of ACs modified with HCl, H2SO4, HF and HNO3 increased by 31.4%, 23%, 21% and 11.6%, respectively.

  11. Surface Modification of MXenes: A Pathway to Improve MXene Electrode Performance in Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-12-31

    The recent discovery of layered transition metal carbides (MXenes) is one of the most important developments in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Preliminary theoretical and experimental studies suggest a wide range of potential applications for MXenes. The MXenes are prepared by chemically etching ‘A’-layer element from layered ternary metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides (MAX phases) through aqueous acid treatment, which results in various surface terminations such as hydroxyl, oxygen or fluorine. It has been found that surface terminations play a critical role in defining MXene properties and affects MXene performance in different applications such as electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, sensors and catalysis. Also, the electronic, thermoelectric, structural, plasmonic and optical properties of MXenes largely depend upon surface terminations. Thus, controlling the surface chemistry if MXenes can be an efficient way to improve their properties. This research mainly aims to perform surface modifications of two commonly studied MXenes; Ti2C and Ti3C2, via chemical, thermal or physical processes to enhance electrochemical energy storage properties. The as-prepared and surface modified MXenes have been studied as electrode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs). In pursuit of desirable MXene surface, we have developed an in-situ room temperature oxidation process, which resulted in TiO2/MXene nanocomposite and enhanced Li-ion storage. The idea of making metal oxide and MXene nanocomposites was taken to the next level by combining a high capacity anode materials – SnO2 – and MXene. By taking advantage of already existing surface functional groups (–OH), we have developed a composite of SnO2/MXene by atomic layer deposition (ALD) which showed enhanced capacity and excellent cyclic stability. Thermal annealing of MXene at elevated temperature under different atmospheres was

  12. Evaluation of electrode surface modification techniques for the development of chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiatsatos, C.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis covers several aspects of electrode surface modification techniques. The successful application of gamma-radiation to create polymer-coated electrodes, where the polymers can be ion exchangers and consequently of great analytical interest by themselves (such as the polymer poly(diallyl) dimethyl ammonium chloride) or where some other neutral polymers can function as convenient matrices for the introduction of biomolecules and/or other electrochemically interesting species is reported. This is demonstrated by using the neutral polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) as a matrix for immobilization of the enzyme glucose oxidase and the mediator methyl viologen. The effect of γ-radiation on PVAL is discussed, as well as swelling properties of the irradiated polymers and specific characteristics of the created chemical sensors. Results of an experiment where the various kinds of interactions between the ion-exchange polymer Nafion and some positively charged species are explored are reported, and a model system for competition (methyl viologen vs. ruthenium hexaamine) which increases significantly our understanding of the interaction is mentioned. The effect of γ-radiation on Nafion and its ion-exchange compabilities is discussed also. A system of conduction polymers primarily polypyrrole, used as a detector of electroinactive anions due to their doping-undergoing in the film is discussed. Preliminary results on a new method that involves chemical cross-linking of a triisocyane molecule with -OH containing polymers in the presence of enzymes are reported

  13. Surface modification of RuO2 electrodes by laser irradiation and ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RuO2 thin layers were deposited on Ti supports by thermal decomposition of RuCl3 at 400°C. Some of the samples were subjected to laser irradiation between 0.5 and 1.5 J cm-2. Some others to Kr bombardment with doses between 1015 and 1016 cm-2. Modifications introduced by the surface treatments were monitored ...

  14. Plasma etching treatment for surface modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ito, Hiroyuki [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Kusakabe, Kazuhide [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawai@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2007-03-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film surfaces were modified by brief plasma treatment using various source gases such as Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, Ar and CH{sub 4}, and the electrochemical properties of the surfaces were subsequently investigated. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, Cl and F atoms were detected on the BDD surfaces after 3 min of Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments, respectively. From the results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical AC impedance measurements, the electron-transfer rate for Fe(CN){sub 6} {sup 3-/4-} and Fe{sup 2+/3+} at the BDD electrodes was found to decrease after Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments. However, the electron-transfer rate for Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6} {sup 2+/3+} showed almost no change after these treatments. This may have been related to the specific interactions of surface halogen (C-Cl and C-F) moieties with the redox species because no electrical passivation was observed after the treatments. In addition, Raman spectroscopy showed that CH{sub 4} plasma treatment of diamond surfaces formed an insulating diamond-like carbon thin layer on the surfaces. Thus, by an appropriate choice of plasma source, short-duration plasma treatments can be an effective way to functionalize diamond surfaces in various ways while maintaining a wide potential window and a low background current.

  15. Surface-modified electrodes (SME)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.P.G.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1984-01-01

    This review deals with the literature (covered up to August 1983), the characterization and the applications of Surface-Modified Electrodes (SME). As a special class of SME's, the Enzyme-Modified Electrode (EME) is introduced. Three types of modification procedures are distinguished; i.e. covalent

  16. Surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by electrical discharge alloying processing with a 75 mass% Si-Fe alloy electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambekova, Kuralay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hung-Mao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Rd., Xinshi Dist., Tainan City 74448, Taiwan (China); Uan, Jun-Yen, E-mail: jyuan@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-01

    This study experimentally investigates the surface modification of 5083 Al alloy by the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process with a Si-Fe alloy as an electrode. Samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and corrosion resistance tests. The micro-hardness of EDA alloyed layer was evidently higher than that of the base metal (5083 Al alloy). The TEM results show that the matrix of the alloyed layer has an amorphous-like structure; the matrix contains fine needle-like Si particles, block-like Si particles and nano-size Al{sub 4.5}FeSi and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles. The TEM results support experimental results for the high hardness of the alloyed layer. Moreover, the EDA alloyed layer with composite microstructures has good corrosion resistance in NaCl aqueous solution.

  17. Structure and Modification of Electrode Materials for Protein Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Lars J C

    The interactions between proteins and electrode surfaces are of fundamental importance in bioelectrochemistry, including photobioelectrochemistry. In order to optimise the interaction between electrode and redox protein, either the electrode or the protein can be engineered, with the former being the most adopted approach. This tutorial review provides a basic description of the most commonly used electrode materials in bioelectrochemistry and discusses approaches to modify these surfaces. Carbon, gold and transparent electrodes (e.g. indium tin oxide) are covered, while approaches to form meso- and macroporous structured electrodes are also described. Electrode modifications include the chemical modification with (self-assembled) monolayers and the use of conducting polymers in which the protein is imbedded. The proteins themselves can either be in solution, electrostatically adsorbed on the surface or covalently bound to the electrode. Drawbacks and benefits of each material and its modifications are discussed. Where examples exist of applications in photobioelectrochemistry, these are highlighted.

  18. Redox properties of phenosafranine at zeolite-modified electrodes-Effect of surface modification and solution pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easwaramoorthi, S.; Natarajan, P.

    2008-01-01

    Redox properties of cationic dye phenosafranine (3,7-diamino-5-phenylphenazenium chloride) (PS + ) were studied at zeolite-modified electrodes using Zeolite-Y and NaZSM-5. The peak current and peak potential of phenosafranine-adsorbed zeolite were found to be influenced by the pH of the electrolyte solution. Observation of a second redox couple is suggested to be due to formation of new species at low concentration from the reduced phenosafranine at the zeolite-modified electrodes. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the cavities of the zeolite or anchored on the external surface of the zeolite do not seem to affect the redox properties of adsorbed PS + . When the cyclic voltammograms are recorded immediately after the electrode is immersed into the solution, the redox potential of PS + is found to be sensitive to the nature of the zeolite surface. The peak potential shifts towards positive region under continuous cycles as the surface hydroxyl groups get protonated in acidic electrolyte solution thereby forcing the movement of dye molecules from the zeolite surface to the zeolite electrode solution interface. The electron transfer rate constants for the adsorbed dye at the electrode are calculated to be 2.5 ± 0.2 s -1 and 3.5 ± 0.2 s -1 for the zeolite-Y electrode and the ZSM-5 electrode, respectively by the Laviron equation

  19. Mechanism transition of cell-impedance-controlled lithium transport through Li1-δMn2O4 composite electrode caused by surface-modification and temperature variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Pyun, Su-Il

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism transition of lithium transport through a Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 composite electrode caused by the surface-modification and temperature variation was investigated using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the potentiostatic current transient technique. From the analyses of the ac-impedance spectra, experimentally measured from unmodified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 and surface-modified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 with MgO composite electrodes, the internal cell resistance of the MgO-modified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 electrode was determined to be much smaller in value than that of the unmodified electrode over the whole potential range. Moreover, from the analysis of the anodic current transients measured on the MgO-modified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 electrode, it was found that the cell-impedance-controlled constraint at the electrode surface is changed to a diffusion-controlled constraint, which is characterised by a large potential step and simultaneously by a small amount of lithium transferred during lithium transport. This strongly suggests that the internal cell resistance plays a significant role in determining the cell-impedance-controlled lithium transport through the MgO-modified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 electrode. Furthermore, from the temperature dependence of the internal cell resistance and diffusion resistance in the unmodified Li 1-δ Mn 2 O 4 composite electrode measured by GITT and EIS, it was concluded that which mechanism of lithium transport will be operative strongly depends on the diffusion resistance as well as on the internal cell resistance

  20. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  1. Optimization and Surface Modification of Al-6351 Alloy Using SiC-Cu Green Compact Electrode by Electro Discharge Coating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sujoy; Kar, Siddhartha; Dey, Vidyut; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the surface modification of Al-6351 alloy by green compact SiC-Cu electrode using electro-discharge coating (EDC) process. A Taguchi L-16 orthogonal array is employed to investigate the process by varying tool parameters like composition and compaction load and electro-discharge machining (EDM) parameters like pulse-on time and peak current. Material deposition rate (MDR), tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) are measured on the coated specimens. An optimum condition is achieved by formulating overall evaluation criteria (OEC), which combines multi-objective task into a single index. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to investigate the effect of relevant process parameters. A confirmation test is conducted based on optimal process parameters and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. The modified surface is characterized by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD analysis of the deposited layer confirmed the transfer of tool materials to the work surface and formation of inter-metallic phases. The micro-hardness of the resulting composite layer is also measured which is 1.5-3 times more than work material’s one and highest layer thickness (LT) of 83.644μm has been successfully achieved.

  2. Surface modification of amine-functionalised graphite for preparation of cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoHCF)-modified electrode: an amperometric sensor for determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, S J Richard; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2006-12-01

    A cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoHCF)-modified graphite paraffin wax composite electrode was prepared by a new approach. An amine-functionalised graphite powder was used for the fabrication of the electrode. A functionalised graphite paraffin wax composite electrode was prepared and the surface of the electrode was modified with a thin film of CoHCF. Various parameters that influence the electrochemical behaviour of the modified electrode were studied by varying the background electrolytes, scan rates and pH. The modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) under optimal conditions and showed a linear response over the range from 7.9 x 10(-7) to 1.9 x 10(-4) M of BHA with a correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection was 1.9 x 10(-7) M. Electrocatalytic oxidation of BHA was effective at the modified electrode at a significantly reduced potential and at a broader pH range. The utility of the modified electrode as an amperometric sensor for the determination of BHA in flow systems was evaluated by carrying out hydrodynamic and chronoamperometric experiments. The modified electrode showed very good stability and a longer shelf life. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of BHA in spiked samples of chewing gum and edible sunflower oil. The advantage of this method is the ease of electrode fabrication, good stability, longer shelf life, low cost and its diverse application for BHA determination.

  3. Chemical Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Applications to Biosensors and Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svítková, Jana; Ignat, Teodora; Švorc, Ľubomír; Labuda, Ján; Barek, Jiří

    2016-05-03

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed.

  4. Modification of titanium electrodes by a noble metal deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devilliers, D.; Mahe, E. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Laboratoire LI2C, UMR CNRS

    2008-07-01

    Titanium is commonly used as a substrate for dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) because it is corrosion-resistant in acid media and because a passive titanium oxide (TiO2) film can be formed on the surface. This paper reported on a study in which titanium substrates were first covered by anodization with a TiO2 layer. The electrochemical properties of the Ti/TiO2 electrodes were investigated. The modification of the substrates by cathodic electrodeposition of a noble metal was described. The reactivity of the Ti/TiO2/Pt structures were illustrated by impedance spectroscopy experiments. The impedance studies performed with Ti/ TiO2 electrodes in the presence of a redox couple in solution (Fe3+/Fe2+ system in sulphuric acid) showed that the electronic transfer is very slow. It was concluded that the deposition of a noble metal coating on Ti/TiO2 substrates leads to modified titanium electrodes that exhibit electrocatalytic behaviour versus specific electrochemical reactions. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  5. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  6. Electrochemical modification of carbon electrode with benzylphosphonic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Ossonon Diby; Weissmann, Martin; Bélanger, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical modification of carbon electrodes by aryl groups bearing a phosphonate terminal functionality was carried out by both electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions (diazobenzylphosphonic acid) and electrochemical oxidation of an amine (aminobenzylphosphonic acid). The grafting by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium ions was found to be more efficient. The surface concentration of phosphonate groups, estimated by electrochemical reduction of electrostatically bound Pb(II) ions, was found to be about 25% higher for the layer formed by electrochemical reduction of diazonium ions than for the layer formed by oxidation of the amine. The acid–base properties of the grafted films were slightly influenced by the grafting procedure and the difference in the apparent pK a was most likely related to the presence of the substrate –NH-aryl linkage for the film generated by amine oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to get some insight on the chemical species present at the carbon electrode surface. For both procedures, the films consist in mixture of at least two different covalently grafted species

  7. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  8. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  10. Molecular modification of highly degenerate semiconductor as an active electrode to enhance the performance of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinamani, S. P.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Highly conducting antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) films are electrografted with suitable organic molecules to study their electrolytic behavior. A series of organic molecules, such as heptanethiol, dodecanethiol and octadecanethiol are bonded to electrode surfaces. Electrolytic capacitors were formed on both unmodified and chemically modified electrodes using KCl and H2SO4 as electrolytes. This molecular modification significantly enhances the current levels in cyclic voltammograms, and there is a clear shift in oxidation/reduction peaks of these capacitors with scan rate. The results obey Randles-Sevcik relation, which indicates that there is enhancement of ionic diffusion at the electrode-electrolyte interface. There is a large enhancement in the values of specific capacitance (almost by 104 times) after the chemical modification. These measurements show that Faradaic reactions are responsible for charge storage/discharge process in these capacitors. Hence, the molecularly modified electrodes can be a good choice to increase the specific capacitance.

  11. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  12. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  13. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de Espana 2, 36920 Marin (Spain); Soto, R.; Comesana, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Val, J. del; Quintero, F.; Lusquinos, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adequate processing conditions to improve wettability, roughness, and cell adhesion characteristics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A design of experiments (DOE) methodology was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV (355 nm) radiation is the most promising laser radiation for improving the adhesive surface properties of PEEK. - Abstract: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths ({lambda} = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet ({lambda} = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  14. Enhancement of anodic biofilm formation and current output in microbial fuel cells by composite modification of stainless steel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuxiang; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yufeng; Huang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first systematically investigate the current output performance of stainless steel electrodes (SS) modified by carbon coating (CC), polyaniline coating (PANI), neutral red grafting (NR), surface hydrophilization (SDBS), and heat treatment (HEAT). The maximum current density of 13.0 A m-2 is obtained on CC electrode (3.0 A m-2 of the untreated anode). Such high performance should be attributed to its large effective surface area, which is 2.3 times that of the unmodified electrode. Compared with SS electrode, about 3-fold increase in current output is achieved with PANI. Functionalization with hydrophilic group and electron medium result in the current output rising to 1.5-2 fold, through enhancing bioadhesive and electron transport rate, respectively. CC modification is the best choice of single modification for SS electrode in this study. However, this modification is not perfect because of its poor hydrophilicity. So CC electrode is modified by SDBS for further enhancing the current output to 16 A m-2. These results could provide guidance for the choice of suitable single modification on SS electrodes and a new method for the perfection of electrode performance through composite modification.

  15. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible.

  16. Voltammetric detection of antimony in natural water on cathodically pretreated microcrystalline boron doped diamond electrode: A possibility how to eliminate interference of arsenic without surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáčová-Chomisteková, Zuzana; Culková, Eva; Bellová, Renata; Melicherčíková, Danica; Durdiak, Jaroslav; Beinrohr, Ernest; Rievaj, Miroslav; Tomčík, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Very simple and fast electroanalytical method for the detection Sb(III) on chemically unmodified boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) has been developed. Voltammetric behavior of antimony was investigated in various acidic supporting electrolytes and the most suitable medium for the determination of Sb(III) on bare BDDE has been 6molL -1 HClO 4 solution. The analytical performance was studied with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with optimized conditions (deposition potential -1V vs. Ag/ AgCl and deposition time 240s). An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of other metal ions (especially As(III)) in the solution was eliminated using NaH 2 PO 4 as supporting electrolyte with addition EDTA as selective complexing agent for Sb(III). Speciation of antimony was also investigated. The detection limit of this analytical strategy achieved value of 1.08 × 10 -7 molL -1 . The proposed method was validated and applied for natural water from former antimony mines as real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The characterization of beam profile by modification of electrode shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Young; Lee, Jae Sang

    2010-01-01

    Ion sources have been used for variety of industrial application over the past few decades and our research group has been studied about high current and large dimension ion source to meet the requirement from beam user. For a mass production in industry, a wide beam divergence and a beam profile of a broadly Gaussian shape is very needed. Generally, the production process like roll-to-roll or in-line system is need one-meter in diameter, ±5% in uniformity. Therefore it is difficult to apply with present system like 0.3-meter in diameter, ±20% in uniformity and needed new type ion source. In this study, it is approached with modification of electrode grid shape without fabrication of new type ion source. We modified from parallel type to hemispherical type electrode grid to secure large dimension ion beam and were discussed with respect to beam profile calculated with IGUN code simulation. Also, we identified beam profile before and after modification of electrode grid system(cathode, Acelldecel grid) with measurement of faraday cup

  18. Fabrication and surface-modification of implantable microprobes for neuroscience studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H; Nguyen, C M; Chiao, J C

    2012-01-01

    In this work implantable micro-probes for central nervous system (CNS) studies were developed on silicon and polyimide substrates. The probes which contained micro-electrode arrays with different surface modifications were designed for implantation in the CNS. The electrode surfaces were modified with nano-scale structures that could greatly increase the active surface area in order to enhance the electrochemical current outputs while maintaining micro-scale dimensions of the electrodes and probes. The electrodes were made of gold or platinum, and designed with different sizes. The silicon probes were modified by silicon nanowires fabricated with the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism at high temperatures. With polyimide substrates, the nanostructure modification was carried out by applying concentrated gold or silver colloid solutions onto the micro-electrodes at room temperature. The surfaces of electrodes before and after modification were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The silicon nanowire-modified surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Experiments were carried out to investigate the improvement in sensing performance. The modified electrodes were tested with H 2 O 2 , electrochemical L-glutamate and dopamine. Comparisons between electrodes with and without nanostructure modification were conducted showing that the modifications have enhanced the signal outputs of the electrochemical neurotransmitter sensors

  19. Fabrication and surface-modification of implantable microprobes for neuroscience studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H.; Nguyen, C. M.; Chiao, J. C.

    2012-06-01

    In this work implantable micro-probes for central nervous system (CNS) studies were developed on silicon and polyimide substrates. The probes which contained micro-electrode arrays with different surface modifications were designed for implantation in the CNS. The electrode surfaces were modified with nano-scale structures that could greatly increase the active surface area in order to enhance the electrochemical current outputs while maintaining micro-scale dimensions of the electrodes and probes. The electrodes were made of gold or platinum, and designed with different sizes. The silicon probes were modified by silicon nanowires fabricated with the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism at high temperatures. With polyimide substrates, the nanostructure modification was carried out by applying concentrated gold or silver colloid solutions onto the micro-electrodes at room temperature. The surfaces of electrodes before and after modification were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The silicon nanowire-modified surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Experiments were carried out to investigate the improvement in sensing performance. The modified electrodes were tested with H2O2, electrochemical L-glutamate and dopamine. Comparisons between electrodes with and without nanostructure modification were conducted showing that the modifications have enhanced the signal outputs of the electrochemical neurotransmitter sensors.

  20. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  1. Surface Modification Of Implants For Bone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the methods of surface modification methods for AISAI 316 L steel and Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy, dedicated to complex design implants used in bone surgery. Results of structural tests have been presented along with those evaluating the physicochemical properties of the formed surface layers. Clinical feasibility of the surface layers has also been evaluated.

  2. The electrochemical behavior and surface structure of titanium electrodes modified by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, G.F.; Xie, Z.; Huang, W.Q.; Yang, S.B.; Zhao, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    Industrial grade titanium modified by ion implantation and sputtering was used as electrodes. The effect of ion beam modification on the electrochemical behavior and surface structure of electrodes was investigated. Also discussed is the hydrogen evolution process of the electrode in acidic solution. Several ions such as Fe + , C + , W + , Ni + and others, were implanted into the electrode. The electrochemical tests were carried out in 1N H 2 SO 4 solution at 30±1 deg. C. The electrode potential was measured versus a saturate calomel electrode as a function of immersion time. The cathodic polarization curves were measured by the stable potential static method. The surface layer composition and the chemical state of the electrodes were also investigated by Auger electron spectrometer (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The results show that: (1) the stability of modified electrodes depends on the active elements introduced by ion implantation and sputtering deposition. (2) The hydrogen evolution activity of industrial grade titanium may be improved greatly by ion beam modification. (3) Ion beam modification changed the composition and the surface state of electrodes over a certain depth range and forms an activity layer having catalytic hydrogen evolution, which inhibited the absorption of hydrogen and formation of titanium hydride. Thus promoted hydrogen evolution and improved the hydrogen evolution catalytic activity in industrial grade titanium

  3. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  4. Surface Modification of Catalytic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    This thesis is a summary of my work on the following systems: Pt alloys for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) and CO oxidation, Ru for methanation and finally CuZn for methanol synthesis. An important subject throughout the thesis is gas induced surfaces changes. This has been investigated on singl...... methanol synthesis. The importance of conducting well controlled UHV experiments and characterization in combination with experiments at higher pressures to span the pressure gap between UHV and operando conditions is definitely highlighted in this thesis....

  5. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  6. Modification of rubber surface by UV surface grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Kim, Jin Kuk; Ryu, Sung Hun

    2006-01-01

    Rubber surface is subjected to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in the presence of allylamine and radiation sensitizer benzophenone (BP). Fourier transform infrared spectral studies reveal the presence of allylamine on the surface. The presence of irregular needle shapes on the surface as observed in scanning electron micrographs also confirms the polymerized allylamine on the surface. Allylamine coatings have been further confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that allylamine coating on the rubber surface lowers the thermal degradation rate. The contact angle between the water and rubber surface decreases for the modified rubber surface confirming the surface modification due to UV surface grafting

  7. Catoptric electrodes: transparent metal electrodes using shaped surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Pieter G

    2014-09-01

    An optical electrode design is presented that theoretically allows 100% optical transmission through an interdigitated metallic electrode at 50% metal areal coverage. This is achieved by redirection of light incident on embedded metal electrode lines to an angle beyond that required for total internal reflection. Full-field electromagnetic simulations using realistic material parameters demonstrate 84% frequency-averaged transmission for unpolarized illumination across the entire visible spectral range using a silver interdigitated electrode at 50% areal coverage. The redirection is achieved through specular reflection, making it nonresonant and arbitrarily broadband, provided the electrode width exceeds the optical wavelength. These findings could significantly improve the performance of photovoltaic devices and optical detectors that require high-conductivity top contacts.

  8. Surface Modification of Mg and Mg Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Can Metehan

    2012-01-01

    Progressively, the well explored and studied mechanical properties of a bulk metal are compared with the corrosion behaviour obtained from its surface, which enables promising improvements in desired applications. An example is magnesium metal: where, by developing new types of surface modifications by understanding its inconsistent corrosion behaviour, it would be possible to apply this engineering metal safely as a biocompatible metal, in addition to its widely used application areas such a...

  9. Modification of Patterned Nanoporous Gold Thin Film Electrodes via Electro-annealing and Electrochemical Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Tatiana

    Nanostructured materials have had a major impact on various fields, including medicine, catalysis, and energy storage, for the major part due to unique phenomena that arise at nanoscale. For this reason, there is a sustained need for new nanostructured materials, techniques to pattern them, and methods to precisely control their nanostructure. To that end, the primary focus of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel techniques to fabricate and tailor the morphology of a class of nanoporous metals, obtained by a process known as dealloying. In this process, while the less noble constituent of an alloy is chemically dissolved, surface-diffusion of the more noble constituent leads to self-assembly of a bicontinuous ligament network with characteristic porosity of ˜70% and ligament diameter of 10s of nanometers. As a model material produced by dealloying, this work employ nanoporous gold (np-Au), which has attracted significant attention of desirable features, such as high effective surface area, electrical conductivity, well-defined thiol-based surface modification strategies, microfabrication-compatibility, and biocompatibility. The most commonly method used to modify the morphology of np-Au is thermal treatment, where the enhanced diffusivity of the surface atoms leads to ligament (and consequently pore) coarsening. This method, however, is not conducive to modifying the morphology of thin films at specific locations on the film, which is necessary for creating devices that may need to contain different morphologies on a single device. In addition, coarsening attained by thermal treatment also leads to an undesirable reduction in effective surface area. In response to these challenges, this work demonstrates two different techniques that enables in situ modification of np-Au thin film electrodes obtained by sputter-deposition of a precursors silver-rich gold-silver alloy. The first method, referred to as electro-annealing, is achieved by injecting electrical

  10. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  11. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated

  12. Work function modifications of graphite surface via oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, J.; Kubisiak, P.; Adolfsson, K. H.; Hakkarainen, M.; Golda-Cepa, M.; Kotarba, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface modification of graphite by oxygen plasma was investigated experimentally (X-ray diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, water contact angle) and by molecular modelling (Density Functional Theory). Generation of surface functional groups (mainly sbnd OHsurf) leads to substantial changes in electrodonor properties and wettability gauged by work function and water contact angle, respectively. The invoked modifications were analyzed in terms of Helmholtz model taking into account the theoretically determined surface dipole moment of graphite-OHsurf system (μ = 2.71 D) and experimentally measured work function increase (from 0.75 to 1.02 eV) to determine the sbnd OH surface coverage (from 0.70 to 1.03 × 1014 groups cm-2). Since the plasma treatment was confined to the surface, the high thermal stability of the graphite material was preserved as revealed by the thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results provide a suitable quantitative background for tuning the key operating parameters of carbon electrodes: electronic properties, interaction with water and thermal stability.

  13. Single-step fabrication of electrodes with controlled nanostructured surface roughness using optically-induced electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Li, M.; Liu, L.; Yang, Y.; Mai, J.; Pu, H.; Sun, Y.; Li, W. J.

    2018-02-01

    The customized fabrication of microelectrodes from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention due to their numerous applications in chemistry and biomedical engineering, such as for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and as catalyst sites for electrochemistry. Herein, we present a novel optically-induced electrodeposition (OED) method for rapidly fabricating gold electrodes which are also surface-modified with nanoparticles in one single step. The electrodeposition mechanism, with respect to the applied AC voltage signal and the elapsed deposition time, on the resulting morphology and particle sizes was investigated. The results from SEM and AFM analysis demonstrated that 80-200 nm gold particles can be formed on the surface of the gold electrodes. Simultaneously, both the size of the nanoparticles and the roughness of the fabricated electrodes can be regulated by the deposition time. Compared to state-of-the-art methods for fabricating microelectrodes with AuNPs, such as nano-seed-mediated growth and conventional electrodeposition, this OED technique has several advantages including: (1) electrode fabrication and surface modification using nanoparticles are completed in a single step, eliminating the need for prefabricating micro electrodes; (2) the patterning of electrodes is defined using a digitally-customized, projected optical image rather than using fixed physical masks; and (3) both the fabrication and surface modification processes are rapid, and the entire fabrication process only requires less than 6 s.

  14. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  15. Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic deformation. K O Low K J Wong ... In this regard, a surface modification technique through plastic deformation has been implemented. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  16. Surface modification by preparation of buffer zone in glow-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reactive species, energetic particles, and uv radiation in the plasma created by a glow discharge strongly interact with solid surfaces under the influence of the plasma. As a result of the strong interaction, various physical and chemical reactions, unique and advantageous for the surface modification of solid materials, occur on the solid surfaces. The surface modification is carried out through formation of a thin buffering layer on the solid surface. The preparation of a buffer zone on solid surfaces for surface modification is described. Two kinds of a buffer zone are prepared by plasma polymerization, or simultaneous sputter deposition of electrode material with plasma polymerization: a transitional buffer zone and a graded buffer zone. Important factors for preparation of the buffer zone (pre-conditioning of a substrate surface, thin-film deposition, post-treatment of the film, magnetron discharge, energy input, geometry of a substrate and a plasma) are discussed

  17. [Detection of surface EMG signal using active electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Peng, Chenglin; Wu, Baoming; Wang, He

    2003-09-01

    Research of surface electromyogram(EMG) signal is important in rehabilitation medicine, sport medicine and clinical diagnosis, accurate detection of signal is the base of quantitative analysis of surface EMG signal. In this article were discussed how to reduce possible noise in the detection of surface EMG. Considerations on the design of electrode unit were presented. Instrumentation amplifier AD620 was employed to design a bipolar active electrode for use in surface EMG detection. The experiments showed that active electrode could be used to improve signal/noise ratio, reduce noise and detect surface EMG signal effectively.

  18. Femtosecond laser-induced surface wettability modification of polystyrene surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Wang, XinCai; Zheng, HongYu; Lam, YeeCheong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple method to create either a hydrophilic or hydrophobic surface. With femtosecond laser irradiation at different laser parameters, the water contact angle (WCA) on polystyrene's surface can be modified to either 12.7° or 156.2° from its original WCA of 88.2°. With properly spaced micro-pits created, the surface became hydrophilic probably due to the spread of the water droplets into the micro-pits. While with properly spaced micro-grooves created, the surface became rough and more hydrophobic. We investigated the effect of laser parameters on WCAs and analyzed the laser-treated surface roughness, profiles and chemical bonds by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the laser-treated surface with low roughness, the polar (such as C—O, C=O, and O—C=O bonds) and non-polar (such as C—C or C—H bonds) groups were found to be responsible for the wettability changes. While for a rough surface, the surface roughness or the surface topography structure played a more significant role in the changes of the surface WCA. The mechanisms involved in the laser surface wettability modification process were discussed.

  19. Modification of surfaces and surface layers by non equilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.; Brennan, W.J.; Clark, D.T.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasmas are examples of non-equilibrium phenomena which are being used increasingly for the synthesis and modification of materials impossible by conventional routes. This paper introduces methods available by describing the construction and characteristics of some equipment used for the production of different types of plasmas and other non-equilibrium phenomena. This includes high energy ion beams. The special features, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be described. There are a multitude of potential application relevant to electronic, metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials. However, scale-up from the laboratory to production equipment depends on establishing a better understanding of both the physics and chemistry of plasma as well as plasma-solid interactions. Examples are given of how such an understanding can be gained. The chemical analysis of polymer surfaces undergoing modification by inert gas, hydrogen or oxygen plasmas is shown to give physical information regarding the relative roles of diffusion of active species, and direct and radiative energy transfer from the plasma. Surface modification by plasma depositing a new material onto an existing substrate is discussed with particular reference to the deposition of amorphous carbon films. Applications of the unique properties of these films are outlined together with our current understanding of these properties based on chemical and physical methods of analysis of both the films and the plasmas producing them. Finally, surface modification by ion beams is briefly illustrated using examples from the electronics and metals industries where the modification has had a largely physical rather than chemical effect on the starting material. (orig.)

  20. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  1. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  2. Modification of Material Surface Using Plasma-Enhanced Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bystritskii, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) Technology for Materials Surface Modification. Following second year programmatic plan, formulated in the conclusion of the 1-st year report we focused our effort on study of aluminum alloys modification (Al2024, 6061, 7075...

  3. Surface studies of Li-ion and Mg battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Jennifer

    This dissertation focuses on studies of the surfaces of both Li-ion and Mg-ion battery electrodes. A fundamental understanding of processes occurring at the electrode surface is vital to the development of advanced battery systems. Additionally, modifications to the electrode surfaces are made and further characterized for improved performance. LiMn2O4 Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries: Effect of Mn in electrolyte on anode and Au coating to minimize dissolution: LiMn2O4 (LMO) is known to dissolve Mn ions with cycling. This section focuses on both the effect of the dissolution of Mn2+ into the electrolyte as well as Au coating on the LMO to improve electrochemical performance. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to monitor changes in mass on the anode, SEM and AES were used to observe changes in surface morphology and chemical composition, and potentiostatic voltammetry was used to monitor charge and discharge capacity. The effect of Cu2+ addition in place of Mn2+ was also studied, as Cu is known to form an underpotential deposition (UPD) monolayer on Au electrodes. Following this, LMO particles were coated with a Au shell by a simple and scalable electroless deposition for use as Li-ion battery cathodes. The Au shell was intended to limit the capacity fade commonly seen with LMO cathodes by reducing the dissolution of Mn. Characterization by SEM, TEM, EELS, and AFM showed that the Au shell was approximately 3 nm thick. The Au shell prevented much of the Mn from dissolving in the electrolyte with 82% and 88% less dissolved Mn in the electrolyte at room temperature and 65 ºC, respectively, as compared to the uncoated LMO. Electrochemical performance studies with half cells showed that the Au shell maintained a higher discharge capacity over 400 cycles by nearly 30% with 110 mA hr g-1 for the 400th cycle as compared to a commercial LMO at 85 mA hr g-1. Similarly, the capacity fade was reduced in full cells: the coated LMO had 47% greater capacity

  4. A novel fabrication method of carbon electrodes using 3D printing and chemical modification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pan; Chen, Chaoyang; Hu, Jie; Qi, Jin; Wang, Qianghua; Chen, Jimmy Ching-Ming; Cavanaugh, John; Peng, Yinghong; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2017-11-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical engineering and electronics. This paper presents a novel biofabrication method of implantable carbon electrodes with several advantages including fast prototyping, patient-specific and miniaturization without expensive cleanroom. The method combines stereolithography in additive manufacturing and chemical modification processes to fabricate electrically conductive carbon electrodes. The stereolithography allows the structures to be 3D printed with very fine resolution and desired shapes. The resin is then chemically modified to carbon using pyrolysis to enhance electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characteristics of 3D printing carbon electrodes are assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 3D printing carbon electrodes is much higher than the same sized platinum (Pt) electrode. In-vivo electromyography (EMG) recording, 3D printing carbon electrodes exhibit much higher signal-to-noise ratio (40.63 ± 7.73) than Pt electrodes (14.26 ± 6.83). The proposed biofabrication method is envisioned to enable 3D printing in many emerging applications in biomedical engineering and electronics.

  5. In vitro modifications of the scala tympani environment and the cochlear implant array surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Scheper, Verena; Wissel, Kirsten; Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the influence of alterations of the scala tympani environment and modifications of the surface of cochlear implant electrode arrays on insertion forces in vitro. Research experimental study. Fibroblasts producing neurotrophic factors were cultivated on the surface of Nucleus 24 Contour Advance electrodes. Forces were recorded by an Instron 5542 Force Measurement System as three modified arrays were inserted into an artificial scala tympani model filled with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The recorded forces were compared to control groups including three unmodified electrodes inserted into a model filled with PBS (unmodified environment) or Healon (current practice). Fluorescence microscopy was used before and after the insertions to identify any remaining fibroblasts. Additionally, three Contour Advance electrodes were inserted into an artificial model, filled with alginate/barium chloride solution at different concentrations, while insertion forces were recorded. Modification of the scala tympani environment with 50% to 75% alginate gel resulted in a significant decrease in the insertion forces. The fibroblast-coated arrays also led to decreased forces comparable to those recorded with Healon. Fluorescence microscopy revealed fully cell-covered arrays before and partially covered arrays after the insertion; the fibroblasts on the arrays' modiolar surface remained intact. Modifications of the scala tympani's environment with 50% to 75% alginate/barium chloride and of the cochlear implant electrode surface with neurotrophic factor-producing fibroblasts drastically reduce the insertion forces. As both modifications may serve future intracochlear therapies, it is expected that these might additionally reduce possible insertion trauma. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. MEMS-based dynamic cell-to-cell culture platforms using electrochemical surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Lin, Liwei; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    MEMS-based biological platforms with the capability of both spatial placements and time releases of living cells for cell-to-cell culture experiments have been designed and demonstrated utilizing electrochemical surface modification effects. The spatial placement is accomplished by electrochemical surface modification of substrate surfaces to be either adhesive or non-adhesive for living cells. The time control is achieved by the electrical activation of the selective indium tin oxide co-culture electrode to allow the migration of living cells onto the electrode to start the cell-to-cell culture studies. Prototype devices have a three-electrode design with an electrode size of 50 × 50 µm 2 and the separation gaps of 2 µm between them. An electrical voltage of −1.5 V has been used to activate the electrodes independently and sequentially to demonstrate the dynamic cell-to-cell culture experiments of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and Madin Darby canine kidney cells. As such, this MEMS platform could be a basic yet versatile tool to characterize transient cell-to-cell interactions

  7. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  8. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  9. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE KONDENSITSIONNYH AEROSOLS WELDING AND METALLURGICHESKIH PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of surface kondensitsionnyh aerosols (KA which formation when heat treatment metals (process of weld, foundry processes with application chlorosilanes are suggested. Adsorbtion vapor of water on modification powders KA decreases and changes in varies from modifier and conditions modification are setted.

  10. Surface modification of ceramics. Ceramics no hyomen kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hioki, T. (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-07-05

    Surface modification of ceramics and some study results using in implantation in surface modification are introduced. The mechanical properties (strength, fracture toughness, flaw resistance) of ceramics was improved and crack was repaired using surface modification by ion implantation. It is predicted that friction and wear properties are considerably affected because the hardness of ceramics is changed by ion implantation. Cementing and metalization are effective as methods for interface modification and the improvement of the adhesion power of the interface between metal and ceramic is their example. It was revealed that the improvement of mechanical properties of ceramics was achieved if appropriate surface modification was carried out. The market of ceramics mechanical parts is still small, therefore, the present situation is that the field of activities for surface modification of ceramics is also narrow. However, it is thought that in future, ceramics use may be promoted surely in the field like medicine and mechatronics. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  12. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification ...

  13. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  14. Surface oxygenation of polypropylene using an air dielectric barrier discharge: the effect of different electrode-platen combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, D.J.; Cui, N.-Y.; Anderson, C.A.; Brown, N.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Polypropylene film has been modified in an air dielectric barrier discharge using two different electrode-platen configurations: stainless steel wire electrode-rubber platen or ceramic electrode-aluminium platen combinations. Modified films were characterised by static contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). Surface hydrophilic modification appears to be governed by the presence of low-molecular weight oxidised functionalities using XPS and SIMS techniques. Irrespective of the type of electrode-platen combination used to obtain the discharge, oxygenated functionalities of identical nature are formed on the polymer surface. However, the degree of oxidation obtained by the discharge using the wire electrodes with the rubber platen was considerably greater. Further increase in the observed hydrophilicity due to molecular rearrangement and development of stable oxygenated functionalities was evident after 1 month of post-processing analysis

  15. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  16. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  17. Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes: Electrochemical, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Study towards Corrosion-modifications at Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlckova Zivcova, Zuzana; Petrak, Vaclav; Frank, Otakar; Janda, Pavel; Tarabkova, Hana; Nesladek, Milos; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped diamond is nanostructured by corrosion-driven modifications occurring at carbonaceous impurity sites (sp 2 -carbons). • The electrochemical oxidation partly transforms a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface to O-terminated one, but the electrocatalytic activity of plasmatically O-terminated diamond is not achieved. • In contrast to all usual sp 2 carbons, the Raman spectra of B-doped diamond electrodes do not change upon electrochemical charging/discharging. - Abstract: Comparative studies of boron-doped diamonds electrodes (polycrystalline, single-crystalline, H-/O-terminated, and with different sp 3 /sp 2 ratios) indicate morphological modifications of diamond which are initiated by corrosion at nanoscale. In-situ electrochemical AFM imaging evidences that the textural changes start at non-diamond carbonaceous impurity sites treated at high positive potentials (>2.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The primary perturbations subsequently develop into sub-micron-sized craters. Raman spectroscopy shows that the primary erosion site is graphite-like (sp 2 -carbon), which is preferentially removed by anodic oxidation. Other non-diamond impurity, viz. tetrahedral amorphous carbon (t-aC), is less sensitive to oxidative decomposition. The diamond-related Raman features, including the B-doping-assigned modes, are intact during reversible electrochemical charging/discharging, which is a salient difference from all usual sp 2 -carbons. The electrochemical oxidation partly transforms a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface to O-terminated one, but the electrocatalytic activity of plasmatically O-terminated diamond is not achieved for a model redox couple, Fe 3+/2+ . Electrochemical impedance spectra were fitted to six different equivalent circuits. The determination of acceptor concentrations is feasible even for highly-doped diamond electrodes.

  18. LASER SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS — A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of laser surface modification of titanium alloys for increasing their corrosion, wear and oxidation resistance are introduced. The effects of laser processing parameters on the resulting surface properties of titanium alloys are reviewed. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser modification of Ti alloys are discussed. Due to the intrinsic properties, a laser beam can be focused onto the metallic surface to produce a broad range of treatments depen...

  19. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P.; Limmer, David T.; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David

    2013-05-01

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  20. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P; Limmer, David T; Madden, Paul A; Chandler, David

    2013-05-14

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  1. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...

  2. Polymeric membranes: surface modification for minimizing (bio)colloidal fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkodan, Victor; Johnson, Daniel J; Hilal, Nidal

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an overview on recent developments in surface modification of polymer membranes for reduction of their fouling with biocolloids and organic colloids in pressure driven membrane processes. First, colloidal interactions such as London-van der Waals, electrical, hydration, hydrophobic, steric forces and membrane surface properties such as hydrophilicity, charge and surface roughness, which affect membrane fouling, have been discussed and the main goals of the membrane surface modification for fouling reduction have been outlined. Thereafter the recent studies on reduction of (bio)colloidal of polymer membranes using ultraviolet/redox initiated surface grafting, physical coating/adsorption of a protective layer on the membrane surface, chemical reactions or surface modification of polymer membranes with nanoparticles as well as using of advanced atomic force microscopy to characterize (bio)colloidal fouling have been critically summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct electrodeposition of metal nanowires on electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambirasi, Arianna; Cattarin, Sandro; Musiani, Marco; Vazquez-Gomez, Lourdes; Verlato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A method for decorating the surface of disk electrodes with metal nanowires is presented. Cu and Ni nanowires with diameters from 1.0 μm to 0.2 μm are directly deposited on the electrode surface using a polycarbonate membrane filter template maintained in contact with the metal substrate by the soft homogeneous pressure of a sponge soaked with electrolyte. The morphologic and structural properties of the deposit are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The latter shows that the head of nanowires with diameter of 0.4 μm is ordinarily polycrystalline, and that of nanowires with diameter of 0.2 μm is almost always monocrystalline for Cu and frequently also for Ni. Cyclic voltammetries and impedance investigations recorded in alkaline solutions at representative Ni electrodes decorated with nanowires provide consistent values of roughness factor, in the range 20-25.

  4. Effect of multipactor conditioning on technical electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, T. P.; Spektor, R.; Stout, P.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, multipactor conditioning has been utilized to remove surface contaminants from rf electrodes by electron-stimulated gas desorption, and such conditioning has been shown to reduce multipactor susceptibility. Multipactor threshold improvements are due to increasing E 1 , the minimum energy for the secondary electron coefficient, δ>1, such that resonant electrons are incapable of producing discharge-sustaining secondary emission. Using an rf amplitude sweep technique, the evolution of the multipactor threshold is measured as a function of multipactor conditioning time for a series of technical electrode surfaces. Results show over +3 dB of threshold improvement in copper and gold electrodes, while the aluminum threshold actually decreases with conditioning exposure. Additionally, these conditioning results indicate the possible voltage region for transient-mode multipaction (TMM), which can cause significant risk to rf systems such as space satellite components for which in-situ conditioning is generally not possible. Experimental results and supporting Monte Carlo particle tracking simulation results are presented.

  5. Modification of polycarbonate surface in oxidizing plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovtsyn, A. A.; Smirnov, S. A.; Shikova, T. G.; Kholodkov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The properties of the surface of the film polycarbonate Lexan 8010 were experimentally studied after treatment in a DC discharge plasma in oxygen and air at pressures of 50-300 Pa and a discharge current of 80 mA. The contact angles of wetting and surface energies are measured. The topography of the surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy. The chemical composition of the surface was determined from the FT-IR spectroscopy data in the variant of total internal reflection, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treatment in the oxidizing plasma leads to a change in morphology (average roughness increases), an increase in the surface energy, and the concentration of oxygen-containing groups (hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups in ketones or aldehydes and in oxyketones) on the surface of the polymer. Possible reasons for the difference in surface properties of polymer under the action of oxygen and air plasma on it are discussed.

  6. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  7. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-12-19

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  8. A surface-electrode quadrupole guide for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffrogge, Johannes Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on the design and first experimental realization of a surface-electrode quadrupole guide for free electrons. The guide is based on a miniaturized, planar electrode layout and is driven at microwave frequencies. It confines electrons in the near-field of the microwave excitation, where strong electric field gradients can be generated without resorting to resonating structures or exceptionally high drive powers. The use of chip-based electrode geometries allows the realization of versatile, microstructured potentials with the perspective of novel quantum experiments with guided electrons. I present the design, construction and operation of an experiment that demonstrates electron confinement in a planar quadrupole guide for the first time. To this end, electrons with kinetic energies from one to ten electron-volts are guided along a curved electrode geometry. The stability of electron guiding as a function of drive parameters and electron energy has been studied. A comparison with numerical particle tracking simulations yields good qualitative agreement and provides a deeper understanding of the electron dynamics in the guiding potential. Furthermore, this thesis gives a detailed description of the design of the surface-electrode layout. This includes the development of an optimized coupling structure to inject electrons into the guide with minimum transverse excitation. I also discuss the extension of the current setup to longitudinal guide dimensions that are comparable to or larger than the wavelength of the drive signal. This is possible with a modified electrode layout featuring elevated signal conductors. Electron guiding in the field of a planar, microfabricated electrode layout allows the generation of versatile and finely structured guiding potentials. One example would be the realization of junctions that split and recombine a guided electron beam. Furthermore, it should be possible to prepare electrons in low-lying quantum mechanical

  9. Tendências em modificação de eletrodos amperométricos para aplicações eletroanalíticas Trends in amperometric electrodes modification for electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo César Pereira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The most relevant advances on the analytical applications of chemically modified electrodes (CME are presented. CME have received great attention due to the possibility of electrode surface modification including chemisorption, composite generation and polymer coating. In recent years, the interest in CME has increased overall to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the electroanalytical probes, considering the electron mediator incorporation and the new conducting polymers development. The general procedures employed for the electrode modification and the operational characteristics of some electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  10. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical and physical origins of the anomalously large enhancement of the Raman scattering cross section for molecules adsorbed on silver electrodes in an electrochemical cell were investigated. The effect of the chemical reactions which occur during the anodization/activation procedure were studied using the Ag-CN system. It was shown that the function of the anodization process is to roughen the electrode surface and create an activated site for bonding to the cyanide. A new nonelectrochemical technique for activating the silver surface, along with a study of the enhanced cyanide Raman scattering in different background electrolytes, showed that the Raman active entity on the surface must be a silver-cyanide complex. In order to study the physical mechanism of the enhancement, the angular dependence of the scattered radiation was measured from pyridine adsorbed on an evaporated silver electrode. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline silver films were used. The angular dependence of the scattered radiation from these films showed that the metal surface was controlling the directional properties of the scattered radiation, and not the polarizability tensor of the adsorbate. Based on these experimental results, it was concluded that for weakly roughened silver electrodes the source of the anomalous enhancement is due to a resonant Raman scattering process

  12. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  13. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  14. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achala de Mel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

  15. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, S.; Kolat, V.S.; Bakır, H.G.; Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O.; Kaya, O.A.; Gencer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y_3Fe_5O_1_2) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  16. Surface modification of YIG by magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, S., E-mail: satalay@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kolat, V.S. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bakır, H.G. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Astronomy Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Izgi, T.; Kaya, A.O. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Kaya, O.A. [Inonu University, Education Faculty, Computer Education and Educational Technology Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Gencer, H. [Inonu University, Science and Art Faculty, Physics Department, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • The surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array. • The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps. • A very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency. - Abstract: In this work, magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSW) were propagated along the single crystal YIG (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film grown on GGG substrate. In order to obtain magnonic crystals, unlike the conventional methods, the surface of YIG films were magnetically modulated by magnet array in one and two-dimensions. The surface modulated YIG films formed sharp band gaps at approximately 6.55 GHz and 6.58 GHz at 1600 Oe magnetic field for one and two-dimensional magnonic crystals, respectively. It was found that a very small magnetic field change leads a large change in the peak value of band gap frequency.

  17. Novel metal ion surface modification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Yu, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for applying metal ions to the near-surface region of solid materials. The added species can be energetically implanted below the surface or built up as a surface film with an atomically mixed interface with the substrate; the metal ion species can be the same as the substrate species or different from it, and more than one kind of metal species can be applied, either simultaneously or sequentially. Surface structures can be fabricated, including coatings and thin films of single metals, tailored alloys, or metallic multilayers, and they can be implanted or added onto the surface and ion beam mixed. We report two simple demonstrations of the method: implantation of yttrium into a silicon substrate at a mean energy of 70 keV and a dose of 1 x 10 16 atoms/cm 2 , and the formation of a titanium-yttrium multilayer structure with ion beam mixing to the substrate. 17 refs., 3 figs

  18. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  19. Effects of Cable Sway, Electrode Surface Area, and Electrode Mass on Electroencephalography Signal Quality during Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Evangelia-Regkina; Nordin, Andrew D; Hairston, W David; Ferris, Daniel P

    2018-04-03

    More neuroscience researchers are using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure electrocortical dynamics during human locomotion and other types of movement. Motion artifacts corrupt the EEG and mask underlying neural signals of interest. The cause of motion artifacts in EEG is often attributed to electrode motion relative to the skin, but few studies have examined EEG signals under head motion. In the current study, we tested how motion artifacts are affected by the overall mass and surface area of commercially available electrodes, as well as how cable sway contributes to motion artifacts. To provide a ground-truth signal, we used a gelatin head phantom with embedded antennas broadcasting electrical signals, and recorded EEG with a commercially available electrode system. A robotic platform moved the phantom head through sinusoidal displacements at different frequencies (0-2 Hz). Results showed that a larger electrode surface area can have a small but significant effect on improving EEG signal quality during motion and that cable sway is a major contributor to motion artifacts. These results have implications in the development of future hardware for mobile brain imaging with EEG.

  20. Ion-induced surface modification of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1983-11-01

    In addition to the accumulation of the implanted species, a considerable number of processes can affect the composition of an alloy in the surface region during ion bombardment. Collisions of energetic ions with atoms of the alloy induce local rearrangement of atoms by displacements, replacement sequences and by spontaneous migration and recombination of defects within cascades. Point defects form clusters, voids, dislocation loops and networks. Preferential sputtering of elements changes the composition of the surface. At temperatures sufficient for thermal migration of point defects, radiation-enhanced diffusion promotes alloy component redistribution within and beyond the damage layer. Fluxes of interstitials and vacancies toward the surface and into the interior of the target induce fluxes of alloying elements leading to depth-dependent compositional changes. Moreover, Gibbsian surface segregation may affect the preferential loss of alloy components by sputtering when the kinetics of equilibration of the surface composition becomes competitive with the sputtering rate. Temperature, time, current density and ion energy can be used to influence the individual processes contributing to compositional changes and, thus, produce a rich variety of composition profiles near surfaces. 42 references

  1. Surface modifications by field induced diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olsen

    Full Text Available By applying a voltage pulse to a scanning tunneling microscope tip the surface under the tip will be modified. We have in this paper taken a closer look at the model of electric field induced surface diffusion of adatoms including the van der Waals force as a contribution in formations of a mound on a surface. The dipole moment of an adatom is the sum of the surface induced dipole moment (which is constant and the dipole moment due to electric field polarisation which depends on the strength and polarity of the electric field. The electric field is analytically modelled by a point charge over an infinite conducting flat surface. From this we calculate the force that cause adatoms to migrate. The calculated force is small for voltage used, typical 1 pN, but due to thermal vibration adatoms are hopping on the surface and even a small net force can be significant in the drift of adatoms. In this way we obtain a novel formula for a polarity dependent threshold voltage for mound formation on the surface for positive tip. Knowing the voltage of the pulse we then can calculate the radius of the formed mound. A threshold electric field for mound formation of about 2 V/nm is calculated. In addition, we found that van der Waals force is of importance for shorter distances and its contribution to the radial force on the adatoms has to be considered for distances smaller than 1.5 nm for commonly used voltages.

  2. Ion Motion Stability in Asymmetric Surface Electrode Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Fayaz; Ozakin, Arkadas

    2010-03-01

    Many recently developed designs of the surface electrode ion traps for quantum information processing have asymmetry built into their geometries. The asymmetry helps rotate the trap axes to angles with respect to electrode surface that facilitate laser cooling of ions but introduces a relative angle between the RF and DC fields and invalidates the classical stability analysis of the symmetric case for which the equations of motion are decoupled. For asymmetric case the classical motion of a single ion is given by a coupled, multi-dimensional version of Mathieu's equation. In this poster we discuss the stability diagram of asymmetric surface traps by performing an approximate multiple scale perturbation analysis of the coupled Mathieu equations, and validate the results with numerical simulations. After obtaining the stability diagram for the linear fields, we simulate the motion of an ion in a given asymmetric surface trap, utilizing a method-of-moments calculation of the electrode fields. We obtain the stability diagram and compare it with the ideal case to find the region of validity. Finally, we compare the results of our stability analysis to experiments conducted on a microfabricated asymmetric surface trap.

  3. Material surface modification for first wall protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The elements and strategy of a program to develop low Z surfaces for tokamak reactors is described. The development of low Z coated limiters is selected as an interim goal. Candidate materials were selected from the elements: Be, B, Al, Ti, V, C, O, N and their compounds. The effect of low energy erosion on surface morphology is shown for Be, TiC and VBe 12 . The tradeoffs in coating design are described. Stress analysis results for TiB 2 coated POCO graphite limiters for ORNL's ISX-B tokamak are given

  4. Surface modification of polyethylene films using atmospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to increase the wettability of polyethylene polymer films. Reduction in contact angle from 94.32 to 58.33 degrees was measured for treatment times of 1 - 5 seconds. Contact angle reductions of PE as a function of treatment time with APPJ and PE surface at various oxygen ...

  5. Surface Modification of Polyethylene Films using Atmospheric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to increase the wettability of ... contact angle between the water droplet and the polymer surface. The polymer films used in this ... W of RF power from the generator. The distance between ...

  6. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  7. Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing

  8. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  9. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  10. Modification of inorganic surface with 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter J.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification is important because it allows the tuning of surface properties, thereby enabling new applications of a material. It can change physical properties such as wettability and friction, but can also introduce chemical functionalities and binding specificity. Several techniques

  11. Surface modifications of aero-bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yirong; Chen Jin; Nie Gao; Lu Haolin; Yang Qifa; Xu Qiu; Wang Peilu; Chen Yuanru; Liu Zhongyang

    1988-01-01

    Different ion beam techniques, i.e. ion beam mixing and ion implantation by either single or multi-element ions, were adopted to modify surface properties of aero-bearing samples that were made of GCr15 or Cr4Mo4V alloys, Results showed that corrosion behaviour and wear resistance of the samples treated with any of the techniques were improved significantly

  12. TEXTILE SURFACE MODIFICATION BY PYHSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION – (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCE Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile products are used in various branches of the industry from automotive to space products. Textiles produced for industrial use are generally referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles are nowadays applied to several areas including transportation, medicine, agriculture, protection, sports, packaging, civil engineering and industry. There are rapid developments in the types of materials used in technical textiles. Therefore, modification and functionalization of textile surfaces is becoming more crucial. The improvements of the properties such as anti-bacterial properties, fire resistivity, UV radiation resistance, electrical conductivity, self cleaning, and super hydrophobic, is getting more concern with respect to developments in textile engineering. The properties of textile surfaces are closely related to the fiber structure, the differences in the polymer composition, the fiber mixture ratio, and the physical and chemical processes applied. Textile surface modifications can be examined in four groups under the name mechanical, chemical, burning and plasma. Surface modifications are made to improve the functionality of textile products. Textile surface modifications affect the properties of the products such as softness, adhesion and wettability. The purpose of this work is to reveal varieties of vapor deposition modifications to improve functionality. For this purpose, the pyhsical vapor deposition methods, their affects on textile products and their end-uses will be reviewed.

  13. Surface Modification of Metals using Plasma Torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Low temperature plasma nitriding of 304L stainless steel is performed using a home made low power direct-current plasma torch. Plasma nitriding is carried out in temperature range of 300-550 degree C for 1 to 4 hours, in various N 2 H 2 gas mixture ratios at about 5 Torr pressure and torch power 300 Watts. The effect of treatment time, temperature and working gas composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided surface layers is investigated. The microstructure, phase composition and micro hardness profile of the nitrided surface layers are characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vickers micro hardness tester. The results show that plasma treatment for 14 h over a temperature range of 300 - 550 degree C yields nitride case depth of 20 - 50 μm and the hardness of the nitrided layer is in the range of 700-1250 HV. Plasma nitriding of stainless steel samples at about 475 degree C in 70 % of nitrogen admixed with hydrogen at 5 torr shows the maximum increase of hardness 1220 HV which is about four times that of untreated layers. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of an expanded austenite .N phase, due to the nitrogen incorporation into original lattice and forms supersaturated face center cubic phase. In addition preliminary results for aluminum nitriding is also shown

  14. Nanoscale surface modification for enhanced biosensing a journey toward better glucose monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guigen

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of electrochemical-based biosensors and their crucial components. Practical examples are given throughout the text to illustrate how the performance of electrochemical-based biosensors can be improved by nanoscale surface modification and how an optimal design can be achieved. All essential aspects of biosensors are considered, including electrode functionalization, efficiency of the mass transport of reactive species, and long term durability and functionality of the sensor. This book also: ·       Explains how the performance of an electrochemical-based biosensor can be improved by nanoscale surface modification ·       Gives readers the tools to evaluate and improve the performance of a biosensor with a multidisciplinary approach that considers electrical, electrostatic, electrochemical, chemical, and biochemical events ·       Links the performance of a sensor to the various governing physical and chemical principles so readers can fully unders...

  15. Surface modification of steels by electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, D.; Paunov, V.; Yordanov, B.; Lazarova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In this work are discussed some experimental data about the influence of applied electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte on the surface structure of steels. The electrical discharge treatment of steel surface in electrolyte gives a modified structure with specific combination of characteristics in result of nonequilibrium transformations. The modification goes by a high energy thermal process in a very small volume on the metallic surface involving melting, vaporisation, activation and alloying in electrical discharges, and after that cooling of this surface with high rate in the electrolyte. The surface layers obtain a different structure in comparison with the metal matrix and are with higher hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. key words: surface modification, electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte, steels

  16. Surface modification of titanium by plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapczinski Myriam Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation was undertaken on commercially pure titanium submitted to plasma nitriding. Thirteen different sets of operational parameters (nitriding time, sample temperature and plasma atmosphere were used. Surface analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction, nuclear reaction and scanning electron microscopy. Wear tests were done with stainless steel Gracey scaler, sonic apparatus and pin-on-disc machine. The obtained results indicate that the tribological performance can be improved for samples treated with the following conditions: nitriding time of 3 h; plasma atmosphere consisting of 80%N2+20%H2 or 20%N2+80%H2; sample temperature during nitriding of 600 or 800 degreesC.

  17. Surface modification of implants in long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Yvonne; Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Simon, Jan C; Worch, Hartmut; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Coatings of orthopedic implants are investigated to improve the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the implant surfaces and thus to enhance periimplant bone formation. By applying coatings that mimic the extracellular matrix a favorable environment for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and their progenitor cells is provided to promote early and strong fixation of implants. It is known that the early bone ongrowth increases primary implant fixation and reduces the risk of implant failure. This review presents an overview of coating titanium and hydroxyapatite implants with components of the extracellular matrix like collagen type I, chondroitin sulfate and RGD peptide in different small and large animal models. The influence of these components on cells, the inflammation process, new bone formation and bone/implant contact is summarized.

  18. Electrochemical modification of a pyrolytic graphite sheet for improved negative electrode performance in the vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Humayun; Gyan, Isaiah O.; Francis Cheng, I.

    2017-02-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery is a promising technology for buffering renewable energies. It is recognized that negative electrode is the limitation in this device where there are problems of slow heterogeneous electron transfer (HET) of V3+/2+ and parasitic H2 evolution. Any methods aimed at addressing one of these barriers must assess the effects on the other. We examine electrochemical enhancement of a common commercially available material. Treatment of Panasonic pyrolytic graphite sheets is through oxidation at 2.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for 1 min in 1 M H2SO4. This increases the standard HET rate for V3+/2+ from 3.2 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-3 cm/s, one of the highest in literature and shifts voltammetric reductive peak potential from -1.0 V to -0.65 V in 50 mM V3+ in 1 M H2SO4. Infrared analysis of the surfaces indicates formation of Csbnd OH, Cdbnd O, and Csbnd O functionalities. These groups catalyze HET with V3+/2+ as hypothesized by Skyllas-Kasacos. Also of significance is that electrode modification decreases the fraction of the current directed towards H2 evolution. This proportion decreases by two orders of a magnitude from 12% to 0.1% as measured at the respective voltammetric peak potentials of -1.0 V (pristine) and -0.65 V (modified).

  19. Understanding interaction of curcumin and metal ions on electrode surfaces using EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Daisy; Kumar, K. Krishna; Narayanan, S. Sriman

    2018-04-01

    A chemically modified electrode was developed for determination of metal ions (Cd, Pb, Zn, Co, Hg). The modifier used for the study was Curcumin. Curcumin acts as a complexing agent at the surface of the electrode for preconcentration of metal ions from electrolyte to electrode surface and stripped back to electrolyte during analysis. EDXRF was used to analyze these electrodes and it was concluded that the PCR modified electrode favored effective chelation for lead and mercury.

  20. Relating surface chemistry and oxygen surface exchange in LnBaCo2O(5+δ) air electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Kilner, John A; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The surface and near-surface chemical composition of electroceramic materials often shows significant deviations from that of the bulk. In particular, layered materials, such as cation-ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites (Ln = lanthanide), undergo surface and sub-surface restructuring due to the segregation of the divalent alkaline-earth cation. These processes can take place during synthesis and processing steps (e.g. deposition, sintering or annealing), as well as at temperatures relevant for the operation of these materials as air electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysers. Furthermore, the surface segregation in these double perovskites shows fast kinetics, starting at temperatures as low as 400 °C over short periods of time and leading to a decrease in the transition metal surface coverage exposed to the gas phase. In this work, we use a combination of stable isotope tracer labeling and surface-sensitive ion beam techniques to study the oxygen transport properties and their relationship with the surface chemistry in ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites. Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with (18)O isotope exchange was used to determine the oxygen tracer diffusion (D*) and surface exchange (k*) coefficients. Furthermore, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) was used for the analysis of the surface and near surface chemistry as it provides information from the first mono-atomic layer of the materials. In this way, we could relate the compositional modifications (e.g. cation segregation) taking place at the electrochemically-active surface during the exchange at high temperatures and the oxygen transport properties in double perovskite electrode materials to further our understanding of the mechanism of the surface exchange process.

  1. The modification of glassy carbon and gold electrodes with aryl diazonium salt: The impact of the electrode materials on the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guozhen; Liu Jingquan; Boecking, Till; Eggers, Paul K.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2005-01-01

    The heterogeneous electron-transfer properties of ferrocenemethylamine coupled to a series of mixed 4-carboxyphenyl/phenyl monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) and gold electrodes were investigated, by cyclic voltammetry, in aqueous buffer solutions. The electrodes were derivatized in a step-wise process. Electrochemical reduction of mixtures of 4-carboxyphenyl and phenyl diazonium salts on the electrode surfaces yielded stable monolayers. The introduction of carboxylic acid moieties onto the surfaces was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequently the 4-carboxyphenyl moieties were activated using water-soluble carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide and reacted with ferrocenemethylamine. The rate constants of electron transfer through the monolayer systems were determined from cyclic voltammograms using the Marcus theory for electron transfer and were found to be an order of magnitude higher for the ferrocene-modified monolayer systems on gold than those on GC electrodes. The results suggest the electrode material has an important influence on the rate of electron transfer

  2. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Surface modifications of polypropylene by high energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies using 3 MV tandem accelerator. The surface modification was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical changes were monitored by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. At the lowest ion fluence, only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) was observed. Polymer when irradiated at a fluence of 1x10 14 ions/cm 2 exhibited a network structure. A comparative study on dose dependence of surface and bulk modification has been described. (author)

  4. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Kusano, Yukihiro; Morgen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X...... are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly...

  5. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  6. Surface modification of protein enhances encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyani, Rina D.; Andrade, Mariana; Quester, Katrin; Gaytán, Paul; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have a huge potential as nanocarriers for environmental and biomedical purposes. Protein encapsulation in nano-sized chitosan provides protection against inactivation, proteolysis, and other alterations due to environmental conditions, as well as the possibility to be targeted to specific tissues by ligand functionalization. In this work, we demonstrate that the chemical modification of the protein surface enhances the protein loading in chitosan nanocarriers. Encapsulation of green fluorescent protein and the cytochrome P450 was studied. The increase of electrostatic interactions between the free amino groups of chitosan and the increased number of free carboxylic groups in the protein surface enhance the protein loading, protein retention, and, thus, the enzymatic activity of chitosan nanoparticles. The chemical modification of protein surface with malonic acid moieties reduced drastically the protein isoelectric point increasing the protein interaction with the polycationic biomaterial and chitosan. The chemical modification of protein does not alter the morphology of chitosan nanoparticles that showed an average diameter of 18 nm, spheroidal in shape, and smooth surfaced. The strategy of chemical modification of protein surface, shown here, is a simple and efficient technique to enhance the protein loading in chitosan nanoparticles. This technique could be used for other nanoparticles based on polycationic or polyanionic materials. The increase of protein loading improves, doubtless, the performance of protein-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  7. Covalent modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes with an imidazolium-based ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 19723 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Schneider, Amene [Austrian Centre of Competence for Tribology, Viktor Kaplan Strasse 2, 2700, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna; Marcon, Lionel [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ghodbane, Slimane; Steinmueller-Nethl, Doris [Rho-BeSt Coating GmbH, Exlgasse 20a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Li Musen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 19723 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL, 1-(methylcarboxylic acid)-3-octylimidazolium-bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) was covalently coupled onto a boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface through an esterification reaction. The resulting surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and electrochemical measurements. Selective electron transfer towards positively and negatively charged redox species was recorded. While the presence of Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} could be detected on the IL-modified BDD interface, no surface-immobilized Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} was recorded. The IL-modified BDD electrode showed in addition changes in surface wettability when immersed into aqueous solution containing different anions.

  8. Stable perovskite solar cells by surface modification with surfactant molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Matheus Serra de; Nogueira, Ana Flavia, E-mail: mholandabsb@outlook.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Surface modification on organic-inorganic perovskite films using dodecylammonium chloride was done to improve the stability of the material over the air moisture, which is considered extremely harmful to these materials and complicates their application on solar cell technology. Perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was prepared by single step method using a solution containing PbI{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I on DMF:DMSO (2:1) on a concentration of 0.88 mol L{sup -1}. The film was deposited over a planar film of TiO{sub 2}, previously deposited over FTO glass, by using spin-casting method. 25 μL of the solution was spread over the substrate which was turned at 4000 RPM for 45 s. In the last 10 s, 800 μL of monochlorobenzene was dropped. The film was submitted to a thermal treatment so the conversion of the perovskite could be completed. After the thermal treatment, the modifier was spin coated over the perovskite film from 5 and 10 mg mL{sup -1} solutions of the dodecylammonium chloride in chloroform. The perovskite films were characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM images have shown that the modifiers agglomerate and they cover the perovskite film, forming a protection layer. XRD and UV-Vis carried out after the film preparation, 7 and 15 days after the deposition. The first results show that the protection layer is able to avoid degradation of the perovskite film. Photovoltaic devices were prepared by depositing Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM layer and gold as electrode. It was observed that the increase on the thickness of the surfactant layer causes a decrease on the short-circuit current density (JSC), which is expected since is starts to act like an insulating layer. This effect is also the cause of the reduction of the fill factor (FF). More experiments need to be carried out to improve the solar cells devices, but the present data has shown the potential of the method developed, which uses easy access surfactants and a simple

  9. Stable perovskite solar cells by surface modification with surfactant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, Matheus Serra de; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Surface modification on organic-inorganic perovskite films using dodecylammonium chloride was done to improve the stability of the material over the air moisture, which is considered extremely harmful to these materials and complicates their application on solar cell technology. Perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 was prepared by single step method using a solution containing PbI 2 and CH 3 NH 3 I on DMF:DMSO (2:1) on a concentration of 0.88 mol L -1 . The film was deposited over a planar film of TiO 2 , previously deposited over FTO glass, by using spin-casting method. 25 μL of the solution was spread over the substrate which was turned at 4000 RPM for 45 s. In the last 10 s, 800 μL of monochlorobenzene was dropped. The film was submitted to a thermal treatment so the conversion of the perovskite could be completed. After the thermal treatment, the modifier was spin coated over the perovskite film from 5 and 10 mg mL -1 solutions of the dodecylammonium chloride in chloroform. The perovskite films were characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM images have shown that the modifiers agglomerate and they cover the perovskite film, forming a protection layer. XRD and UV-Vis carried out after the film preparation, 7 and 15 days after the deposition. The first results show that the protection layer is able to avoid degradation of the perovskite film. Photovoltaic devices were prepared by depositing Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM layer and gold as electrode. It was observed that the increase on the thickness of the surfactant layer causes a decrease on the short-circuit current density (JSC), which is expected since is starts to act like an insulating layer. This effect is also the cause of the reduction of the fill factor (FF). More experiments need to be carried out to improve the solar cells devices, but the present data has shown the potential of the method developed, which uses easy access surfactants and a simple preparation method to improve the stability of

  10. Superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by surface modification of alumina particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edna; Aruna, S. T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2012-10-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted intense interest because of their widespread potential applications in various industrial fields. Recently, some attempts have been carried out to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces using metal oxide nanoparticles. In the present work, superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with low surface energy material on alumina particles with different sizes. It was found that particle size of alumina is an important factor in achieving stable superhydrophobic surface. It was possible to obtain alumina surface with water contact angle (WCA) of 156° and a sliding angle of Superhydrophobicity of the modified alumina is attributed to the combined effect of the micro-nanostructure and low surface energy of fatty acid on the surface. The surface morphology of the alumina powder and coatings was determined by FESEM. The stability of the coatings was assessed by conducting water immersion test. Effect of heat treatment on WCA of the coating was also studied. The transition of alumina from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic state was explained using Wenzel and Cassie models. The method is shown to have potential application for creating superhydrophobic surface on cotton fabrics.

  11. Research progress on laser surface modification of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.S.; Chen, C.Z.; Li, S.T.; Huo, Q.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments on laser surface modification of titanium and its alloys are reviewed. Due to the intrinsic properties of high coherence and directionality, laser beam can be focus onto metallic surface to perform a broad range of treatments such as remelting, alloying and cladding, which are used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance of titanium alloys. In addition, the fabrication of bioactive films on the surface of titanium alloys to improve their biocompatibility can be performed by the method of laser ablation deposition. The effect of some laser processing parameters on the resulting surface properties of titanium alloys is discussed. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser modification of titanium and its alloys are elucidated

  12. Printing-assisted surface modifications of patterned ultrafiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardrip, Nathaniel C.; Dsouza, Melissa; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and restricting microbial surface attachment will enhance wastewater treatment with membranes. We report a maskless lithographic patterning technique for the generation of patterned polymer coatings on ultrafiltration membranes. Polyethylene glycol, zwitterionic, or negatively charged hydrophilic polymer compositions in parallel- or perpendicular-striped patterns with respect to feed flow were evaluated using wastewater. Membrane fouling was dependent on the orientation and chemical composition of the coatings. Modifications reduced alpha diversity in the attached microbial community (Shannon indices decreased from 2.63 to 1.89) which nevertheless increased with filtration time. Sphingomonas species, which condition membrane surfaces and facilitate cellular adhesion, were depleted in all modified membranes. Microbial community structure was significantly different between control, different patterns, and different chemistries. Lastly, this study broadens the tools for surface modification of membranes with polymer coatings and for understanding and optimization of antifouling surfaces.

  13. Advancing Sustainable Catalysis with Magnetite Surface Modification and Synthetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article surveys the recent developments in the synthesis, surface modification, and synthetic applications of magnetitenanoparticles. The emergence of iron(II,III) oxide (triiron tetraoxide or magnetite; Fe3O4, or FeO•Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a sustainable support in heteroge...

  14. Surface Modification of Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) by Magnesium Amalgam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Janda, Pavel; Weber, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2001), s. 879-885 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/1168; GA ČR GA203/98/1181 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : poly(tetrafluoroethylene) * surface modification * ESCA Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.728, year: 2001

  15. Surface modification on PMMA : PVDF polyblend: hardening under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Polyblend; surface modification; microhardness; hardening; plasticization; segmental mobility. 1. Introduction. Polymeric materials have a specific feature of stability towards various aggressive chemical environments, which depends on a multiplicity of factors like structure and nature of the polymers and chemical ...

  16. Surface modification of polyethylene by diffuse barrier discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Števiar, M.; Popelka, A.; Chodák, I.; Mosnáček, J.; Špírková, Milena; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Sedliačik, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2013), s. 516-523 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : low-density polyethylene * plasma discharge * surface modification Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2013

  17. Improvement of Polypropylene Biological Interactions by using Superhydrophobic Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shirani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of producing superhydrophobic surfaces through modification of surface chemistry and structure is in preventing or delaying biofilm formation. This is done to improve biocompatibility and chemical and biological properties of the surface by creating micro-nano multilevel rough structure; and to decrease surface free energy by Fault Tolerant Control Strategy (FTCS . Here, we produced a superhydrophobic surface through TiO2 coating and flurosilanization methods. Then, in order to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the modified surfaces, they were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Contact Angle (CA, cell viability assay (using Hela and MCF-7 cancer cell lines as well as non-cancerous human fibroblast cells by MTT, Bovine Serum Abumin (BSA protein adsorption using Bradford and bacterial adhesion assay (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis using microtiter. Results showed that contact angle and surface energey of superhydrophobic modified surface increased to 150° and decreased to 5.51 mj/m2, respectively due to physicochemical modifications of the surface. In addition, the results showed a substantial reduction in protein adsorption and bacterial cell adhesion in superhydrophobic surface.

  18. Application of xenon difluoride for surface modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsamyan, G.B.; Belokonov, K.V.; Vargasova, N.A.; Sokolov, V.B.; Chaivanov, B.B.; Zubov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical interaction between xenon difluoride (XeF 2 ) and polymeric materials was investigated. It was shown that the reaction occurs on the surface of solid polymer layer and brings to chemical modification of the surface properties of the polymer leaving the bulk properties unchanged. The results of various analysis of the fluorinated samples (IR, FTIR-ATR, ESCA, bulk analysis etc) are presented. The mechanism of reaction is proposed. 12 refs.; 13 figs

  19. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  20. Ion-Induced Surface Modification of Magnetically Operated Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Arushanov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made of permalloy (iron-nickel contacts of reed switches before and after ion-induced surface modification using atomic force and optical microscopy, Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the formation of surface nitride layers enhances corrosion and erosion resistance of contacts. We proposed to produce such layers directly into sealed reed switches by means of pulsing glow-discharge nitrogen plasma.

  1. Modification of Surface Energy via Direct Laser Ablative Surface Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J., Jr. (Inventor); Belcher, Marcus A. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hopkins, John W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Surface energy of a substrate is changed without the need for any template, mask, or additional coating medium applied to the substrate. At least one beam of energy directly ablates a substrate surface to form a predefined topographical pattern at the surface. Each beam of energy has a width of approximately 25 micrometers and an energy of approximately 1-500 microJoules. Features in the topographical pattern have a width of approximately 1-500 micrometers and a height of approximately 1.4-100 micrometers.

  2. Surface modification for interaction study with bacteria and preosteoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing

    Surface modification plays a pivotal role in bioengineering. Polymer coatings can provide biocompatibility and biofunctionalities to biomaterials through surface modification. In this dissertation, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was utilized to coat two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) substrates with differently charged polyelectrolytes in order to generate antimicrobial and osteocompatible biomaterials. ICVD is a modified CVD technique that enables surface modification in an all-dry condition without substrate damage and solvent contamination. The free-radical polymerization allows the vinyl polymers to conformally coat on various micro- and nano-structured substrates and maintains the delicate structure of the functional groups. The vapor deposition of polycations provided antimicrobial activity to planar and porous substrates through destroying the negatively charged bacterial membrane and brought about high contact-killing efficiency (99.99%) against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Additionally, the polyampholytes synthesized by iCVD exhibited excellent antifouling performance against the adhesion of Gram-positive Listeria innocua and Gram-negative E. coli in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Their antifouling activities were attributed to the electrostatic interaction and hydration layers that served as physical and energetic barriers to prevent bacterial adhesion. The contact-killing and antifouling polymers synthesized by iCVD can be applied to surface modification of food processing equipment and medical devices with the aim of reducing foodborne diseases and medical infections. Moreover, the charged polyelectrolyte modified 2D polystyrene surfaces displayed good osteocompatibility and enhanced osteogenesis of preosteoblast cells than the un-modified polystyrene surface. In order to promote osteoinduction of hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, bioinspired polymer-controlled mineralization was conducted

  3. Electrochemical surface plasmon resonance sensor based on two-electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing; Dong, Wei; Wen, Yizhang; Pang, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Yazhuo; Zhan, Shuyue

    2016-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about electrochemistry reactions, a two-electrode electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) sensor has been proposed. We describe the theory of potential modulation for this novel sensor and determine the factors that can change the SPR resonance angle. The reference electrode in three-electrode configuration was eliminated, and comparing with several other electrode materials, activated carbon (AC) is employed as the suitable counter electrode for its potential stability. Just like three-electrode configuration, the simpler AC two-electrode system can also obtain detailed information about the electrochemical reactions. (paper)

  4. Surface modification on silicon with chitosan and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xiaoying; Cui Wei; Huang Yan; Zhao Yi; Wang Zhigong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan modification of silicon (Si) on protein adsorption, cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Chitosan was first immobilized on the Si surface through a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) bridge. The surface was then characterized by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The amount of protein adsorbed on the native Si and chitosan-modified Si surface was evaluated by a modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay. The adhesion and proliferation behavior of L-929 and pc12 cells were then assessed by microscopy and methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) tests. The results showed that the chitosan modification could resist protein adsorption and inhibit the adhesion and proliferation of two kinds of cells on Si.

  5. Ultralow energy ion beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C

    2005-12-01

    Ultralow energy Ar+ and O+ ion beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ ions at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low energy (20 eV) oxygen ions there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ ions in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the ion energy. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the ion flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low energy ions (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.

  6. Enhancing the Properties of Carbon and Gold Substrates by Surface Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisch, Jennifer Anne [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The properties of both carbon and gold substrates are easily affected by the judicious choice of a surface modification protocol. Several such processes for altering surface composition have been published in literature. The research presented in this thesis primarily focuses on the development of on-column methods to modify carbon stationary phases used in electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). To this end, both porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and glassy carbon (GC) particles have been modified on-column by the electroreduction of arenediazonium salts and the oxidation of arylacetate anions (the Kolbe reaction). Once modified, the carbon stationary phases show enhanced chromatographic performance both in conventional liquid chromatographic columns and EMLC columns. Additionally, one may also exploit the creation of aryl films to by electroreduction of arenediazonium salts in the creation of nanostructured materials. The formation of mercaptobenzene film on the surface of a GC electrode provides a linking platform for the chemisorption of gold nanoparticles. After deposition of nanoparticles, the surface chemistry of the gold can be further altered by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation via the chemisorption of a second thiol species. Finally, the properties of gold films can be altered such that they display carbon-like behavior through the formation of benzenehexathiol (BHT) SAMs. BHT chemisorbs to the gold surface in a previously unprecedented planar fashion. Carbon and gold substrates can be chemically altered by several methodologies resulting in new surface properties. The development of modification protocols and their application in the analytical arena is considered herein.

  7. Benefits of aggregates surface modification in concrete production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junak, J.; Sicakova, A.

    2017-10-01

    In our study, recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), which surfaces had been modified by geopolymer material based on coal fly ash, were used to produce the concrete samples. In these samples, fraction 4/8 mm was replaced by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of 100%. To modify the surface of RCA was “Solo” and “Triple stage” modification used. On these samples real density, total water absorption and compressive strength were examined after 28, 90, 180 and 365 days of hardening. The highest compressive strength 56.8 MPa, after 365 days hardening, reached sample which had improved RCA surface by “Triple stage mixing”.

  8. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, I S; Kim, H R; Choi, Y J; Park, H S [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  9. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, I. S.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  10. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Neděla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with their own pros and cons, such as plasma and laser treatment, UV lamp modification, etching, grafting, metallization, ion sputtering and others. An appropriate treatment can change the physico-chemical properties of the surface of a polymer in a way that makes it attractive for a variety of biological compounds, or, on the contrary, makes the polymer exhibit antibacterial or cytotoxic properties, thus making the polymer usable in a variety of biomedical applications. This review examines four popular methods of polymer surface modification: laser treatment, ion implantation, plasma treatment and nanoparticle grafting. Surface treatment-induced changes of the physico-chemical properties, morphology, chemical composition and biocompatibility of a variety of polymer substrates are studied. Relevant biological methods are used to determine the influence of various surface treatments and grafting processes on the biocompatibility of the new surfaces—mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation is studied as well as other potential applications of the surface-treated polymer substrates in the biomedical industry.

  11. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface-modified reduced graphene oxide electrodes for capacitors by ionic liquids and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Seok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide surface was modified by introduction of ionic liquids. • Microstructure and capacitance of modified electrode were dependent on the ionic liquids contents. • Modification gives electrode better charge transport and higher specific capacitance. • Modified electrode showed the better capacitive performance such as rate capability and cycle stability. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ionic liquids (IL) composites with different weight ratios of IL to rGO were synthesized by a simple method. In these composites, IL contributed to the exfoliation of rGO sheets and to the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the resulting composites by enhancing the ion diffusion and charge transport. The structure of the composites was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that IL was coated on the surface of rGO in a translucent manner. The electrochemical analysis of the prepared composites was carried out by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Among the prepared composites, the one with a weight ratio of rGO to IL of 1:7 showed the highest specific capacitance of 147.5 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 . In addition, the rate capability and cycle performance of the composites were enhanced compared to pristine rGO. These enhanced properties make the composites suitable as electrode materials for the better performance supercapacitors

  14. Vacuum-based surface modification of organic and metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jessica

    Surface physico-chemical properties play an important role in the development and performance of materials in different applications. Consequently, understanding the chemical and physical processes involved during surface modification strategies is of great scientific and technological importance. This dissertation presents results from the surface modification of polymers, organic films and metallic substrates with reactive species, with the intent of simulating important modification processes and elucidating surface property changes of materials under different environments. The reactions of thermally evaporated copper and titanium with halogenated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are used to contrast the interaction of metals with polymers. Results indicate that reactive metallization is thermodynamically favored when the metal-halogen bond strength is greater than the carbon-halogen bond strength. X-ray post-metallization treatment results in an increase in metal-halide bond formation due to the production of volatile halogen species in the polymer that react with the metallic overlayer. The reactions of atomic oxygen (AO) and atomic chlorine with polyethylene (PE) and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) films were followed to ascertain the role of radical species during plasma-induced polymer surface modification. The reactions of AO with X-ray modified SAMs are initially the dominated by the incorporation of new oxygen containing functionality at the vacuum/film interface, leading to the production of volatile carbon containing species such as CO2 that erodes the hydrocarbon film. The reaction of atomic chlorine species with hydrocarbon SAMs, reveals that chlorination introduces C-Cl and C-Cl2 functionalities without erosion. A comparison of the reactions of AO and atomic chlorine with PE reveal a maximum incorporation of the corresponding C-O and C-Cl functionalities at the polymer surface. A novel method to prepare phosphorous

  15. Thermal desorption and surface modification of He+ implanted into tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhang; Yoshida, N.; Iwakiri, H.; Xu Zengyu

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten divertor plates in fusion reactors will be subject to helium bombardment. Helium retention and thermal desorption is a concerned issue in controlling helium ash. In the present study, fluence dependence of thermal desorption behavior of helium in tungsten was studied at different irradiation temperatures and ion energies. Results showed that helium desorption could start at ∼400 K with increasing fluence, while no noticeable peaks were detected at low fluence. Total helium desorption reached a saturation value at high fluence range, which was not sensitive to irradiation temperature or ion energy for the conditions evaluated. Surface modifications caused by either ion irradiation or thermal desorption were observed by SEM. The relationship of surface modifications and helium desorption behavior was discussed. Some special features of elevated irradiation temperature and lower ion energy were also indicated

  16. Review of some research work on surface modification and polymerizations by non-equilibrium plasma in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akovali, Guneri

    2004-01-01

    Non equilibrium plasma studies in Turkey can be considered as organized on two different lines: surface modification studies and plasma polymerization studies. Plasma surface modification studies: In different laboratories in Turkey the modification of materials' surfaces by plasma covers a wide spectra, for example: fibers (Carbon (CF) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN)), fabrics (PET/Cotton and PET/PA), biomaterials-food oriented (PU), denture Acrylic matrix, plasmochemical modification of a (PE and PP) film surface by several selected silicon and tin containing monomers, polymer blends and composites, recycled rubber and epoxy systems, etc. Plasma polymerization studies: This topic is accomplished by a great number of projects, for instance: plasma initiation polymerization and copolymerization of Styrene and MMA, Plasma-initiated polymerizations of Acrylamide (AA), kinetics of polymer deposition of several selected saturated hydrocarbons, silanization treatments by hexamethyldisilazane (HDMS), Plasma initiated polymerization (PIP) of allyl alcohol and 1-propano, (PSP) and (PIP) studies related to activated charcoal are done to explore their applications in haemoperfusion, an amperometric alcohol single-layer electrode is prepared by (EDA) plasma polymerization, preparation of mass sensitive immuno sensors and single layer multi enzyme electrodes by plasma polymerisation technique, etc

  17. Surface modification and characterization of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanowhiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Chuanhui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Xianguo, E-mail: chuanhuigao@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Feng Lijuan; Lu Shaoyan; Liu Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-03-01

    In order to enhance the compatibility with plastic polymers, magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) nanowhiskers were modified through grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the surface of the nanowhiskers by emulsion polymerization. The influences of the reaction time, MMA monomer content, adding speed of monomer and the reaction temperature on the grafting ratio were investigated. Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were used to characterize the effect of surface modification. The results showed that the MHSH nanowhiskers were uniformly coated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and a well-defined core-shell hybrid structure of MHSH/PMMA was obtained. The surface contact angle of the hybrid whiskers increased to 87.32 deg. from 12.71 deg. and the whiskers surface was changed from hydrophilic to lipophilic.

  18. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  19. Surface Topographical Modification of Coronary Stent: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. H.; Muhamad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the urge of mediating the inflammatory response from coronary stent implant to improve patency rates of the current coronary stent, concern has been focusing on reducing the risk of in-stent restenosis and thrombosis for long-term safety. Surface modification approach has been found to carry great potential due to the surface is the vital parts that act as a buffer layer between the biomaterial and the organic material like blood and vessel tissues. Nevertheless, manipulating cell response in situ using physical patterning is very complex as the exact mechanism were yet elucidated. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarise the recent efforts on modifying the surface topography of coronary stent at the micro- and nanometer scale with the purpose of inducing rapid in situ endothelialization to regenerate a healthy endothelium layer on biomaterial surface. In particular, a discussion on the surface patterns that have been investigated on cell selective behaviour together with the methods used to generate them are presented. Furthermore, the probable future work involving the surface modification of coronary stent were indicated.

  20. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  1. Investigation of Electrochemical Behaviour of Quercetin on the Modified Electrode Surfaces with Procaine and Aminophenyl in Non-Aquous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ender Mulazimoglu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical ımpedance spectroscopy have been used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone on the procaine and aminophenyl modified electrode. The modification of procaine and aminophenyl binded electrode surface with quercetin was performed in +0,3/+2,8 V (for procaine and +0,4/+1,5 V (for aminophenyl potential range using 100 mV s-1 scanning rate having 10 cycle. A solution of 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile was used as a non-aquous solvent. For the modification process a solution of 1 mM quercetin in 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate was used. In order to obtain these two surface, a solution of 1 mM procaine and 1 mM nitrophenyl diazonium salt in 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate was used. By using these solutions bare glassy carbon electrode surface was modified. Nitrophenyl was reduced to amine group in 0.1 M HCl medium on the nitrophenyl modified glassy carbon elelctrode surface. Procaine modified glassy carbon electrode surface was quite electroactive. Although nitrophenyl modified glassy carbon elelctrode surface was electroinactive, it was activated by reducing nitro group into amine group. For the characterization of the modified surface 1 mM ferrocene in 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate for cyclic voltammetry and 1 mM ferricyanide/ferrocyanide (1:1 mixture in 0,1 M KCl for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used.

  2. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin, E-mail: fyq01@zstu.edu.cn; Fu, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO{sub 2}/shape memory polyurethane (SiO{sub 2}/SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO{sub 2}/SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface.

  3. Surface modification and characterization of aramid fibers with hybrid coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianrui; Zhu, Yaofeng; Ni, Qingqing; Fu, Yaqin; Fu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Aramid fibers modification sizing synthesized by sol–gel in the absence of water. • The strength and interfacial adhesion property of modified fibers were improved. • Modified fibers show a special surface structure. • The mechanism explains the function of structure. - Abstract: Aramid fibers were modified through solution dip-coating and interfacial in situ polymerization using a newly synthesized SiO 2 /shape memory polyurethane (SiO 2 /SMPU) hybrid. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the synthesized SiO 2 /SMPU hybrid successfully coated the fiber surface. The surface morphology of the aramid fibers and the single fiber tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the composites were determined. The IFSS of the fiber coated with the hybrid improved by 45%, which benefited from a special “pizza-like” structure on the fiber surface

  4. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  5. PREFACE Surface Modifications and Functionalization of Materials for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Puértolas, Jose A.; Albella, Jose M.

    2010-11-01

    Conference photograph This special issue contains selected papers which were presented as invited and contributed communications at the workshop entitled 'Surface modification and functionalization of materials for biomedical applications' (BIO-COAT 2010) which was held on 24 June 2010 in Zaragoza (Spain). The surface of a material plays a major role in its interaction with the biological medium. Processes related to the mechanical stability of articular devices in contact, osseointegration, thrombogenicity, corrosion and leaching, or the inflammatory response of rejection of a material, are clearly conditioned by the surface properties. Therefore, the modification or functionalization of surfaces can have an important impact on these issues. New techniques for functionalization by thin film deposition or surface treatments help to improve superficial properties, while understanding the interaction of the surface-biological medium is critical for their application in new devices. Jointly organized by the Spanish Materials Research Society, BIO-COAT 2010 provided an open forum to discuss the progress and latest developments in thin film processing and the engineering of biomaterials. Invited lectures were particularly aimed at providing overviews on scientific topics and were given by recognized world-class scientists. Two of them have contributed with a proceedings article to this selected collection (articles 012001 and 012008). The contributed communications were focused on particular cutting-edge aspects of thin film science and functionalization technologies for biomaterials, showing the major scientific push of Spanish research groups in the field. The 2010 BIO-COAT conference was organized along four main topics: (1) functionalization and texture on surfaces, (2) tribology and corrosion, (3) the surface modification of biomaterials, and (4) surface-biological environment interactions. The papers published in this volume were accepted for publication after

  6. Surface EMG electrodes do not accurately record from lumbar multifidus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Henry, Sharon M; Single, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human subjects performing isometric tasks that loaded the trunk from three different directions. It has been suggested that suitably placed surface electrodes can be used to record activity in the deep multifidus muscles. We tested whether there was a stronger correlation and more consistent regression relationship between signals from electrodes overlying multifidus and longissimus muscles respectively than between signals from within multifidus and from the skin surface electrodes over multifidus. The findings provided consistent evidence that the surface electrodes placed over multifidus muscles were more sensitive to the adjacent longissimus muscles than to the underlying multifidus muscles. The R(2) for surface versus intra-muscular comparisons was 0.64, while the average R(2) for surface-multifidus versus surface-longissimus comparisons was 0.80. Also, the magnitude of the regression coefficients was less variable between different tasks for the longissimus versus surface multifidus comparisons. Accurate measurement of multifidus muscle activity requires intra-muscular electrodes. Electromyography is the accepted technique to document the level of muscular activation, but its specificity to particular muscles depends on correct electrode placement. For multifidus, intra-muscular electrodes are required.

  7. Silane surface modification for improved bioadhesion of esophageal stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoy, Mert; Gultepe, Evin; Pandey, Shivendra; Khashab, Mouen A.; Gracias, David H.

    2014-08-01

    Stent migration occurs in 10-40% of patients who undergo placement of esophageal stents, with higher migration rates seen in those treated for benign esophageal disorders. This remains a major drawback of esophageal stent therapy. In this paper, we propose a new surface modification method to increase the adhesion between self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) and tissue while preserving their removability. Taking advantage of the well-known affinity between epoxide and amine terminated silane coupling agents with amine and carboxyl groups that are abundant in proteins and related molecules in the human body; we modified the surfaces of silicone coated esophageal SEMS with these adhesive self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We utilized vapor phase silanization to modify the surfaces of different substrates including PDMS strips and SEMS, and measured the force required to slide these substrates on a tissue piece. Our results suggest that surface modification of esophageal SEMS via covalent attachment of protein-binding coupling agents improves adhesion to tissue and could offer a solution to reduce SEMS migration while preserving their removability.

  8. Plasma based Ar+ beam assisted poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladkova, T.G.; Keranov, I.L.; Dineff, P.D.; Youroukov, S.Y.; Avramova, I.A.; Krasteva, N.; Altankov, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma based Ar + beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow. XPS analysis was performed to study the changes in the surface chemical composition of the modified samples and the corresponding changes in the surface energy were monitored by contact angle measurements. We found that plasma based Ar + beam transforms the initially hydrophobic PDMS surface into a hydrophilic one mainly due to a raising of the polar component of the surface tension, this effect being most probably due to an enrichment of the modified surface layer with permanent dipoles of a [SiO x ]-based network and elimination of the original methyl groups. The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar + beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or bare surfaces. The cell response seems to be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar + beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting

  9. Modification of Au surfaces using new ferrocene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Ortiz, Tanya L.; Malave-Leon, Maria; Rivera-Claudio, Mirna; Castillo-Ramirez, Jorge; Cabrera-Martinez, Carlos R.; Brito-Gomez, Rosa; Tremont, Rolando J.

    2008-01-01

    Gold surfaces have been modified by self-assembled techniques. Here the adsorption time of diasteroisomers (1R, 3S)-1-ferrocenyl-3-methyl-4,4-diphenyl-2,5-dioxacyclopentane and (1S, 3S)-1-ferrocenyl-3-methyl-4,4-diphenyl-2,5-dioxacyclopentane (, 3a and 3b) at a Au surface in ethanol solution was controlled. This study was followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The method used for the surface modification was the control of exposure time of a Au surface in the modifier/ethanol solution. It was demonstrated by EIS and XPS that the Au surface was modified with mixture of compounds 3a + 3b, avoiding the electron transference in the interface. It was also observed that the organometallic molecule indeed had been adsorbed on the Au surface. In addition, evidence seems to conclude that the molecule-Au interaction is through the electrons of cyclopentadienyl moiety, where the oxygen atoms are near the air-molecule interface and the iron atom is near the Au surface. This type of interaction of the ferrocene derivatives with gold surfaces has not been reported by any other author

  10. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  11. Laser surface modification of boronickelized medium carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Aneta; Pertek, Aleksandra; Kulka, Michał; Klimek, Leszek

    2015-11-01

    A two-step process was applied to produce the multicomponent boride layers. Boronickelizing consisted of nickel plating and diffusion boriding. Two different methods of heat treatment of boronickelized C45 steel were used: a typical through-hardening, and a laser surface modification with remelting. Microstructure and some mechanical properties of these layers were examined. Microstructural characterization was studied using optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The laser modification improved wear resistance, cohesion as well as low-cycle fatigue of the boronickelized layer. Compressive stresses, occurring after laser remelting, could be the reason for the advantageous mechanical behavior of the layer.

  12. Surface modifications of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingxin; Cui, Fuzhai; Lee, In Seop

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, research on magnesium (Mg) alloys had increased significantly for hard tissue replacement and stent application due to their outstanding advantages. Firstly, Mg alloys have mechanical properties similar to bone which avoid stress shielding. Secondly, they are biocompatible essential to the human metabolism as a factor for many enzymes. In addition, main degradation product Mg is an essential trace element for human enzymes. The most important reason is they are perfectly biodegradable in the body fluid. However, extremely high degradation rate, resulting in too rapid loss of mechanical strength in chloride containing environments limits their applications. Engineered artificial biomaterials with appropriate mechanical properties, surface chemistry, and surface topography are in a great demand. As the interaction between the cells and tissues with biomaterials at the tissue--implant interface is a surface phenomenon; surface properties play a major role in determining both the biological response to implants and the material response to the physiological condition. Therefore, the ability to modify the surface properties while preserve the bulk properties is important, and surface modification to form a hard, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer have always been an interesting topic in biomaterials field. In this article, attempts are made to give an overview of the current research and development status of surface modification technologies of Mg alloys for biomedical materials research. Further, the advantages/disadvantages of the different methods and with regard to the most promising method for Mg alloys are discussed. Finally, the scientific challenges are proposed based on own research and the work of other scientists.

  13. Surface chemical modification for exceptional wear life of MEMS materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arvind Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS are built at micro/nano-scales. At these scales, the interfacial forces are extremely strong. These forces adversely affect the smooth operation and cause wear resulting in the drastic reduction in wear life (useful operating lifetime of actuator-based devices. In this paper, we present a surface chemical modification method that reduces friction and significantly extends the wear life of the two most popular MEMS structural materials namely, silicon and SU-8 polymer. The method includes surface chemical treatment using ethanolamine-sodium phosphate buffer, followed by coating of perfluoropolyether (PFPE nanolubricant on (i silicon coated with SU-8 thin films (500 nm and (ii MEMS process treated SU-8 thick films (50 μm. After the surface chemical modification, it was observed that the steady-state coefficient of friction of the materials reduced by 4 to 5 times and simultaneously their wear durability increased by more than three orders of magnitude (> 1000 times. The significant reduction in the friction coefficients is due to the lubrication effect of PFPE nanolubricant, while the exceptional increase in their wear life is attributed to the bonding between the -OH functional group of ethanolamine treated SU-8 thin/thick films and the -OH functional group of PFPE. The surface chemical modification method acts as a common route to enhance the performance of both silicon and SU-8 polymer. It is time-effective (process time ≤ 11 min, cost-effective and can be readily integrated into MEMS fabrication/assembly processes. It can also work for any kind of structural material from which the miniaturized devices are/can be made.

  14. Modification of Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE with Polypyrrole (Ppy-SiO2 for Phenol Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Mulyasuryani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode modification on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE with polypyrrole (Ppy-SiO2 was done by electropolymerization. Polypyrrole (Ppy-SiO2 was used for phenol determination. The analysis of this material was done by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry method and differential pulse voltammetry. In a cyclic voltammetry analysis, we used potential range of -1 to 1 V with Ag/AgCl comparator electrode at scan rate of 100 mV/sec, while in differential pulse voltammetry method the potential range was 0 to 1 V toward Ag/AgCl, the scan rate of 50 mV/sec, the pulse rate is 0,2 V and the pulse width is 50 ms. From the analysis result with SEM, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry method, Polypyrrole (Ppy -SiO2 is the best material and can be used as phenol measurement.

  15. Surface Modification of Polymeric Materials by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Castro Vidaurre

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature plasma treatment has been used in the last years as a useful tool to modify the surface properties of different materials, in special of polymers. In the present work low temperature plasma was used to treat the surface of asymmetric porous substrates of polysulfone (PSf membranes. The main purpose of this work was to study the influence of the exposure time and the power supplied to argon plasma on the permeability properties of the membranes. Three rf power levels, respectively 5, 10 and 15 W were used. Treatment time ranged from 1 to 50 min. Reduction of single gas permeability was observed with Ar plasma treatments at low energy bombardment (5 W and short exposure time (20 min. Higher power and/or higher plasma exposition time causes a degradation process begins. The chemical and structural characterization of the membranes before and after the surface modification was done by AFM, SEM and XPS.

  16. Surface modification of multilayer graphene using Ga ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shao, Ying; Ge, Daohan; Ren, Naifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Qizhi [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State key laboratory of Robotics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shengyang 110000 (China)

    2015-04-28

    The effect of Ga ion irradiation intensity on the surface of multilayer graphene was examined. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the irradiation caused defects in the crystal structure of graphene. The density of defects increased with the increase in dwell times. Furthermore, the strain induced by the irradiation changed the crystallite size and the distance between defects. These defects had the effect of doping the multilayer graphene and increasing its work function. The increase in work function was determined using contact potential difference measurements. The surface morphology of the multilayer graphene changed following irradiation as determined by atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the adhesion between the atomic force microscopy tip and sample increased further indicating that the irradiation had caused surface modification, important for devices that incorporate graphene.

  17. Simple surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) for DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinwen; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a simple chemical modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by curing a mixture of 2 wt% undecylenic acid (UDA) in PDMS prepolymer on a gold-coated glass slide. This gold slide had been previously pretreated with a self-assembled hydrophilic monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). During curing of the UDA∕PDMS prepolymer, the hydrophilic UDA carboxyl moieties diffuses toward the hydrophilic MPA carboxyl moieties on the gold surface. This diffusion of the UDA within the PDMS prepolymer to the surface is a direct result of surface energy minimization. Once completely cured, the PDMS is peeled off the gold substrate, thereby exposing the interfacial carboxyl groups. These groups are then available for subsequent attachment of 5′-amino terminated DNA oligonucleotides via amide linkages. Our results show that the covalently tethered oligonucleotides can successfully capture fluorescein-labeled complementary oligonucleotides via hybridization, which are visualized using fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21264061

  18. [Surface grafting modification and stabilization of Kevlar fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-ying; Fu, Ming-lian; Wang, Can-yao; Wang, Liang-en

    2005-11-01

    Chemical disposal was used to bring the activity group onto the surface of Kevlar fiber for the purpose of surface grafting modification. The interfacial constitution of the grafting of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) onto Kevlar fiber was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In the mean time, hexyl-lactam stabilization and poly-glycol (400, PEG) stabilization on the grafted product were also studied. The effects of different nTDI:nPEG ratios on the production's interfacial constitution was analysed. It is concluded that the stabilization took place on the surface. The intensity of the bands relented at about 3300 cm(-1) and was reinforced at about 1700-1720 cm(-1) when the ratio of nTDI:nPEG = 1:3, but when the ratio is 1:1 and 1:2, the bands at about 3 300 and 1700-1720 cm(-1) are almost the same.

  19. Effective modification of particle surface properties using ultrasonic water mist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design a new technique to modify particle surface properties and, through that, to improve flowability of poorly flowing drug thiamine hydrochloride and pharmaceutical sugar lactose monohydrate of two different grades. The powdered particles were supplied...... properties. It was found that rapid exposition of pharmaceutical materials by water mist resulted in the improvement of powder technical properties. The evident changes in flowability of coarser lactose were obviously due to smoothing of particle surface and decreasing in the level of fines with very slight...... increment in particle size. The changes in thiamine powder flow were mainly due to narrowing in particle size distribution where the tendency for better flow of finer lactose was related to surface and size modifications. The aqueous mist application did not cause any alteration of the crystal structures...

  20. Laser surface modification of stainless steels for cavitation erosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chi Tat

    1999-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steel UNS S31603 (Fe -17.6Cr -11.2Ni -2.5Mo -1.4Mn -0.4Si -0.03C) has higher pitting corrosion resistance but lower cavitation erosion resistance than that of UNS S30400. This is because of its lower tendency for strain induced martensitic transformation and higher stacking fault energy as compared with those of UNS S30400. In order to improve its cavitation erosion resistance, surface modification of S31603 was performed by laser surface melting and laser surface alloying using a 2-kW CW Nd-YAG laser and a 3-kW CW CO2 laser. For laser surface melting, austenitic stainless steel UNS S30400, super duplex stainless steel UNS S32760 and martensitic stainless steel UNS S42000 were also investigated for comparison purpose. For laser surface alloying, alloying materials including various elements (Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Si & C), alloys (AlSiFe & NiCrSiB), ceramics (Si3N 4, SiC, Cr3C2, TiC, CrB & Cr2O 3) and alloys-ceramics (Co-WC, Ni-WC, Ni-Al2O3, Ni-Cr2C3) were used to modify the surface of S31603. The alloyed surface was achieved first by flame spraying or pre-placing of the alloy powder on the S31603 surface and then followed by laser surface remelting. The cavitation erosion characteristics of laser surface modified specimens in 3.5% NaCl solution at 23°C were studied by means of a 20-kHz ultrasonic vibrator at a peak-to-peak amplitude of 30 mum. In addition, their pitting corrosion behaviour was evaluated by electrochemical techniques. The microstructures, compositions, phase changes and damage mechanisms under cavitation erosion were investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, EDAX and X-ray diffractometry. Mechanical properties such as microhardness profile were also examined. The cavitation erosion resistance Re (reciprocal of the mean depth of penetration rate) of laser surface melted S31603 was found to be improved by 22% and was attributed to the existence of tensile residual stress. Improvement on the Re of S42000 was found to be 8.5 times

  1. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  2. Nanotubular surface modification of metallic implants via electrochemical anodization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Ning; Jin, Ming; Zheng, Yudong; Guan, Yueping; Lu, Xin; Luo, Jing-Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased awareness and interest in the biomedical implant field as a result of an aging population, research in the field of implantable devices has grown rapidly in the last few decades. Among the biomedical implants, metallic implant materials have been widely used to replace disordered bony tissues in orthopedic and orthodontic surgeries. The clinical success of implants is closely related to their early osseointegration (ie, the direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of a load-bearing artificial implant), which relies heavily on the surface condition of the implant. Electrochemical techniques for modifying biomedical implants are relatively simple, cost-effective, and appropriate for implants with complex shapes. Recently, metal oxide nanotubular arrays via electrochemical anodization have become an attractive technique to build up on metallic implants to enhance the biocompatibility and bioactivity. This article will thoroughly review the relevance of electrochemical anodization techniques for the modification of metallic implant surfaces in nanoscale, and cover the electrochemical anodization techniques used in the development of the types of nanotubular/nanoporous modification achievable via electrochemical approaches, which hold tremendous potential for bio-implant applications. In vitro and in vivo studies using metallic oxide nanotubes are also presented, revealing the potential of nanotubes in biomedical applications. Finally, an outlook of future growth of research in metallic oxide nanotubular arrays is provided. This article will therefore provide researchers with an in-depth understanding of electrochemical anodization modification and provide guidance regarding the design and tuning of new materials to achieve a desired performance and reliable biocompatibility.

  3. Surface modification by EUV laser beam based on capillary discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Prukner, Václav; Shukurov, A.

    -, č. 58 (2011), s. 484-487 ISSN 2010-376X. [International Conference on Fusion and Plasma Physics. Bali, Indonésie, 26.10.2011-28.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : soft x-ray * EUV * laser * radiation * source * capillary * discharge * plasma * ablation * surface modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v58/v58-99.pdf

  4. Application of MEVVA discharge to material surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yu; Geng Man; Huang Yuming; Gong Xiaorong; Yu Yijun; Tang Deli; Tie Jun

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes some characteristics of the MEVVA discharge, the process of generating a cathode-arc plasma and the advantages of the MEVVA discharge compared with the kind of heating-vaporizing-ionizing source. Some practical parameters and the operating process of the MEVVA ion source as well as a plasma source with MEVVA discharge used in a PSII device are presented. Various plasmas having good-quality and high-performance are obtained with MEVVA discharges and have been widely used in sight-line processing and omnibearing ion implantation for material surface modification

  5. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of investigations of surface modification by ion implantation in zirconia are described. As dopant material, iron was investigated thoroughly. The depth distribution of implanted ions depends on implantation parameters and the dopant-matrix system. The investigations of thermal stability of some implanted iron profiles by RBS and AES are described. Special interest lies in the thermal stability under working conditions of the zirconia material (400-1000 0 C). Radiation damage introduced in the implanted layer was investigated using transmission electron microscopy on polycrystalline material and channeling experiments on a single crystal implanted with iron. 179 refs.; 87 figs.; 20 tabs

  6. Surface modification and electrochemical behaviour of undoped nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Jianbing; Wang Yanhui; Bian Linyan; Zhang Jinhui; Meng Fanwei; Zhao Yuling; Ren Shubin; Qu Xuanhui

    2012-01-01

    Surface modifications of undoped nanodiamond (ND) particles were carried out through different annealing treatments. The methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the ND surface before and after the annealing process. The electrochemical properties of the modified ND powders in aqueous solution were investigated with Fe(CN) 6 3−/4− as a redox probe. When the annealing temperature was below 850 °C, vacuum annealing removed parts of the oxygen-containing surface functionalities from the ND surface and produced more sp 2 carbon atoms in the shell. The charge transfer of the Fe(CN) 6 3−/4− redox couple decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Re-annealing in air restored the original surface conditions: few sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms and similar surface functionalities, and thus the electrochemical activity. When ND was annealed in vacuum at 900–1100 °C, more serious graphitization produced a continuous fullerenic shell wrapped around a diamond core, which had a high conductivity and electrochemical activity. This provides a novel nanoparticle with high conductivity and high stability for electrochemical applications.

  7. Boiling and quenching heat transfer advancement by nanoscale surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Xu, Cheng; Zhao, Yang; Ziegler, Kirk J; Chung, J N

    2017-07-21

    All power production, refrigeration, and advanced electronic systems depend on efficient heat transfer mechanisms for achieving high power density and best system efficiency. Breakthrough advancement in boiling and quenching phase-change heat transfer processes by nanoscale surface texturing can lead to higher energy transfer efficiencies, substantial energy savings, and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports breakthrough advancements on both fronts of boiling and quenching. The critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling and the Leidenfrost point temperature (LPT) in quenching are the bottlenecks to the heat transfer advancements. As compared to a conventional aluminum surface, the current research reports a substantial enhancement of the CHF by 112% and an increase of the LPT by 40 K using an aluminum surface with anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous texture finish. These heat transfer enhancements imply that the power density would increase by more than 100% and the quenching efficiency would be raised by 33%. A theory that links the nucleation potential of the surface to heat transfer rates has been developed and it successfully explains the current finding by revealing that the heat transfer modification and enhancement are mainly attributed to the superhydrophilic surface property and excessive nanoscale nucleation sites created by the nanoporous surface.

  8. The effect of substrate modification on microbial growth on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Angela Ann

    1998-01-01

    The principle aim of the program was to produce a novel, non-leaching antimicrobial surface for commercial development and future use in the liquid food packaging industry. Antimicrobial surfaces which exist presently have been produced to combat the growth of prokaryotic organisms and usually function as slow release systems. A system which could inhibit eukaryotic growth without contaminating the surrounding 'environment' with the inhibitor was considered of great commercial importance. The remit of this study was concerned with creating a surface which could control the growth of eukaryotic organisms found in fruit juice with particular interest in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative antimicrobial surfaces were created by the chemical modification of the test substrate polymers; nylon and ethylvinyl alcohol (EVOH). Surfaces were chemically modified by the covalent coupling of antimicrobial agents known to be active against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as ascertained by the screening process determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of agents in the desired test medium. During the study it was found that a number of surfaces did appear to inhibit yeast growth in fruit juice, however on further investigation the apparent inhibitory effect was discovered to be the result of un-bound material free in the test medium. On removing the possibility of any un-bound material present on the test surface, by a series of surface washings, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth was eliminated. Of the agents tested only one appeared to have an inhibitory effect which could be attributed to a true antimicrobial surface effect, Amical 48. As there is little known about this agent in the literature, its affect on yeast growth was examined and in particular a proposal for the mode of action on yeast is discussed, providing a plausible explanation for the inhibitory effect observed when this agent is covalently immobilised onto nylon. (author)

  9. Inhibition of charge recombination for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells and self-powered UV sensors by surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Liang, E-mail: chuliang@njupt.edu.cn [Advanced Energy Technology Center, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Zhengfei; Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering (SMSE), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Xin’guo, E-mail: maxg2013@sohu.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Inhibition of charge recombination was utilized to prolong electrode lifetime in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered UV sensors based on TiO{sub 2}-modified SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the electron lifetime was significantly prolonged in DSSCs after TiO{sub 2} modification. And in self-powered UV sensors, the sensitivity and response time were enhanced. - Highlights: • The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in photovoltaic devices. • Inhibition of charge recombination can prolong electrode lifetime in photovoltaic devices. • Enhanced DSSCs and self-powered UV sensors based on SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes were obtained by TiO{sub 2} modification. - Abstract: The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered ultraviolet (UV) sensors based on SnO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres by TiO{sub 2} modification. For DSSCs with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved from 1.40% to 4.15% under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the charge recombination was effectively inhibited, resulting in long electron lifetime. For UV sensors with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2} layer, the self-powered property was more obvious, and the sensitivity and response time were enhanced from 91 to 6229 and 0.15 s to 0.055 s, respectively. The surface modification can engineer the interface energy to inhibit charge recombination, which is a desirable approach to improve the performance of photoelectric nanodevice.

  10. Preparation of poly(2-chloroaniline) membrane and plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kir, E.; Oksuz, L.; Helhel, S.

    2006-01-01

    P2ClAn membranes were obtained from chemically synthesized poly(2-chloroaniline) (P2ClAn) by casting method. These membranes were cast from dimethyl formamide (DMF) and were in the undoped state. P2ClAn membranes were characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements of water content capacity, membrane thickness and ion-exchange capacity of the cast membranes were carried out. P2ClAn membranes were treated by electron cylotron resonance (ECR) plasma for surface modification. Plasma treatment has been successfully utilized for improving the surface properties of P2ClAn membranes such as increasing pore diameters and number of pores for better anion or molecule transportation

  11. Surface Modifications of Support Partitions for Stabilizing Biomimetic Membrane Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    with a high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio. We demonstratesd this by reconstituting gA and α-hemolysin (α-HL) into BLM arrays. The improvement in membrane array lifetime and s/n ratio demonstrates that surface plasma polymerization of the supporting partition can be used to increase the stability of biomimetic......Black lipid membrane (BLM) formation across apertures in an ethylene tetra-fluoroethylene (ETFE) partition separating two aqueous compartments is an established technique for the creation of biomimetic membranes. Recently multi-aperture BLM arrays have attracted interest and in order to increase...... BLM array stability we studied the effect of covalently modifying the partition substrate using surface plasma polymerization with hydrophobic n-hexene, 1-decene and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as modification groups. Average lifetimes across singlesided HMDSO modified partitions or using 1-decene...

  12. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10 13 -5x10 14 ions/cm 2 using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10 14 ions/cm 2 ) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed

  13. Carbon ion irradiation induced surface modification of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A. E-mail: abhijit@alpha.iuc.res.in; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N

    2001-12-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies in the fluence range of 5x10{sup 13}-5x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} using 3 MV tandem accelerator. Ion penetration was limited to a few microns and surface modifications were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. At the lowest ion fluence only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 {mu}m) were observed, but at higher fluence (1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) a three-dimensional network structure was found to form. A gradual degradation in the network structure was observed with further increase in the ion fluence. The dose dependence of the changes on surface morphology of polypropylene is discussed.

  14. Plasma immersion surface modification with metal ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Yu, K.M.; Godechot, X.

    1991-04-01

    We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including' conventional' high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way. 22 refs., 4 figs

  15. Directly thiolated modification onto the surface of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chuang, Hong; Cheng, Fong-Yu; Huang, Ying-Pei; Han, Chien-Chung; Chen, Jiun-Yu; Huang, Su-Chin; Chen, Jen-Kun; Wu, Dian-Syue; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ching

    2014-05-28

    An efficient method for modifying the surface of detonation nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with thiol groups (-SH) by using an organic chemistry strategy is presented herein. Thiolated nanodiamonds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and the atomic percentage of sulfur was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation between thiolated nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles was elucidated by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrometry. Moreover, the material did not show significant cytotoxicity to the human lung carcinoma cell line and may prospectively be applied in bioconjugated technology. The new method that we elucidated may significantly improve the approach to surface modification of detonation nanodiamonds and build up a new platform for the application of nanodiamonds.

  16. Laser Surface Treatment and Modification of Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Muna Khethier

    2018-02-01

    The present work aimed to study the laser surface treatment and modification of Al-4.0%Cu-1.0%Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with 10%SiC particles produced by stir casting. The specimens of the base alloy and composite were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser of 1000 mJ, 1064 nm and 3 Hz . Dry wear test using the pin-on -disc technique at different sliding times (5-30 min) at a constant applied load and sliding speed were performed before and after laser treatment. Micro hardness and wear resistance were increased for all samples after laser hardening treatment. The improvement of these properties is explained by microstructural homogenization and grain refinement of the laser treated surface. Modification and refinement of SiC particles and grain refinement in the microstructure of the aluminum alloy matrix (α-Al) were observed by optical and SEM micrographs. The highest increase in hardness was 21.4% and 26.2% for the base alloy and composite sample respectively.

  17. Green aqueous surface modification of polypropylene for novel polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Vennerberg, Danny; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-25

    Polypropylene is one of the most widely used commercial commodity polymers; among many other applications, it is used for electronic and structural applications. Despite its commercial importance, the hydrophobic nature of polypropylene limits its successful application in some fields, in particular for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites. Here, a facile, plasma-assisted, biomimetic, environmentally friendly method was developed to enhance the interfacial interactions in polymer nanocomposites by modifying the surface of polypropylene. Plasma treated polypropylene was surface-modified with polydopamine (PDA) in an aqueous medium without employing other chemicals. The surface modification strategy used here was based on the easy self-polymerization and strong adhesion characteristics of dopamine (DA) under ambient laboratory conditions. The changes in surface characteristics of polypropylene were investigated using FTIR, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, the surface modified polypropylene was used as the matrix to prepare SiO2-reinforced polymer nanocomposites. These nanocomposites demonstrated superior properties compared to nanocomposites prepared using pristine polypropylene. This simple, environmentally friendly, green method of modifying polypropylene indicated that polydopamine-functionalized polypropylene is a promising material for various high-performance applications.

  18. Surface modification of biomaterials and biomedical devices using additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Robertson, Samuel Ford; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-01-15

    The demand for synthetic biomaterials in medical devices, pharmaceutical products and, tissue replacement applications are growing steadily due to aging population worldwide. The use for patient matched devices is also increasing due to availability and integration of new technologies. Applications of additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing (3DP) in biomaterials have also increased significantly over the past decade towards traditional as well as innovative next generation Class I, II and III devices. In this review, we have focused our attention towards the use of AM in surface modified biomaterials to enhance their in vitro and in vivo performances. Specifically, we have discussed the use of AM to deliberately modify the surfaces of different classes of biomaterials with spatial specificity in a single manufacturing process as well as commented on the future outlook towards surface modification using AM. It is widely understood that the success of implanted medical devices depends largely on favorable material-tissue interactions. Additive manufacturing has gained traction as a viable and unique approach to engineered biomaterials, for both bulk and surface properties that improve implant outcomes. This review explores how additive manufacturing techniques have been and can be used to augment the surfaces of biomedical devices for direct clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving the Operational Stability of PBDTTTz-4 Polymer Solar Cells Modules by Electrode Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PBDTTTz-4 is employed in the ambient manufacturing of fully Roll-to-Roll organic solar cell modules. Modules are manufactured using a novel silver nanowire electrode or a previously reported carbon electrode. The average PCE of carbon modules (3.07%) and AgNW modules (1.46%) shows that PBDTTTz-4...

  20. Surface modification of closed plastic bags for adherent cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, K.; Dohse, A.; Thomas, M.; Pohl, S.; Meyring, W.; Dittmar, K. E. J.; Lindenmeier, W.; Klages, C.-P.

    2011-07-01

    In modern medicine human mesenchymal stem cells are becoming increasingly important. However, a successful cultivation of this type of cells is only possible under very specific conditions. Of great importance, for instance, are the absence of contaminants such as foreign microbiological organisms, i.e., sterility, and the chemical functionalization of the ground on which the cells are grown. As cultivation of these cells makes high demands, a new procedure for cell cultivation has been developed in which closed plastic bags are used. For adherent cell growth chemical functional groups have to be introduced on the inner surface of the plastic bag. This can be achieved by a new, atmospheric-pressure plasma-based method presented in this paper. The method which was developed jointly by the Fraunhofer IST and the Helmholtz HZI can be implemented in automated equipment as is also shown in this contribution. Plasma process gases used include helium or helium-based gas mixtures (He + N2 + H2) and vapors of suitable film-forming agents or precursors such as APTMS, DACH, and TMOS in helium. The effect of plasma treatment is investigated by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as well as surface tension determination based on contact angle measurements and XPS. Plasma treatment in nominally pure helium increases the surface tension of the polymer foil due to the presence of oxygen traces in the gas and oxygen diffusing through the gas-permeable foil, respectively, reacting with surface radical centers formed during contact with the discharge. Primary amino groups are obtained on the inner surface by treatment in mixtures with nitrogen and hydrogen albeit their amount is comparably small due to diffusion of oxygen through the gas-permeable bag, interfering with the plasma-amination process. Surface modifications introducing amino groups on the inner surface turned out to be most efficient in the promotion of cell growth.

  1. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Shu-Chuan [Center of Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ying-Fang [Department of Dentistry, Yun-Lin Branch, National Taiwan University Hospital, Dou-Liu, Yun-Lin, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-You [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Yi-Syuan [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjt@cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa, 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 133, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R{sup 2} range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  2. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R 2 range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  3. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun; Liao, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ying-Fang; Huang, Yi-You; Wei, Yi-Syuan; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R2 range, 0.94-0.965, 0.934-0.972, and 0.874-0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  4. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Li, Dayou [JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  5. Improving the Response of Copper(II) Selective PVC Membrane Electrode by Modification of N2S2 Donor Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinić, Slobodan; Buzuk, Marijo; Generalić, Eni; Bralić, Marija

    2010-06-01

    S,S'-bis(2-aminophenyl)ethanebis(thioate), (APhET), is reported as N2S2 ligand which form chelate with copper of high stability as compared to the other metals. Two modification of APhET, simpler 1,2-di-(o-aminophenylthio)ethane (DAPhTE), and the complex one 1,2-di-(o-salicylaldiminophenylthio)ethane (SAPhTE), were examined as the active material for copper(II) ion selective PVC membrane electrodes, and observed results are correlated. The obtained results with DAPhTE based electrodes show that only coordination abilities of ligand are insufficient for preparing the efficient membrane material. On the other hand, the results that are achieved with electrodes based on SAPhTE actuate interaction of ligand with polymer membrane matrix and necessity of ionophore immobilization in membrane. Optimized SAPhTE based membrane electrode has a linear range down to 10-6 mol L-1, with slope of 27.0 mV per decade, very rapid response time (under 5 seconds) and detection limit of 5.1 × 10-7 mol L-1. Such electrode is suitable for determination of copper(II) in analytical measurements by direct potentiometry and in potentiometric titrations, within pH between 2 and 7. The electrode is selective for copper(II) ions over a large number of metal ions, with the exception on Hg2+ ion when is present in concentrations above 2 × 10-5 mol L-1.

  6. Surface modification effects of fluorine-doped tin dioxide by oxygen plasma ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng; Liu, Cai; Zhang, Jingquan; Wu, Lili; Li, Wei; Feng, Lianghuan; Zeng, Guanggen; Wang, Wenwu

    2018-04-01

    SnO2:F (FTO), as a kind of transparent conductive oxide (TCO), exhibits excellent transmittance and conductivity and is widely used as transparency electrodes in solar cells. It's very important to modifying the surface of FTO for it plays a critical role in CdTe solar cells. In this study, modifying effects of oxygen plasma on FTO was investigated systematically. Oxygen plasma treatment on FTO surface with ion accelerating voltage ranged from 0.4 kV to 1.6 kV has been processed. The O proportion of surface was increased after ion implantation. The Fermi level of surface measurement by XPS valance band spectra was lowered as the ion accelerating voltage increased to 1.2 kV and then raised as accelerating voltage was elevated to 1.6 kV. The work function measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy increased after ion implanting, and it was consistent with the variation of Fermi level. The change of energy band structure of FTO surface mainly originated from the surface composition variation. As FTO conduction was primarily due to oxyanion hole, the carrier was electron and its concentration was reduced while O proportion was elevated at the surface of FTO, as a result, the Fermi level lowered and the work function was enlarged. It was proved that oxygen plasma treatment is an effective method to modulate the energy band structure of the surface as well as other properties of FTO, which provides much more space for interface and surface modification and then photoelectric device performance promotion.

  7. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    Neural electrode devices hold great promise to help people with the restoration of lost functions, however, research is lacking in the biomaterial design of a stable, long-term device. Current devices lack long term functionality, most have been found unable to record neural activity within weeks after implantation due to the development of glial scar tissue (Polikov et al., 2006; Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008). The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar made up of reactive astrocytes and the matrix proteins they generate (Polikov et al., 2005; Seil and Webster, 2008). Scarring is initiated when a device is inserted into brain tissue and is associated with an inflammatory response. Activated astrocytes are hypertrophic, hyperplastic, have an upregulation of intermediate filaments GFAP and vimentin expression, and filament formation (Buffo et al., 2010; Gervasi et al., 2008). Current approaches towards inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape and materials of the device (Grill et al., 2009; Kotov et al., 2009; Kotzar et al., 2002; Szarowski et al., 2003). Literature has shown that surface topography modifications can alter cell alignment, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and gene expression (Agnew et al., 1983; Cogan et al., 2005; Cogan et al., 2006; Merrill et al., 2005). Thus, the goals of the presented work are to study the cellular response to biomaterials used in neural electrode fabrication and assess surface topography effects on minimizing astrogliosis. Initially, to examine astrocyte response to various materials used in neural electrode fabrication, astrocytes were cultured on platinum, silicon, PMMA, and SU-8 surfaces, with polystyrene as the control surface. Cell proliferation, viability, morphology and gene expression was measured for seven days in vitro. Results determined the cellular characteristics, reactions and growth rates of astrocytes

  8. Modification of polymer surfaces to enhance enzyme activity and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian

    Enzyme immobilization is an important concept for the development of improved biocatalytic processes, primarily through facilitated separation procedures. However, enzyme immobilization usually comes at a price of reduced biocatalytic activity. For this reason, different immobilization methods have...... already been developed, combining the same goal to improve enzyme activity, stability and selectivity. Polymer materials have shown, due to their easy processibility and versatile properties, high potential as enzyme support. However, in order to achieve improved enzyme performance, the combination...... on their tailored surface modification in order to obtain improved enzyme-support systems. Firstly, an off-stoichiometric thiol-ene (OSTE) thermosetting material was used for the development of a screening platform allowing the investigation of micro-environmental effects and their impact on the activity...

  9. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    contact" between two contacting surfaces. The studies found that AuNP thin films produced using the lowest initial concentrations of nanoparticles in solution produced estimated real contact areas of around 1%, reducing the adhesion of oxidized Si (100) surfaces from about 37 mJ/m2 down to 0.02 mJ/m 2. In addition, the reducing in real contact area effectively reduced the coefficient of static friction between silicon-based surfaces due to the extremely high dependence of stiction on friction and wear at the microscale. This work also investigated methods of permanently immobilizing AuNP-based films on the silicon surfaces of microstructures in order to create more mechanically robust coatings. The use of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized with tail-groups known to bond to metallic surfaces were effective in producing much more durable coatings as opposed to non-immobilized AuNP films. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques were also used to coat rough AuNP films with very thin films of silica (SiO2) to create a robust, rough surface. This method was also very effective in creating a durable coating which is capable of reducing the adhesion energy and friction between two microscale surfaces for extended periods of time. Similar CVD techniques were also used to begin investigating the production of alumina nanoparticle-based superhydrophobic films for use in consumer electronics. Overall, the work presented in this dissertation illustrates that engineered nanoparticle-based surface modifications can be extremely effective in the reduction of the inherent interfacial phenomena that exist on microfabricated systems. This work is can potentially lead us into a new age of the miniaturization of mechanical and electronic devices.

  10. Effects of surface modification on the critical behaviour in multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z X

    2013-01-01

    Using the usual mean-field theory approximation, the critical behaviour (i.e. the Curie temperature T c and the critical surface transverse field Ω sc ) in a multiple-surface-layer ferroelectric thin film is studied on the basis of the spin- 1/2 transverse Ising model. The dependence of the Curie temperature T c on the surface transverse field Ω s and the surface layer number N s are discussed in detail. Meanwhile the dependence of the critical surface transverse field Ω sc on the surface layer number N s is also examined. The numerical results indicate that the critical behaviour of ferroelectric thin films is obviously affected by modifications of the surface transverse field Ω s and surface layer number N s .

  11. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  12. Graphite anode surface modification with controlled reduction of specific aryl diazonium salts for improved microbial fuel cells power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Matthieu; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Rothballer, Michael; Barrière, Frédéric

    2011-10-15

    Graphite electrodes were modified with reduction of aryl diazonium salts and implemented as anodes in microbial fuel cells. First, reduction of 4-aminophenyl diazonium is considered using increased coulombic charge density from 16.5 to 200 mC/cm(2). This procedure introduced aryl amine functionalities at the surface which are neutral at neutral pH. These electrodes were implemented as anodes in "H" type microbial fuel cells inoculated with waste water, acetate as the substrate and using ferricyanide reduction at the cathode and a 1000 Ω external resistance. When the microbial anode had developed, the performances of the microbial fuel cells were measured under acetate saturation conditions and compared with those of control microbial fuel cells having an unmodified graphite anode. We found that the maximum power density of microbial fuel cell first increased as a function of the extent of modification, reaching an optimum after which it decreased for higher degree of surface modification, becoming even less performing than the control microbial fuel cell. Then, the effect of the introduction of charged groups at the surface was investigated at a low degree of surface modification. It was found that negatively charged groups at the surface (carboxylate) decreased microbial fuel cell power output while the introduction of positively charged groups doubled the power output. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microbial anode modified with positively charged groups was covered by a dense and homogeneous biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that this biofilm consisted to a large extent of bacteria from the known electroactive Geobacter genus. In summary, the extent of modification of the anode was found to be critical for the microbial fuel cell performance. The nature of the chemical group introduced at the electrode surface was also found to significantly affect the performance of the microbial fuel cells. The method used for

  13. Determination of the level of DNA modification with cisplatin by catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáková, Petra; Tesnohlídková, Lucie; Havran, Ludek; Vidláková, Pavlína; Pivonková, Hana; Fojta, Miroslav

    2010-04-01

    Electrochemical methods proved useful as simple and inexpensive tools for the analysis of natural as well as chemically modified nucleic acids. In particular, covalently attached metal-containing groups usually render the DNA well-pronounced electrochemical activity related to redox processes of the metal moieties, which can in some cases be coupled to catalytic hydrogen evolution at mercury or some types of amalgam electrodes. In this paper we used voltammetry at the mercury-based electrodes for the monitoring of DNA modification with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin), a representative of metallodrugs used in the treatment of various types of cancer or being developed for such purpose. In cyclic voltammetry at the mercury electrode, the cisplatin-modified DNA yielded catalytic currents the intensity of which reflected DNA modification extent. In square-wave voltammetry, during anodic polarization after prereduction of the cisplatinated DNA, a well-developed, symmetrical signal (peak P) was obtained. Intensity of the peak P linearly responded to the extent of DNA modification at levels relevant for biochemical studies (rb = 0.01-0.10, where rb is the number of platinum atoms bound per DNA nucleotide). We demonstrate a correlation between the peak P intensity and a loss of sequence-specific DNA binding by tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as blockage of DNA digestion by a restriction endonuclease Msp I (both caused by the DNA cisplatination). Application of the electrochemical technique in studies of DNA reactivity with various anticancer platinum compounds, as well as for an easy determination of the extent of DNA platination in studies of its biochemical effects, is discussed.

  14. Self-assembling triblock proteins for biofunctional surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephen E.

    of the triblock protein hydrogels, and the ease of introducing multiple functionalities to a substrate surface, a surface coating is tailored for neural stem cell culture in order to improve proliferation on the scaffold, while maintaining the stem cell phenotype. These studies demonstrate the unique advantages of genetic engineering over traditional techniques for surface modification. In addition to their unmatched sequence fidelity, recombinant proteins can easily be modified with bioactive ligands and their organization into coherent, supramolecular structures mimics natural self-assembly processes.

  15. Method of electrode printing on one or more surfaces of a dielectric substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein is a method for printing electrodes surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Provided herein is a new method of depositing electrically conductive electrodes of any shape on flexible and/or rigid dielectric substrates/surfaces and devices so produced. In various embodiments, the devices can generate ionic wind, for example to remove dust or other debris or contaminants or to remove ice or humidity from a surface.

  16. Method of electrode printing on one or more surfaces of a dielectric substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2017-01-01

    Described herein is a method for printing electrodes surfaces of a dielectric substrate. Provided herein is a new method of depositing electrically conductive electrodes of any shape on flexible and/or rigid dielectric substrates/surfaces and devices so produced. In various embodiments, the devices can generate ionic wind, for example to remove dust or other debris or contaminants or to remove ice or humidity from a surface.

  17. Designing Pulse Laser Surface Modification of H13 Steel Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqida, S. N.; Brabazon, D.; Naher, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design of experiment (DOE) for laser surface modification process of AISI H13 tool steel in achieving the maximum hardness and minimum surface roughness at a range of modified layer depth. A Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 slab laser was used to process AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples of 10 mm diameter were sectioned to 100 mm length in order to process a predefined circumferential area. The parameters selected for examination were laser peak power, overlap percentage and pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The response surface method with Box-Behnken design approach in Design Expert 7 software was used to design the H13 laser surface modification process. Metallographic study and image analysis were done to measure the modified layer depth. The modified surface roughness was measured using two-dimensional surface profilometer. The correlation of the three laser processing parameters and the modified surface properties was specified by plotting three-dimensional graph. The hardness properties were tested at 981 mN force. From metallographic study, the laser modified surface depth was between 37 μm and 150 μm. The average surface roughness recorded from the 2D profilometry was at a minimum value of 1.8 μm. The maximum hardness achieved was between 728 and 905 HV0.1. These findings are significant to modern development of hard coatings for wear resistant applications.

  18. Modification of the Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Layer for Use in Silver Nanogrid Electrodes for Flexible Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fei, Fei; Luo, Qun; Nie, Shuhong; Wu, Na; Chen, Xiaolian; Su, Wenming; Li, Yuanjie; Ma, Chang-Qi

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanogrid based flexible transparent electrode is recognized as the most promising alternative to ITO electrode for organic electronics, owing to its low production cost and excellent flexibility. Typically, a highly conductive thin film coating layer, such as highly conductive PEDOT:PSS (HC-PEDOT:PSS) is usually deposited onto the Ag-grid electrode to smooth the surface and to minimize the sheet resistance. In this paper, we found that inverted flexible polymer solar cells with structure of Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS/ZnO/photoactive layer/MoO 3 /Al generally exhibits strong S-shaped J-V curves, which could be eliminated by light-soaking treatment. Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) measurement proved that a large work function (WF) difference (0.70 eV) between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO is the main reason for the formation of S-shape. White light soaking of the Ag-grid/HC-PEDOT:PSS gradually decreased the WF of HC-PEDOT:PSS from 5.10 to 4.60 eV, leading to a reduced WF difference between HC-PEDOT:PSS and ZnO from 0.70 to 0.38 eV. Such a WF difference decrease was believed to be the working mechanism for the light-soaking effect in this flexible device. Based on this finding, the HC-PEDOT:PSS solution was then modified by doping with polyethylenimine (PEI) and aqueous ammonia. The modified PEDOT:PSS film is characteristic of adjusting WF through varying PEI doping concentrations. By using such a modified PEDOT:PSS layer, light-soaking-free flexible inverted polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 6.58% was achieved for PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM cells. The current work provides a useful guideline for interfacial modification for Ag-grid based flexible electrode.

  19. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2008-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...

  20. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a polymer/mediator composite and its application for the electrochemical detection of iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chia-Yu; Balamurugan, A.; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Hu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yen; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FAD and PEDOT are combined to modify the glassy carbon electrode for IO 3 − sensing. ► The doping of FAD into PEDOT matrix can almost be viewed as an irreversible process. ► The optimal cycle number for preparing the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode is found to be 9. ► The detection limit of the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode for IO 3 − is found to be 0.16 μM. ► The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode possesses enough selectivity toward IO 3 − . - Abstract: A modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by depositing a composite of polymer and mediator on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The mediator, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were electrochemically deposited as a composite on the GCE by applying cyclic voltammetry (CV). This modified electrode is hereafter designated as GCE/PEDOT/FAD. FAD was found to significantly enhance the growth of PEDOT. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) analysis was performed to study the mass changes in the electrode during the electrodeposition of PEDOT, with and without the addition of FAD. The optimal cycle number for preparing the modified electrode was determined to be 9, and the corresponding surface coverage of FAD (Γ FAD ) was ca. 5.11 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 . The amperometric detection of iodate was performed in a 100 mM buffer solution (pH 1.5). The GCE/PEDOT/FAD showed a sensitivity of 0.78 μA μM −1 cm −2 , a linear range of 4–140 μM, and a limit of detection of 0.16 μM for iodate. The interference effects of 250-fold Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cl − , NO 3 − , I − , SO 4 2− and SO 3 2− , with reference to the concentration of iodate were negligible. The long-term stability of GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also investigated. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode retained 82% of its initial amperometric response to iodate after 7 days. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also applied to determine iodate in a commercial salt.

  1. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  2. Preparation and modification of carbon nanotubes electrodes by cold plasmas processes toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, E. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Thobie-Gautier, C. [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Tailleur, A.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Granier, A.; Tessier, P.Y. [IMN, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Debarnot, D.; Poncin-Epaillard, F. [PCI, Universite du Maine, CNRS, rue Aristote, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Boujtita, M., E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.f [CEISAM, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2010-11-30

    An electrochemical transducer based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was prepared as a platform for biosensor development. Prior to enzyme immobilization, the CNT were treated using a microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) in order to functionalize the CNT surface with oxygenated and aminated groups. The morphological aspect of the electrode surface was examined by SEM and its chemical structure was also elucidated by XPS analysis. It was found out that microwave plasma system (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) not only functionalizes the CNT but also permits to avoid the collapse phenomena retaining thus the alignment structure of the electrode surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting new material based on CNT were carried out by cyclic voltammetry and were found suitable to develop high sensitive enzyme (HRP) biosensors operating on direct electron transfer process.

  3. Changes on iron electrode surface during hydrogen permeation in borate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modiano, S.; Carreno, J.A.V.; Fugivara, C.S.; Torresi, R.M.; Vivier, V.; Benedetti, A.V.; Mattos, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen interaction with oxide films grown on iron electrodes at open circuit potential (E oc ) and in the passive region (+0.30 V ECS ) was studied by chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results were obtained in deaerated 0.3 mol L -1 H 3 BO 3 + 0.075 mol L -1 Na 2 B 4 O 7 (BB, pH 8.4) solution before, during and after hydrogen permeation. The iron oxide film modification was also investigated by means of in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) before and during hydrogen permeation. The main conclusion was that the passive film is reduced during the hydrogen diffusion. The hydrogen permeation stabilizes the iron surface at a potential close to the thermodynamic water stability line where hydrogen evolution can occur. The stationary condition required for the determination of the permeation parameters cannot be easily attained on iron surface during hydrogen permeation. Moreover, additional attention must be paid when obtaining the transport parameters using the classical permeation cell

  4. Localization, correlation, and visualization of electroencephalographic surface electrodes and brain anatomy in epilepsy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Robb, Richard A.; Sharbrough, Frank W.

    1997-05-01

    Advances in neuroimaging have enhanced the clinician's ability to localize the epileptogenic zone in focal epilepsy, but 20-50 percent of these cases still remain unlocalized. Many sophisticated modalities have been used to study epilepsy, but scalp electrode recorded electroencephalography is particularly useful due to its noninvasive nature and excellent temporal resolution. This study is aimed at specific locations of scalp electrode EEG information for correlation with anatomical structures in the brain. 3D position localizing devices commonly used in virtual reality systems are used to digitize the coordinates of scalp electrodes in a standard clinical configuration. The electrode coordinates are registered with a high- resolution MRI dataset using a robust surface matching algorithm. Volume rendering can then be used to visualize the electrodes and electrode potentials interpolated over the scalp. The accuracy of the coordinate registration is assessed quantitatively with a realistic head phantom.

  5. Silver nanowire/polyaniline composite transparent electrode with improved surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.B.V. Kiran; Jiang, Jianwei; Bae, Chang Wan; Seo, Dong Min; Piao, Longhai; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AgNWs/PANI transparent electrode was prepared by layer-by-layer coating method. • The surface roughness of the electrode reached to 6.5 nm (root mean square). • The electrode had reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%). - Abstract: Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are as potential candidates to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in transparent electrodes because of their preferred conducting and optical properties. However, their rough surface properties are not favorable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as displays and thin-film solar cells. In the present investigation, AgNWs/polyaniline composite transparent electrodes with better surface properties were successfully prepared. AgNWs were incorporated into polyaniline:polystyrene sulfonate (PANI:PSS) by layer-by-layer coating and mechanical pressing. PANI:PSS decreased the surface roughness of the AgNWs electrode by filling the gap of the random AgNWs network. The transparent composite electrode had decreased surface roughness (root mean square 6.5 nm) with reasonable sheet resistance (25 Ω/□) and transmittance (83.5%)

  6. Surface modification of porous titanium with rice husk as space holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinsheng; Hou, Junjian; Liu, Yanpei

    2018-06-01

    Porous titanium was characterized after its surface modification by acid and alkali solution immersion. The results show that the acid surface treatment caused the emergence of flocculent sodium titanate and induced apatite formation. The surface modification of porous titanium promotes biological activation, and the application of porous titanium is also improved as an implant material because of the existence of C and Si.

  7. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  8. Numerical modelling of needle-grid electrodes for negative surface corona charging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Y; Chen, G; Rotaru, M

    2011-01-01

    Surface potential decay measurement is a simple and low cost tool to examine electrical properties of insulation materials. During the corona charging stage, a needle-grid electrodes system is often used to achieve uniform charge distribution on the surface of the sample. In this paper, a model using COMSOL Multiphysics has been developed to simulate the gas discharge. A well-known hydrodynamic drift-diffusion model was used. The model consists of a set of continuity equations accounting for the movement, generation and loss of charge carriers (electrons, positive and negative ions) coupled with Poisson's equation to take into account the effect of space and surface charges on the electric field. Four models with the grid electrode in different positions and several mesh sizes are compared with a model that only has the needle electrode. The results for impulse current and surface charge density on the sample clearly show the effect of the extra grid electrode with various positions.

  9. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  10. Integration of microplasma and microfluidic technologies for localised microchannel surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szili, Endre J.; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A.; Priest, Craig; Gruner, Philipp J.; Ruschitzka, Paul; Bradley, James W.; Ralston, John; Steele, David A.; Short, Robert D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the spatial surface chemical modification of bonded microchannels through the integration of microplasmas into a microfluidic chip (MMC). The composite MMC comprises an array of precisely aligned electrodes surrounding the gas/fluid microchannel. Pairs of electrodes are used to locally ignite microplasmas inside the microchannel. Microplasmas, comprising geometrically confined microscopic electrically-driven gas discharges, are used to spatially functionalise the walls of the microchannels with proteins and enzymes down to scale lengths of 300 μm inside 50 μm-wide microchannels. Microchannels in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) or glass were used in this study. Protein specifically adsorbed on to the regions inside the PDMS microchannel that were directly exposed to the microplasma. Glass microchannels required pre-functionalisation to enable the spatial patterning of protein. Firstly, the microchannel wall was functionalised with a protein adhesion layer, 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES), and secondly, a protein blocking agent (bovine serum albumin, BSA) was adsorbed onto APTES. The functionalised microchannel wall was then treated with an array of spatially localised microplasmas that reduced the blocking capability of the BSA in the region that had been exposed to the plasma. This enabled the functionalisation of the microchannel with an array of spatially separated protein. As an alternative we demonstrated the feasibility of depositing functional thin films inside the MMC by spatially plasma depositing acrylic acid and 1,7-octadiene within the microchannel. This new MMC technology enables the surface chemistry of microchannels to be engineered with precision, which is expected to broaden the scope of lab-on-a-chip type applications.

  11. Surface modifications induced by hydrogen in AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelista, G.E.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen induced surface modifications of type AISI 304 SS were studied by charging the samples in a 1N a 1N H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at room temperature. Current densities were varied from 500 to 4000 A/m 2 and charging times from 2 to 50 hours. Charged specimens were analysed using optical and electron scanning microscopy. Vickers microhardness tests with small load was also performed. Metallographic etching metodologies were developed (in black and white and colored photographies) which permited identification of all phases present. It was shown that delayed cracks appear somewhat curved on austenite and perfectly strainght on martensite, following the intersections of a phase platlets. These are the regions where α' martensite is located. The habit plane of these cracks might belong to (100) sub(γ) or (221) sub(γ) plane families. A new phenomenon termed hydrogen induced softening was observed on type AISI 304 SS at elevated current densities and/or charging times. (Author) [pt

  12. Charged particle modification of surfaces in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Voyager reflectance spectra data have indicated clear leading/trailing differences in the albedo of the icy Galilean and Saturian satellites. For the Galilean satellites, these have been analyzed by Nelson, et al. and, more recently, by McEwen. They have described the longitudinal dependence of this data and attempted to interpret this in terms of plasma and meteorite modification of the surface. Primary attention has been paid to Europa at which the leading/trailing differences are the largest. This data was reanalyzed extracting the single grain albedo (w) and constructing the Espat-function, W = (1-w)/w from this. Because w is near unity, W is approximately 2(alpha)D where alpha is the absorption coefficient and D is the grain size. In doing so, a direct comparison to the longitudinal plasma bombardment flux was found for the first time. This occurs primarily in the UV and is probably due to an absorption associated with implanted S, as the UV band of Voyager overlaps the IUE data of Lane et al. The relative importance of grain size effects and implant impurity effects can now be studied

  13. Construction of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces by thermal spray deposition and further surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Gong, Yongfeng; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a simple and cost-effective technical route for constructing superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance on various substrates. Rough surface structures were fabricated by thermal spray deposition of a variety of inorganic materials, and further surface modification was made by applying a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene. Results show that the Al, Cu, or NiCrBSi coatings with the surface roughness of up to 13.8 μm offer rough surface profile to complement the topographical morphology in micro-/nano-scaled sizes, and the hydrophobic molecules facilitate the hydrophobicity. The contact angles of water droplets of ∼155° with a sliding angle of up to 3.5° on the samples have been achieved. The newly constructed superhydrophobic coatings tolerate strong abrasion, giving clear insight into their long-term functional applications.

  14. Surface modifications of the Sima de los Huesos fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Fernandez Jalvo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The sample of fossil human bones from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, has been analysed to trace parts of its taphonomic history. The work reported here is restricted to analysis of the skeletal elements preserved and their surface modifications. Preliminary plans of specimen distribution published 6 years ago indicate that the skeletal elements are dispersed within the cave, but more recent data are not yet available. Most of the fossils are broken, with some breakage when the bone was fresh and some when already partly mineralized, both types showing some rounding. There are few longitudinal breaks on shafts of long bones and so very few bone splinters. All skeletal elements are preserved but in unequal proportions, with elements like femora, humeri and mandibles and teeth with greater structural density being best represented. There is no evidence of weathering or of human damage such as cut marks on any of the human assemblage, but trampling damage is present on most bones. Carnivore damage is also common, with some present on more than half the sample, but it is mostly superficial, either on the surfaces of shafts and articular ends or on the edges of spiral breaks. The sizes and distribution of the carnivore pits indicate extensive canid activity, and this is interpreted as scavenging of the bones in place in the cave. Indications of tooth marks from a larger carnivore indicate the activity possibly of a large felid: the marks are too large to be produced by small canids, with the larger marks concentrated on spiral breaks on the more robust bones, and there is no evidence of bone crushing and splintering in the manner of hyaenas. The nature of the SH human assemblage is also consistent with accumulation by humans, the evidence for this being the lack of other animals, especially the lack of herbivorous animals, associated with the humans, and the high number of individuals preserved.

  15. Model tests for corrosion influence of electrode surface on electroosmosis in marine sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingwei; Li, Jinzhu; Shi, Hanru

    2017-11-01

    The corrosion of metal electrodes is inevitable on electroosmosis in soil. Surface corrosion of electrodes is also one of the reasons for increasing energy consumption in electroosmosis treatment. A series of laboratory tests were conducted employing three kinds of materials, aluminium, steel, and brass. To explore the impact of surface corrosion degree on electroosmosis, metal electrodes were pretreated with durations 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h. After the pretreatment, corroded electrodes are used as anodes on electroosmosis. Water discharge, current, voltage potential were measured during the tests; water content was also tested at three points after the electroosmosis. The results showed that aluminium was better than steel in electroosmotic drainage while brass provided the worst dewatering performance. Surface corrosion did not influence the aluminium and steel on electroosmosis in marine sludge, but brass did. In the pretreatment of brass electrodes, corrosion rate had started to slow down at later periods, with the deterioration rate of dewatering reduced afterwards. As the results showed, it is not recommended to employ those easily deteriorated electrode materials from surface corrosion in practical engineering, such as brass; electrode material with higher electroosmosis exchange rate is recommended, such as aluminium.

  16. Insights into the Surface Reactivity of Cermet and Perovskite Electrodes in Oxidizing, Reducing, and Humid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloukis, Fotios; Papazisi, Kalliopi M; Dintzer, Thierry; Papaefthimiou, Vasiliki; Saveleva, Viktoriia A; Balomenou, Stella P; Tsiplakides, Dimitrios; Bournel, Fabrice; Gallet, Jean-Jacques; Zafeiratos, Spyridon

    2017-08-02

    Understanding the surface chemistry of electrode materials under gas environments is important in order to control their performance during electrochemical and catalytic applications. This work compares the surface reactivity of Ni/YSZ and La 0.75 Sr 0.25 Cr 0.9 Fe 0.1 O 3 , which are commonly used types of electrodes in solid oxide electrochemical devices. In situ synchrotron-based near-ambient pressure photoemission and absorption spectroscopy experiments, assisted by theoretical spectral simulations and combined with microscopy and electrochemical measurements, are used to monitor the effect of the gas atmosphere on the chemical state, the morphology, and the electrical conductivity of the electrodes. It is shown that the surface of both electrode types readjusts fast to the reactive gas atmosphere and their surface composition is notably modified. In the case of Ni/YSZ, this is followed by evident changes in the oxidation state of nickel, while for La 0.75 Sr 0.25 Cr 0.9 Fe 0.1 O 3 , a fine adjustment of the Cr valence and strong Sr segregation is observed. An important difference between the two electrodes is their capacity to maintain adsorbed hydroxyl groups on their surface, which is expected to be critical for the electrocatalytic properties of the materials. The insight gained from the surface analysis may serve as a paradigm for understanding the effect of the gas environment on the electrochemical performance and the electrical conductivity of the electrodes.

  17. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A V; Pedos, M S; Scherbinin, S V; Mamontov, Y I; Ponomarev, S V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface. (paper)

  18. Modification of a Polycrystalline Gold Electrode by Thiolated Calix[4]arene and Undecanethiol: Self-assembly Process versus Electrochemical Deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustrová, Barbora; Štulík, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), s. 4367-4383 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Thiolated calixarene * Polycrystalline gold * Surface modification Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  19. Study of surface atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma based on ultrathin laminated electrodes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luxiang; Liu, Wenzheng; Li, Zhiyi; Ma, Chuanlong

    2018-05-01

    A method to generate large-area surface plasma in air by micro-discharge is proposed. Two ultrathin laminated electrode structures of non-insulating and insulating types were formed by using the nanoscale ITO conductive layer. The surface glow discharge in atmospheric air is realized in low discharge voltage by constructing the special electric field of two-dimensional unidirectional attenuation. In particular, the insulating electrode structure can avoid the loss of ITO electrodes so that the discharge stability can be increased, and the treated objects can be prevented from metal ion pollution caused by the electrode in the discharge. It has broad application prospects in the fields of aerodynamics and material surface treatment.

  20. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas-Torres, David [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Huerta, Francisco [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell, 1. E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Montilla, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.montilla@ua.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Morallon, Emilia [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Instituto Universitario de Materiales de Alicante, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. de Correos 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong {pi}-{pi} interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  1. Study on electroactive and electrocatalytic surfaces of single walled carbon nanotube-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Torres, David; Huerta, Francisco; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the electrocatalysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes has been performed in this work. Nanotube-modified electrodes present a surface area much higher than the bare glassy carbon surfaces as determined by capacitance measurements. Several redox probes were selected for checking the reactivity of specific sites at the carbon nanotube surface. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the electrode improves the kinetics for all the reactions studied compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode with variations of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant up to 5 orders of magnitude. The most important effects are observed for the benzoquinone/hydroquinone and ferrocene/ferricinium redox couples, which show a remarkable improvement of their electron transfer kinetics on SWCNT-modified electrodes, probably due to strong π-π interaction between the organic molecules and the walls of the carbon nanotubes. For many of the reactions studied, less than 1% of the nanotube-modified electrode surface is transferring charge to species in solution. This result suggests that only nanotube tips are active sites for the electron transfer in such cases. On the contrary, the electroactive surface for the reactions of ferrocene and quinone is higher indicating that the electron transfer is produced also from the nanotube walls.

  2. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  3. Improving surface acousto-optical interaction by high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes that are stro......The acousto-optical interaction of an optical wave confined inside a waveguide and a surface acoustic wave launched by an interdigital transducer (IDT) at the surface of a piezoelectric material is considered. The IDT with high aspect ratio electrodes supports several acoustic modes...

  4. Guest-Host Complex Formed between Ascorbic Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Immobilized on the Surface of an Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ramírez-Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the formation of supramolecular complexes between ascorbic acid (AA, the guest, and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, the host, that was first potentiodynamically immobilized on the surface of a carbon paste electrode (CPE throughout the formation of a β-CD-based conducting polymer (poly-β-CD. With the bare CPE and the β-CD-modified CPE, an electrochemical study was performed to understand the effect of such surface modification on the electrochemical response of the AA. From this study it was shown that on the modified-CPE, the AA was surface-immobilized through formation of an inclusion complex with β-CD, which provoked the adsorption of AA in such a way that this stage became the limiting step for the electrochemical oxidation of AA. Moreover, from the analysis of the experimental voltammetric plots recorded during AA oxidation on the CPE/poly-β-CD electrode surfaces, the Gibbs’ standard free energy of the inclusion complex formed by the oxidation product of AA and β-CD has been determined for the first time, ∆G0inclus = −36.4 kJ/mol.

  5. Studies on polyurethane adhesives and surface modification of hydrophobic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman

    studies involved making functionalized, thickness-controlled, wettability-controlled multilayers on hydrophobic substrates and the adsorption of carboxylic acid-terminated poly(styrene-b-isoprene) on alumina/silica substrates. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has been shown to adsorb onto hydrophobic surfaces irreversibly due to hydrophobic interactions. This thin semicrystalline coating is chemically modified using acid chlorides, butyl isocyanate and butanal to form thicker and hydrophobic coatings. The products of the modification reactions allow adsorption of a subsequent layer of poly(vinyl alcohol) that could subsequently be hydrophobized. This 2-step (adsorption/chemical modification) allows layer-by-layer deposition to prepare coatings with thickness, chemical structure and wettability control on any hydrophobic surface. Research on adsorption characteristics of carboxylic acid-terminated poly(styrene-b-isoprene) involved syntheses of block copolymers with the functional group present at specific ends. Comparative adsorption studies for carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrogen-terminated block copolymers was carried out on alumina and silica substrates.

  6. Surface modification and antimicrobial properties of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, Yulia A.

    Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was performed by acetylation and subsequent reaction with various tertiary amines with different lengths of alkyl groups. Chloroacetic anhydride (95%) was used for acetylation. The acetylation of CNC was confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The bands associated with C=0 stretching (1740 cm-1) and C-Cl stretching (793 cm -1) was present in the acetylated CNC but they were absent in the neat CNC. It has been suggested that the primary hydroxyl groups of CNC are substituted by chloro acetyl groups during acetylation reaction. Subsequent reaction of chloro acetylated CNC with N, N - Dimethyl ethylamine, N, N - Dimethyl hexylamine, N, N - Dimethyl dodecylamine, N, N - Dimethyl hexadecylamine and N, N - Dimethyl decylamine formed quaternary ammonium salts. These quaternary ammonium salts were characterized by FTIR and solid state13C NMR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of five types of quaternary ammonium salts of CNC are similar and they showed infrared bands at 2905 -1 and 2850 cm-1, attributed to symmetrical and unsymmetrical C-H stretching vibration. The absence of C-Cl band at 793 cm-1 proves that quaternary salt formation was successful. The 13C NMR spectrum of quaternary ammonium modified CNC with N, N - Dimethyl dodecylamine shows several additional resonances ranging from 14.5 ppm to 58.0 ppm when compared to 13C NMR spectrum of pure CNC. This evidence proves that long alkyl chains have been added to the pure CNC. The disc diffusion method confirmed that quaternary ammonium modified CNCs with a chain longer than ten carbons are effective antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli bacteria. Pure CNC and quaternary ammonium modified CNCs with an alkyl chain length of ten or less were not able to inhibit bacteria growth.

  7. Surface effects of electrode-dependent switching behavior of resistive random-access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr Jian

    2016-09-26

    The surface effects of ZnO-based resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) were investigated using various electrodes. Pt electrodes were found to have better performance in terms of the device\\'s switching functionality. A thermodynamic model of the oxygen chemisorption process was proposed to explain this electrode-dependent switching behavior. The temperature-dependent switching voltage demonstrates that the ReRAM devices fabricated with Pt electrodes have a lower activation energy for the chemisorption process, resulting in a better resistive switching performance. These findings provide an in-depth understanding of electrode-dependent switching behaviors and can serve as design guidelines for future ReRAM devices.

  8. Vapor phase modification of sol-gel derived titania (TiO{sub 2}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: irek@uni.lodz.pl; Ilik, Aneta [University of Lodz, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2006-12-30

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was used in titania surface modification. Titania layers were obtained in sol-gel process and prepared as thin films on silicon wafers in dip-coating method. In order to define the influence of modification on titania surface properties (e.g., friction), various types of fluoroalkylsilanes were used. The effectiveness of the modification was monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy. The topography and frictional measurements were investigated with the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  9. Polymer Coatings of Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface - An Option for Improving Electrode-Nerve-Interface by Blocking Fibroblast Overgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hadler

    Full Text Available Overgrowth of connective tissue and scar formation induced by the electrode array insertion increase the impedance and, thus, diminish the interactions between neural probes as like cochlear implants (CI and the target tissue. Therefore, it is of great clinical interest to modify the carrier material of the electrodes to improve the electrode nerve interface for selective cell adhesion. On one side connective tissue growth needs to be reduced to avoid electrode array encapsulation, on the other side the carrier material should not compromise the interaction with neuronal cells. The present in vitro-study qualitatively and quantitatively characterises the interaction of fibroblasts, glial cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN with ultrathin poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA, poly(2-ethyloxazoline (PEtOx and poly([2-methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammoniumchlorid (PMTA films immobilised onto glass surfaces using a photoreactive anchor layer. The layer thickness and hydrophilicity of the polymer films were characterised by ellipsometric and water contact angle measurement. Moreover the topography of the surfaces was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The neuronal and non-neuronal cells were dissociated from spiral ganglions of postnatal rats and cultivated for 48 h on top of the polymer coatings. Immunocytochemical staining of neuronal and intermediary filaments revealed that glial cells predominantly attached on PMTA films, but not on PDMAA and PEtOx monolayers. Hereby, strong survival rates and neurite outgrowth were only found on PMTA, whereas PDMAA and PEtOx coatings significantly reduced the SG neuron survival and neuritogenesis. As also shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM SGN strongly survived and retained their differentiated phenotype only on PMTA. In conclusion, survival and neuritogenesis of SGN may be associated with the extent of the glial cell growth. Since PMTA was the only of the polar polymers used in this study

  10. Investigation of atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge and its application to surface modification of textile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoliang Tang; Gao Qiu; Hankun Xie; Xianping Feng

    2005-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. In this paper, the spectral lines of plasma emission at atmospheric pressure were recorded by using a grating spectrograph, and all signals will be directly and immediately sent to the computer for data processing and analysis during the experiments. The spectrum lines of nitrogen, helium and argon plasma emission at atmospheric pressure were separately recorded and qualitatively analyzed using spectral diagnosis equipment of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma. The spectrum lines of the second positive system of nitrogen (c 3 π μ → B 3 Π g ), two characteristic spectrum lines of helium (3 1 P 1 → 2 1 S 0 , 3 3 D → 3 3 P), and all of neutral argon atom spectrum lines in the range 680 to 780 nm are recognized. For controlling the process of material surface modification promptly, the electron temperature of DBD plasma is quantitatively analyzed using relative intensity of argon spectrum lines. The relationships among the plasma parameters, such as discharge current and discharge power measured by Lissajous figure of the oscilloscope, were analyzed by using improved DBD equipment. The variation of plasma discharge current following the change of discharge gaps indicates an existence of critical gap distance. When the gap between electrodes is less than that the critical gap, a quasi-stable atmospheric pressure DBD plasma source can be achieved after carefully controlled discharge voltage and current. The experimental results indicate that a critical discharge gap is an important parameter to improve the quality of materials processing. The result is of great importance to DBD at atmospheric pressure and its application to materials processing. (author)

  11. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  12. Surface-segregated monolayers: a new type of ordered monolayer for surface modification of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Tajima, Keisuke; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-12-09

    We report a new type of ordered monolayer for the surface modification of organic semiconductors. Fullerene derivatives with fluorocarbon chains ([6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-buryric acid 1H,1H-perfluoro-1-alkyl ester or FC(n)) spontaneously segregated as a monolayer on the surface of a [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film during a spin-coating process from the mixture solutions, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) showed the shift of ionization potentials (IPs) depending on the fluorocarbon chain length, indicating the formation of surface dipole moments. Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) revealed the ordered molecular orientations of the C(60) moiety in the surface FC(n) layers. The intensity of the SFG signals from FC(n) on the surface showed a clear odd-even effect when the length of the fluorocarbon chain was changed. This new concept of the surface-segregated monolayer provides a facile and versatile approach to modifying the surface of organic semiconductors and is applicable to various organic optoelectronic devices.

  13. Impact of electrode geometry on an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. I.; Morabit, Y.; Dickenson, A.; Walsh, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    Several of the key characteristics of an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge (SBD) are heavily dependent on the geometrical configuration of the plasma generating electrodes. This paper reveals that increasing the surface area of an SBD device by reducing the gaps within the electrodes can have major and unforeseen consequence on the discharge properties. It is experimentally demonstrated that a critical limit exists when reducing the diameter of a circular electrode gap below 5 mm, beyond which the required breakdown voltage increases exponentially and the power deposited in the discharge is impeded. Using a numerical model, it is shown that a reduced electrode gap diameter yields a decrease in the voltage difference between the electrode and dielectric surface, thus lowering the maximum electric field. This study indicates a link between the electrode geometry and the nature of the reactive chemistry produced in the plasma, findings which have wide-reaching implications for many applications where multiple closely packed surface barrier discharges are employed to achieve uniform and large area plasma processing.

  14. Effect of Surface Treatment on Performance of Electrode Material Based on Carbon Fiber Cloth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon fiber cloth was treated by surface treatment, and then it was used as the electrode substrate. The electrode material based on carbon fibers was synthesized by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method. The interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode were characterized by four-probe method and electrochemical workstation, respectively. The results show that the surface roughness and chemical activity of the carbon fibers can be significantly improved through surface treatment. The carbon fibers possess the best chemical activity on the surface at the hot-air oxidation temperature of 400℃. Joint hot-air and liquid-phase oxidations show that the chemical activity of the carbon fibers on the surface is further improved, the grooves and pits on the surface of the carbon fibers are more obvious, after this treatment, the interface resistivity of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the minimum value of 6.19×10-5Ω·m, meanwhile, the conductivity and the electrochemical property of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode reaches the best, and with the best corrosion resistance, the corrosion rate is only 1.44×10-3g·cm-2·h-1.Thus, the interface resistivity, electrochemical property and corrosion resistance of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode depend on the the interface structure of the CF/β-PbO2 electrode obtained under different surface treatments.

  15. Surface residual stress evaluation in double-electrode butt welded steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefen, S.F.; Gurova, T.; Castello, X.; Leontiev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface residual stress evaluation for double-electrode welding was studied. The stresses were monitored after each operational step: positioning, implementing of constraints, welding and constraints removal. The measurements were performed at the deposited metal, heat affected zone, base metal close to the weld joint and along the plate using the X-ray diffraction method. It was observed differences in the stress evaluations for double-electrode welding which resulted in lower bending distortions and higher values of surface residual stresses, compared with single-electrode welding. This behavior is associated with the stress distribution just after the welding processes in both heat affected zone and base metal close to the fillet for double-electrode welding. The main results from the laboratorial tests indicated lower values of the bending distortions for double-electrode welding compared with the single-electrode. In relation to the residual stress, the double-electrode welding generated, in general, higher stress values in both longitudinal and transversal directions.

  16. O2 Plasma Etching and Antistatic Gun Surface Modifications for CNT Yarn Microelectrode Improve Sensitivity and Antifouling Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Venton, B Jill

    2017-05-16

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based microelectrodes exhibit rapid and selective detection of neurotransmitters. While different fabrication strategies and geometries of CNT microelectrodes have been characterized, relatively little research has investigated ways to selectively enhance their electrochemical properties. In this work, we introduce two simple, reproducible, low-cost, and efficient surface modification methods for carbon nanotube yarn microelectrodes (CNTYMEs): O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment. O 2 plasma etching was performed by a microwave plasma system with oxygen gas flow and the optimized time for treatment was 1 min. The antistatic gun treatment flows ions by the electrode surface; two triggers of the antistatic gun was the optimized number on the CNTYME surface. Current for dopamine at CNTYMEs increased 3-fold after O 2 plasma etching and 4-fold after antistatic gun treatment. When the two treatments were combined, the current increased 12-fold, showing the two effects are due to independent mechanisms that tune the surface properties. O 2 plasma etching increased the sensitivity due to increased surface oxygen content but did not affect surface roughness while the antistatic gun treatment increased surface roughness but not oxygen content. The effect of tissue fouling on CNT yarns was studied for the first time, and the relatively hydrophilic surface after O 2 plasma etching provided better resistance to fouling than unmodified or antistatic gun treated CNTYMEs. Overall, O 2 plasma etching and antistatic gun treatment improve the sensitivity of CNTYMEs by different mechanisms, providing the possibility to tune the CNTYME surface and enhance sensitivity.

  17. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)

  18. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  19. Modification of Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE with Fe3O4 for the Determination of Nitrite (NO2- in Squarewave Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marista Rosida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite is one of the food preservatives that the government permits, but on the use of over limits can cause endanger health, so it is necessary to control the content of nitrite in the food. Modification of electrodes on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE with Fe3O4 has been successfully done for determination of nitrite. Modification of the electrode has been done by electrodeposition with cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition successfully performed with an electrolyte solution of FeCl3 in ethanol. Selection of the optimum drying temperature modified electrode obtained based on the respond of the solution of nitrite in Britton Robinson buffer pH 8. The result of the modification electrode used for the determination of nitrite with squarewave voltammetry method. Reaction between Fe3+ with nitrite a basis for determining nitric indirectly measured so that the peak current is the peak current of Fe3+ of about 0,55 V vs Ag/AgCl. The results showed nitrite measurements with this method has a detection limit of 1.3 x 10-8 M.

  20. Stability studies of plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof, E-mail: kmm@ukw.edu.pl [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Stepczyńska, Magdalena [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malinowski, Rafał [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials and Dyes, Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie 55, 87‐100 Toruń (Poland); Rytlewski, Piotr; Jagodziński, Bartłomiej; Żenkiewicz, Marian [Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, 85-064 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Plasma modification affects surface roughness, wettability and surface energy. • Polylactide and polycaprolactone aging causes decay of the modification effects. • Changes in the surface characteristic and wettability deterioration were observed. • The decay occurs due to migration of low molecular weight molecules to the surface. • Plasma modification effect lasts longer in the case of polycaprolactone. - Abstract: The article presents results of research on the stability of oxygen plasma modification effects of polylactide and polycaprolactone surface layers. The modified samples were aged for three, six or nine weeks. The studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, goniometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Studies have shown that the plasma modification has significant impact on the geometric structure and chemical composition of the surface, wettability and surface energy of tested polymers. The modification effects are not permanent. It has been observed that over time the effects of plasma modification fade. Studies have shown that modifying effect lasts longer in the case of polycaprolactone.

  1. New surface modification method of bio-titanium alloy by EB polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Iio, Atsuo; Fujiwara, Kunihiko; Doi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A new surface modification for bio-titanium alloy products by electron beam (EB) polishing is proposed. In this EB polishing method, high energy density EB can be irradiated without concentrating the beam. Therefore, large-area EB with a maximum diameter of 60 mm can be used for instantaneously melting or evaporating metal surface. Experimental results made it clear that surface characteristics, such as repellency, corrosion resistance and coefficient of friction could be improved simultaneously with the surface smoothing in a few minutes under a proper condition. Therefore, EB polishing method has a possibility of high efficient surface smoothing and surface modification process for bio-titanium alloy. (author)

  2. Voltammetry and Electrocatalysis of Achrornobacter Xylosoxidans Copper Nitrite Reductase on Functionalized Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Anna C.; Zhang, Jingdong; Hansen, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing issue in protein film voltammetry (PFV), particularly electrocatalytic voltammetry of redox enzyme monolayers, is the variability of protein adsorption modes, reflected in distributions of catalytic activity of the adsorbed protein/enzyme molecules. Use of well-defined, atomically...... planar electrode surfaces is a step towards the resolution of this central issue. We report here the voltammetry of copper nitrite reductase (CNiR, Achromobacter xylosoxidons) on Au(111)-electrode surfaces modified by monolayers of a broad variety of thiol-based linker molecules. These represent......NiR thus shows highly efficient, close to ideal reversible electrocatalytic voltammetry on cysteamine-covered Au(111)-electrode surfaces, most likely due to two cysteamine orientations previously disclosed by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. Such a dual orientation exposes both a hydrophobic...

  3. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Alfano, Marco; Yang, Yang; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  4. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled

    2015-10-19

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  5. Preparation of electrodes on cfrp composites with low contact resistance comprising laser-based surface pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled Hamdan

    2016-12-29

    Various examples are provided related to the preparation of electrodes on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with low contact resistance. Laser-based surface preparation can be used for bonding to CFRP composites. In one example, a method includes preparing a pretreated target area on a CFRP composite surface using laser pulsed irradiation and bonding an electrode to exposed fibers in the pretreated target area. The surface preparation can allow the electrode to have a low contact resistance with the CFRP composite.

  6. Surface and interface sciences of Li-ion batteries. -Research progress in electrode-electrolyte interface-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Taketoshi; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    The application potential of Li-ion batteries is growing as demand increases in different fields at various stages in energy systems, in addition to their conventional role as power sources for portable devices. In particular, applications in electric vehicles and renewable energy storage are increasing for Li-ion batteries. For these applications, improvements in battery performance are necessary. The Li-ion battery produces and stores electric power from the electrochemical redox reactions between the electrode materials. The interface between the electrodes and electrolyte strongly affects the battery performance because the charge transfer causing the electrode redox reaction begins at this interface. Understanding of the surface structure, electronic structure, and chemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface is necessary to improve battery performance. However, the interface is located between the electrode and electrolyte materials, hindering the experimental analysis of the interface; thus, the physical properties and chemical processes have remained poorly understood until recently. Investigations of the physical properties and chemical processes at the interface have been performed using advanced surface science techniques. In this review, current knowledge and future research prospects regarding the electrode-electrolyte interface are described for the further development of Li-ion batteries.

  7. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Brown, Ian G.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Kong, Fanping

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  8. Solid oxide electrode kinetics in light of in situ surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The combination of in situ and in particular in operando characterization methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on both technical and model electrode are well known ways to gain some practical insight in electrode reaction kinetics. Yet, is has become clear that in spite...... of the strengths it is not sufficient to reveal much details of the electrode mechanisms mainly because it provide average values only. Therefore it has to be combined with surface science methods in order to reveal the interface structure and composition. Ex situ methods have been very useful over the latest....... Furthermore, it seems that detailed mathematical modeling using new tools like COMSOL is necessary for the synthesis of the large amount of data for a well-characterized electrode into one physical meaningful picture. A brief review of literature an own data will be presented with a practical example of SOFC...

  9. Fabrication of high surface area graphene electrodes with high performance towards enzymatic oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Goñi-Urtiaga, Asier; Pita, Marcos; Shleev, Sergey; Toscano, Miguel D.; Sainz, Raquel; De Lacey, Antonio L.

    2016-01-01

    High surface area graphene electrodes were prepared by simultaneous electrodeposition and electroreduction of graphene oxide. The electrodeposition process was optimized in terms of pH and conductivity of the solution and the obtained graphene electrodes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy). Electrodeposited electrodes were further functionalized to carry out covalent immobilization of two oxygen-reducing multicopper oxidases: laccase and bilirubin oxidase. The enzymatic electrodes were tested as direct electron transfer based biocathodes and catalytic currents as high as 1 mA/cm 2 were obtained. Finally, the mechanism of the enzymatic oxygen reduction reaction was studied for both enzymes calculating the Tafel slopes and transfer coefficients.

  10. Surface-Activated Amorphous Alloy Fuel Electrodes for Methanol Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Asahi, Kawashima; Koji, Hashimoto; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous alloy electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of methanol and its derivatives were obtained by the surface activation treatment consisting of electrodeposition of zinc on as-quenched amorphous alloy substrates, heating at 200-300℃ for 30 min, and subsequently leaching of zinc in an alkaline solution. The surface activation treatment provided a new method for the preparation of a large surface area on the amorphous alloys. The best result for oxidation of methanol, sodium formate an...

  11. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  12. Combined embedding of N-doping and CaCO{sub 3} surface modification in the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su Kyung; Yun, Tae Kwan [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jae Young, E-mail: jybae@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Yong Sun, E-mail: yswon@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A successive embedding of N-doping and CaCO{sub 3} surface modification was carried out in the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combined effect was revealed with the great increase of the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current (J{sub sc}), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of the prepared cells; the efficiency (η) was improved from 5.42% of a commercial TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode to 7.47% of an unmodified N-doped electrode, and to 9.03% of a N-doped and CaCO{sub 3} surface modified electrode. An enhanced photoresponse in N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles generate more photo-excited electrons in adsorbed dye, as supported by measured UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE). A successive CaCO{sub 3} surface modification then form a barrier on the surface of N-doped TiO{sub 2} particles, suppressing charge recombination of photo-generated electrons from N-doped TiO{sub 2} to dye or electrolyte, and thus extending their life time in the electrode, as supported by electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Furthermore, the higher basicity of the CaCO{sub 3} modified TiO{sub 2} facilitates the dye adsorption, as supported by the direct measurement of the amount of adsorbed dye.

  13. EEG Signal Quality of a Subcutaneous Recording System Compared to Standard Surface Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Duun-Henriksen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We provide a comprehensive verification of a new subcutaneous EEG recording device which promises robust and unobtrusive measurements over ultra-long time periods. The approach is evaluated against a state-of-the-art surface EEG electrode technology. Materials and Methods. An electrode powered by an inductive link was subcutaneously implanted on five subjects. Surface electrodes were placed at sites corresponding to the subcutaneous electrodes, and the EEG signals were evaluated with both quantitative (power spectral density and coherence analysis and qualitative (blinded subjective scoring by neurophysiologists analysis. Results. The power spectral density and coherence analysis were very similar during measurements of resting EEG. The scoring by neurophysiologists showed a higher EEG quality for the implanted system for different subject states (eyes open and eyes closed. This was most likely due to higher amplitude of the subcutaneous signals. During periods with artifacts, such as chewing, blinking, and eye movement, the two systems performed equally well. Conclusions. Subcutaneous measurements of EEG with the test device showed high quality as measured by both quantitative and more subjective qualitative methods. The signal might be superior to surface EEG in some aspects and provides a method of ultra-long term EEG recording in situations where this is required and where a small number of EEG electrodes are sufficient.

  14. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a bilayer of multiwalled carbon nanotube/tiron-doped polypyrrole: Application to sensitive voltammetric determination of acyclovir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimzadeh, Mahnaz [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-3516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mohammad K. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    A novel voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a thin film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with an electropolymerized layer of tiron-doped polypyrrole was developed and the resulting electrode was applied for the determination of acyclovir (ACV). The surface morphology and property of the modified electrode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrode was investigated by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The effect of several experimental variables, such as pH of the supporting electrolyte, drop size of the cast MWCNTssuspension, number of electropolymerization cycles and accumulation time was optimized by monitoring the LSV response of the modified electrode toward ACV. The best response was observed at pH 7.0 after accumulation at open circuit for 160 s. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of ACV on the modified electrode surface relative to the bare GCE, resulting in a wide linear dynamic range (0.03–10.0 μM) and a low detection limit (10.0 nM) for ACV. Besides high sensitivity, the sensor represented high stability and good reproducibility for ACV analysis, and provided satisfactory results for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • A simple method was employed to construct a thin film modified electrode. • Tiron-doped polypyrrole was electropolymerized on MWCNT precast glassy carbon electrode. • Electrode surface characterization was performed by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. • The modified electrode showed nano-molar detection limit for acyclovir. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of ACV in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  15. Thermal performance enhancement of erythritol/carbon foam composites via surface modification of carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Lu, Wu; Luo, Zhengping; Zeng, Yibing

    2017-03-01

    The thermal performance of the erythritol/carbon foam composites, including thermal diffusivity, thermal capacity, thermal conductivity and latent heat, were investigated via surface modification of carbon foam using hydrogen peroxide as oxider. It was found that the surface modification enhanced the wetting ability of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol of the carbon foam surface and promoted the increase of erythritol content in the erythritol/carbon foam composites. The dense interfaces were formed between erythritol and carbon foam, which is due to that the formation of oxygen functional groups C=O and C-OH on the carbon surface increased the surface polarity and reduced the interface resistance of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol. The latent heat of the erythritol/carbon foam composites increased from 202.0 to 217.2 J/g through surface modification of carbon foam. The thermal conductivity of the erythritol/carbon foam composite before and after surface modification further increased from 40.35 to 51.05 W/(m·K). The supercooling degree of erythritol also had a large decrease from 97 to 54 °C. Additionally, the simple and effective surface modification method of carbon foam provided an extendable way to enhance the thermal performances of the composites composed of carbon foams and PCMs.

  16. A study of laser surface modification of polymers: A comparison in air and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Andersen, Sebastian A.; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Laser surface modification is a technique to modify polymer surfaces for various applications. In our earlier work [Physics Procedia, 83:211–217, 2016], we showed that when the laser surface modification process was carried out in water instead of air, the obtained surface characteristics were...... research. The observed images of laser modified surfaces suggest that a hemispherical hump is formed in the case of water at lower laser fluences that breakup with an increase in fluence. Such a behavior was not observed when the process was carried out in air. We explain this phenomenon by simulating...

  17. Surface modification of polymer nanofibres by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Q.F.; Gao, W.D.; Hou, D.Y.; Wang, X.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer nanofibres have great potential for technical applications in biomaterials, filtration, composites and electronics. The surface properties of nanofibres are of importance in these applications. In this study, cold gas plasma treatment was used to modify the surface of polyamide 6 nanofibres prepared by electrospinning. The chemical nature of the nanofibre surfaces was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface characteristics of the fibres. The AFM results indicate a significant change in the morphology of the fibre surface before and after plasma treatment. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behaviour of the fibres. In the ESEM, relative humidity was raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fibre surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of the polyamide 6 nanofibres

  18. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-09-01

    We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.

  19. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)

  20. Surface modification effects on defect-related photoluminescence in colloidal CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TaeGi; Shimura, Kunio; Kim, DaeGwi

    2018-05-03

    We investigated the effects of surface modification on the defect-related photoluminescence (PL) band in colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs). A size-selective photoetching process and a surface modification technique with a Cd(OH)2 layer enabled the preparation of size-controlled CdS QDs with high PL efficiency. The Stokes shift of the defect-related PL band before and after the surface modification was ∼1.0 eV and ∼0.63 eV, respectively. This difference in the Stokes shifts suggests that the origin of the defect-related PL band was changed by the surface modification. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the surface of the CdS QDs before and after the surface modification was S rich and Cd rich, respectively. These results suggest that Cd-vacancy acceptors and S-vacancy donors affect PL processes in CdS QDs before and after the surface modification, respectively.

  1. Disposable screen printed graphite electrode for the direct electrochemical determination of ibuprofen in surface water

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Sidra

    2014-08-01

    The potential of square wave voltammetry (SWV) for the determination of ibuprofen in aqueous solution, applying baseline correction, is reported. A screen printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs), especially pretreated for this purpose, were used to investigate the electrochemical oxidation and detection of ibuprofen. After optimization of SWV parameters, measurements were carried out at 200 Hz modulation frequency, 4 mV step potential and 40 mV pulse amplitude for the determination of ibuprofen. The surfaces of both untreated and pretreated SPGEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electro-catalytic properties of both the electrodes were correlated with the surface treatment. The pretreated screen printed graphite electrode exhibited a high sensitivity toward ibuprofen even in low concentration. The developed method was found rapid, cost-effective and reproducible for in-field ibuprofen detection.

  2. Disposable screen printed graphite electrode for the direct electrochemical determination of ibuprofen in surface water

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Sidra; Soomro, M. Tahir; Memon, Najma; Solangi, Amber R.; Sirajuddin; Qureshi, Tahira; Behzad, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    The potential of square wave voltammetry (SWV) for the determination of ibuprofen in aqueous solution, applying baseline correction, is reported. A screen printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs), especially pretreated for this purpose, were used to investigate the electrochemical oxidation and detection of ibuprofen. After optimization of SWV parameters, measurements were carried out at 200 Hz modulation frequency, 4 mV step potential and 40 mV pulse amplitude for the determination of ibuprofen. The surfaces of both untreated and pretreated SPGEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electro-catalytic properties of both the electrodes were correlated with the surface treatment. The pretreated screen printed graphite electrode exhibited a high sensitivity toward ibuprofen even in low concentration. The developed method was found rapid, cost-effective and reproducible for in-field ibuprofen detection.

  3. Enhanced charging kinetics of porous electrodes: surface conduction as a short-circuit mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Gibou, Frederic; Squires, Todd M

    2014-08-29

    We use direct numerical simulations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations to study the charging kinetics of porous electrodes and to evaluate the predictive capabilities of effective circuit models, both linear and nonlinear. The classic transmission line theory of de Levie holds for general electrode morphologies, but only at low applied potentials. Charging dynamics are slowed appreciably at high potentials, yet not as significantly as predicted by the nonlinear transmission line model of Biesheuvel and Bazant. We identify surface conduction as a mechanism which can effectively "short circuit" the high-resistance electrolyte in the bulk of the pores, thus accelerating the charging dynamics and boosting power densities. Notably, the boost in power density holds only for electrode morphologies with continuous conducting surfaces in the charging direction.

  4. Surface Modification of Sputtered Ga.5In.5Sb Thin Films ISHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    IR detectors useful for fiber optic communication. Since the efficiency of detector depends very much on the surface properties of the substrate material, improvement of substrate surfaces is a challenging task in device technology. Reports on the improved electrical properties of GaAs and InP surfaces by. Ru3+ modification ...

  5. Distance scaling of electric-field noise in a surface-electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J. A.; Greene, A.; Stuart, J.; McConnell, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate anomalous ion-motional heating, a limitation to multiqubit quantum-logic gate fidelity in trapped-ion systems, as a function of ion-electrode separation. Using a multizone surface-electrode trap in which ions can be held at five discrete distances from the metal electrodes, we measure power-law dependencies of the electric-field noise experienced by the ion on the ion-electrode distance d . We find a scaling of approximately d-4 regardless of whether the electrodes are at room temperature or cryogenic temperature, despite the fact that the heating rates are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller in the latter case. Through auxiliary measurements using the application of noise to the electrodes, we rule out technical limitations to the measured heating rates and scalings. We also measure the frequency scaling of the inherent electric-field noise close to 1 /f at both temperatures. These measurements eliminate from consideration anomalous-heating models which do not have a d-4 distance dependence, including several microscopic models of current interest.

  6. Surface modification method for reactor incore structural component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Minoru; Sudo, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of metal or ceramic small spheres accelerated by pressurized air are collided against a surface of a reactor incore structures or a welded surface of the structural components, and then finishing is applied by polishing to form compression stresses on the surface. This can change residual stresses into compressive stress without increasing the strength of the surface. Accordingly, stress corrosion crackings of the incore structural components or welded portions thereof can be prevented thereby enabling to extend the working life of equipments. (T.M.)

  7. Modification of BSCCO surface by excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibi, A.; Akitsu, T.; Matsuzawa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation of Kr-F excimer laser onto the BSCCO calcined pellets changed their surface to be amorphous. SEM micrographs showed that sintering of the irradiated pellets recrystallized the surface layer and much reduced the intergrain gaps as compared with only sintered pellets, whereas the internal structure of the irradiated pellets remained unchanged. This processing made the surface-layer grains be tightly connected, resulting in the higher critical temperature than the conventionally sintered samples. We can say that excimer laser annealing process is a novel scheme to reduce the surface weak-link of the high Tc superconductors. (author)

  8. Monolayer covalent modification of 5-hydroxytryptophan on glassy carbon electrodes for simultaneous determination of uric acid and ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiangqin; Li Yongxin

    2006-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) was covalently grafted on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) using cyclic voltammetric method in a phosphate buffer solution. The prepared electrode, denoded as 5-HTP/GCE, was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Tryptophan grafted GCE (TRP/GCE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine grafted GCE (5-HTP/GCE) were also prepared by the same method for comparison. It was found that the electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was in the order of 5-HT/GCE > 5-HTP/GCE > TRP/GCE for UA oxidation and 5-HT/GCE 5-HTP/GCE > TRP/GCE for AA oxidation. However, the CV current sensitivity was estimated as 4:2:1 for 5-HTP/GCE:5-HT/GCE:TRP/GCE. The DPV peaks for UA and AA oxidation appeared at 0.07 V and 0.34 V versus SCE, respectively, allowing simultaneous determination in mixtures. A linearly response in the range of: 5.0 x 10 -7 to 1.1 x 10 -5 M with the detection limit (s/n = 3) of 2.8 x 10 -7 M for UA determination, and a linear response in the range of: 5.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x 10 -4 M with the detection limit of 4.2 x 10 -6 M for AA determination were obtained. This electrode was used for UA and AA determinations in human urine samples satisfactorily

  9. Effects of surface atomistic modification on mechanical properties of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Yuanjie; Wang, Gang-Feng; Gu, Yuantong; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulations of surface modification effect of Au nanowires. • Surface modification can greatly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Core–shell model is used to elucidate the effect of residual surface stress. - Abstract: Modulation of the physical and mechanical properties of nanowires is a challenging issue for their technological applications. In this paper, we investigate the effects of surface modification on the mechanical properties of gold nanowires by performing molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that by modifying a small density of silver atoms to the surface of a gold nanowire, the residual surface stress state can be altered, rendering a great improvement of its plastic yield strength. This finding is in good agreement with experimental measurements. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed by a core–shell nanowire model. The results are helpful for the design and optimization of advanced nanomaterial with superior mechanical properties

  10. Surface modification of lignocellulosic fibers using high-frequency ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayant B. Gadhe; Ram B. Gupta; Thomas Elder

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of fiber surfaces has been reported in the literature as a method for producing medium density fiberboards without using synthetic adhesives. This work focuses on modifying the surface properties of wood fibers by the generation of free radicals using high-frequency ultrasound. A sonochemical reactor operating at 610 kHz is used to...

  11. On the Concept of Electrode to Discharge Phenomena in Surface Roughness With Reference Strongly Electronegative Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1986-01-01

    The use of geometrically well-defined protrusions in studies es of the effects of electrode surface roughness upon the insulation strength of strongly electronegative gases is discussed. It is argued that, with respect to the roughness associated with production processes, the dimensions of artif...

  12. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  13. Electrochemistry of Hemin on Single-Crystal Au(111)-electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    adsorption on well-defined single-crystal Au(111)-electrode surfaces using electrochemistry combined with scanning tunnelling microscopy under electrochemical control. Hemin gives two voltammetric peaks assigned to adsorbed monomers and dimmers (Fig. 1B). In situ STM shows that hemin self...

  14. Study of dopamine reactivity on platinum single crystal electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumillas, Sara; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Climent, Víctor; Feliu, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is the biological molecule responsible, among other functions, of the heart beat and blood pressure regulation. Its loss, in the human body, can result in serious diseases such as Parkinson's, schizophrenia or depression. Structurally, this molecule belongs to the group of catecholamines, together with epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). The hydroquinone moiety of the molecule can be easily oxidized to quinone, rendering the electrochemical methods a convenient approach for the development of dopamine biosensors. The reactivity of similar aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, at well-ordered platinum surfaces, has recently been investigated in our group. In this paper, we extend these studies to the structurally related molecule dopamine. The study has been performed in neutral pH, since this is closer to the natural conditions for these molecules in biological media. Cyclic voltammetry and in situ infra-red spectroscopy have been combined to extract information about the behavior of this molecule on well-defined platinum surfaces. Dopamine appears to be electrochemically active and reveals interesting adsorption phenomena at low potentials (0.15–0.25 V vs RHE), sensitive to the single crystal orientation. The adsorption of dopamine on these surfaces is very strong, taking place at much lower potentials than the electron transfer from solution species. Specifically, the voltammetry of Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) in dopamine solutions shows an oxidation peak at potentials close to the onset of hydrogen evolution, which is related to the desorption of hydrogen and the adsorption of dopamine. On the other hand, adsorption on Pt(1 1 0) is irreversible and the surface appears totally blocked. Spectroscopic results indicate that dopamine is adsorbed flat on the surface. At potentials higher than 0.6 V vs RHE the three basal planes show a common redox process. The initial formation of the quinone moiety is followed by a

  15. The impact of surface coverage on the kinetics of electron transfer through redox monolayers on a silicon electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampi, Simone; Choudhury, Moinul H.; Ahmad, Shahrul Ainliah Binti Alang; Darwish, Nadim; Brun, Anton Le; Gooding, J.Justin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The impact of surface coverage on the kinetics of electron transfer through redox monolayers on a silicon electrode surface. ABSTRACT: The impact of the coverage of ferrocene moieties, attached to a silicon electrode modified via hydrosilylation of a dialkyne, on the kinetics of electron transfer between the redox species and the electrode is explored. The coverage of ferrocene is controlled by varying the coupling time between azidomethylferrocene and the distal alkyne of the monolayer via the copper assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. All other variables in the surface preparation are maintained identical. What is observed is that the higher the surface coverage of the ferrocene moieties the faster the apparent rates of electron transfer. This surface coverage-dependent kinetic effect is attributed to electrons hopping between ferrocene moieties across the redox film toward hotspots for the electron transfer event. The origin of these hotspots is tentatively suggested to result from minor amounts of oxide on the underlying silicon surface that reduce the barrier for the electron transfer.

  16. Covalent and stable CuAAC modification of silicon surfaces for control of cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Buch-Månson, Nina; Schoffelen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    in the vapor or liquid phase. In this work, we compared these two methods for oxidized silicon surfaces and thoroughly characterized the functionalization steps by tagging and fluorescence imaging. We demonstrate that the vapor-phase functionalization only provided transient surface modification that was lost...... on extensive washing. For stable surface modification, a liquid-phase method was developed. In this method, silicon wafers were decorated with azides, either by silanization with (3-azidopropyl)triethoxysilane or by conversion of the amine groups of an aminopropylated surface by means of the azido...

  17. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-06

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp(2) carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail.

  18. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L.; Macpherson, Julie V.

    2016-01-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp2 carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail. PMID:26779959

  19. Spontaneous modification of carbon surface with neutral red from its diazonium salts for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Chen, Xin; Freguia, Stefano; Donose, Bogdan C

    2013-09-15

    This study introduces a novel and simple method to covalently graft neutral red (NR) onto carbon surfaces based on spontaneous reduction of in situ generated NR diazonium salts. Immobilization of neutral red on carbon surface was achieved by immersing carbon electrodes in NR-NaNO2-HCl solution. The functionalized electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results demonstrated that NR attached in this way retains high electrochemical activity and proved that NR was covalently bound to the carbon surface via the pathway of reduction of aryl diazonium salts. The NR-modified electrodes showed a good stability when stored in PBS solution in the dark. The current output of an acetate-oxidising microbial bioanode made of NR-modified graphite felts were 3.63±0.36 times higher than the unmodified electrodes, which indicates that covalently bound NR can act as electron transfer mediator to facilitate electron transfer from bacteria to electrodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  1. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  2. Modification of bamboo surface by irradiation of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nishigaito, S.; Flauta, R.; Kasuya, T.

    2003-01-01

    When beams of hydrogen ions, He + and Ar + were irradiated onto bamboo surface, gas release of hydrogen, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were enhanced. Time evolution of the gas emission showed two peaks corresponding to release of adsorbed gas from the surface by sputtering, and thermal desorption caused by the beam heating. The difference in etched depths between parenchyma lignin and vascular bundles was measured by bombarding bamboo surface with the ion beams in the direction parallel to the vascular bundles. For He + and Ar + , parenchyma lignin was etched more rapidly than vascular bundles, but the difference in etched depth decreased at a larger dose. In the case of hydrogen ion bombardment, vascular bundles were etched faster than parenchyma lignin and the difference in etched depth increased almost in proportion to the dose. The wettability of outer surface of bamboo was improved most effectively by irradiation of a hydrogen ion beam

  3. Surface modification of Chlorella vulgaris cells using magnetite particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Šafařík, Ivo; Brányik, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2012 (2012), s. 1778-1787 E-ISSN 1877-7058 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microalgae * physicochemical approaches * surface interactions * magnetite * XDLVO theory * harvesting Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  4. Modification of Ultra-High Vacuum Surfaces Using Free Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Vorlaufer, G

    2002-01-01

    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption of surface adsorbates are usually the factors which determine pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchrotron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, surface properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly influence the performance of the accelerator. Well-established treatment methods like vacuum bake-out or glow-discharge cleaning have been successfully applied in the past to condition ultra-high vacuum surfaces, but these methods are sometimes difficult to carry out, for example if the vacuum chambers are not accessible. In this work, an alternative treatment method is investigated. This method is based on the strong chemical reactivity of free radicals, electrically neutral fragments of molecules. Free radicals (in the case of this work, nitrogen and oxygen radi...

  5. Reducing ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity by surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingdeng; Shen, Cenchao; Feltis, Bryce N; Martin, Lisandra L; Hughes, Anthony E; Wright, Paul F A; Turney, Terence W

    2014-06-07

    Nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used engineered nanomaterials and its toxicology has gained considerable recent attention. A key aspect for controlling biological interactions at the nanoscale is understanding the relevant nanoparticle surface chemistry. In this study, we have determined the disposition of ZnO nanoparticles within human immune cells by measurement of total Zn, as well as the proportions of extra- and intracellular dissolved Zn as a function of dose and surface coating. From this mass balance, the intracellular soluble Zn levels showed little difference in regard to dose above a certain minimal level or to different surface coatings. PEGylation of ZnO NPs reduced their cytotoxicity as a result of decreased cellular uptake arising from a minimal protein corona. We conclude that the key role of the surface properties of ZnO NPs in controlling cytotoxicity is to regulate cellular nanoparticle uptake rather than altering either intracellular or extracellular Zn dissolution.

  6. Surface modification of UHMWPE with infrared femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pradas, J.M., E-mail: jmfernandez@ub.edu [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo-Leon, S.; Morenza, J.L.; Serra, P. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene surface was modified with femtosecond laser pulses at 1027 nm wavelength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness is increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ablation efficiency is maximum for 6 {mu}J pulses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiated surfaces remain almost chemically unaltered. - Abstract: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymer with mechanical and corrosion properties, which make it appropriate for using in biomedical devices such as hip and knee prostheses. The surface morphology and chemistry of UHMWPE influence its biocompatibility. A laser with wavelength at 1027 nm delivering 450 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz is used to modify the surface of UHMWPE samples with 0.45 {mu}m root mean square surface roughness. Micrometric resolution is achieved with the use of a focusing lens of 0.25 NA and pulse energies of few microjoules. The study focuses in the influence of different pulse energies and pulse overlaps on the laser-induced surface roughness and ablation yield. Confocal microscopy is used to characterize changes in the morphology of the irradiated surfaces, and their chemical structure is analyzed by attenuated total reflectance infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The roughness increases as the pulse energy increases until it reaches a maximum. The ablation yield increases with the pulse energy and pulse overlap. However, the ablation yield per pulse is lower for higher pulse overlap. Pulses of 6 {mu}J have the highest ablation efficiency. Infrared and Raman spectra of samples irradiated with low energy pulses are similar to those of the pristine sample. However, some C=C and C=O bonds can be detected after irradiation with the highest pulse energies.

  7. Modification of carbon fiber surfaces via grafting with Meldrum's acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuiqin, Fang; Jinxian, Wu; Julin, Wang; Tao, Zhang

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of Meldrum's acid modifying carbon fiber surfaces was investigated in this work. The existing carbonyl groups of carbon fibers were grafted with Meldrum's acid to create carboxylic functionalized surfaces. The surface functionalization effect was detected with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS results showed that the relative content of carboxylic groups on carbon fiber surfaces was increased from initial 1.41% to 7.84%, however, that of carbonyl groups was decreased from 23.11% to 13.28% after grafting reaction. The SEM, AFM and TGA results indicated that the surfaces of carbon fibers neither etched nor generated coating. The tensile strength of carbon fibers was preserved after grafting reaction according to single fiber tensile strength tests. The fibers were well combined with matrix and the maximal interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites was sharply increased approximately 74% after functionalization. The effects of acetic acid and sonication on the degree of the surface functionalization were also studied.

  8. Multifunctional Surface Modification of Nanodiamonds Based on Dopamine Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Wenyan; Wang, Zheyu; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Wang, Risheng

    2018-04-03

    Surface functionalization of nanodiamonds (NDs), which is of great interest in advanced material and therapeutic applications, requires the immobilization of functional species, such as nucleic acids, bioprobes, drugs, and metal nanoparticles, onto NDs' surfaces to form stable nanoconjugates. However, it is still challenging to modify the surface of NDs due to the complexity of their surface chemistry and the low density of each functional group on the surfaces of NDs. In this work, we demonstrate a general applicable surface functionalization approach for the preparation of ND-based core-shell nanoconjugates using dopamine polymerization. By taking advantage of the universal adhesion and versatile reactivity of polydopamine, we have effectively conjugated DNA and silver nanoparticles onto NDs. Moreover, the catalytic activity of ND-supported silver nanoparticle was characterized by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, and the addressability of NDs was tested through DNA hybridization that formed satellite ND-gold nanorod conjugation. This simple and robust method we have presented may significantly improve the capability for attaching various functionalities onto NDs and open up new platforms for applications of NDs.

  9. Demonstration of Cold 40Ca+ Ions Confined in a Microscopic Surface-Electrode Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Wan Wei; Xie Yi; Wu Hao-Yu; Zhou Fei; Feng Mang

    2013-01-01

    40 Ca + ions are successfully confined, under the cooling of a red-detuned laser, in a home-built microscopic surface-electrode (MSE) trap. With all electrodes deposited on a low-rf-loss substrate, our 500-μm-scale MSE trap is designed involving three potential wells and manufactured by the standard technique of the printed circuit board. Both linear and two-dimensional crystals of 40 Ca + are observed in the trap after preliminary micromotion compensation is carried out. The development of the MSE trap aims at large-scale trapped-ion quantum information processing

  10. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the formation of highly monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W droplets. The generation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W double emulsions was successfully achieved by connecting in series a hydrophobic microchip with a modified hydrophilic microchip. An original channel blocking technique to pattern the surface wettability of a specific section of a microchip using a viscous liquid comprising a mixture of honey and glycerol, is also presented for generating W/O/W emulsions on a single chip.

  11. Laser and chemical surface modifications of titanium grade 2 for medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwaśniak, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Pura, J., E-mail: jaroslawpura@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Zwolińska, M.; Wieciński, P. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Skarżyński, H.; Olszewski, L. [Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw (Poland); World Hearing Center, Kajetany (Poland); Marczak, J. [Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Warsaw (Poland); Garbacz, H.; Kurzydłowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • DLIL technique and etching were used for functionalization of Ti grade 2 surface. • Modification was performed on semi-finished flat and curved Ti surfaces. • Modification results in periodic multimodal (micro and nano-size) Ti topography. - Abstract: The article presents combined, chemical and physical approach to titanium surface functionalization designed for biomedical applications. The topography modification has been obtained by employing the double laser beam interference technique and chemical etching. In the outcome, clean and smooth Ti surface as well as periodic striated topography with the roughness range from nano- to micrometers were created. The obtained structures were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructures. In order to achieve all information, numerous of research methods have been used: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and microhardness measurements. Demonstrated methodology can be used as an effective tool for manufacturing controlled surface structures improving the bone–implants interactions.

  12. Submerged-arc wire electrodes with nickel-plated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, H. vom.

    1976-01-01

    The article reports on the development of SANWELD welding rods at GARHYTTAN's which is a wire free of impurities, copper, and hydrogen with a nickel surface. It is producted according to the SANBOND process. The wire has an optimum of mechanical quality grades depending on the powder used for welding, especially an improvement of notch impact strength. The elongation, especially the long-time values, are improved, hydrogen cracks are excluded depending on the correct powder or protective gas, and the low-temparature values are improved. An attendant phenomenon, which is not unimportant, is that the wires are practically corrosion-resistant in the non-welded state. The wire is suitable for submerged-arc welding in steam boilers and pressure vessels. (IHoe) [de

  13. Plasma treatment of polyethylene tubes in continuous regime using surface dielectric barrier discharge with water electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmiz, Oleksandr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Pavliňák, David; Černák, Mirko

    2018-05-01

    Combining the surface dielectric barrier discharges generated in contact with water based electrolytes, as the discharge electrodes, we have designed a new type of surface electric discharge, generating thin layers of plasma which propagate along the treated polymer surfaces. The technique was aimed to achieve uniform atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of polymeric tubes and other hollow bodies. The results presented in this work show the possibility of such system to treat outer surface of polymer materials in a continuous mode. The technical details of experimental setup are discussed as well as results of treatment of polyethylene tubes are shown.

  14. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Sievänen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI‐00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI‐02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gas–solid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin – even non-uniform – atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: • ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. • Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. • Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. • Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. • Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  15. Photochemical surface modification of PP for abrasion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahners, Thomas; Haessler, Ruediger; Gao Shanglin; Maeder, Edith; Wego, Andreas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a photo-chemical approach to increase the surface hardness of polypropylene (PP) has been studied. Using a 222 nm excimer lamp, fibers and film were irradiated in the presence of multi-functional substances diallylphthalate (DAP), tetraallyloxyethane (TAE), and pentaerithritoltriacylate (PETA) and characterized with regard to the resulting effect on abrasion resistance. AFM-based methods were employed to analyze thermo-mechanical surface properties. Nanoindentation and microthermal analyses of the outermost surface layers of UV treated fibers gave clear indications of an effective cross-linking of reactive substances present during irradiation. One may assume that the reactive media polymerize on top of the surface of the PP substrate and form a thin-layer. The abrasion resistance of the PP fibers was tested by applying stress through a rotating and axially oscillating roller of defined roughness and measuring the mass loss as a function of time. The abrasion resistance was found to be remarkably improved compared to the untreated fiber. Best effects were achieved using PETA as reactive substance. The experiments clearly showed the influence of processing conditions, namely with regard to homogeneous coverage of the substrate surface with the reactive medium.

  16. Surface modification of microfibrous materials with nanostructured carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnikova, Irina V., E-mail: tokareva@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Mishakov, Ilya V.; Vedyagin, Aleksey A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Bauman, Yury I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Ac. Lavrentieva, 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Korneev, Denis V. [State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region 630559 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The surface of fiberglass cloth, carbon and basalt microfibers was modified with carbon nanostructured coating via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of 1,2-dichloroethane. Incipient wetness impregnation and solution combustion synthesis (SCS) methods were used to deposit nickel catalyst on the surface of microfibrous support. Prepared NiO/support samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature-programmed reduction. The samples of resulted hybrid materials were studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The nature of the support was found to have considerable effect on the CCVD process peculiarities. High yield of nanostructured carbon with largest average diameter of nanofibers within the studied series was observed when carbon microfibers were used as a support. This sample characterized with moderate surface area (about 80 m{sup 2}/g after 2 h of CCVD) shows the best anchorage effect. Among the mineral supports, fiberglass tissue was found to provide highest carbon yield (up to 3.07 g/g{sub FG}) and surface area (up to 344 m{sup 2}/g) due to applicability of SCS method for Ni deposition. - Highlights: • The microfibers of different nature were coated with nanostructured carbon layer. • Features of CNF growth and characteristics of hybrid materials were studied. • Appropriate anchorage of CNF layer on microfiber’s surface was demonstrated.

  17. Simulation of liquid crystals. Disclinations and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downton, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the behaviour of molecular models liquid crystals in several different situations. Basic introductory material on liquid crystals and computer simulations is discussed in the first two chapters, we then discuss the research. The third chapter investigates the interaction between a liquid crystal and a modified surface. A confined system of hard spherocylinders in a slab geometry is examined. The surface consists of planar hard walls with elongated molecules grafted perpendicularly onto them. The concentration of grafted molecules is varied to give different surfaces. Several different behaviours are found including planar, homeotropic and tilted anchorings of the liquid crystal. Molecular dynamics simulations of a nematic liquid crystal in slab geometry with twisted boundary conditions are performed. By arranging the initial configuration suitably it is possible to create a simulation cell with two regions of opposite twist separated by a strength half disclination line. The properties of the line are examined both with and without an applied external field. Finally, we again examine the system of grafted molecules on a flat substrate using an atomistic model of both the liquid crystal and the surface molecules. Again the effect of varying the density of grafted molecules is found to change the anchoring characteristics of the surface; both homeotropic and planar anchorings are observed. (author)

  18. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sharma, Kashma; Kumar, Vinod; Sonkawade, R.G.; Dhaliwal, A.S.; Swart, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li 3+ ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10 11 , 1 × 10 12 and 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 ). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence

  19. Swift heavy ions induced surface modifications in Ag-polypyrrole composite films synthesized by an electrochemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: vijays_phy@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ali, Yasir [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Sharma, Kashma [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan 173212 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Sonkawade, R.G. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, District Sangrur 148106, Punjab (India); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Two steps electrochemical synthesis for the fabrication of Ag-polypyrrole composite films. • Surface modifications by swift heavy ion beam. • SEM image shows the formation of craters and humps after irradiation. • Detailed structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: The general aim of this work was to study the effects of swift heavy ions on the properties of electrochemically synthesized Ag-polypyrrole composite thin films. Initially, polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrochemically synthesized on indium tin oxide coated glass surfaces using a chronopotentiometery technique, at optimized process conditions. The prepared PPy films have functioned as working electrodes for the decoration of submicron Ag particles on the surface of the PPy films through a cyclicvoltammetry technique. Towards probing the effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on the structural and morphological properties, the composite films were subjected to a 40 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion beam irradiation for various fluences (1 × 10{sup 11}, 1 × 10{sup 12} and 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Comparative microstructural investigations were carried out after the different ion fluences using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Raman and SEM studies revealed that the structure of the films became disordered after irradiation. The SEM studies of irradiated composite films show significant changes in their surface morphologies. The surface was smoother at lower fluence but craters were observed at higher fluence.

  20. Modification of an enzyme electrode by electrodeposition of hydroquinone for use as the anode of a glucose fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Yamazaki, Hiraku; Kondo, Mizuki [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Shimomura, Masato, E-mail: smasato@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An electrode having immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) was modified with polyhydroquinone (PHQ), which was employed as an electron-transferring mediator, by a simple electrochemical method and used as the anode of a glucose fuel cell. The GOx-immobilized electrode was fabricated by attaching polyallylamine (PAAm) and then GOx covalently onto a gold electrode covered with a monolayer formed with 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Subsequently, the GOx-immobilized electrode (GOx/PAAm electrode) was modified with PHQ by electrodeposition of hydroquinone. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode (PHQ/GOx/PAAm electrode) in a phosphate buffer solution (0.10 M, pH 7.0) showed redox peaks due to the electrodeposited PHQ, whereas no redox peaks were found for the GOx/PAAm electrode in the buffer solution containing p-benzoquinone (BQ). The onset potential of glucose oxidation with the PHQ/GOx/PAAm electrode became ca. 0.2 V more negative than that observed with the GOx/PAAm electrode in the presence of BQ. The glucose fuel cell equipped with the PHQ/GOx/PAAm electrode as an anode gave a 3 times larger power output than the cell with the GOx/PAAm electrode using dissolved quinone as the mediator.

  1. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  2. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  3. Biomolecular modification of zirconia surfaces for enhanced biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yao, Chun-Hsu [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Pai-Ling [Taoyuan General Hospital, Taoyuan 33004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Shih-Ching, E-mail: scwu@ctust.edu.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-01

    Yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is a preferred biomaterial due to its good mechanical properties. In order to improve the biocompatibility of zirconia, RGD-peptide derived from extracellular matrix proteins was employed to modify the surface of Y-TZP to promote cell adhesion in this study. The surface of Y-TZP specimens was first modified using a hydrothermal method for different lengths of time. The topographies of modified Y-TZP specimens were analyzed by contact angle, XRD, FTIR, AFM, and FE-SEM. The mechanical properties were evaluated using Vickers hardness and three point bending strength. Then, the RGD-peptide was immobilized on the surface of the Y-TZP by chemical treatment. These RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP specimens were characterized by FTIR and AFM, and then were cocultured with MG-63 osteoblast cells for biocompatibility assay. The cell morphology and proliferation were evaluated by SEM, WST-1, and ALP activity assay. The XRD results indicated that the phase transition, from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase, was increased with a longer incubation time of hydrothermal treatment. However, there were no significant differences in mechanical strengths after RGD-peptide was successfully grafted onto the Y-TZP surface. The SEM images showed that the MG-63 cells appeared polygonal, spindle-shaped, and attached on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP. The proliferation and cellular activities of MG-63 cells on the RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP were better than that on the unmodified Y-TZP. From the above results, the RGD-peptide can be successfully grafted onto the hydrothermal modified Y-TZP surface. The RGD-peptide immobilized Y-TZP can increase cell adhesion, and thus, improve the biocompatibility of Y-TZP. - Highlights: • Covalent bonding between peptide and Y-TZP was proposed. • Stable biomimetic structures produced on the surface of zirconia. • The biocompatibility was improved.

  4. Laser surface modification of Ti implants to improve osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marticorena, M; Corti, G; Olmedo, D; Guglielmotti, M B; Duhalde, S

    2007-01-01

    Commercially Pure Titanium foils, were irradiated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser under ambient air, in order to produce and characterize a well controlled surface texture (roughness and waviness) that enhances osseointegration. To study the 'peri-implant' reparative process response, the laser treated Ti foils were implanted in the tibia of 10 male Wistar rats. At 14 days post-implantation, the histological analysis showed a tendency to more bone formation compared to the untreated control implants. The formation of a layer of TiN on the surface and the obtained roughness, have been demonstrated to improve bone response

  5. Surface modification of magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, Carola; Herrera, Adriana; Zayas, Yashira; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of magnetite nanoparticles with narrow size distributions using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-COOH) or carboxymethyl dextran (CMDx) chains covalently attached to the particle surface using carbodiimide chemistry is described. Particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition and modified with 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APS) to render particles with reactive amine groups (-NH 2 ) on their surface. Amines were then reacted with carboxyl groups in PEG-COOH or CMDx using carbodiimide chemistry in water. The size and stability of the functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was studied as a function of pH and ionic strength using dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements.

  6. Metal-mesh based transparent electrode on a 3-D curved surface by electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Baekhoon; Yoo, Hyunwoong; Jang, Yonghee; Ryu, Changkook; Byun, Doyoung; Nguyen, Vu Dat

    2014-01-01

    Invisible Ag mesh transparent electrodes (TEs), with a width of 7 μm, were prepared on a curved glass surface by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing. With a 100 μm pitch, the EHD jet printed the Ag mesh on the convex glass which had a sheet resistance of 1.49 Ω/□. The printing speed was 30 cm s −1 using Ag ink, which had a 10 000 cPs viscosity and a 70 wt% Ag nanoparticle concentration. We further showed the performance of a 3-D transparent heater using the Ag mesh transparent electrode. The EHD jet printed an invisible Ag grid transparent electrode with good electrical and optical properties with promising applications on printed optoelectronic devices. (technical note)

  7. Enhanced osteointegration of medical titanium implant with surface modifications in micro/nanoscale structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Liwen; Wang, Hui; Ni, Ming; Rui, Yunfeng; Cheng, Tian-Yuan; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Pan, Xiaohua; Li, Gang; Lin, Changjian

    2014-01-01

    Biomimetic design and substrate-based surface modification of medical implants will help to improve the integration of tissue to its material interfaces. Surface energy, composition, roughness, and topography all influence the biological responses of the implants, such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In the current study, different surface structures of Ti implants were constructed using facile surface techniques to create various micro-, nano-, and...

  8. Surface structured platinum electrodes for the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in imidazolium based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc-Scherer, Florin A; Montiel, Miguel A; Montiel, Vicente; Herrero, Enrique; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M

    2015-10-07

    The direct CO2 electrochemical reduction on model platinum single crystal electrodes Pt(hkl) is studied in [C2mim(+)][NTf2(-)], a suitable room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) medium due to its moderate viscosity, high CO2 solubility and conductivity. Single crystal electrodes represent the most convenient type of surface structured electrodes for studying the impact of RTIL ion adsorption on relevant electrocatalytic reactions, such as surface sensitive electrochemical CO2 reduction. We propose here based on cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolysis measurements, for the first time, the formation of a stable adduct [C2mimH-CO2(-)] by a radical-radical coupling after the simultaneous reduction of CO2 and [C2mim(+)]. It means between the CO2 radical anion and the radical formed from the reduction of the cation [C2mim(+)] before forming the corresponding electrogenerated carbene. This is confirmed by the voltammetric study of a model imidazolium-2-carboxylate compound formed following the carbene pathway. The formation of that stable adduct [C2mimH-CO2(-)] blocks CO2 reduction after a single electron transfer and inhibits CO2 and imidazolium dimerization reactions. However, the electrochemical reduction of CO2 under those conditions provokes the electrochemical cathodic degradation of the imidazolium based RTIL. This important limitation in CO2 recycling by direct electrochemical reduction is overcome by adding a strong acid, [H(+)][NTf2(-)], into solution. Then, protons become preferentially adsorbed on the electrode surface by displacing the imidazolium cations and inhibiting their electrochemical reduction. This fact allows the surface sensitive electro-synthesis of HCOOH from CO2 reduction in [C2mim(+)][NTf2(-)], with Pt(110) being the most active electrode studied.

  9. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  10. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH 2 ) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  11. Crack path and fracture surface modifications in cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a tremendous increase in the use of high strength and high performance self-consolidating cementitious composites due to their superior workability and mechanical strengths. Cement composites are quasi-brittle in nature and possess extremely low tensile strength as compared to their compressive strength. Due to the low tensile strength capacity, cracks develop in cementitious composites due to the drying shrinkage, plastic settlements and/or stress concentrations (due to external restrains and/or applied stresses etc. These cracks developed at the nanoscale may grow rapidly due to the applied stresses and join together to form micro and macro cracks. The growth of cracks from nanoscale to micro and macro scale is very rapid and may lead to sudden failure of the cement composites. The present paper reports the modifications in the crack growth pattern of the high performance cement composites to achieve enhanced ductility and toughness. The objective was accomplished by the incorporation of the micro sized inert particulates in the cement composite matrix. The results indicate that the incorporation of micro sized inert particles acted as the obstacles in the growth of the cracks thus improving the ductility and the energy absorption capacity of the self-consolidating cementitious composites.

  12. Chemical Modification of Semiconductor Surfaces for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2017-03-08

    Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts. One of the greatest merits of molecular monolayers is their capability to form excellent thin dielectrics, yielding rich and unique current-voltage characteristics for transport across metal/molecular monolayer/semiconductor interfaces. We explain the interplay between the monolayer as tunneling barrier on the one hand, and the electrostatic barrier within the semiconductor, due to its space-charge region, on the other hand, as well as how different monolayer chemistries control each of these barriers. Practical tools to experimentally identify these two barriers and distinguish between them are given, followed by a short look to the future. This review is accompanied by another one, concerning the formation of large-area molecular junctions and charge transport that is dominated solely by molecules.

  13. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukhova, I.V., E-mail: ivpuhova@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kurzina, I.A. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K.P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Laput, O.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E.M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 10{sup 14}, 1 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (−C=O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  14. Modification of surface properties of LLDPE by water plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantara Thevy Ratnam; Hill, D.J.T.; Firas Rasoul; Whittaker, A.K.; Imelda Keen

    2007-01-01

    Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) surface was modified by water plasma treatment. The LLDPE surface was treated at 10 and 20 W discharge power at various exposure times. A laboratory scale Megatherm radio frequency (RF) plasma apparatus that operates at 27 MHz was used to generate the water plasmas. The changes in chemical structure of the LLDPE polymeric chain upon plasma treatment were characterized by FTIR and XPS techniques. The selectivity of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) toward hydroxyl groups is used to quantify the hydroxyl groups formed on the polymer surface upon plasma treatment. After exposition to the plasma discharge a decline in water contact angle were observed. FTIR and XPS measurements indicate an oxidation of degraded polymeric chains and creation of hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester and carboxyl groups. Chemical derivatization with TFAA of water plasma treated polymer surfaces has shown that under the conditions employed, a very small (less than 5%) of the oxygen introduced by the water plasma treatment was present as hydroxyl group. (Author)

  15. Mapping physicochemical surface modifications of flame-treated polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Farris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate how the surface morphology of polypropylene (PP is influenced by the surface activation mediated by a flame obtained using a mixture of air and propane under fuel-lean (equivalence ratio φ = 0.98 conditions. Morphological changes observed on flamed samples with smooth (S, medium (M, and high (H degree of surface roughness were attributed to the combined effect of a chemical mechanism (agglomeration and ordering of partially oxidized intermediate-molecular-weight material with a physical mechanism (flattening of the original roughness by the flame’s high temperature. After two treatments, the different behavior of the samples in terms of wettability was totally reset, which made an impressive surface energy of ~43 mJ•m–2 possible, which is typical of more hydrophilic polymers (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate – PET. In particular, the polar component was increased from 1.21, 0.08, and 0.32 mJ•m–2 (untreated samples to 10.95, 11.20, and 11.17 mJ•m–2 for the flamed samples S, M, and H, respectively, an increase attributed to the insertion of polar functional groups (hydroxyl and carbonyl on the C–C backbone, as demonstrated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, He...

  17. Modification of metallic surfaces by positive ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards C, J.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are the fundamentals and recent advances in the use of ion implantation techniques and gaseous emissions to modify metal surfaces. The physical phenomena involved, the necessary equipment and some applications which have been successful on an industrial scale are described. (Author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  18. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai B., E-mail: udaibhansingh123@gmail.com; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-15

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm{sup −1} along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  19. Capacitance, charge dynamics, and electrolyte-surface interactions in functionalized carbide-derived carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Dyatkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the dynamics of ionic liquid electrolyte inside of defunctionalized, hydrogenated, and aminated pores of carbide-derived carbon supercapacitor electrodes. The approach tailors surface functionalities and tunes nanoporous structures to decouple the influence of pore wall composition on capacitance, ionic resistance, and long-term cyclability. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering probes the self-diffusion properties and electrode-ion interactions of electrolyte molecules confined in functionalized pores. Room-temperature ionic liquid interactions in confined pores are strongest when the hydrogen-containing groups are present on the surface. This property translates into higher capacitance and greater ion transport through pores during electrochemical cycling. Unlike hydrogenated pores, aminated pores do not favorably interact with ionic liquid ions and, subsequently, are outperformed by defunctionalized surfaces.

  20. Capacitance, charge dynamics, and electrolyte-surface interactions in functionalized carbide-derived carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Mamontov, Eugene; Cook, Kevin M.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the dynamics of ionic liquid electrolyte inside of defunctionalized, hydrogenated, and aminated pores of carbide-derived carbon supercapacitor electrodes. The approach tailors surface functionalities and tunes nanoporous structures to decouple the influence of pore wall composition on capacitance, ionic resistance, and long-term cyclability. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering probes the self-diffusion properties and electrode-ion interactions of electrolyte molecules confined in functionalized pores. Room-temperature ionic liquid interactions in confined pores are strongest when the hydrogen-containing groups are present on the surface. This property translates into higher capacitance and greater ion transport through pores during electrochemical cycling. Unlike hydrogenated pores, aminated pores do not favorably interact with ionic liquid ions and, subsequently, are outperformed by defunctionalized surfaces.

  1. Surface Modification of Porous Titanium Granules for Improving Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab

    The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.

  2. Surface modification of GC and HOPG with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mutsuo; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Sato, Yukari; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Niwa, Osamu

    2011-01-04

    Surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was carried out with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives bearing ferrocene as an electroactive moiety. Features of the modified surfaces were evaluated by surface concentrations of immobilized molecule, blocking effect of the modified surface against redox reaction, and surface observation using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM). The measurement of surface concentrations of immobilized molecule revealed the following three aspects: (i) Diazonium and olefin derivatives could modify substrates with the dense-monolayer concentration. (ii) The surface concentration of immobilized amine derivative did not reach to the dense-monolayer concentration reflecting their low reactivity. (iii) The surface modification with the dense-monolayer concentration was also possible with azide derivative, but the modified surface contained some oligomers produced by the photoreaction of azides. Besides, the blocking effect against redox reaction was observed for GC modified with diazonium derivative and for HOPG modified with diazonium and azide derivatives, suggesting fabrication of a densely modified surface. Finally, the surface observation for HOPG modified with diazonium derivative by EC-STM showed a typical monolayer structure, in which the ferrocene moieties were packed densely at random. On the basis of those results, it was demonstrated that surface modification of carbon substrates with diazonium could afford a dense monolayer similar to the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation.

  3. Modification of Ti6Al4V surface by diazonium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandomierski, Mariusz; Buchwald, Tomasz; Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam

    2018-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is the most commonly used in orthopedic industry as an endoprosthesis. Ti6Al4V exhibits good mechanical properties, except the abrasion resistance. Surface modification of Ti6Al4V in order to obtain organic layer, and then the attachment of the polymer, can allow for overcoming this problem. The aim of the work was the modification of Ti6Al4V surface by diazonium compounds: salt or cation generated in situ and examine the influence of the reducing agent - ascorbic acid, and the temperature of reaction on modification process. Moreover, the simulated body fluid was used for the assessment of the organic layer stability on Ti6Al4V surface. The evaluation of the modification was carried out using the following methods: Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Higher temperature of modification by 4-hydroxymethylbenzenediazonium cation, provides the largest amount of organic layer on the Ti6Al4V alloy. In the case of the Ti6Al4V modified by Variamine Blue B salt, the amount of organic layer is not dependent on the reaction condition. Moreover, the ascorbic acid and the presence of TiO2 does not effect on the modification. The modified surface is completely coated with the organic layer which is stable in simulated body fluid.

  4. Modification of surface/neuron interfaces for neural cell-type specific responses: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Lee, In-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Surface/neuron interfaces have played an important role in neural repair including neural prostheses and tissue engineered scaffolds. This comprehensive literature review covers recent studies on the modification of surface/neuron interfaces. These interfaces are identified in cases both where the surfaces of substrates or scaffolds were in direct contact with cells and where the surfaces were modified to facilitate cell adhesion and controlling cell-type specific responses. Different sources of cells for neural repair are described, such as pheochromocytoma neuronal-like cell, neural stem cell (NSC), embryonic stem cell (ESC), mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS). Commonly modified methods are discussed including patterned surfaces at micro- or nano-scale, surface modification with conducting coatings, and functionalized surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules. These approaches to control cell-type specific responses have enormous potential implications in neural repair. (paper)

  5. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of silicon nitride surfaces with GOPES and APTES for antibody immobilization: computational and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To, Thien Dien; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Phan, Khoa Nhat Thanh; Truong, An Thu Thi; Doan, Tin Chanh Duc; Dang, Chien Mau

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of silicon nitride (SiN) surfaces by silanization has been widely studied especially with 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-(glycidyloxypropyl) dimethylethoxysilane (GOPES). However few reports performed the experimental and computational studies together. In this study, surface modification of SiN surfaces with GOPES and APTES covalently bound with glutaraldehyde (GTA) was investigated for antibody immobilization. The monoclonal anti-cytokeratin-FITC (MACF) antibody was immobilized on the modified SiN surfaces. The modified surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The FITC-fluorescent label indicated the existence of MACF antibody on the SiN surfaces and the efficiency of the silanization reaction. Absorption of APTES and GOPES on the oxidized SiN surfaces was computationally modeled and calculated by Materials Studio software. The computational and experimental results showed that modification of the SiN surfaces with APTES and GTA was more effective than the modification with GOPES. (paper)

  7. Fast surface modification by microwave assisted click reactions on silicon substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haensch, C.; Erdmenger, T.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used for the chemical modification of functional monolayers on silicon surfaces. The thermal and chemical stability of these layers was tested under microwave irradiation to investigate the possibility to use this alternative heating process for the surface

  8. Use of modern methods of fibre surface modification to obtain the multifunctional properties of textile materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern textile fibre treatments aim to obtain the required level of beneficial effect while attempting to confine the modification to the fibre surface. Recently, much attention has been focused on different physical methods of fibre surface modification, cold plasma treatment being considered as very useful. Moreover, there are efficient chemical methods available, such as peroxide, biopolymer and enzyme treatment. Some interesting combinations of these physical and chemical surface modification methods as means to modify fibre surface topography and thus controlling the surface-related properties of the fibre are presented in this paper. The properties obtained are discussed on the basis of the physico-chemical changes in the surface layer of the fibre, being assessed by wettability and contact angle measurements, as well as by FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis. The SEM and AFM technique are used to assess the changes in the fibre surface topography and to correlate these changes to the effectiveness, uniformity and severity of the textile fibre surface modification treatments.

  9. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Darryl N.; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Wilson, Otto C.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior

  10. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A. Reyes [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca, Ixtlahuaca Kilómetro 15.5, C.P. 50200 Edo. de México (Mexico); Hautefeuille, M., E-mail: mathieu_h@ciencias.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 3000, Circuito Exterior S/N, Coyoacán, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 D.F. Mexico (Mexico); García, A. Esparza [Fotofísica y Películas Delgadas, Departamento de Tecnociencias, CCADET-UNAM, Circuito exterior s/n C.P. 04510 Cd. Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mejia, O. Olea [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, 50200 San Cayetano, Estado de México (Mexico); López, M.A. Camacho [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Tollocan s/n, esq. Paseo Colón, Toluca, Estado de México 50110 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser-induced microbumps were formed on bismuth films using a simple, low-cost, laser setup. • The patterns, similar to those typically obtained with high-power lasers, were characterized. • Control of laser ablation conditions is critical in the fabrication of surface microbumps. - Abstract: In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD–DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  11. Surface modification of nanoporous alumina membranes by plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losic, Dusan; Cole, Martin A; Dollmann, Bjoern; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: dusan.losic@unisa.edu.au

    2008-06-18

    The deposition of plasma polymer coatings onto porous alumina (PA) membranes was investigated with the aim of adjusting the surface chemistry and the pore size of the membranes. PA membranes from commercial sources with a range of pore diameters (20, 100 and 200 nm) were used and modified by plasma polymerization using n-heptylamine (HA) monomer, which resulted in a chemically reactive polymer surface with amino groups. Heptylamine plasma polymer (HAPP) layers with a thickness less than the pore diameter do not span the pores but reduce their diameter. Accordingly, by adjusting the deposition time and thus the thickness of the plasma polymer coating, it is feasible to produce any desired pore diameter. The structural and chemical properties of modified membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). The resultant PA membranes with specific surface chemistry and controlled pore size are applicable for molecular separation, cell culture, bioreactors, biosensing, drug delivery, and engineering complex composite membranes.

  12. Surface modification for bonding between amalgam and orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamut, Wittawat; Satrawaha, Sirichom; Wayakanon, Kornchanok

    2017-01-01

    Testing of methods to enhance the shear bond strength (SBS) between orthodontic metal brackets and amalgam by sandblasting and different primers. Three hundred samples of amalgam restorations (KerrAlloy ® ) were prepared in self-cured acrylic blocks, polished, and divided into two groups: nonsandblasted and sandblasted. Each group was divided into five subgroups with different primers used in surface treatment methods, with a control group of bonded brackets on human mandibular incisors. Following the surface treatments, mandibular incisor brackets (Unitek ® ) were bonded on the amalgam with adhesive resin (Transbond XT ® ). The SBS of the samples was tested. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) and failure modes were then determined under a stereo-microscope. Two-way analysis of variance, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to calculate the correlations between and among the SBS and ARI values, the failure modes, and surface roughness results. There were statistically significant differences of SBS among the different adhesive primers and sandblasting methods ( P 0.05). Using adhesive primers with sandblasting together effectively enhances the SBS between orthodontic metal brackets and amalgam. The two primers with the ingredient methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer, Alloy Primer ® and Assure Plus ® , were the most effective. Including sandblasting in the treatment is essential to achieve the bonding strength required.

  13. Surface modification of nanoporous alumina membranes by plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losic, Dusan; Cole, Martin A; Dollmann, Bjoern; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of plasma polymer coatings onto porous alumina (PA) membranes was investigated with the aim of adjusting the surface chemistry and the pore size of the membranes. PA membranes from commercial sources with a range of pore diameters (20, 100 and 200 nm) were used and modified by plasma polymerization using n-heptylamine (HA) monomer, which resulted in a chemically reactive polymer surface with amino groups. Heptylamine plasma polymer (HAPP) layers with a thickness less than the pore diameter do not span the pores but reduce their diameter. Accordingly, by adjusting the deposition time and thus the thickness of the plasma polymer coating, it is feasible to produce any desired pore diameter. The structural and chemical properties of modified membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). The resultant PA membranes with specific surface chemistry and controlled pore size are applicable for molecular separation, cell culture, bioreactors, biosensing, drug delivery, and engineering complex composite membranes

  14. Surface modification and column flotation of a massive ilmenite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, X.; Rowson, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The main problems with ilmenite flotation in impeller-type flotation machines are the poor flotation behaviour of ilmenite and the negative effect of slimes. These cause high ilmenite losses in tailings even when a large dosage of fatty acid and fuel oil is consumed. In this study, microwave radiation pre-treatment and ilmenite surface activation were used to modify the surface properties of a massive ilmenite ore sample from Norway to improve ilmenite flotability. A column cell was used to minimize the negative effect of slimes on ilmenite separation efficiency. When ilmenite flotation was performed in a 1 litre Denver cell, the flotation recovery of titanium dioxide from the ilmenite ore sample was only 68.5% (31.1% TiO 2 ) under conventional flotation conditions. After microwave radiation pre-treatment for three minutes at 2600 W and 2.45 GHz, the ferrous ions on ilmenite particle surfaces were converted into ferric ions; hence, the recovery increased from 68.5% to 86.8%. The concentrate grade increased from 31.1% TiO 2 to 32.1% TiO 2 . In ilmenite activation flotation, Pb 2+ ions can be selectively adsorbed on to ilmenite particle surfaces as active sites and therefore enhance the adsorption of oleate ions on ilmenite surfaces. With the addition of 60 g/ton Pb(NO 3 ) 2 , ilmenite flotation recovery increased from 68.5% to 85.1%. However, the quality of ilmenite concentrates was not improved due to the negative effect of slimes. After a two stage cleaning, the grade of ilmenite concentrates was only about 31% TiO 2 . The combination of microwave radiation pre-treatment and the application of a column cell overcame both problems of poor flotability and the negative effect of slimes. When the Denver cell was replaced by a column cell and the massive ilmenite ore sample was pre-treated using microwave radiation for three minutes, the ilmenite concentrate grade increased from 31.1% TiO 2 to 42.9% TiO 2 and the titanium dioxide recovery increased from 68.5% to 90

  15. Plasma Surface Modification of Polyaramid Fibers for Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Mohamad

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a novel process that would achieve biocidal properties on Kevlar fabric via atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) induced-graft polymerization of monomers. In the course of the study, experiments were carried out to understand plasma-monomer-substrate interactions, particularly, how each of the main parameters in the plasma processing affects the formation of surface radicals and eventually the degree of graft polymerization of monomers. The study also served to explore the possibility of developing plasma-initiated and plasma-controlled graft polymerization for continuous operation. In this regards, three methods of processing were studied, which included two-step plasma graft-polymerization with immersion, two-step and one-step plasma graft-polymerization with pad-dry. In general, plasma treatment did not cause visible damage to the surface of Kevlar fibers, except for the appearance of tiny globules distributed almost uniformly indicating a minor effect of plasma treatment to the surface morphology of the polymer. From the examination of SEM images, however, it was found that a very localized surface etching seemed to have taken place, especially at high RF power (800 W) and long time of exposure (60 s), even in plasma downstream mode of operation. It was suggested that a small amount of charged particles might have escaped and reached the substrate surface. High density of surface radicals, which is the prerequisite for high graft density and high antimicrobial activity, was achieved by the combination of high RF power and short exposure time or low RF power and long time of exposure. This was a clear indication that the formation of surface radicals is a function of amount of the dissipated energy, which also explained the two-factor interaction between the two process parameters. XPS results showed that hydrolysis of the anilide bond of PPTA chains took place to some extent on the surface of Kevlar, leading to the

  16. An Ideal Electrode Material, 3D Surface-Microporous Graphene for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Liang; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Hu, Yun Hang

    2017-01-01

    The efficient charge accumulation of an ideal supercapacitor electrode requires abundant micropores and its fast electrolyte-ions transport prefers meso/macropores. But, current electrode materials cannot meet both requirements, resulting in poor performance. We creatively constructed three-dimensional cabbage-coral-like graphene as an ideal electrode material, in which meso/macro channels are formed by graphene walls and rich micropores are incorporated in the surface layer of the graphene walls. The unique 3D graphene material can achieve a high gravimetric capacitance of 200 F/g with aqueous electrolyte, 3 times larger than that of commercially used activated carbon (70.8 F/g). Furthermore, it can reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance of 1.28 F/cm"2 and excellent rate capability (83.5% from 0.5 to 10 A/g) as well as high cycling stability (86.2% retention after 5000 cycles). The excellent electric double-layer performance of the 3D graphene electrode can be attributed to the fast electrolyte ion transport in the meso/macro channels and the rapid and reversible charge adsorption with negligible transport distance in the surface micropores.

  17. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, Norhan

    2016-04-18

    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  18. Surface modification of calcium–copper hydroxyapatites using polyaspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bachoua, Hassen; Debbabi, Mongi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reaction of polyaspartic acid with calcium hydroxyapatite and mixed calcium–copper hydroxyapatite is tested. ► Chemical analysis shows that the presence of copper in the apatitic structure increases the reactivity of the apatite surface. ► X-ray powder analysis shows the conservation of unique crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite after copper incorporation and/or PASP acid reacting. ► IR spectra show the formation of the formation of organometallic bond M-O-C (M=Ca or Cu) on the apatitic surface. ► Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the texture surface was changed by the grafting. - Abstract: Mixed calcium–copper hydroxyapatite (Ca–CuHAp), with general formula Ca (10−x) Cu x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75 was prepared in aqueous medium in the presence of different concentrations of poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP). XRD, IR, TG-DTA, TEM-EDX, AFM and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. All techniques show the formation of new hybrid compounds Ca–CuHAp–PASP. The presence of the grafting moiety on the apatitic material is more significant with increasing of copper amount and/or organic concentration in the starting solution. These increases lead to the affectation of apatite crystallinity. The IR spectroscopy shows the conservation of (P-OH) band of (HPO 4 ) 2− groups, suggesting that PASP acid was interacted only with metallic cations of hydroxyapatite.

  19. Surface modification of calcium-copper hydroxyapatites using polyaspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bachoua, Hassen [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Debbabi, Mongi, E-mail: m.debbabi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction of polyaspartic acid with calcium hydroxyapatite and mixed calcium-copper hydroxyapatite is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical analysis shows that the presence of copper in the apatitic structure increases the reactivity of the apatite surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray powder analysis shows the conservation of unique crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite after copper incorporation and/or PASP acid reacting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR spectra show the formation of the formation of organometallic bond M-O-C (M=Ca or Cu) on the apatitic surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the texture surface was changed by the grafting. - Abstract: Mixed calcium-copper hydroxyapatite (Ca-CuHAp), with general formula Ca{sub (10-x)}Cu{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, where 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.75 was prepared in aqueous medium in the presence of different concentrations of poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP). XRD, IR, TG-DTA, TEM-EDX, AFM and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. All techniques show the formation of new hybrid compounds Ca-CuHAp-PASP. The presence of the grafting moiety on the apatitic material is more significant with increasing of copper amount and/or organic concentration in the starting solution. These increases lead to the affectation of apatite crystallinity. The IR spectroscopy shows the conservation of (P-OH) band of (HPO{sub 4}){sup 2-} groups, suggesting that PASP acid was interacted only with metallic cations of hydroxyapatite.

  20. STUDY OF SURFACE MODIFIED POLYMERS IN THE MODIFICATION OF NANOMATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of change of surface tension of solutions of some commercial rubbers before and after thermal ageing technique du-Nui, analyzed the features of change of surface tension of solutions of various rubbers in the presence of a mixture of fullerenes. Calculations of the Gibbs energy and the analysis of the obtained data to predict the behavior of polymer systems when changes are made to mix of fullerenes in a wide concentration range. When comparing the results of changes in Gibbs energy and the surface tension in fluids rubbers shown that mentioned above in solutions of elastomers aged, than the control. This fact confirms the initial chapeau of physic-chemical interactions of molecules fullerenes by segments of the Kuna and end groups of the polymer chains, as it is known that when thermal-oxidative degradation of rubbers, respectively the number of segments of the Kuna and branched loose ends of macromolecules that are free to react with fullerenes in solution, free from spatial constraints. A comparative analysis of the interaction of rubbers with different chemical composition with double branches has shown that it is easier to just react and has minimum energy polibutadien interaction that has to do with lack of branching and no radicals in its structure and in the backbone chain. The maximum energy of interaction with Fullerenes have SBS rubber because it has large styrene blocks in the main polymer chain that causes the spatial constraints to direct contact with fullerene molecules, you can assume that the interaction is only low-molecular fraction of Fullerenes mixture, possessing the necessary dimensions. As a result of the study shows that the application of the method of separation ring (Du-Nui allows you to predict the properties of rubber with modified nanomaterial’s with minimal labor costs.

  1. Ion beam modification of surfaces for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Human life expectancy increased significantly within the last century. Hence, medical care must ever be improved. Optimizing artificial replacements such as hip joints or stents etc. is of special interest. For this purpose, new materials are constantly developed or known ones modified. This work focused on the possibility to change the chemistry and topography of biomedically relevant materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by means of ion beam irradiation. Mass-separated ion beam deposition was used in order to synthesize DLC layers with a high sp 3 content (> 70%), a sufficiently smooth surface (RMS<1 nm) and a manageable film thickness (50 nm). The chemistry of the DLC layers was changed by ion beam doping with different ion species (Ag,Ti) and concentrations. Additionally, the surface topography of silicon and titanium dioxide was altered by ion beam irradiation under non-perpendicular angle of incidence. The created periodic wave structures (so-called ripples) were characterized and their dependency on the ion energy was investigated. Moreover, ripples on silicon were covered with a thin DLC layer in order to create DLC ripples. The biocompatibility of all samples was investigated by adsorption experiments. For this purpose, human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) was used due to its ambiphilic character, which allows the protein to assume different conformations on materials with different hydrophilicities. Moreover, HPF is a crucial factor in the blood coagulation process. This work comes to the conclusion that the interaction of both, the surface chemistry and topography, has a strong influence on the adsorption behavior of HPF and thus the biocompatibility of a material. Both factors can be specifically tuned by means of ion beam irradiation.

  2. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  3. SURFACE MODIFICATIONS WITH LASER SYNTHESIZED Mo MODIFIED COATING

    OpenAIRE

    LU SUN; HAO CHEN; BO LIU

    2013-01-01

    Mg–Cu–Al was first used to improve the surface performance of TA15 titanium alloys by means of laser cladding technique. The synthesis of hard composite coating on TA15 titanium alloy by laser cladding of Mg–Cu–Al–B4C/Mo pre-placed powders was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Experimental results indicated that such composite coating mainly consisted of TiB2, TiB, TiC, Ti3Al and AlCuMg. ...

  4. Pool boiling CHF enhancement by micro/nanoscale modification of zircaloy-4 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Lee, Chan; Kim, Hyungdae; Jo, HangJin; Kang, SoonHo; Kim, Joonwon; Shin, Jeongseob; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of the critical heat flux (CHF) requires difficult compromises between economy and safety in many types of thermal systems, including nuclear power plants. Much research has been directed towards enhancing the CHF, and many recent studies have revealed that the significant CHF enhancement in nanofluids is due to surface deposition of nanoparticles. The surface deposition of nanoparticles influenced various surface characteristics. This fact indicated that the surface wettability is a key parameter for CHF enhancement and so is the surface morphology. In this study, surface wettability of zircaloy-4 used as cladding material of fuel rods in nuclear power plants was modified using surface treatment technique (i.e. anodization). Pool boiling experiments of distilled water on the prepared surfaces was conducted at atmospheric and saturated conditions to examine effects of the surface modification on CHF. The experimental results showed that CHF of zircaloy-4 can be significantly enhanced by the improvement in surface wettability using the surface modification, but only the wettability effect cannot explain the CHF increase on the treated zircaloy-4 surfaces completely. It was found that below a critical value of contact angle (10 o ), micro/nanostructures created by the surface treatment increased spreadability of liquid on the surface, which could lead to further increase in CHF even beyond the prediction caused only by the wettability improvement. These micro/nanostructures with multiscale on heated surface induced more significant CHF enhancement than it based on the wettability effect, due to liquid spreadability.

  5. Electrodes Modification Based on Metal-Free Phthalocyanine: Example of Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou L. Ndiaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroanalytical properties of tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu modified electrodes are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV. The modified electrodes are obtained by CV deposition techniques on gold (Au and glassy carbon (C screen-printed electrodes (SPEs and used for the electrochemical detection of acetic acid (AA. Based on the CV experiments, the electrodeposition mechanism is detailed. The modified PcH2-tBu electrodes reveal one oxidation and one reduction peak within the potential window of the working electrodes. In the presence of the analyte (acetic acid, the modified electrodes show sensitivity in the range of 10 mM to 400 mM. For the PcH2-tBu modified Au electrode, a limit of detection (LOD of 5.89 mM (based on the +0.06 V peak was obtained while for the PcH2-tBu modified C electrode a LOD of 17.76 mM (based on the +0.07 V peak was achieved. A signal decay of 17%, based on 20 experiments, is obtained when gold is used as working electrode. If carbon is used as working electrode a value of 7% is attained. A signal decay is observed after more than 50 cycles of experiments and is more pronounced when higher concentrations of acetic acid are used. A mechanism of sensing is proposed at the end.

  6. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of new acridine based fluorophore adsorbed on silver electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    4,5-Bis(N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)iminomethyl)acridine (BHIA) is a new acridine based fluoroionophore and a highly-selective sensor for cadmium ion. The direct interaction of the aromatic nitrogen atom with a surface is impossible since there are bulky substituents in the 4,5-positions of the acridine fragment. Nevertheless BHIA molecule shows a reliable SERS spectrum while adsorbed on a silver electrode. The analysis of SERS spectra pH dependence reveals that BHIA species adsorbed on a surface can exist in both non-protonated and protonated forms. The adsorption of BHIA from alkaline solution is accompanied by carbonaceous species formation at the surface. The intensity of such "carbon bands" turned out to be related with the supporting electrolyte (KCl) concentration. Upon lowering the electrode potential the SERS spectra of BHIA do not undergo changes but the intensity of bands decreases. This indicates that the adsorption mechanism on the silver surface is realized via aromatic system of acridine fragment. In case of such an adsorption mechanism the chelate fragment of the BHIA molecule is capable of interaction with the solution components. Addition of Cd2+ ions to a system containing BHIA adsorbed on a silver electrode in equilibrium with the solution leads to the formation of BHIA/Cd2+ complex which desorption causes the loss of SERS signal.

  7. Rapid modification of urban land surface temperature during rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, H.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Song, J.; Yang, J.; Arwatz, G.; Wang, Z.; Hultmark, M.; Kaloush, K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the runoff dynamics and heat transfer over urban pavements during rainfall. A kinematic wave approach is combined with heat storage and transfer schemes to develop a model for impervious (with runoff) and pervious (without runoff) pavements. The resulting framework is a numerical prognostic model that can simulate the temperature fields in the subsurface and runoff layers to capture the rapid cooling of the surface, as well as the thermal pollution advected in the runoff. Extensive field measurements were then conducted over experimental pavements in Arizona to probe the physics and better represent the relevant processes in the model, and then to validate the model. The experimental data and the model results were in very good agreements, and their joint analysis elucidated the physics of the rapid heat transfer from the subsurface to the runoff layer. Finally, we apply the developed model to investigate how the various hydrological and thermal properties of the pavements, as well as ambient environmental conditions, modulate the surface and runoff thermal dynamics, what is the relative importance of each of them, and how we can apply the model mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization.

  8. Surface modification of calcium hydroxyapatite by grafting of etidronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bac, Christophe Goze; Rachdi, Férid; Debbabi, Mongi

    2013-06-01

    The surface of prepared calcium hydroxyapatite CaHAp has been modified by grafting the etidronic acid (ETD). For that purpose, CaHAp powders have been suspended in an aqueous etidronate solution with different concentrations. The obtained composites CaHAp-(ETD) were characterized by TEM and AFM techniques to determinate morphological properties and were also characterized by XRD, IR, NMR and chemical and thermal analysis to determinate their physico-chemical properties and essentially the nature of the interaction between the inorganic support and the grafted organic ETD. After reaction with ETD, XRD powder analysis shows that the apatitic structure remains unchanged with slight affectation of its crystallinity. The presence of etidronate fragment bounded to hydroxyapatite was confirmed by IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. TEM and AFM techniques indicate that the presence of etidronate changes the morphology of the particles. Basing on the obtained results, a reactional mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of covalent Casbnd Osbnd Porg bonds on the hydroxyapatite surface between the superficial hydroxyl groups (tbnd Casbnd OH) of the apatite and phosphonate group (Psbnd OH) of etidronate.

  9. Modification of wool surface by liposomes for dyeing with weld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, Majid; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Toliat, Taibeh; Moghadam, Mohammad Bameni

    2009-01-01

    In this research work, wool surface has been modified by liposome to investigate its effects on dyeing with weld, a yellow natural dye. To do this, samples were first treated with aluminium sulphate and afterward with different concentrations of liposomes at various temperatures for 30 minutes and, finally, dyed with weld at 75, 85, and 95 degrees C for 30, 45, and 60 minutes. K/S values of fabric samples were calculated and washing, light and rub fastness properties of the samples were indicated. The results proposed that the sample treated with 1% liposomes and dyed at 75 degrees C for 60 min has the highest K/S value. The central composite design (CCD) used for the experimental plan with three variables on the results of color strength and statistical analysis confirms the optimum conditions obtained by the experimental results. It was also found that washing, light, wet, and dry rub fastness properties of samples dyed with weld, including liposomes, have not significantly changed. The results of water drop absorption indicated that the hydrophobicity is higher for the samples pretreated with liposomes. The SEM picture of wool sample treated with mordant and liposomes and finally dyed with weld shows a coated layer on the fiber surface.

  10. Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel by titanium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Hyvarinen, J.; Samandi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The wear properties of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel implanted with Ti were investigated for ion doses in the range (2.3-5.4)x10 16 ionscm -2 and average ion energies of 60 and 90keV. The implanted layer was examined by Rutherford backscattering, from which the retained doses were determined, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Following implantation, the surface microhardness was observed to increase with the greatest change occurring at higher ion energy. Pin-on-disc wear tests and associated friction measurements were also performed under both dry and lubricated conditions using applied loads of 2N and 10N. In the absence of lubrication, breakthrough of the implanted layer occurred after a short sliding time; only for a dose of 5.1x10 16 ionscm -2 implanted at an average energy of 90keV was the onset of breakthrough appreciably delayed. In contrast, the results of tests with lubrication showed a more gradual variation, with the extent of wear decreasing with implant dose at both 2N and 10N loads. Finally, the influence of Ti implantation on possible wear mechanisms is discussed in the light of information provided by several surface characterization techniques. ((orig.))

  11. Hot zirconium cathode sputtered layers for useful surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that multilayer zirconium based sputtered coatings can greatly improve the wear properties of a wide variety of mechanical components, machine tools, and metal surfaces. Although a hot (approximately 1000 0 C) cathode is employed, temperature sensitive components can be beneficially treated, and for precision parts a total coating thickness of only 0.5μm is often perfectly effective. Even at the highest coating rates substrate temperatures are below 300 0 C. For the corrosion protection of less well finished surfaces thicker layers are usually required and it is important that relatively stress free layers are produced. The authors employed a variety of tailored zirconium/zirconium nitride/zirconium oxide mixed layers to solve a number of tribological problems for some 5 or 6 years. However, it is only recently that they designed, built, and commissioned rapid cycle, multiple cathode, load-lock plant for economic production of such coatings. This paper provides an introduction to this method of depositing pure zirconium and pure synthetic zirconium nitride films

  12. Interfacing biomembrane mimetic polymer surfaces with living cells - Surface modification for reliable bioartificial liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takami, Utae; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2008-01-01

    The surface design used for reducing nonspecific biofouling is one of the most important issues for the fabrication of medical devices. We present here a newly synthesized a carbohydrate-immobilized phosphorylcholine polymer for surface modification of medical devices to control the interface with living cells. A random copolymer composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization. The monomer feeding ratio in the copolymer was adjusted to 24/75/1 (MPC/BMA/LAMA). The copolymer (PMBL1.0) could be coated by solvent evaporation from an ethanol solution. Cells of the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) having asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) were seeded on PMBL1.0 or poly(BMA) (PBMA)-coated PET plates. On PBMA, many adherent cells were observed and were well spread with monolayer adhesion. HepG2 adhesion was observed on PMBL1.0 because the cell has ASGPRs. Furthermore, some of the cells adhering to PMBL1.0 had a spheroid formation and similarly shaped spheroids were scattered on the surface. According to confocal laser microscopic observation after 96 h cultivation, it was found that albumin production preferentially occurred in the center of the spheroid. The albumin production of the cells that adhered to PBMA was sparse. The amount of albumin production per unit cell that adhered to PMBL1.0 was determined by ELISA and was significantly higher than that which adhered to PBMA. Long-term cultivation of HepG2 was also performed using hollow fiber mini-modules coated with PMBL1.0. The concentration of albumin produced from HepG2 increased continuously for one month. In the mini-module, the function of HepG2 was effectively preserved for that period. On the hollow fiber membrane, spheroid formation of HepG2 cells was also observed. In conclusion, PMBL1.0 can provide a suitable surface for the cultivation of

  13. Nanoscale surface modifications to control capillary flow characteristics in PMMA microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhadeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA microfluidic devices have been fabricated using a hot embossing technique to incorporate micro-pillar features on the bottom wall of the device which when combined with either a plasma treatment or the coating of a diamond-like carbon (DLC film presents a range of surface modification profiles. Experimental results presented in detail the surface modifications in the form of distinct changes in the static water contact angle across a range from 44.3 to 81.2 when compared to pristine PMMA surfaces. Additionally, capillary flow of water (dyed to aid visualization through the microfluidic devices was recorded and analyzed to provide comparison data between filling time of a microfluidic chamber and surface modification characteristics, including the effects of surface energy and surface roughness on the microfluidic flow. We have experimentally demonstrated that fluid flow and thus filling time for the microfluidic device was significantly faster for the device with surface modifications that resulted in a lower static contact angle, and also that the incorporation of micro-pillars into a fluidic device increases the filling time when compared to comparative devices.

  14. Research Progress of Optical Fabrication and Surface-Microstructure Modification of SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SiC has become the best candidate material for space mirror and optical devices due to a series of favorable physical and chemical properties. Fine surface optical quality with the surface roughness (RMS less than 1 nm is necessary for fine optical application. However, various defects are present in SiC ceramics, and it is very difficult to polish SiC ceramic matrix with the 1 nm RMS. Surface modification of SiC ceramics must be done on the SiC substrate. Four kinds of surface-modification routes including the hot pressed glass, the C/SiC clapping, SiC clapping, and Si clapping on SiC surface have been reported and reviewed here. The methods of surface modification, the mechanism of preparation, and the disadvantages and advantages are focused on in this paper. In our view, PVD Si is the best choice for surface modification of SiC mirror.

  15. Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Gastón A.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I. [IMBIV (CONICET), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA (Argentina); Pino, Gustavo A.; Ferrero, Juan C. [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina); Rossa, Maximiliano, E-mail: mrossa@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser-induced surface modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by ns pulses. • Formation of ablation craters observed under most of the single-pulse experimental conditions. • UV laser foaming of dried hydrogel samples resulting from single- and multiple-pulse experiments. • Threshold values of the incident laser fluence reported for the observed surface modifications. • Lower threshold fluences for acrylate-based, compared to acrylamide-based hydrogels. - Abstract: This work reports an investigation of the surface modifications induced by irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths on crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymeric materials, which have been functionalized with 1-vinylimidazole as a co-monomer. A comparison is made between hydrogels differing in the base co-monomer (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) and in hydration state (both swollen and dried states). Formation of craters is the dominant morphological change observed by ablation in the visible at 532 nm, whereas additional, less aggressive surface modifications, chiefly microfoams and roughness, are developed in the ultraviolet at 266 nm. At both irradiation wavelengths, threshold values of the incident laser fluence for the observation of the various surface modifications are determined under single-pulse laser irradiation conditions. It is shown that multiple-pulse irradiation at 266 nm with a limited number of laser shots can be used alternatively for generating a regular microfoam layer at the surface of dried hydrogels based on N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The observations are rationalized on the basis of currently accepted mechanisms for laser-induced polymer surface modification, with a significant contribution of the laser foaming mechanism. Prospective applications of the laser-foamed hydrogel matrices in biomolecule immobilization are suggested.

  16. Surface Modifications of Polymers Induced by Heavy Ions Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R O; Lombardo, J; Camporotondi, D; Tadey, D; Bermudez, G G [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Ezeiza (Argentina)

    2012-09-15

    Polymer surfaces are modified by the application of swift heavy ions etching and grafting procedures. The residual active sites produced by heavy ion beams, remaining after the etching process, were used to start the grafting process. In order to produce tracks on foils of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) they were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n or with 115 MeV Cl ions. Moreover, foils of polypropylene (PP) were irradiated with {sup 208}Pb of 25.62 MeV/n. Then, they were etched and grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomers or with acrylic acid (AAc) monomers, respectively. The replica method allowed the observation of the shape of the grafted tracks using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition NIPAAm grafted foils were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sulfonation procedure (methodology previously described for perfluorated polymers) was applied on grafted PVDF. A new method is described to produce a thin layer of poly-acrylic-acid (membranes) that grows on the surface of PVDF foils implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30-150 keV. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used such as: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S); acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide - glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). The experimental results show that for particular values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc concentration, sulphuric acid and PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta) a huge percentage of grafting was obtained. At certain point of the grafting process the development of the PolyAAc-Xmonomer produce a detachment from the irradiated substrate and continue its grafting outside it. This method produces a membrane that is an increased replica of the original implanted surface. Finally, PVDF films implanted by an Ar{sup +} beam with energies about 100 keV and a fluence of 10

  17. Surface Modifications with Laser Synthesized Mo Modified Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Chen, Hao; Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Mg-Cu-Al was first used to improve the surface performance of TA15 titanium alloys by means of laser cladding technique. The synthesis of hard composite coating on TA15 titanium alloy by laser cladding of Mg-Cu-Al-B4C/Mo pre-placed powders was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Experimental results indicated that such composite coating mainly consisted of TiB2, TiB, TiC, Ti3Al and AlCuMg. Compared with TA15 alloy substrate, an improvement of wear resistance was observed for this composite coating due to the actions of fine grain, amorphous and hard phase strengthening.

  18. Surface modification of investment cast-316L implants: microstructure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Khalifa, Waleed; Nofal, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Artificial femur stem of 316L stainless steel was fabricated by investment casting using vacuum induction melting. Different surface treatments: mechanical polishing, thermal oxidation and immersion in alkaline solution were applied. Thicker hydroxyapatite (HAP) layer was formed in the furnace-oxidized samples as compared to the mechanically polished ones. The alkaline treatment enhanced the precipitation of HAP on the samples. It was also observed that the HAP precipitation responded differently to the different phases of the microstructure. The austenite phase was observed to have more homogeneous and smoother layer of HAP. In addition, the growth of HAP was sometimes favored on the austenite phase rather than on ferrite phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L J; Sood, D K; Manory, R R [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 μm thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10 17 - 8x10 17 ions cm -2 . Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Influence of surface oxidation on ion dynamics and capacitance in porous and nonporous carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatkin, Boris [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhang, Yu [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kolesnikov, Alexander I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cummings, Peter T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Here, we investigate the influence of surface chemistry and ion confinement on capacitance and electrosorption dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in supercapacitors. Using air oxidation and vacuum annealing, we produced defunctionalized and oxygen-rich surfaces of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). While oxidized surfaces of porous CDCs improve capacitance and rate handling abilities of ions, defunctionalized nonporous GNPs improve charge storage densities on planar electrodes. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) probed the structure, dynamics, and orientation of RTIL ions confined in divergently functionalized pores. Oxidized, ionophilic surfaces draw ions closer to pore surfaces and enhance potential-driven ion transport during electrosorption. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations corroborated experimental data and demonstrated the significance of surface functional groups on ion orientations, accumulation densities, and capacitance.

  3. Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanofibrils with Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine different surface modifications of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (ATS by using three different solvent systems (water, ethanol, and a mixture of both were investigated. The effect of reaction conditions, such as silane to cellulose ratio and solvent type were evaluated to determine their contribution to the extent of the silane modification. Nanofibril properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, surface free energy, thermogravimetry, 13C and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, and electronic microscopy. The influence of the solvent in the solvolysis of the silane was reflected in the presence or absence of ethoxy groups in the silane. On the other hand, whereas the surface modification was increased directly proportionally to silane ratio on the reaction, the aggregation of nanofibrils was also increased, which can play a negative role in certain applications. The increment of silane modification also had substantial repercussions on the crystallinity of the nanofibrils by the addition of amorphous components to the crystalline unit; moreover, silane surface modifications enhanced the hydrophobic character of the nanofibrils.

  4. Laser-Based Surface Modification of Microstructure for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenfeng; Sun, Ting; Cao, Yu; Li, Shaolong; Liu, Chang; Tang, Qingru

    2018-05-01

    Bonding repair is a powerful feature of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Based on the theory of interface bonding, the interface adhesion strength and reliability of the CFRP structure will be directly affected by the microscopic features of the CFRP surface, including the microstructure, physical, and chemical characteristics. In this paper, laser-based surface modification was compared to Peel-ply, grinding, and polishing to comparatively evaluate the surface microstructure of CFRP. The surface microstructure, morphology, fiber damage, height and space parameters were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Relative to the conventional grinding process, laser modification of the CFRP surface can result in more uniform resin removal and better processing control and repeatability. This decreases the adverse impact of surface fiber fractures and secondary damage. The surface properties were significantly optimized, which has been reflected such things as the obvious improvement of surface roughness, microstructure uniformity, and actual area. The improved surface microstructure based on laser modification is more conducive to interface bonding of CFRP structure repair. This can enhance the interfacial adhesion strength and reliability of repair.

  5. Cylindrical articles surfacing with a strip electrode at an angle to the generatrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Іванов

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the strip electrode when surfacing is made along a variable path leads to a change in the melting process and the formation of a weld bead, due to the absence, in contrast to the wire electrode, of the axial symmetry of the strip cross section. In the layered surfacing of mill rolls with the rollers being at an angle to the generatrix, there may be such defects as undercuts and slagging along the edges of the seam, that worsen the quality and performance of the wear resistant layer. According to the results of the metallographic analysis of the sections, it has been established that these defects in the seam at the cross-over of the rolls during the layer-by-layer surfacing are not remelted by the arc and it leads to slag inclusions in the zone. There is an asymmetry in the formation of the weld pool, which is associated with the peculiarities of the liquid metal flow during its melting. Thus, a decrease in the minimum deviation angle of the strip electrode location with respect to the deposition rate vector leads to a decrease in the crack resistance of the working surface. Investigations of the weld bead formation during deposition by a strip electrode as a function of the angle of the strip rotation with respect to the deposition rate vector have been performed. The influence of the change in the angle of rotation of the strip electrode on the uniformity of the fusion line with the parent metal formation was studied. The allowable range of strip angle values has been determined, which ensures the quality and operability of the wear-resistant layer, as well as the absence of formation defects. Analysis of the wear characteristics and fracture toughness of the deposited layer showed that a change in the location of the strip electrode makes it possible to increase the fracture toughness of the welded layer with high quality of its formation and practically unchanged wear resistance

  6. Ligand substitution and selective surface coordination studies of iodine and 2,5-dihydroxythiophenol at platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, G.M.; Soriaga, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The relative surface coordination strengths of 2,5-dihydroxythiophenol (DHT) and iodine at a smooth polycrystalline platinum electrode have been investigated by thin-layer electrochemical techniques. The competitive chemisorption was studied by exposing the Pt electrode to solutions of varying mole fractions of I and DHT. Studies of ligand substitution were carried out by the introduction of an iodine-coated Pt electrode into DHT solutions, and the introduction of a DHT-coated into I solutions. Surface coverage measurements indicated that DHT is preferentially adsorbed and will displace chemisorbed iodine at the Pt electrode. Chemisorbed DHT is not appreciably displaced by iodine. These results and their contribution to the trend in the selective surface coordination chemistry of platinum electrodes will be discussed

  7. Torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrode localization using three-dimensional photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Alday, Erick A; Thomas, Jason A; Kabir, Muammar; Sedaghat, Golriz; Rogovoy, Nichole; van Dam, Eelco; van Dam, Peter; Woodward, William; Fuss, Cristina; Ferencik, Maros; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    We conducted a prospective clinical study (n=14; 29% female) to assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) photography-based method of torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrodes localization. The position of 74 body surface electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes (diameter 5mm) was defined by two methods: 3D photography, and CT (marker diameter 2mm) or MRI (marker size 10×20mm) imaging. Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement in X (bias -2.5 [95% limits of agreement (LoA) -19.5 to 14.3] mm), Y (bias -0.1 [95% LoA -14.1 to 13.9] mm), and Z coordinates (bias -0.8 [95% LoA -15.6 to 14.2] mm), as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography. The average Hausdorff distance between the two torso geometry reconstructions was 11.17±3.05mm. Thus, accurate torso geometry reconstruction using 3D photography is feasible. Body surface ECG electrodes coordinates as defined by the CT/MRI imaging, and 3D photography, are in good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of surface modification on carbon fiber and its reinforced phenolic matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Hua [Key Laboratory for Liquid phase chemical oxidation Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang Chengguo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Shan; Lin Xue [Carbon Fibre Engineering Research Center, Faculty of Materials Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used very simple and effective modification method to treat PAN-based carbon fiber by liquid oxidation and coupling agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon fiber surface functional groups were analyzed by LRS and XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper treatment of carbon fiber can prove an effective way to increase composite's performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon fiber surface modifications by oxidation and APS could strengthen fiber activity and enlarge surface area as well as its roughness. - Abstract: In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber were chemically modified with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, KClO{sub 3} and silane coupling agent ({gamma}-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APS), and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the carbon fiber were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman scattering (LRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Single fiber mechanical properties, specific surface area, composite impact properties and interfacial shear strength (ILSS) were researched to indicate the effects of surface modification on fibers and the interaction between modified fiber surface and phenolic matrix. The results showed that carbon fiber surface modification by oxidation and APS can strengthen fiber surface chemical activity and enlarge the fiber surface area as well as its roughness. When carbon fiber (CF) is oxidized treatment, the oxygen content as well as the O/C ratio will be obviously increased. Oxygen functional groups increase with oxidation time increasing. Carbon fiber treated with APS will make C-O-R content increase and O-C=O content decrease due to surface reaction. Proper treatment of carbon fiber with acid and silane coupling agent prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical and outdoor

  9. Effect of surface modification on carbon fiber and its reinforced phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hua; Wang Chengguo; Zhang Shan; Lin Xue

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used very simple and effective modification method to treat PAN-based carbon fiber by liquid oxidation and coupling agent. ► Carbon fiber surface functional groups were analyzed by LRS and XPS. ► Proper treatment of carbon fiber can prove an effective way to increase composite's performance. ► Carbon fiber surface modifications by oxidation and APS could strengthen fiber activity and enlarge surface area as well as its roughness. - Abstract: In this work, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber were chemically modified with H 2 SO 4 , KClO 3 and silane coupling agent (γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APS), and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites were prepared. The structural and surface characteristics of the carbon fiber were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman scattering (LRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Single fiber mechanical properties, specific surface area, composite impact properties and interfacial shear strength (ILSS) were researched to indicate the effects of surface modification on fibers and the interaction between modified fiber surface and phenolic matrix. The results showed that carbon fiber surface modification by oxidation and APS can strengthen fiber surface chemical activity and enlarge the fiber surface area as well as its roughness. When carbon fiber (CF) is oxidized treatment, the oxygen content as well as the O/C ratio will be obviously increased. Oxygen functional groups increase with oxidation time increasing. Carbon fiber treated with APS will make C-O-R content increase and O-C=O content decrease due to surface reaction. Proper treatment of carbon fiber with acid and silane coupling agent prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical and outdoor performance of the resulting fiber/resin composites.

  10. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers using a silane coupling agent by dry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Donghai; Nai, Xueying; Lan, Shengjie; Bian, Shaoju; Liu, Xin; Li, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry process was adopted to modify the surface of MHSH whiskers using silane. • Si−O−Mg bonds were formed directly by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 and −OH of MHSH. • Dispersibility and compatibility of modified whiskers greatly improved in organic phase. • Thermal stability of whiskers was enhanced after modified. - Abstract: In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers with polymers, the surface of MHSH whiskers was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process. The possible mechanism of the surface modification and the interfacial interactions between MHSH whiskers and VTES, as well as the effect of surface modification, were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the agglomerations were effectively separated and a thin layer was formed on the surface of the whiskers after modification. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the VTES molecules were bound to the surface of MHSH whiskers after modification. Chemical bonds (Si−O−Mg) were formed by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 or Si−OH and the hydroxyl group of MHSH whiskers. The effect of surface modification was evaluated by sedimentation tests, contact angle measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the surface of MHSH whiskers was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MHSH whiskers were significantly improved in the organic phase. Additionally, the thermal stability of the VTES-modified MHSH whiskers was improved significantly.

  11. Plasma-implantation-based surface modification of metals with single-implantation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. B.; Cui, J. T.; Yang, S. Q.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma ion implantation has proven to be an effective surface modification technique. Its biggest advantage is the capability to treat the objects with irregular shapes without complex manipulation of target holder. Many metal materials such as aluminum, stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, magnesium etc, has been treated using this technique to improve their wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, fatigue-resistance, oxidation-resistance, bio-compatiblity etc. However in order to achieve thicker modified layers, hybrid processes combining plasma ion implantation with other techniques have been frequently employed. In this paper plasma implantation based surface modification of metals using single-implantation mode is reviewed.

  12. The Impact of Surface Chemistry on Bio-derived Carbon Performance as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-12-23

    In this study, we demonstrate that highly functionalized and porous carbons can be derived from palm-leaf waste using the template-free facile synthesis process. The derived carbons have high content of nitrogen dopant, high surface area, and various defects. Moreover, these carbons exhibit a high electrical conductivity (107 S m−1). Thanks to the high content of edge N (64.3%) and highly microporous nature (82% of microspores), these biomass-derived carbons show promising performance when used as supercapacitor electrodes. To be specific, these carbonaceous materials show a specific capacitance as high as 197 and 135 F g−1 at 2 and 20 A g−1 in three-electrode configuration, respectively. Furthermore, the symmetrical cells using palm-leaf-derived carbon show an energy density of 8.4 Wh Kg−1 at a power density of 0.64 kW Kg−1, with high cycling life stability (∼8% loss after 10,000 continuous charge–discharge cycles at 20 A g−1). Interestingly, as the power density increases from 4.4 kW kg−1 to 36.8 kW kg−1, the energy density drops slowly from 8.4 Wh kg−1 to 3.4 Wh kg−1. Getting such extremely high power density without significant loss of energy density indicates that these palm-leaf-derived carbons have excellent electrode performance as supercapacitor electrodes.

  13. The Impact of Surface Chemistry on Bio-derived Carbon Performance as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Whitehair, Daniel; Xia, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that highly functionalized and porous carbons can be derived from palm-leaf waste using the template-free facile synthesis process. The derived carbons have high content of nitrogen dopant, high surface area, and various defects. Moreover, these carbons exhibit a high electrical conductivity (107 S m−1). Thanks to the high content of edge N (64.3%) and highly microporous nature (82% of microspores), these biomass-derived carbons show promising performance when used as supercapacitor electrodes. To be specific, these carbonaceous materials show a specific capacitance as high as 197 and 135 F g−1 at 2 and 20 A g−1 in three-electrode configuration, respectively. Furthermore, the symmetrical cells using palm-leaf-derived carbon show an energy density of 8.4 Wh Kg−1 at a power density of 0.64 kW Kg−1, with high cycling life stability (∼8% loss after 10,000 continuous charge–discharge cycles at 20 A g−1). Interestingly, as the power density increases from 4.4 kW kg−1 to 36.8 kW kg−1, the energy density drops slowly from 8.4 Wh kg−1 to 3.4 Wh kg−1. Getting such extremely high power density without significant loss of energy density indicates that these palm-leaf-derived carbons have excellent electrode performance as supercapacitor electrodes.

  14. Chemical modification of glass surface with a monolayer of nonchromophoric and chromophoric methacrylate terpolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Ryszard [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Kucharski, Stanislaw, E-mail: stanislaw.kucharski@pwr.wroc.pl [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Sobolewska, Anna [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Barille, Regis [Institut des Sciences et Techniques Moleculaires d' Angers ' Moltech Anjou' , CNRS UMR 6200, 49045 Angers (France)

    2010-11-15

    The methacrylate terpolymers, a nonchromophoric and chromophoric one, containing 2-hydroxyethyl groups were reacted with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain reactive polymers able to form covalent bonding with -SiOH groups of the glass surface via triethoxysilane group condensation. Chemical modification of the Corning 2949 glass plates treated in this way resulted in increase of wetting angle from 11{sup o} to ca. 70-73{sup o}. Determination of ellipsometric parameters revealed low value of the substrate refractive index as compared with that of bulk Corning 2949 glass suggesting roughness of the surface. The AFM image of the bare glass surface and that modified with terpolymer monolayer confirmed this phenomenon. Modification of the glass with the terpolymer monolayer made it possible to create the substrate surface well suited for deposition of familiar chromophore film by spin-coating. The chromophore polymer film deposited onto the modified glass surface was found to be resistant to come unstuck in aqueous solution.

  15. Near-surface modifications for improved crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys: trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettche, L.R.; Rath, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine the potential of surface modifications in improving the crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys. Provides a critique of two of the most promising and versatile techniques: ion implantation and laser beam surface processing. Discusses crack tolerant properties; engineering characterization; publication trends and Department of Defense interests; and emergent surface modification techniques. Finds that the efficiency with which high strength alloys can be incorporated into a structure or component is dependent on the following crack tolerant properties: fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, sustained loading cracking resistance, fretting fatigue resistance, and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Concludes that ion implantation and laser surface processing coupled with other advanced metallurgical procedures and fracture mechanic analyses provide the means to optimize both the bulk and surface controlled crack tolerant properties

  16. Electrospun carbon nanofibers surface-grafted with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes as hierarchical electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengping; Wu, Xiang-Fa; Fong, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This letter reports the fabrication and electrochemical properties of electrospun carbon nanofibers surface-grafted with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as hierarchical electrodes for supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of the fabricated electrodes was measured up to 185 F/g at the low discharge current density of 625 mA/g; a decrease of 38% was detected at the high discharge current density of 2.5 A/g. The morphology and microstructure of the electrodes were examined by electron microscopy, and the unique connectivity of the hybrid nanomaterials was responsible for the high specific capacitance and low intrinsic contact electric resistance of the hierarchical electrodes.

  17. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  19. Surface modification of zinc oxide nanorods for potential applications in organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Zhong Min; Ge Hongliang

    2011-01-01

    A facile and simple modification method towards changing surface property of ZnO nanorods from a hydrophilic one to a hydrophobic one have been developed by refluxing precursor in three-necked flask. Comparing with the other modifiers discussed in the paper, NDZ-311w titanate coupling agent was selected as the best one not only because of the good lipophilic modification effect, but also for its multifunctional groups could play a crucial part in further composite with organic materials. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively, were used to evaluate the morphology, structure and combinative way before and after surface modification. The TEM result showed, after modifying process, there was a thin layer capping on the surface of ZnO nanorods which could be considered as NDZ-311w titanate coupling agent. Through the structure analysis by XRD, it was found that the surface modification had not substantially altered crystalline structure. Besides, the FT-IR test proved that NDZ-311w titanate coupling agent was rather covalently bonded to the surface of ZnO nanorods than physically capping. More practically speaking, the NDZ-311w titanate coupling agent modified ZnO nanorods have much more potential applications in organic materials than unmodified ones.

  20. Surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials as potential scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangkui; Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang; Wang, Haixia; Li, Qian; Yang, Jing; Hao, Xuefang; Lv, Juan; Ma, Nan; Li, Wenzhong

    2015-08-07

    Surface modification and endothelialization of vascular biomaterials are common approaches that are used to both resist the nonspecific adhesion of proteins and improve the hemocompatibility and long-term patency of artificial vascular grafts. Surface modification of vascular grafts using hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), zwitterionic polymers, heparin or other bioactive molecules can efficiently enhance hemocompatibility, and consequently prevent thrombosis on artificial vascular grafts. However, these modified surfaces may be excessively hydrophilic, which limits initial vascular endothelial cell adhesion and formation of a confluent endothelial lining. Therefore, the improvement of endothelialization on these grafts by chemical modification with specific peptides and genes is now arousing more and more interest. Several active peptides, such as RGD, CAG, REDV and YIGSR, can be specifically recognized by endothelial cells. Consequently, graft surfaces that are modified by these peptides can exhibit targeting selectivity for the adhesion of endothelial cells, and genes can be delivered by targeting carriers to specific tissues to enhance the promotion and regeneration of blood vessels. These methods could effectively accelerate selective endothelial cell recruitment and functional endothelialization. In this review, recent developments in the surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials in vascular tissue engineering are summarized. Both gene engineering and targeting ligand immobilization are promising methods to improve the clinical outcome of artificial vascular grafts.

  1. Effects of combinative surface modification on the stability and conductivity of the copper particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yike; Li, Tongtong; Fu, Ming; Jiang, Shenglin; Zhang, Guangzu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combinative method is used to improve the performance of the copper powder. • The method integrates passivation, silver-coating, and coupling agent treatment. • The stability of the copper powder has been improved after the modification. • The sheet resistance of the conductive film is reduced to 15 mΩ. -- Abstract: The specific goal of the present study is to evaluate the surface performance of the copper particles and get excellent copper powder by surface modification. This paper proposes a combinative modification method integrating passivation, silver-coated, and coupling agent. As a result, after 600 h at room temperature the copper powder has the stabilization improved and is well combined with organic matters, and the sheet resistance of the film fabricated by the copper conductive filler is reduced to 15 mΩ. The performance of the copper powder has been greatly enhanced by the combinative modification, and the cost of the copper conductive filler is decreased significantly by this method. The results indicate that the combinative surface modification method can be used for practical electronic application

  2. Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with zwitterionic polymers for improving blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Chen, Qiang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Mengzhou; Wu, Shishan; Lin, Sicong; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A facile approach to modify silicone rubber (SR) membrane for improving the blood compatibility was investigated. The hydrophobic SR surface was firstly activated by air plasma, after which an initiator was immobilized on the activated surface for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three zwitterionic polymers were then grafted from SR membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface composition, wettability, and morphology of the membranes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (WCA) measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted from SR surfaces, which remarkably improved the wettability of the SR surface. The blood compatibility of the membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. As observed, all the zwitterionic polymer modified surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion, showing significantly improved blood compatibility. This work should inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical applications such as vessel, catheter, and microfluidics. Highlights: • Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with functional brushes • Modified SR surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption. • Modified SR surfaces have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion. • Zwitteironic surface significant improvement in blood compatibility • Could inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical

  3. Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with zwitterionic polymers for improving blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pingsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Qiang, E-mail: chem100@nju.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); High Technology Research Institute of Nanjing University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Yuan, Bo; Chen, Mengzhou; Wu, Shishan; Lin, Sicong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Shen, Jian, E-mail: shenj1957@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-10-15

    A facile approach to modify silicone rubber (SR) membrane for improving the blood compatibility was investigated. The hydrophobic SR surface was firstly activated by air plasma, after which an initiator was immobilized on the activated surface for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three zwitterionic polymers were then grafted from SR membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface composition, wettability, and morphology of the membranes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (WCA) measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted from SR surfaces, which remarkably improved the wettability of the SR surface. The blood compatibility of the membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. As observed, all the zwitterionic polymer modified surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion, showing significantly improved blood compatibility. This work should inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical applications such as vessel, catheter, and microfluidics. Highlights: • Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with functional brushes • Modified SR surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption. • Modified SR surfaces have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion. • Zwitteironic surface significant improvement in blood compatibility • Could inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical.

  4. Surface modification of polystyrene with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lian; Yan Lifeng; Zhao Peitao; Torimoto, Yoshifumi; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Li Quanxin

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to surface modification of polystyrene (PS) polymer with atomic oxygen radical anions-dissolved solution (named as O - water) has been investigated. The O - water, generated by bubbling of the O - (atomic oxygen radical anion) flux into the deionized water, was characterized by UV-absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The O - water treatments caused an obvious increase of the surface hydrophilicity, surface energy, surface roughness and also caused an alteration of the surface chemical composition for PS surfaces, which were indicated by the variety of contact angle and material characterization by atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Particularly, it was found that some hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl (OH) and carbonyl (C=O) groups were introduced onto the polystyrene surfaces via the O - water treatment, leading to the increases of surface hydrophilicity and surface energy. The active oxygen species would react with the aromatic ring molecules on the PS surfaces and decompose the aromatic compounds to produce hydrophilic hydroxyl and carbonyl compounds. In addition, the O - water is also considered as a 'clean solution' without adding any toxic chemicals and it is easy to be handled at room temperature. Present method may suit to the surface modification of polymers and other heat-sensitive materials potentially

  5. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.

  6. Study of Textile Surface Characteristic Modification by Using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani Gitawati; Rany Saptaaji

    2007-01-01

    The success of accelerator technology application in various field of industry, medical and pharmacy, environment, agricultural, food increase each year as the increasing of people needs, not excepted for surface treatment of fibers and textiles in textile industry. This writing aim is to asses the application of electron beam accelerator for textile surface treatment on finishing step. Surface treatment was done with electron beam low energy (100 - 500 keV), and because of its low penetration it was suitable used to gain the improvement of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of textile surface such as adhesion, wettability, printability, dyes-intake, crease recovery, wrinkle-resistance, flammability, abrasion resistance, soil and stain release to get better result. Modification of fibers and textiles surface properties on finishing process can be caused by crosslinking, grafting and degradation reactions. The assesment results showed that the greatest impact on commercial application of radiation in textiles were crease recovery and surface modification of wetting properties (soil and stain release). The radiation dose used for those purposes were 5 - 50 kGy. The bach process of graft textiles surface modification before and after irradiation by Co-60 source (gamma energies of 1.33 and 1.17 MeV) and continue process by electron beam were presented. The assesment results were reported in this paper. (author)

  7. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  8. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F2 laser surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi; Miyamoto, Iwao; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F 2 laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F 2 laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  9. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F{sub 2} laser surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, Yasutaka, E-mail: y-hanada@riken.jp [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sugioka, Koji [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawano, Hiroyuki [RIKEN-Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Electronics, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyawaki, Atsushi [RIKEN-Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Midorikawa, Katsumi [RIKEN-Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F{sub 2} laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F{sub 2} laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  10. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in healthy cats recorded with surface electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Musteata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the brainstem auditory evoked potentials of seven healthy cats, using surface electrodes. Latencies of waves I, III and V, and intervals I–III, I–V and III–V were recorded. Monaural and binaural stimulation of the cats were done with sounds ranging between 40 and 90 decibel Sound Pressure Level. All latencies were lower than those described in previous studies, where needle electrodes were used. In the case of binaural stimulation, latencies of waves III and V were greater compared to those obtained for monaural stimulation (P P > 0.05. Regardless of the sound intensity, the interwave latency was constant (P > 0.05. Interestingly, no differences were noticed for latencies of waves III and V when sound intensity was higher than 80dB SPL. This study completes the knowledge in the field of electrophysiology and shows that the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cats using surface electrodes is a viable method to record the transmission of auditory information. That can be faithfully used in clinical practice, when small changes of latency values may be an objective factor in health status evaluation.

  11. Effects of electrical discharge surface modification of superalloy Haynes 230 with aluminum and molybdenum on oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, C.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process on improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 have been investigated. The 85 at.% Al and 15 at.% Mo composite electrode provided the surface alloying materials. An Al-rich layer is produced on the surface of the EDA specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity, whereas, many discontinuous piled layers are attached to the surface of the EDA superalloy when negative electrode polarity is selected. The oxidation resistance of the specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity is better than that of the unalloyed superalloy, and the effective temperature of oxidation resistance of the alloyed layer can be achieved to 1100 o C. Conversely, the oxidation resistance of the other EDA specimen alloyed with negative electrode polarity is even worse than that of the unalloyed superalloy

  12. Preparation of electrodes on cfrp composites with low contact resistance comprising laser-based surface pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled Hamdan; Lubineau, Gilles; Alfano, Marco Francesco; Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Various examples are provided related to the preparation of electrodes on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with low contact resistance. Laser-based surface preparation can be used for bonding to CFRP composites. In one example, a

  13. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed

  14. Surface modification and functionalization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neouze, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Metal or metal oxide nanoparticles possess unique features compared to equivalent larger-scale materials. For applications, it is often necessary to stabilize or functionalize such nanoparticles. Thus, modification of the surface of nanoparticles is an important chemical challenge. In this survey,

  15. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon

  16. UV Light Induced Surface Modification of HDPE Films with Bioactive Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniloska, V.; Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Dimova, V.; Fajgar, Radek; Tomovska, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 7 (2010), s. 2276-2283 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : surface modification * uv irradiation * benzocaine Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010

  17. Effect of surface modifications and environment on the interfacial adhesion of polymer/aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.F. [Xi' an High-technology Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China)], E-mail: xiaofang_liu@263.net; Wu, Q.Y.; Wang, H.G. [Xi' an High-technology Institute, Xi' an 710025 (China)

    2008-06-15

    This work investigates the influence of surface modifications and environmental conditions on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy resin films on a 6016 aluminum alloy, as measured by peeling experiments. The alloy surfaces were pretreated with an etching solution, and then modified, respectively, with aminopropyl silane solution, aminopropyl phosphonate solution, and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma. The modified surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and their roughness was quantified by a fractal index. The peeling experiments show that the interfacial adhesion of epoxy on the aluminum alloy mainly results from the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the material surface. Environmental factors such as humidity can also weaken interfacial adhesion.

  18. Effect of surface modifications and environment on the interfacial adhesion of polymer/aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.F.; Wu, Q.Y.; Wang, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of surface modifications and environmental conditions on the interfacial adhesion of epoxy resin films on a 6016 aluminum alloy, as measured by peeling experiments. The alloy surfaces were pretreated with an etching solution, and then modified, respectively, with aminopropyl silane solution, aminopropyl phosphonate solution, and hexamethyldisiloxane plasma. The modified surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and their roughness was quantified by a fractal index. The peeling experiments show that the interfacial adhesion of epoxy on the aluminum alloy mainly results from the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the material surface. Environmental factors such as humidity can also weaken interfacial adhesion

  19. Laser surface modification of polyethersulfone films: effect of laser wavelength on biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazokian, H; Jelvani, S; Mollabashi, M; Barzin, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper laser ablation of polyethersulfone (PES) films regarding to the change in biocompatibility of the surface is investigated at 3 different wavelengths of 193nm (ArF), 248 nm (KrF) and 308 nm (XeCl). The optimum laser fluence and number of pulses for the improvement of the surface biocompatibility is found by examination of the surface behavior in contact with platelets and fibroblasts cells at 3 wavelengths. These biological modifications are explained by alteration of the surface morphology and chemistry following irradiation. The results show that the KrF laser is the best choice for treatment of PES in biological applications.

  20. Surface Modification of Photoresist SU-8 for Low Autofluorescence and Bioanalytical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Birtwell, Sam W.; Høgberg, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a surface modification of epoxy-based negative photoresist SU-8 for reducing its autofluorescence while enhancing its biofunctionality. By covalently depositing a thin layer of 20 nm Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the SU-8 surface, we found that the AuNPs-coated SU-8 surface...... is much less fluorescent than the untreated SU-8. Moreover, DNA probes can easily be immobilized on the Au surface and are thermally stable over a wide range of temperature. These improvements will benefit bioanalytical applications such as DNA hybridization and solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR)....

  1. Nano-scale surface modification of materials with slow, highly charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Tona, M.; Takahashi, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Yamada, C.; Ohtani, S.; Sakaue, H.A.; Kawase, Y.; Mitsumori, K.; Terui, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some results on surface modification of Si and graphite with highly charged ions (HCIs) are presented. Modified surfaces were observed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Crater-like structure with a diameter in nm region is formed on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by the incidence of a single HCI. The protrusion structure is formed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface on the other hand, and the structure becomes an active site for molecular adsorption. A new, intense HCI source and an experimental apparatus are under development in order to process and observe aligned nanostructures created by the impact of collimated HCI beam

  2. Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2011-01-01

    Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.

  3. Modification of the surface properties of a polyimide film during irradiation with polychromic light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Liliana; Sava, Ion; Rosu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of a polyimide film with the aromatic structure during the exposure to UV light with λ > 290 nm was studied. Significant changes in color surface and gloss surface were identified during irradiation. Sample became lighten and less glossy after exposure to the light. These modifications were correlated with the structural changes in FTIR spectra. Based on changes in FTIR spectra recorded during irradiation, a mechanism for the photochemical degradation of polyimide film was proposed.

  4. Reversible electrochemical modification of the surface of a semiconductor by an atomic-force microscope probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukhov, A. S., E-mail: antonkozhukhov@yandex.ru; Sheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    A technique for reversible surface modification with an atomic-force-microscope (AFM) probe is suggested. In this method, no significant mechanical or topographic changes occur upon a local variation in the surface potential of a sample under the AFM probe. The method allows a controlled relative change in the ohmic resistance of a channel in a Hall bridge within the range 20–25%.

  5. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kang, Eun-Goo; Park, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined

  6. Surface modification of the metal plates using continuous electron beam process (CEBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jisoo, E-mail: kimjisu16@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Seok, E-mail: totoro22@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun-Goo, E-mail: egkang@kitech.re.kr [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), KITECH Cheonan Headquarters 35-3 Hongcheon-ri, Ipjang-myeon, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-825 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Wook, E-mail: hwpark@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan Metropolitan City 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We performed surface modification of SM20C, SUS303, and Al6061 using CEBP. • We analyzed surface properties and microstructure after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface quality was improved after electron-beam irradiation. • The surface hardness for SM20C was increased by ∼50% after CEBP irradiation. - Abstract: The finishing process is an important component of the quality-control procedure for final products in manufacturing applications. In this study, we evaluated the performance of continuous electron-beam process as the final process for finishing SM20C (steel alloy), SUS303 (stainless steel alloy), and Al6061 (aluminum alloy) surfaces both on the initially smooth and rough surfaces. Surface modification of the metals was carried out by varying the feed and frequency of the continuous electron-beam irradiation procedure. The resulting surface roughness was examined with respect to the initial surface roughness of the metals. SM20C and SUS303 experienced an improvement in surface roughness, particularly for initially rough surfaces. Continuous electron-beam process produced craters during the process and the effect of this phenomenon on the resulting surface roughness was relatively large with the initially smooth SM20C and SUS303 alloy surfaces. For Al6061, the continuous electron-beam process was effective at improving its surface roughness even with the initially smooth surface under the optimized conditions of process; this was attributed to its low melting point. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify metallurgical variation within the thin melted and re-solidification layers of the tested alloys. Changes in the surface contact angle and hardness before and after electron-beam irradiation were also examined.

  7. Surface modification and properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films by antimicrobial peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Liqiang; Zhu Liangjun; Min Sijia; Liu Lin; Cai Yurong; Yao Juming

    2008-01-01

    The Bombyx mori silk fibroin films (SFFs) were modified by a Cecropin B (CB) antimicrobial peptide, (NH 2 )-NGIVKAGPAIAVLGEAAL-CONH 2 , using the carbodiimide chemistry method. In order to avoid the dissolution of films during the modification procedure, the SFFs were first treated with 60% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution, resulting a structural transition from unstable silk I to silk II. The investigation of modification conditions showed that the surface-modified SFFs had the satisfied antimicrobial activity and durability when they were activated by EDC.HCl/NHS solution followed by a treatment in CB peptide/PBS buffer (pH 6.5 or 8) solution at ambient temperature for 2 h. Moreover, the surface-modified SFFs showed the smaller contact angle due to the hydrophilic antimicrobial peptides coupled on the film surface, which is essential for the cell adhesion and proliferation. AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of SFFs was considerably increased after the modification by the peptides. The elemental composition analysis results also suggested that the peptides were tightly coupled to the surface of SFFs. This approach may provide a new option to engineer the surface-modified implanted materials preventing the biomaterial-centered infection (BCI)

  8. Surface modification of malachite with ethanediamine and its effect on sulfidization flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qicheng; Zhao, Wenjuan; Wen, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Ethanediamine was used to modify the mineral surface of malachite to improve its sulfidization and flotation behavior. The activation mechanism was investigated by adsorption experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and zeta potential measurements. Microflotation experiments showed that the flotation recovery of malachite was enhanced after the pretreatment of the mineral particles with ethanediamine prior to the addition of Na2S. Adsorption tests revealed that numerous sulfide ion species in the pulp solution were transferred onto the mineral surface through the formation of more copper sulfide species. This finding was confirmed by the results of the XPS measurements. Ethanediamine modification not only increased the contents of copper sulfide species on the malachite surface but also enhanced the reactivity of the sulfidization products. During sulfidization, Cu(II) species on the mineral surface were reduced into Cu(I) species, and the percentages of S22- and Sn2- relative to the total S increased after modification, resulting in increased surface hydrophobicity. The results of zeta potential measurements showed that the ethanediamine-modified mineral surface adsorbed with more sulfide ion species was advantageous to the attachment of xanthate species, thereby improving malachite floatability. The proposed ethanediamine modification followed by sulfidization xanthate flotation exhibits potential for industrial application.

  9. Surface modification and properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films by antimicrobial peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhu Liangjun; Min Sijia [College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Liu Lin; Cai Yurong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yao Juming [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha Higher Education Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn

    2008-03-15

    The Bombyx mori silk fibroin films (SFFs) were modified by a Cecropin B (CB) antimicrobial peptide, (NH{sub 2})-NGIVKAGPAIAVLGEAAL-CONH{sub 2}, using the carbodiimide chemistry method. In order to avoid the dissolution of films during the modification procedure, the SFFs were first treated with 60% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solution, resulting a structural transition from unstable silk I to silk II. The investigation of modification conditions showed that the surface-modified SFFs had the satisfied antimicrobial activity and durability when they were activated by EDC.HCl/NHS solution followed by a treatment in CB peptide/PBS buffer (pH 6.5 or 8) solution at ambient temperature for 2 h. Moreover, the surface-modified SFFs showed the smaller contact angle due to the hydrophilic antimicrobial peptides coupled on the film surface, which is essential for the cell adhesion and proliferation. AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of SFFs was considerably increased after the modification by the peptides. The elemental composition analysis results also suggested that the peptides were tightly coupled to the surface of SFFs. This approach may provide a new option to engineer the surface-modified implanted materials preventing the biomaterial-centered infection (BCI)

  10. Chemical surface reactions by click chemistry: coumarin dye modification of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Claudia; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces and the ability to tailor their properties with desired physico-chemical functions is an important field of research with a broad spectrum of applications. These applications range from the modification of wetting properties, over the alteration of optical properties, to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. In each of these fields, it is of specific importance to be able to control the quality of the layers with high precision. The present study demonstrates an approach that utilizes the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal acetylenes to prepare triazole-terminated monolayers on different substrates. The characterization of the precursor monolayers, the optimization of the chemical surface reactions as well as the clicking of a fluorescent dye molecule on such azide-terminated monolayers was carried out. A coumarin 343 derivative was utilized to discuss the aspects of the functionalization approach. Based on this approach, a number of potential surface reactions, facilitated via the acetylene-substituted functional molecules, for a broad range of applications is at hand, thus leading to numerous possibilities where surface modifications are concerned. These modifications can be applied on non-structured surfaces of silicon or glass or can be used on structured surfaces. Various possibilities are discussed

  11. Mechanical polishing as an improved surface treatment for platinum screen-printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiao Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The viability of mechanical polishing as a surface pre-treatment method for commercially available platinum screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was investigated and compared to a range of other pre-treatment methods (UV-Ozone treatment, soaking in N,N-dimethylformamide, soaking and anodizing in aqueous NaOH solution, and ultrasonication in tetrahydrofuran. Conventional electrochemical activation of platinum SPEs in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was ineffective for the removal of contaminants found to be passivating the screen-printed surfaces. However, mechanical polishing showed a significant improvement in hydrogen adsorption and in electrochemically active surface areas (probed by two different redox couples due to the effective removal of surface contaminants. Results are also presented that suggest that SPEs are highly susceptible to degradation by strong acidic or caustic solutions, and could potentially lead to instability in long-term applications due to continual etching of the binding materials. The ability of SPEs to be polished effectively extends the reusability of these traditionally “single-use” devices. Keywords: Screen-printed electrodes, Polishing, Platinum, Activation, Pre-treatment, Cyclic voltammetry

  12. Effect of surface transport properties on the performance of carbon plastic electrodes for flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xihe; Souier, Tewfik; Chiesa, Matteo; Vassallo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance, carbon nanotube (MWNT)-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites are potential candidates to replace traditional activated carbon electrodes for the next generation of fuel-cells, super capacitors and flow batteries. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to separate the surface conduction from bulk conduction in 15% HDPE-MWNT and 19% carbon black (CB)-HDPE composites for zinc-bromine flow battery electrodes. While exhibiting superior bulk conductivity, the interfacial conductivity of MWNT-filled composites is lower than that of CB-filled composites. High resolution conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) imaging and current-voltage (I-V) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the sub-surface electronic transport of the composite. Unlike the CB-composite, the fraction of conducting MWNTs near the surface is very low compared to their volume fraction. In addition, the non-linear I-V curves reveal the presence of a tunneling junction between the tip and the polymer-coated MWNTs. The tunneling resistance is as high as 1 GΩ, which strongly affects the electronic/electrochemical transfer at the interface of the electrolyte and the surface of the composite, which is evident in the voltammetric and EIS observations

  13. Topological surface states of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se are robust against surface chemical modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Conor R.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Kushwaha, Satya Kumar; Cava, Robert J.; Schwartz, Jeffrey [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Xiong, Jun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The robustness of the Dirac-like electronic states on the surfaces of topological insulators (TIs) during materials process-ing is a prerequisite for their eventual device application. Here, the (001) cleavage surfaces of crystals of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2}Se (BTS) were subjected to several surface chemical modification procedures that are common for electronic materials. Through measurement of Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations, which are the most sensitive measure of their quality, the surface states of the treated surfaces were compared to those of pristine BTS that had been exposed to ambient conditions. In each case - surface oxidation, deposition of thin layers of Ti or Zr oxides, or chemical modification of the surface oxides - the robustness of the topological surface electronic states was demonstrated by noting only very small changes in the frequency and amplitude of the SdH oscillations. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Piperidine adsorption on two different silver electrodes: A combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yanling; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of piperidine in silver colloid solution, on roughened silver electrode and on roughened silver electrode modified with silver nanoparticles were studied, and the high-quality SERS spectra of piperidine on roughened silver electrode modified with silver nanoparticles were obtained for the first time. Surface selection rules derived from the EM enhancement model were employed to deduce piperidine orientations on the different surfaces. On the basis of this, two models of piperidine adsorbed on the surface of the silver nanoparticles were built, and DFT-B3PW91/LanL2dz was applied to calculate the Raman frequencies. It proves that, at higher potential values, the piperidine is perpendicularly standing on the roughened silver electrode surface though its lone-electron pair, but in silver colloid solution and on the silver nanoparticles modified silver electrode the piperidine molecular lies flat on the silver surface. In the meantime, the potential dependent SERS of piperidine on the modified electrode were studied

  15. Microwave plasma induced surface modification of diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Polaki, Shyamala; Kumar, Niranjan; Gopala Krishna, Nanda; Madapu, Kishore; Kamruddin, Mohamed; Dash, Sitaram; Tyagi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Tailoring the surface of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is technically relevant for altering the physical and chemical properties, desirable for useful applications. A physically smooth and sp3 dominated DLC film with tetrahedral coordination was prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The surface of the DLC film was exposed to hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen plasma for physical and chemical modifications. The surface modification was based on the concept of adsorption-desorption of plasma species and surface entities of films. Energetic chemical species of microwave plasma are adsorbed, leading to desorbtion of the surface carbon atoms due to energy and momentum exchange. The interaction of such reactive species with DLC films enhanced the roughness, surface defects and dangling bonds of carbon atoms. Adsorbed hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen formed a covalent network while saturating the dangling carbon bonds around the tetrahedral sp3 valency. The modified surface chemical affinity depends upon the charge carriers and electron covalency of the adsorbed atoms. The contact angle of chemically reconstructed surface increases when a water droplet interacts either through hydrogen or van dear Waals bonding. These weak interactions influenced the wetting property of the DLC surface to a great extent.

  16. Surface modification and particles size distribution control in nano-CdS/polystyrene composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Zhirong; Ming Qiuzhang; Hai Chunliang; Han Minzeng

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of nano-CdS particles with surface thiol modification by microemulsion method and their influences on the particle size distribution in highly filled polystyrene-based composites were studied. The modified nano-CdS was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), light absorption and emission measurements to reveal the morphologies of the surface modifier, which are consistent with the surface molecules packing calculation. The morphologies of the surface modifier exerted a great influence not only on the optical performance of the particles themselves, but also on the size distribution of the particle in polystyrene matrix. A monolayer coverage with tightly packed thiol molecules was believed to be most effective in promoting a uniform particle size distribution and eliminating the surface defects that cause radiationless recombination. Control of the particles size distribution in polystyrene can be attained by adjusting surface coverage status of the thiol molecules based on the strong interaction between the surface modifier and the matrix

  17. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  18. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  19. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □ −1 and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □ −1 after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐ −1 ) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  20. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung, E-mail: hkkim@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐{sup −1}) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  1. In situ diffraction studies of electrode surface structure during gold electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnussen, O.M.; Krug, K.; Ayyad, A.H.; Stettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface X-ray scattering (SXS) in transmission geometry provides a valuable tool for in situ structural studies of electrochemical interfaces under reaction conditions, as illustrated here for homoepitaxial electrodeposition on Au(1 0 0) and Au(1 1 1) electrodes. Employing diffusion-limited deposition conditions to separate the effects of potential and deposition rate, a mutual interaction between the interface structure and the growth behavior is found. Time-dependent SXS measurements during Au(1 0 0) homoepitaxy show with decreasing potential transitions from step flow to layer-by-layer growth, then to multilayer growth, and finally back to layer-by-layer growth. This complex growth behavior can be explained within the framework of kinetic growth theory by the effect of potential, Cl adsorbates and the Au surface structure, specifically the presence of the surface reconstruction, on the Au surface mobility. Conversely, the electrodeposition process influences the structure of the reconstructed Au surface, as illustrated for Au(1 1 1), where a significant deposition-induced compression of the Au surface layer as compared to Au(1 1 1) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions or in Au-free electrolyte is found. This compression increases towards more negative potentials, which may be explained by a release of potential-induced surface stress

  2. Maleimide-activated aryl diazonium salts for electrode surface functionalization with biological and redox-active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R; Brozik, Susan M

    2008-03-04

    A versatile and simple method is introduced for formation of maleimide-functionalized surfaces using maleimide-activated aryl diazonium salts. We show for the first time electrodeposition of N-(4-diazophenyl)maleimide tetrafluoroborate on gold and carbon electrodes which was characterized via voltammetry, grazing angle FTIR, and ellipsometry. Electrodeposition conditions were used to control film thickness and yielded submonolayer-to-multilayer grafting. The resulting phenylmaleimide surfaces served as effective coupling agents for electrode functionalization with ferrocene and the redox-active protein cytochrome c. The utility of phenylmaleimide diazonium toward formation of a diazonium-activated conjugate, followed by direct electrodeposition of the diazonium-modified DNA onto the electrode surface, was also demonstrated. Effective electron transfer was obtained between immobilized molecules and the electrodes. This novel application of N-phenylmaleimide diazonium may facilitate the development of bioelectronic devices including biofuel cells, biosensors, and DNA and protein microarrays.

  3. Surface modification technique of structural ceramics: ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhijian; Miao Hezhuo; Si Wenjie; Qi Longhao; Li Wenzhi

    2003-01-01

    Through reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of the existed surface modification techniques, a new technique, ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating, was proposed. Using the proposed technique, the surfaces of silicon nitride ceramics were modified by Ti ion implantation, and then three kinds of ternary coatings, (Ti,Al)N, (Ti,Zr)N and (Ti,Cr)N, were deposited on the as-implanted ceramics. The coatings prepared by this technique are of high-hardness and well adhesive to the ceramic substrates. The maximal hardness measured by nanoindentation tests is more than 40 GPa. The maximal critical load by nanoscratch tests is more than 60 mN. The cutting tools prepared by this technique with the presented coatings are of excellent performance in industrial applications. The technique may be promising for the surface modification of structural ceramics. (orig.)

  4. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, B.; Aslan, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization, where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Surface monofunctionalized polymethyl pentene hollow fiber membranes by plasma treatment and hemocompatibility modification for membrane oxygenators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Fan, Wenling; Mao, Chun; Shi, Jialiang; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of polymethyl pentene (PMP) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) was improved through surface modification for membrane oxygenator applications. The modification was performed stepwise with the following: (1) oxygen plasma treatment, (2) functionalization of monosort hydroxyl groups through NaBH4 reduction, and (3) grafting 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or heparin. SEM, ATR-FTIR, and XPS analyses were conducted to confirm successful grafting during the modification. The hemocompatibility of PMP HFMs was analyzed and compared through protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests. Pure CO2 and O2 permeation rates, as well as in vitro gas exchange rates, were determined to evaluate the mass transfer properties of PMP HFMs. SEM results showed that different nanofibril topographies were introduced on the HFM surface. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the presence of functionalization of monosort hydroxyl group and the grafting of MPC and heparin. Hemocompatibility evaluation results showed that the modified PMP HFMs presented optimal hemocompatibility compared with pristine HFMs. Gas permeation results revealed that gas permeation flux increased in the modified HFMs because of dense surface etching during the plasma treatment. The results of in vitro gas exchange rates showed that all modified PMP HFMs presented decreased gas exchange rates because of potential surface fluid wetting. The proposed strategy exhibits a potential for fabricating membrane oxygenators for biomedical applications to prevent coagulation formation and alter plasma-induced surface topology and composition.

  6. Studies on surface modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film by remote and direct Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jierong; Li Ru

    2008-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces are modified with remote and direct Ar plasma, and the effects of the modification on the hydrophilicity of PTFE are investigated. The surface microstructures and compositions of the PTFE film were characterized with the goniometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the remote and direct plasma treatments modify the PTFE surface in morphology and composition, and both modifications cause surface oxidation of PTFE films, in the forming of some polar functional groups enhancing polymer wettability. When the remote and direct Ar plasma treats PTFE film, the contact angles decrease from the untreated 108-58 o and 65.2 o , respectively. The effect of the remote Ar plasma is more noticeable. The role of all kinds of active species, e.g. electrons, ions and free radicals involved in plasma surface modification is further evaluated. This shows that remote Ar plasma can restrain the ion and electron etching reaction and enhance radical reaction

  7. Towards Enhanced Performance Thin-film Composite Membranes via Surface Plasma Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F.; Tardy, Blaise L.; Dagastine, Raymond; Orbell, John D.; Schutz, Jürg A.; Duke, Mikel C.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing the design of thin-film composite membrane surfaces is one of the most promising pathways to deal with treating varying water qualities and increase their long-term stability and permeability. Although plasma technologies have been explored for surface modification of bulk micro and ultrafiltration membrane materials, the modification of thin film composite membranes is yet to be systematically investigated. Here, the performance of commercial thin-film composite desalination membranes has been significantly enhanced by rapid and facile, low pressure, argon plasma activation. Pressure driven water desalination tests showed that at low power density, flux was improved by 22% without compromising salt rejection. Various plasma durations and excitation powers have been systematically evaluated to assess the impact of plasma glow reactions on the physico-chemical properties of these materials associated with permeability. With increasing power density, plasma treatment enhanced the hydrophilicity of the surfaces, where water contact angles decreasing by 70% were strongly correlated with increased negative charge and smooth uniform surface morphology. These results highlight a versatile chemical modification technique for post-treatment of commercial membrane products that provides uniform morphology and chemically altered surface properties. PMID:27363670

  8. Surface modifications induced by pulsed-laser texturing—Influence of laser impact on the surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costil, S., E-mail: sophie.costil@utbm.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Lamraoui, A.; Langlade, C. [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Heintz, O.; Oltra, R. [ICB, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Laser cleaning technology provides a safe, environmentally friendly and very cost effective way to improve cleaning and surface preparation of metallic materials. Compared with efficient cleaning processes, it can avoid the disadvantages of ductile materials prepared by conventional technologies (cracks induced by sand-blasting for example) and treat only some selected areas (due to the optical fibers). By this way, laser technology could have several advantages and expand the range of thermal spraying. Moreover, new generations of lasers (fiber laser, disc laser) allow the development of new methods. Besides a significant bulk reduction, no maintenance, low operating cost, laser fibers can introduce alternative treatments. Combining a short-pulse laser with a scanner allows new applications in terms of surface preparation. By multiplying impacts using scanning laser, it is possible to shape the substrate surface to improve the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical behaviour. In addition, during the interactions of the laser beam with metallic surfaces, several modifications can be induced and particularly thermal effects. Indeed, under ambient conditions, a limited oxidation of the clean surface can occur. This phenomenon has been investigated in detail for silicon but few works have been reported concerning metallic materials. This paper aims at studying the surface modifications induced on aluminium alloy substrates after laser texturing. After morphological observations (SEM), a deeper surface analysis will be performed using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measures and microhardness testing.

  9. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  10. Enhancing biodegradation and energy generation via roughened surface graphite electrode in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2017-09-01

    The microbial desalination cell (MDC) is known as a newly developed technology for water and wastewater treatment. In this study, desalination rate, organic matter removal and energy production in the reactors with and without desalination function were compared. Herein, a new design of plain graphite called roughened surface graphite (RSG) was used as the anode electrode in both microbial fuel cell (MFC) and MDC reactors for the first time. Among the three type of anode electrodes investigated in this study, RSG electrode produced the highest power density and salt removal rate of 10.81 W/m 3 and 77.6%, respectively. Such a power density was 2.33 times higher than the MFC reactor due to the junction potential effect. In addition, adding the desalination function to the MFC reactor enhanced columbic efficiency from 21.8 to 31.4%. These results provided a proof-of-concept that the use of MDC instead of MFC would improve wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation, with an added benefit of water desalination. Furthermore, RSG can successfully be employed in an MDC or MFC, enhancing the bio-electricity generation and salt removal.

  11. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Surface modification of silicon carbide with silane coupling agent and hexadecyl iodiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Xujing, E-mail: shangxujing@tju.edu.cn; Zhu, Yumei, E-mail: zymtju@163.com; Li, Zhihong, E-mail: lzhtju@163.com

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel universal method was performed to enhance hydrophobicity of SiC powder. • The modification effects of KH550 and KH590 were compared and the optimum reaction parameters were established. • Hexadecyl iodiele was successfully grafted on the surface of SiC-KH590 powder. • Surface changes on SiC powder before and after modification were analyzed via FTIR, XPS, SEM. • The related reaction mechanisms were discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, two kinds of silane coupling agents, namely 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (KH550) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (KH590), were adopted as preliminary modifiers to improve the hydrophobic surface properties of silicon carbide (SiC) powder for the first step. The factors that influence the modification effects were investigated by measuring the contact angle. The results showed that KH590 has a better effect than KH550 for the hydrophobic modification of SiC, and the contact angle improved most after SiC powder was reacted with 0.3 g KH590 at 75 °C in aqueous/alcohol solution for 4 h. On account of further enhancement of hydrophobicity, the study was focused on utilizing nucleophilic substitution between KH590 and hexadecyl iodiele to extend the length of alkyl chain. Compared with using KH590 alone, SiC powder modified by KH590 and hexadecyl iodiele showed better water resistance with an increase of contact angle from 106.8° to 127.5°. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results showed that KH550/KH590 and hexadecyl iodiele can be covalently bonded to the surface of SiC powder without altering its crystal configuration. This methodology may provide a new way of the modification of inorganic materials in further.

  13. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and its interaction with imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bing; Wang Xiaoshu; Lu Yun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers were chemically modified with nitric acid and maleic anhydride (MA) in order to improve the interaction between carbon fiber surface and polyimide matrix. Bismaleimide (BMI) was selected as a model compound of polyimide to react with modified carbon fiber. The surface characteristic changing after modification and surface reaction was investigated by element analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results indicated that the modification of carbon fiber surface with MA might follow the Diels Alder reaction mechanism. In the surface reaction between modified fibers and BMI, among the various surface functional groups, the hydroxyl group provided from phenolic hydroxyl group and bridged structure on carbon fiber may be the most effective group reacted with imide structure. The results may shed some light on the design of the appropriate surface structure, which could react with polyimide, and the manufacture of the carbon fiber-reinforced polyimide matrix composites

  14. Surface-defect induced modifications in the optical properties of α-MnO_2 nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Reenu Elizabeth; Chandran, Anoop; Thomas, Marykutty; Jose, Joshy; George, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alpha-MnO_2 nanorods are prepared by chemical method. • Difference in surface defect density is achieved. • Characterized using XRD, Rietveld, XPS, EDS, HR-TEM, BET, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and PL spectroscopy. • Explains the bandstructure modification due to Jahn–Teller distortions using crystal field theory. • Modification in the intensity of optical emissions related to defect levels validates the concept of surface defect induced tuning of optical properties. - Abstract: The science of defect engineering via surface tuning opens a new route to modify the inherent properties of nanomaterials for advanced functional and practical applications. In this work, two independent synthesis methods (hydrothermal and co-precipitation) are adopted to fabricate α-MnO_2 nanorods with different defect structures so as to understand the effect of surface modifications on their optical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of samples are investigated with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Atomic composition calculated from energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirms non-stoichiometry of the samples. The surface properties and chemical environment are thoroughly studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. Bond angle variance and bond valence sum are determined to validate distortions in the basic MnO_6 octahedron. The surface studies indicate that the concentration of Jahn–Teller manganese (III) (Mn"3"+) ion in the samples differ from each other which results in their distinct properties. Band structure modifications due to Jahn–Teller distortion are examined with the aid of ultraviolet–visible (UV) reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The dual peaks obtained in derivative spectrum conflict the current concept on the bandgap energy of MnO_2. These studies suggest that

  15. A Configurable Surface-Electrode Ion Trap Design for Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Ping-Xing; Wu Wei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a configurable surface-electrode ion trap design to alleviate the poor reusability of the existing traps. It can architecturally and electrically support 5 mainstream modes by design reuse, thus enhancing the trap reusability and reducing the experiment setup overhead. We also develop a corresponding simulation suite which can optimize trap geometries and calculate trap parameters to control the trapped ion's classic motion. According to our analytical and simulated results, the configurable design can serve as a unified platform for basic research of large-scale quantum information processing

  16. Intermuscular Coherence Between Surface EMG Signals Is Higher for Monopolar Compared to Bipolar Electrode Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mohr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vasti muscles have to work in concert to control knee joint motion during movements like walking, running, or squatting. Coherence analysis between surface electromyography (EMG signals is a common technique to study muscle synchronization during such movements and gain insight into strategies of the central nervous system to optimize neuromuscular performance. However, different assessment methods related to EMG data acquisition, e.g., different electrode configurations or amplifier technologies, have produced inconsistent observations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of different EMG acquisition techniques (monopolar vs. bipolar electrode configuration, potential vs. current amplifier on the magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity of intermuscular coherence between two vasti muscles during stable and unstable squatting exercises.Methods: Surface EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL and medialis (VM were obtained from eighteen adults while performing series of stable und unstable bipedal squats. The EMG signals were acquired using three different recording techniques: (1 Bipolar with a potential amplifier, (2 monopolar with a potential amplifier, and (3 monopolar electrodes with a current amplifier. VL-VM coherence between the respective raw EMG signals was determined during two trials of stable squatting and one trial of unstable squatting to compare the coherence magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity between EMG recording techniques.Results: VL-VM coherence was about twice as high for monopolar recordings compared to bipolar recordings for all squatting exercises while coherence was similar between monopolar potential and current recordings. Reliability measures were comparable between recording systems while the sensitivity to an increase in intermuscular coherence during unstable vs. stable squatting was lowest for the monopolar potential system.Discussion and Conclusion: The choice of

  17. Surface modification of RuO2 electrodes by laser irradiation and ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 639. †. Dedicated to the ... Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, University of Milan,. Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milan, ..... Soc. 129 1689. 21. Parsons R 1961 In Advances in electrochemistry and.

  18. Investigating Surface and Interface Phenomena in LiFeBO3 Electrodes Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy Depth Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, Julia; Younesi, Reza; Schwarzburger, Nele

    2014-01-01

    The formation of surface and interface layers at the electrodes is highly important for the performance and stability of lithium ion batteries. To unravel the surface composition of electrode materials, photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is highly suitable as it probes chemical surface and interface...... properties with high surface sensitivity. Additionally, by using synchrotron-generated hard x-rays as excitation source, larger probing depths compared to in-house PES can be achieved. Therefore, the combination of in-house soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  19. Enhancing adhesion of yeast brewery strains to chamotte carriers through aminosilane surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Ambroziak, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    The adhesion of cells to solid supports is described as surface-dependent, being largely determined by the properties of the surface. In this study, ceramic surfaces modified using different organosilanes were tested for proadhesive properties using industrial brewery yeast strains in different physiological states. Eight brewing strains were tested: bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus and top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To determine adhesion efficiency light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and the fluorymetric method were used. Modification of chamotte carriers by 3-(3-anino-2-hydroxy-1-propoxy) propyldimethoxysilane and 3-(N, N-dimethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium propyldimethoxysilane groups increased their biomass load significantly.

  20. Applications of Functional Amyloids from Fungi: Surface Modification by Class I Hydrophobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piscitelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Class I hydrophobins produced from fungi are amongst the first proteins recognized as functional amyloids. They are amphiphilic proteins involved in the formation of aerial structures such as spores or fruiting bodies. They form chemically robust layers which can only be dissolved in strong acids. These layers adhere to different surfaces, changing their wettability, and allow the binding of other proteins. Herein, the modification of diverse types of surfaces with Class I hydrophobins is reported, highlighting the applications of the coated surfaces. Indeed, these coatings can be exploited in several fields, spanning from biomedical to industrial applications, which include biosensing and textile manufacturing.

  1. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  2. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  3. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W., E-mail: lynnww@sohu.com [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Li, J.X. [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Gao, C.Y. [Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Chang, M. [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  4. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: The effect on the initial electroless copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mader, Lothar [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the influence of polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolak (ECN) resin on the initial electroless copper deposition. Three different strategies to introduce polyamines on a surface in aqueous environment are applied: via polyethyleneimine adsorption (PEI), via polydopamine and via polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next, the influence of these surface modifications on the catalytic palladium activation is investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Finally, the initial electroless copper deposition on modified epoxy surfaces is evaluated using SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Grafted polyamines on polydopamine surface modifications result in a large increase of the initial deposited copper.

  5. The process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium (Grade 2) with rhenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobiela, K.; Smolina, I.; Dziedzic, R.; Szymczyk, P.; Kurzynowski, T.; Chlebus, E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the process development of laser surface modification of commercially pure titanium with rhenium. The criterion of the successful/optimal process is the repetitive geometry of the surface, characterized by predictable and repetitive chemical composition over its entire surface as well as special mechanical properties (hardness and wear resistance). The analysis of surface geometry concluded measurements of laser penetration depth and heat affected zone (HAZ), the width of a single track as well as width of a clad. The diode laser installed on the industrial robot carried out the laser treatment. This solution made possible the continuous supply of powder to the substrate during the process. The aim of an investigation is find out the possibility of improving the tribological characteristics of the surface due to the rhenium alloying. The verification of the surface properties (tribological) concluded geometry measurements, microstructure observation, hardness tests and evaluation of wear resistance.

  6. Surface Area Expansion of Electrodes with Grass-like Nanostructures to Enhance Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Zhang, Yifeng; Noori, Jafar Safaa

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have applications possibilities for wastewater treatment, biotransformation, and biosensor, but the development of highly efficient electrode materials is critical for enhancing the power generation. Two types of electrodes modified with nanoparticles or grass-like nan......Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have applications possibilities for wastewater treatment, biotransformation, and biosensor, but the development of highly efficient electrode materials is critical for enhancing the power generation. Two types of electrodes modified with nanoparticles or grass...... of plain silicium showed a maximum power density of 86.0 mW/m2. Further expanding the surface area of carbon paper electrodes with gold nanoparticles resulted in a maximum stable power density of 346.9 mW/m2 which is 2.9 times higher than that achieved with conventional carbon paper. These results show...

  7. Augmented liver targeting of exosomes by surface modification with cationized pullulan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryo; Uemoto, Shinji; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2017-07-15

    Exosomes are membrane nanoparticles containing biological substances that are employed as therapeutics in experimental inflammatory models. Surface modification of exosomes for better tissue targetability and enhancement of their therapeutic ability was recently attempted mainly using gene transfection techniques. Here, we show for the first time that the surface modification of exosomes with cationized pullulan, which has the ability to target hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors, can target injured liver and enhance the therapeutic effect of exosomes. Surface modification can be achieved by a simple mixing of original exosomes and cationized pullulan and through an electrostatic interaction of both substances. The exosomes modified with cationized pullulan were internalized into HepG2 cells in vitro to a significantly greater extent than unmodified ones and this internalization was induced through the asialoglycoprotein receptor that was specifically expressed on HepG2 cells and hepatocytes. When injected intravenously into mice with concanavalin A-induced liver injury, the modified exosomes accumulated in the liver tissue, resulting in an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. It is concluded that the surface modification with cationized pullulan promoted accumulation of the exosomes in the liver and the subsequent biological function, resulting in a greater therapeutic effect on liver injury. Exosomes have shown potentials as therapeutics for various inflammatory disease models. This study is the first to show the specific accumulation of exosomes in the liver and enhanced anti-inflammatory effect via the surface modification of exosomes using pullulan, which is specifically recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (AGPR) on HepG2 cells and hepatocytes. The pullulan was expressed on the surface of PKH-labeled exosomes, and it led increased accumulation of PKH into HepG2 cells, whereas the accumulation was canceled by AGPR inhibitor. In the mouse

  8. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  9. Interaction of progenitor bone cells with different surface modifications of titanium implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Shun [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yi; Kuo, Tzu-Huang; Kuo, Hsien-Nan [Medical Device Development Division, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Changes in the physical and chemical properties of Ti surfaces can be attributed to cell performance, which improves surface biocompatibility. The cell proliferation, mineralization ability, and gene expression of progenitor bone cells (D1 cell) were compared on five different Ti surfaces, namely, mechanical grinding (M), electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH), sandblasting and acid etching (SLA), sandblasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, and heating (SAOH), and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). SAOH treatment produced the most hydrophilic surface, whereas SLA produced the most hydrophobic surface. Cell activity indicated that SLA and SMART produced significantly rougher surfaces and promoted D1 cell attachment within 1 day of culturing, whereas SAOH treatment produced moderate roughness (Ra = 1.26 μm) and accelerated the D1 cell proliferation up to 7 days after culturing. The ECH surface significantly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and osteocalcin (OCN) secretion in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. The ECH and SMART-treated Ti surfaces resulted in maximum ALP and OCN expressions during the D1 cell culture. SLA, SAOH, and SMART substrate surfaces were rougher and exhibited better cell metabolic responses during the early stage of cell attachment, proliferation, and morphologic expressions within 1 day of D1 cell culture. The D1 cells cultured on the ECH and SMART substrates exhibited higher differentiation, and higher ALP and OCN expressions after 10 days of culture. Thus, the ECH and SMART treatments promote better ability of cell mineralization in vitro, which demonstrate their great potential for clinical use. - Highlights: • Progenitor bone cells onto Ti with different modifications are characterized. • Surface roughness and hydrophilicity encourage early stage cell attachment. • Composition and surface treatments are more vital in bone cell mineralization.

  10. Interaction of progenitor bone cells with different surface modifications of titanium implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Ya-Shun; Ko, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yi; Kuo, Tzu-Huang; Kuo, Hsien-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the physical and chemical properties of Ti surfaces can be attributed to cell performance, which improves surface biocompatibility. The cell proliferation, mineralization ability, and gene expression of progenitor bone cells (D1 cell) were compared on five different Ti surfaces, namely, mechanical grinding (M), electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH), sandblasting and acid etching (SLA), sandblasting, hydrogen peroxide treatment, and heating (SAOH), and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). SAOH treatment produced the most hydrophilic surface, whereas SLA produced the most hydrophobic surface. Cell activity indicated that SLA and SMART produced significantly rougher surfaces and promoted D1 cell attachment within 1 day of culturing, whereas SAOH treatment produced moderate roughness (Ra = 1.26 μm) and accelerated the D1 cell proliferation up to 7 days after culturing. The ECH surface significantly promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and osteocalcin (OCN) secretion in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. The ECH and SMART-treated Ti surfaces resulted in maximum ALP and OCN expressions during the D1 cell culture. SLA, SAOH, and SMART substrate surfaces were rougher and exhibited better cell metabolic responses during the early stage of cell attachment, proliferation, and morphologic expressions within 1 day of D1 cell culture. The D1 cells cultured on the ECH and SMART substrates exhibited higher differentiation, and higher ALP and OCN expressions after 10 days of culture. Thus, the ECH and SMART treatments promote better ability of cell mineralization in vitro, which demonstrate their great potential for clinical use. - Highlights: • Progenitor bone cells onto Ti with different modifications are characterized. • Surface roughness and hydrophilicity encourage early stage cell attachment. • Composition and surface treatments are more vital in bone cell mineralization.

  11. Modification of the surface energy in isovalent nano-oxides prepared by chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miagava, J.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    The phase stability of the nano-oxides depends on the bulk energy but it also depends on the surface energy. The difference of surface energy of the rutile and anatase phases result in a change of phase stability: TiO_2 without additives is stable as anatase when particles have nanometric size and a high specific surface area whereas rutile is stable when particles are larger. But this stability can be modified through the use of additives. Different studies demonstrate that additives segregate on the particle surface modifying the surface energy. In this work (1-X)TiO_2-XSnO_2 powders were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method with concentrations of 0 ≤ X ≤ 1. The specific surface area measurements demonstrate that the modification of the composition change the specific surface areas and it reaches a maximum at X = 0.005. The Raman spectroscopy demonstrates that a modification on the stability of the TiO_2 polymorphs occurs and the phase rutile is stabilized when SnO_2 is added to the nano powders.(author)

  12. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-03

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  13. Surface Modification of SiO2 Microchannels with Biocompatible Polymer Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuro; Momose, Takeshi; Hoshi, Toru; Takai, Madoka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2010-11-01

    The surface of 500-mm-long microchannels in SiO2 microchips was modified using supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and a biocompatible polymer was coated on it to confer biocompatibility to the SiO2 surface. In this method, the SiO2 surface of a microchannel was coated with poly(ethylene glycol monomethacrylate) (PEGMA) as the biocompatible polymer using allyltriethoxysilane (ATES) as the anchor material in scCO2 as the reactive medium. Results were compared with those using the conventional wet method. The surface of a microchannel could not be modified by the wet method owing to the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid, but it was modified uniformly by the scCO2 method probably owing to the near-zero surface tension, low viscosity, and high diffusivity of scCO2. The effect of the surface modification by the scCO2 method to prevent the adsorption of protein was as high as that of the modification by the wet method. Modified microchips can be used in biochemical and medical analyses.

  14. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  15. Pore channel surface modification for enhancing anti-fouling membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haoran; Peng, Yuelian; Ge, Lei; Villacorta Hernandez, Byron; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2018-06-01

    Membrane surface modification by forming a functional layer is an effective way to improve the anti-fouling properties of membranes; however, the additional layer and the potential blockage of bulk pores may increase the mass transfer resistance and reduce the permeability. In this study, we applied a novel method of preparing anti-fouling membranes for membrane distillation by dispersing graphene oxide (GO) on the channel surface of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. The surface morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Compared to the membrane surface modification by nanoparticles (e.g. SiO2), GO was mainly located on the pore surface of the membrane bulk, rather than being formed as an individual layer onto the membrane surface. The performance was evaluated via a direct-contact membrane distillation process with anionic and cationic surfactants as the foulants, separately. Compared to the pristine PVDF membrane, the anti-fouling behavior and distillate flux of the GO-modified membranes were improved, especially when using the anionic surfactant as the foulant. The enhanced anti-fouling performance can be attributed to the oxygen containing functional groups in GO and the healing of the membrane pore defects. This method may provide an effective route to manipulate membrane pore surface properties for anti-fouling separation without increasing mass transfer resistance.

  16. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu Sekhar Nanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl triethoxysilane (MEEETES were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  17. Surface modification of seawater desalination reverse osmosis membranes: Characterization studies & performance evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Matin, Asif

    2014-06-01

    In this work we report surface modification of commercial reverse osmosis membranes by depositing ultrathin copolymer coatings, which could potentially enhance the biofouling resistance of RO membranes. Hydrophilic monomer hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and a hydrophobic monomer, perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFDA) were copolymerized directly on the active layer of commercial aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes using an initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) technique. Attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR) verified the successful modification of the membrane surfaces as a new FTIR adsorption band around 1730cm-1 corresponding to carbonyl groups in the copolymer film appeared after the deposition. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis also confirmed the presence of the copolymer film on the membrane surface by showing strong fluorine peaks emanating from the fluorinated alkyl side chains of the PFA molecules. Contact angle measurements with deionized water showed the modified membrane surfaces to be initially very hydrophobic but quickly assumed a hydrophilic character within few minutes. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed that the deposited films were smooth and conformal as the surface topology of the underlying membrane surface remained virtually unchanged after the deposition. FESEM images of the top surface also showed that the typical ridge-and-valley structure associated with polyamide remained intact after the deposition. Short-term permeation tests using DI water and 2000ppm NaCl water showed that the deposited copolymer coatings had negligible effect on permeate water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Use of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for determination of active surface area of modified carbon-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Leticia Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Carbon-based electrodes as well the ion exchange electrodes among others have been applied mainly in the treatment of industrial effluents and radioactive wastes. Carbon is also used in fuel cells as substrate for the electrocatalysts, having high surface area which surpasses its geometric area. The knowledge of the total active area is important for the determination of operating conditions of an electrochemical cell with respect to the currents to be applied (current density). In this study it was used two techniques to determine the electrochemical active surface area of glassy carbon, electrodes and ion exchange electrodes: cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experiments were carried out with KNO 3 0.1 mol.L -1 solutions in a three-electrode electrochemical cell: carbon-based working electrode, platinum auxiliary electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The glassy carbon and porous carbon electrodes with geometric areas of 3.14 x 10 -2 and 2.83 X 10 -1 cm 2 , respectively, were used. The ion exchange electrode was prepared by mixing graphite, carbon, ion exchange resin and a binder, and this mixture was applied in three layers on carbon felt, using a geometric area of 1.0 cm 2 during the experiments. The capacitance (Cd) of the materials was determined by EIS using Bode diagrams. The value of 172 μF.cm -2 found for the glassy carbon is consistent with the literature data (∼ 200 μF.cm'- 2 ). By VC, varying the scan rate from 0.2 to 2.0 mV.s-1, the capacitance CdS (S = active surface area) in the region of the electric double layer (EDL) of each material was determined. By EIS, the values of C d , 3.0 x 10 -5 μF.cm'- 2 and 11 x 10 3 μF.cm-2, were found for the porous carbon and ion exchange electrodes, respectively, which allowed the determination of active surface areas as 3.73 x 106 cm 2 and 4.72 cm 2 . To sum up, the combined use of EIS and CV techniques is a valuable tool for the calculation of active surface

  19. Infrared spectroscopic and voltammetric study of adsorbed CO on stepped surfaces of copper monocrystalline electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, O.; Teruya, S.; Matsuda, K.; Minami, M.; Hoshi, N.; Hori, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Voltammetric and infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements were carried out to study adsorbed CO on two series of copper single crystal electrodes n(111)-(111) and n(111)-(100) in 0.1M KH 2 PO 4 +0.1M K 2 HPO 4 at 0 o C. Reversible voltammetric waves were observed below -0.55V versus SHE for adsorption of CO which displaces preadsorbed phosphate anions. The electric charge of the redox waves is proportional to the step atom density for both single crystal series. This fact indicates that phosphate anions are specifically adsorbed on the step sites below -0.55V versus SHE. Voltammetric measurements indicated that (111) terrace of Cu is covered with adsorbed CO below -0.5V versus SHE. Nevertheless, no IR absorption band of adsorbed CO is detected from (111) terrace. Presence of adsorbed CO on (111) terrace is presumed which is not visible by the potential difference spectroscopy used in the present work. IR spectroscopic measurements showed that CO is reversibly adsorbed with an on-top manner on copper single crystal electrodes of n(111)-(111) and n(111)-(100) with approximately same wavenumber of C?O stretching vibration of 2070cm -1 . The IR band intensity is proportional to the step atom density. Thus CO is adsorbed on (111) or (100) steps on the single crystal surfaces. An analysis of the IR band intensity suggested that one CO molecule is adsorbed on every two or more Cu step atom of the monocrystalline surface. The spectroscopic data were compared with those reported for uhv system. The C-O stretching wavenumber of adsorbed CO in the electrode-electrolyte system is 30-40cm -1 lower than those in uhv system

  20. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode