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Sample records for electrode binder pitch

  1. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  2. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  3. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  4. A kinetic study of pyrolysis in pitch impregnated electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocaefe, D.; Charette, A.; Ferland, J.; Couderc, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L. (Universite du Quebec a Chicoutini, Chicoutini, PQ (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A study was conducted on carbon electrodes which were impregnated with three different pitches. The focus of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of pitch impregnated electrodes. For the purposes of the research an experimental technique and calculation procedure were developed. A kinetic model was used to interpret the data, comparison of model predictions and experimental data showed good agreement. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung; Islam, Mohammad A.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating

  6. Pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and physiological spread-of-excitation using Cochlear's dual-electrode mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Jenny L; Neff, Donna L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Hughes, Michelle L

    2014-08-01

    This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d' scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs.

  7. Processing nanoparticle–nanocarbon composites as binder-free electrodes for lithium-based batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Baloch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The processing of battery materials into functional electrodes traditionally requires the preparation of slurries using binders, organic solvents, and additives, all of which present economic and environmental challenges. These are amplified in the production of nanostructured carbon electrodes which are often more difficult to disperse in slurries and require more energy-intensive and longer processing. In this study we demonstrate a new process for preparing binder-free nanocarbon/nanoparticle (Fe–C composite electrodes and study the effect of processing on the nanocomposite’s cycling performance in lithium cells. The binder-free electrodes were prepared by a two-step method: pulsed-electrodeposition of iron-based catalyst followed by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon film. SEM and TEM of the Fe–C showed that the active materials have a fibrous and tortuous morphology with disordered nanocrystalline domains characteristic of an amorphous carbon. The Fe–C electrodes showed good mechanical stability and an excellent cycle performance with an average stable capacity of 221 mAhg−1, and 85% capacity retention for up to 50 cycles. By reducing the number of processing steps and eliminating the use of binders and other chemicals this new method offers a “greener” alternative than current processing methods. Graphical abstract Synopsis: gains in sustainability can be achieved by eliminating use of binders, chemicals, and the number of electrode’s processing steps in this new method.

  8. Elastomeric binders for Li-SOCl2 cell carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. J.; Jeffries, B.; Yen, S. P. S.

    1987-01-01

    Nonoptimized elastomer bonded carbon electrodes made with 100-percent compressed Gulf Acetylene Black have demonstrated performance comparable to that of optimized Teflon bonded carbon electrodes, made from the same carbon, when tested at 1-10 mA/sq cm, at 24 and -26 C. The enhanced performance of elastomer bonded carbon electrodes appears to be due to the more uniform utilization of the carbon electrode to store insoluble discharge products, as compared to Teflon bonded carbon electrodes. With even minimal optimization of elastomer bonded carbon electrodes, significant improvement in Li-SOCl2 cell performance can be expected.

  9. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Vanadium oxide nanowire-carbon nanotube binder-free flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Patel, Bijal; Seitz, Oliver; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. [Department of Chemistry and the Alan G. MacDiarmid Nanotech Institute, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Nijem, Nour; Roodenko, Katy; Chabal, Yves J. [Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layered nanostructures are known to have very stable crystal structures and high faradaic activity. The low electronic conductivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} greatly limits the application of vanadium oxide as electrode materials and requires combining with conducting materials using binders. It is well known that the organic binders can degrade the overall performance of electrode materials and need carefully controlled compositions. In this study, we develop a simple method for preparing freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT)-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowire (VNW) composite paper electrodes without using binders. Coin cell type (CR2032) supercapacitors are assembled using the nanocomposite paper electrode as the anode and high surface area carbon fiber electrode (Spectracarb 2225) as the cathode. The supercapacitor with CNT-VNW composite paper electrode exhibits a power density of 5.26 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 46.3 Wh Kg{sup -1}. (Li)VNWs and CNT composite paper electrodes can be fabricated in similar manner and show improved overall performance with a power density of 8.32 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 65.9 Wh Kg{sup -1}. The power and energy density values suggest that such flexible hybrid nanocomposite paper electrodes may be useful for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Lithium polyacrylate as a binder for tin-cobalt-carbon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Le, D.-B. [3M Electronic Markets Materials Division, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Ferguson, P.P. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.c [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    A lithium polyacrylate (Li-PAA) binder has been developed by 3M Company that is useful with electrodes comprising alloy anode materials. This binder was used to prepare electrodes made with Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} material prepared by mechanical attrition. The electrochemical performance of electrodes using Li-PAA binder was characterized and compared to those using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binders. The Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} electrodes using Li-PAA and CMC binders show much smaller irreversible capacity than the ones using PVDF binder. Poor capacity retention is observed when PVDF binder is used. By contrast, the electrodes using Li-PAA binder show excellent capacity retention for Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} materials and a specific capacity of 450 mAh/g is achieved for at least 100 cycles. The results suggest that Li-PAA is a promising binder for electrodes made from large-volume change alloy materials.

  12. Binder-free three-dimensional high energy density electrodes for ionic-liquid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Lawrence, Daniel; Richey, Francis W; Dillard, Caitlin; Elabd, Yossef A; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-09-18

    We demonstrate a facile methodology to fabricate binder-free porous carbon nanofiber electrodes for room temperature ionic-liquid supercapacitors. The device provides an energy density of 80 W h kg(-1) based on the mass of two electrodes while retaining the high rate capability of supercapacitors with near-ideal CV curves at a high scan rate of 200 mV s(-1).

  13. Advanced Graphene-Based Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junyi; Li, Yang; Peng, Wenchao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2015-09-23

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research effort for the development of high-performance and durable energy-storage devices. Advanced graphene-based electrodes with high electrical conductivity and ion accessibility can exhibit superior electrochemical performance in energy-storage devices. Among them, binder-free configurations can enhance the electron conductivity of the electrode, which leads to a higher capacity by avoiding the addition of non-conductive and inactive binders. Graphene, a 2D material, can be fabricated into a porous and flexible structure with an interconnected conductive network. Such a conductive structure is favorable for both electron and ion transport to the entire electrode surface. In this review, the main processes used to prepare binder-free graphene-based hybrids with high porosity and well-designed electron conductive networks are summarized. Then, the applications of free-standing binder-free graphene-based electrodes in energy-storage devices are discussed. Future research aspects with regard to overcoming the technological bottlenecks are also proposed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral composite as a stable binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Herbeck-Engel, P.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral (PVP/PVB) are attractive binders for the preparation of carbon electrodes for aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The use of PVP/PVB offers several key advantages: They are soluble in ethanol and can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector. Infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements show that the PVP-to-PVB ratio determines the degree of binder hydrophilicity. Within our study, the most favorable performance was obtained for AC electrodes with a composition of AC + 1.5 mass% PVP + 6.0 mass% PVB; such electrodes were mechanically stabile and water resistant with a PVP release of less than 5% of total PVP while PVB itself is water insoluble. Compared to when using PVDF, the specific surface area (SSA) of the assembled electrodes was 10% higher, indicating a reduced pore blocking tendency. A good electrochemical performance was observed in different aqueous electrolytes for composite electrodes with the optimized binder composition: 160 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 for 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH and 120 F g-1 for 1 M NaCl. The capacitance was slightly reduced by 2.5% after cycling to 1.2 V with 1.28 A g-1 in 1 M NaCl for 10,000 times.

  15. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Lili; Qu, Qunting; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  16. Studies on metal hydride electrodes containing no binder additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogulski, Z.; Dlubak, J. [Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Rydygiera 8, 01-793 Warsaw (Poland); Karwowska, M.; Gumkowska, A.; Czerwinski, A. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Krebs, M.; Pytlik, E.; Schmalz, M. [VARTA Microbattery GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 1, 73479 Ellwangen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Electrochemical properties of hydrogen storage alloys (AB{sub 5} type: LaMm-Ni{sub 4.1}Al{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.45}) were studied in 6 M KOHaq using Limited Volume Electrode (LVE) method. Working electrodes were prepared by pressing alloy powder (without binding and conducting additives) into a metal net wire serving as a support and as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry curves reveal well defined hydrogen sorption and desorption peaks which are separated from other faradic processes, such as surface oxidation. Voltammograms of LVE resemble the curves obtained by various authors for single particle metal alloy electrodes. Hydrogen diffusion coefficient calculated at room temperature for LV electrodes and for 100% state of charge reaches a constant value of ca. 3.3 x 10{sup -9} and 2.1 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, for chronoamperometric and chronopotentiometric measurements, respectively. A comparison of the electrodes with average alloy particle sizes of ca. 50 and 4 {mu}m allows us to conclude that at room temperature hydrogen storage capability of AB{sub 5} alloy studied is independent on the alloy particle size. On the other hand, reduction of the particle size increases alloy capacity at temperatures below -10 C and reduces time of electrochemical activation of the electrode. (author)

  17. Dry-Processed, Binder-Free Holey Graphene Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Areal Loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Evan D; Han, Xiaogang; Lacey, Steven D; Kim, Jae-Woo; Connell, John W; Hu, Liangbing; Lin, Yi

    2016-11-02

    For commercial applications, the need for smaller footprint energy storage devices requires more energy to be stored per unit area. Carbon nanomaterials, especially graphene, have been studied as supercapacitor electrodes and can achieve high gravimetric capacities affording high gravimetric energy densities. However, most nanocarbon-based electrodes exhibit a significant decrease in their areal capacitances when scaled to the high mass loadings typically used in commercially available cells (∼10 mg/cm 2 ). One of the reasons for this behavior is that the additional surface area in thick electrodes is not readily accessible by electrolyte ions due to the large tortuosity. Furthermore, the fabrication of such electrodes often involves complicated processes that limit the potential for mass production. Here, holey graphene electrodes for supercapacitors that are scalable in both production and areal capacitance are presented. The lateral surface porosity on the graphene sheets was created using a facile single-step air oxidation method, and the resultant holey graphene was compacted under ambient conditions into mechanically robust monolithic shapes that can be directly used as binder-free electrodes. In comparison, pristine graphene discs under similar binder-free compression molding conditions were extremely brittle and thus not deemed useful for electrode applications. The coin cell supercapacitors, based on these holey graphene electrodes exhibited small variations in gravimetric capacitance over a wide range of areal mass loadings (∼1-30 mg/cm 2 ) at current densities as high as 30 mA/cm 2 , resulting in the near-linear increase of the areal capacitance (F/cm 2 ) with the mass loading. The prospects of the presented method for facile binder-free ultrathick graphene electrode fabrication are discussed.

  18. Role of polymeric binders on mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Wang, Yikai; Hu, Jiazhi; Lu, Bo; Dang, Dingying; Zhang, Junqian; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2018-05-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of various binders, including sodium alginate (SA), Nafion, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), on the mechanical behavior and cracking resistance of silicon composite electrodes during electrochemical cycling. In situ curvature measurement of bilayer electrodes, consisting of a silicon-binder-carbon black composite layer on a copper foil, is used to determine the effects of binders on bending deformation, elastic modulus, and stress on the composite electrodes. It is found that the lithiation induced curvature and the modulus of the silicon/SA electrodes are larger than those of electrodes with Nafion and PVDF as binders. Although the modulus of Nafion is smaller than that of PVDF, the curvature and the modulus of silicon/Nafion composite are larger than those of silicon/PVDF electrodes. The moduli of all three composites decrease not only during lithiation but also during delithiation. Based on the measured stress and scanning electron microscopy observations of cracking in the composite electrodes, we conclude that the stress required to crack the composite electrodes with SA and Nafion binders is considerably higher than that of the silicon/PVDF electrode during electrochemical cycling. Thus, the cracking resistance of silicon/SA and silicon/Nafion composite electrodes is higher than that of silicon/PVDF electrodes.

  19. Elucidating the Polymeric Binder Distribution within Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes Using SAICAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuman; Byun, Seoungwoo; Choi, Jaecheol; Hong, Seungbum; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2018-03-30

    Polymeric binder distribution within electrodes is crucial to guarantee the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for their long-term use in applications such as electric vehicles and energy-storage systems. However, due to limited analytical tools, such analyses have not been conducted so far. Herein, the adhesion properties of LIB electrodes at different depths are measured using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS). Moreover, two LiCoO 2 electrodes, dried at 130 and 230 °C, are carefully prepared and used to obtain the adhesion properties at every 10 μm of depth as well as the interface between the electrode composite and the current collector. At high drying temperatures, more of the polymeric binder material and conductive agent appears adjacent to the electrode surface, resulting in different adhesion properties as a function of depth. When the electrochemical properties are evaluated at different temperatures, the LiCoO 2 electrode dried at 130 °C shows a much better high-temperature cycling performance than does the electrode dried at 230 °C due to the uniform adhesion properties and the higher interfacial adhesion strength. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Binder-less activated carbon electrode from gelam wood for use in supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANDINI A. TRIBIDASARI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the relation between the porous structure of activated carbon and its capacitive properties. Three types of activated carbon monoliths were used as the electrodes in a half cell electrochemical system. One monolith was produced from activated carbon and considered to be a binder-less electrode. Two others were produced from acid and high pressure steam oxidized activated carbon. The micrographs clearly indicate that three electrodes have different porous structures. Both porosity and surface area of carbons increased due to the formation of grains during oxidation. This fact specified that an acid oxidized carbon monolith will have relatively higher capacitance compared to non-oxidized and steam oxidized monoliths. Maximum capacitance values for acid, steam oxidized and non-oxidized electrodes were 27.68, 2.23 and 1.20 F g-1, respectively.

  1. Alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis: Effects of electrolyte feed method and electrode binder content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyung; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Lim, Ahyoun; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Jang, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we investigate the effects of catholyte feed method and anode binder content on the characteristics of anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE) to construct a high-performance electrolyzer, revealing that the initial AEMWE performance is significantly improved by pre-feeding 0.5 M aqueous KOH to the cathode. The highest long-term activity during repeated voltage cycling is observed for AEMWE operation in the dry cathode mode, for which the best long-term performance among membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) featuring polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder-impregnated (5-20 wt%) anodes is detected for a PTFE content of 20 wt%. MEAs with low PTFE content (5 and 9 wt%) demonstrate high initial performance, rapid performance decay, and significant catalyst loss from the electrode during long-term operation, whereas the MEA with 20 wt% PTFE allows stable water electrolysis for over 1600 voltage cycles. Optimization of cell operating conditions (i.e., operation in dry cathode mode at an optimum anode binder content following an initial solution feed) achieves an enhanced water splitting current density (1.07 A cm-2 at 1.8 V) and stable long-term AEMWE performance (0.01% current density reduction per voltage cycle).

  2. Pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and physiological spread of excitation using current steering in cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Neff, Donna L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine whether adaptive pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination tasks with cochlear-implant (CI) recipients produce similar results for perceiving intermediate “virtual-channel” pitch percepts using current steering. Previous studies have not examined both behavioral tasks in the same subjects with current steering. A second objective was to determine whether a physiological metric of spatial separation using the electrically evoked compound action potential spread-of-excitation (ECAP SOE) function could predict performance in the behavioral tasks. The metric was the separation index (Σ), defined as the difference in normalized amplitudes between two adjacent ECAP SOE functions, summed across all masker electrodes. Eleven CII or 90 K Advanced Bionics (Valencia, CA) recipients were tested using pairs of electrodes from the basal, middle, and apical portions of the electrode array. The behavioral results, expressed as d′, showed no significant differences across tasks. There was also no significant effect of electrode region for either task. ECAP Σ was not significantly correlated with pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for any of the electrode regions. Therefore, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict perceptual resolution of virtual channels. PMID:25480063

  3. Free-standing graphene/vanadium oxide composite as binder-free electrode for asymmetrical supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Gao, Yihong; Ma, Zhanying; Fan, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Preparation of free-standing electrode materials with three-dimensional network architecture has emerged as an effective strategy for acquiring advanced portable and wearable power sources. Herein, graphene/vanadium oxide (GR/V 2 O 5 ) free-standing monolith composite has been prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. Flexible GR sheets acted as binder to connect the belt-like V 2 O 5 for assembling three-dimensional network architecture. The obtained GR/V 2 O 5 composite can be reshaped into GR/V 2 O 5 flexible film which exhibits more compact structure by ultrasonication and vacuum filtration. A high specific capacitance of 358Fg -1 for GR/V 2 O 5 monolith compared with that of GR/V 2 O 5 flexible film (272Fg -1 ) has been achieved in 0.5molL -1 K 2 SO 4 solution when used as binder free electrodes in three-electrode system. An asymmetrical supercapacitor has been assembled using GR/V 2 O 5 monolith as positive electrode and GR monolith as negative electrode, and it can be reversibly charged-discharged at a cell voltage of 1.7V in 0.5molL -1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. The asymmetrical capacitor can deliver an energy density of 26.22Whkg -1 at a power density of 425Wkg -1 , much higher than that of the symmetrical supercapacitor based on GR/V 2 O 5 monolith electrode. Moreover, the asymmetrical supercapacitor preserves 90% of its initial capacitance over 1000 cycles at a current density of 5Ag -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE BIOSENSOR FOR DETECTION OF PHENOLS: BINDER AND PRE-OXIDATION EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrodes are evaluated with respect to the viscosity and polarity of the binder liquids. The electrodes constructed using a lower viscosity mineral oil or paraffin wax oil yielded a greater response to phenol and catechol than those using the hi...

  5. Preparation and characterization of RuO2/polyaniline/polymer binder composite electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANA SOPČIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The composite electrodes consisting of amorphous and hydrous RuO2, polyaniline and polymeric binder, Nafion® or poly(vinilydene fluoride were prepared. The electro¬chem-ical and pseudocapacitive properties of the prepared electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the responses of composite electrodes are very sensitive to the presence of individual components and their respective ratio in the mixture. The difference in the electro-chemical behavior was explained by the different physico-chemical properties of the polymeric binders.

  6. Adhesive PEG-based binder for aqueous fabrication of thick Li4Ti5O12 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Binh; Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Wang, Zedong; Calderon, Jean; Chai, Guangyu; Atherton, David; Zhai, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fully compressed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode designed by an aqueous process. An adhesive, elastomeric, and lithium ion conductive PEG-based copolymer is used as a binder for the aqueous fabrication thick, flexible, and densely packed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) electrodes. Self-adherent cathode films exceeding 200 μm in thickness and withholding high active mass loadings of 28 mg/cm 2 deliver 4.2 mAh/cm 2 at C/2 rate. Structurally defect-free electrodes are fabricated by casting aqueous cathode slurries onto nickel foam, dried, and hard-calendared at 10 tons/cm 2 . As a multifunctional material, the binder is synthesized by the copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE) in optimal proportions. Furthermore, coordinating the binder with lithium salt is necessary for the electrode to function

  7. Coal tar pitch. Interrelations between properties and utilization of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G; Koehler, H [Ruetgerswerke A.G., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    Coal tar pitch is won as a highly aromatic, thermoplastic residue by destillating coal tar. In this paper the structure as well as the chemical and physical data of this pitch are introduced. In addition to this the actual as well as possible applications are indicated. For example, the pitch can be used for the production of binders, e.g. for electrodes and road construction as well as in combination with plastics for the production of insulating material and corrosion protection material.

  8. Biopitch produced from eucalyptus wood pyrolysis liquids as a renewable binder for carbon electrode manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biomass as a clean source of fuel, chemicals and materials is growing fast. What is attractive about biomass is its renewability and that it is CO2 balanced and sulfur-free. Biomass pyrolysis produces charcoal, bio-oil and gases in different proportions, depending on the technology and raw material used. In this study biopitch, a substitute for fossil pitches in electrodes, was produced from bio-oil distillation in bench-scale equipment. Biopitch and charcoal were mixed and thermically modified to give prebaked electrodes. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the biopitch and final electrodes were measured and compared with those of coal tar and petroleum materials. Despite their similar application, biomaterials are structurally and chemically different from minerals. The oxygen content in biopitch is ca 20 wt% and in mineral pitches it is no more than 2 wt%. Characterization experiments for electrode samples measured electrical resistivity, Young's modulus, rupture strength, density, porosity and proximate analysis.

  9. The use of coal-tar pitches of very high softening point and low carcinogen content as binders for industrial carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the content of known carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in coal-tar pitches may be reduced to levels which comply with existing and/or proposed environmental legislation, typically by distillation at low pressures, and preferably using a form of thin-film evaporation apparatus. However, the immediate products of such distillations usually have very high softening points, typically above 200{degree}C, and are unsuitable for direct utilization in conventional commercial carbon manufacturing processes as a result of the need for very high mixing temperatures. Advantage has been taken of the of a low-PAH coal-tar pitch, supplied in powder form, which has a softening point above 200{degree}C. Methods were examined which might allow mixing and forming of the hard pitch and a petroleum coke aggregate blend either at room temperature or at conventional processing temperature, and hot-pressuring or sintering procedures in which mixtures of the hard pitch and petroleum coke aggregate were formed at or above the softening temperature of the pitch. All the formed products were baked to give carbons which were evaluated for the major properties of density, electrical resistivity and strength. A comparison was also made between the volatiles evolved during the baking of products made with the low-PAH pitch and those made with a conventional coal-tar binder pitch.

  10. VO2/TiO2 Nanosponges as Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Xu, Henghui; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Feng; Qie, Long; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2015-11-01

    VO2/TiO2 nanosponges with easily tailored nanoarchitectures and composition were synthesized by electrostatic spray deposition as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. Benefiting from the unique interconnected pore network of the VO2/TiO2 electrodes and the synergistic effect of high-capacity VO2 and stable TiO2, the as-formed binder-free VO2/TiO2 electrode exhibits a high capacity of 86.2 mF cm-2 (~548 F g-1) and satisfactory cyclability with 84.3% retention after 1000 cycles. This work offers an effective and facile strategy for fabricating additive-free composites as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

  11. VO2/TiO2 Nanosponges as Binder-Free Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Xu, Henghui; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Feng; Qie, Long; Huang, Yunhui; Hu, Xianluo

    2015-11-04

    VO2/TiO2 nanosponges with easily tailored nanoarchitectures and composition were synthesized by electrostatic spray deposition as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. Benefiting from the unique interconnected pore network of the VO2/TiO2 electrodes and the synergistic effect of high-capacity VO2 and stable TiO2, the as-formed binder-free VO2/TiO2 electrode exhibits a high capacity of 86.2 mF cm(-2) (~548 F g(-1)) and satisfactory cyclability with 84.3% retention after 1000 cycles. This work offers an effective and facile strategy for fabricating additive-free composites as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

  12. Facile synthesis of porous graphene as binder-free electrode for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guangsheng [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Department of Physics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Academy of Space Technolgy, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Haifu, E-mail: haifuh@gmail.com [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Department of Physics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Physics Science and Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Lei, Chenglong; Cheng, Zhenzhi; Wu, Xiaoshan [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Department of Physics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Shaolong, E-mail: tangsl@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Department of Physics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Du, Youwei [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Department of Physics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Our results provide a facile method to fabricate a binder-free porous rGO electrode for supercapacitors. • Polystyrene (PS) colloidal particles were used as spacers to prepare high-performance porous grapheme deposited directly on Ni foam substrate. • The specific capacitance of the rGO/NF electrode decreased by 7% after 2000 cycles and high rate capability of 53% capacitance retention at 100 A g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Here, porous grapheme oxide (GO) gel deposited on nickel foam was prepared by using polystyrene (PS) colloidal particles as spacers for use as electrodes in high rate supercapacitors, then reduced by Vitamin C aqueous solution in ambient condition. The PS particles were surrounded by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, forming crinkles and rough textures. When PS particles were selectively removed, rGO gel coated on the skeleton of Ni foam can formed an open porous structure, which prevents elf-aggregation and restacking of graphene sheets. The porous rGO-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances such as a specific capacitance of 152 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}, high rate capability of 53% capacitance retention upon a current increase to 100 A g{sup −1} and good cycle stability, due to effective rapid and short pathways for ionic and electronic transport provided by the sub-micrometer structure of rGO gel and 3D interconnected network of Ni foam.

  13. Self-assembled gold nanoparticles modified ITO electrodes: The monolayer binder molecule effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara; Cassani, Maria Cristina; Scavetta, Erika; Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The fabrication of gold attached organosilane-coated indium tin oxide Au{sub NPs}-MPTMS/ITO and Au{sub NPs}-APTES/ITO electrodes [MPTMS 3-(mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane, APTES = 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane, ITO = indium tin oxide] was carried out making use of a well-known two-step procedure and the role played by the -SH and -NH{sub 2} functional groups in the two electrodes has been examined and compared using different techniques. Information about particle coverage and inter-particle spacing has been obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) whereas, bulk surface properties have been probed with UV-vis spectroscopy, CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The catalytic activity of the two electrodes has been evaluated studying the electrooxidation of methanol in alkaline conditions. The results obtained show that the NH{sub 2} functionality in the APTES binder molecule favours the formation of isle-like Au nanoparticle aggregates that lead to both a higher electron transfer and electrocatalytic activity. (author)

  14. A method for automatic control of the process of producing electrode pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenman, E.S.; Bugaysen, I.M.; Chernyshov, Yu.A.; Klyusa, M.D.; Krysin, V.P.; Livshits, B.Ya.; Martynenko, V.V.; Meniovich, B.I.; Sklyar, M.G.; Voytenko, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    A method is proposed for automatic control of the process for producing electride pitch through regulation of the feeding of the starting raw material with correction based on the pitch level in the last apparatus of the technological line and change in the feeding of air into the reactors based on the flow rates of the starting raw material and the temperature of the liquid phase in the reactors. In order to increase the stability of the quality of the electrode pitch with changes in the properties of the starting resin, the heating temperature of the dehydrated resin is regulated in the pipe furnace relative to the quality of the mean temperature pitch produced from it, while the level of the liquid phase in the reactor is regulated relative to the quality of the final product. The proposed method provides for an improvement in the quality of process regulation, which makes it possible to improve the properties of the anode mass and to reduce its expenditure for the production of Aluminum.

  15. Cobalt nano-sheet supported on graphite modified paper as a binder free electrode for peroxide electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Cao, Dianxue; Ye, Ke; Yin, Jinling; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel and binder free Co@graphite/paper electrode is employed for H 2 O 2 electrooxidation. • The obtained Co@graphite/paper electrode exhibits remarkably high catalytic activity and good stability for the electrooxidation of H 2 O 2 . • The high catalytic activity, low cost and environment-friendly make the Co@graphite/paper electrode as a promising anode material in DPPFC. - Abstract: A novel and binder free Co@graphite/paper electrode is prepared by electrodeposition Co nano-sheet on the surface of a graphite layer modified paper substrate. The morphology and phase structure of the Co@graphite/paper electrode are characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The catalytic activity of the Co@graphite/paper electrode for H 2 O 2 electrooxidation is investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The catalyst combines tightly with the paper and exhibits a good stability. The oxidation current density reaches to 580 mA cm −2 in 2 mol dm −3 NaOH and 0.5 mol dm −3 H 2 O 2 at 0.5 V. Besides, we illustrate the reaction mechanization of the H 2 O 2 electrooxidation on the Co film

  16. Utilisation of the binders prepared from coal tar pitch and phenolic resins for the production metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze and the study of their high temperature carbonization behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    To reduce the cost of the formed coke briquettes which can be used as a substitute fuel to the metallurgical coke for the blast furnace from the coke breeze alternative binders and their blends were used. The high temperature behavior was investigated. The binders tested were: the nitrogen blown, air blown coal tar pitch and the blend of air blown coal tar pitch with the phenolic resins blends. The phenolic resin blends were prepared by mixing equal amount of resole and novalac. From the results, nitrogen blowing resulted in the weakest briquettes. The air blowing procedure should be preferred in place of nitrogen blowing for this purpose. When the air blown coal tar pitch was used alone as a binder, the briquettes must be cured at 200 C for 2 h, then carbonized at a temperature above 670 C. Since it requires higher temperature at carbonization stage, using air blown coal tar pitch alone as a binder was not economical. Therefore, the briquettes were prepared from the blended binder, containing air blown coal tar pitch and phenolic resins blend. The optimum amount of air blown coal tar pitch was found to be 50% w/w in the blended binder. Curing the briquettes at 200 C for 2 h was found to be sufficient for producing strong briquettes with a tensile strength of 50.45 MN/m{sup 2}. When these cured briquettes were carbonized at temperatures 470 C, 670 C and 950 C, their strength were increasing continuously, reaching to 71.85 MN/m{sup 2} at the carbonization temperature of 950 C. These briquettes can be used as a substitute for the metallurgical coke after curing; the process might not require un-economical high temperature carbonization stage. (author)

  17. Layered manganese oxides-decorated and nickel foam-supported carbon nanotubes as advanced binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures grown on Ni foam for binder-free capacitor electrodes have been fabricated by a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition process and a facile hydrothermal approach. Ultrathin layered MnO2 nanosheets are uniformly coated on the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), directly grown on Ni foam. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (325.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.3 A g-1), good rate capability (70.7% retention), and excellent cycling stability (90.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles), due to the high conductivity of the close contact between CNTs and Ni foam, as well as the moderate specific surface area of the CNTs@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures. The developed synthetic strategy may provide design guidelines for constructing advanced binder-free supercapacitors electrode. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Layered manganese oxides-decorated and nickel foam-supported carbon nanotubes as advanced binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming; Mi, Rui; Liu, Hao; Li, Fei; Zhao, Xiao Li; Zhang, Wei; He, Shi Xuan; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotubes@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures grown on Ni foam for binder-free capacitor electrodes have been fabricated by a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition process and a facile hydrothermal approach. Ultrathin layered MnO2 nanosheets are uniformly coated on the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), directly grown on Ni foam. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (325.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.3 A g-1), good rate capability (70.7% retention), and excellent cycling stability (90.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles), due to the high conductivity of the close contact between CNTs and Ni foam, as well as the moderate specific surface area of the CNTs@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures. The developed synthetic strategy may provide design guidelines for constructing advanced binder-free supercapacitors electrode. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrogen-Doped Banana Peel-Derived Porous Carbon Foam as Binder-Free Electrode for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingzhi; Zhang, Lili; Qi, Peirong; Zhu, Mingyuan; Wang, Gang; Ma, Yanqing; Guo, Xuhong; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Boya; Zhao, Zhuangzhi; Dai, Bin; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-15

    Nitrogen-doped banana peel-derived porous carbon foam (N-BPPCF) successfully prepared from banana peels is used as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. The N-BPPCF exhibits superior performance including high specific surface areas of 1357.6 m²/g, large pore volume of 0.77 cm³/g, suitable mesopore size distributions around 3.9 nm, and super hydrophilicity with nitrogen-containing functional groups. It can easily be brought into contact with an electrolyte to facilitate electron and ion diffusion. A comparative analysis on the electrochemical properties of BPPCF electrodes is also conducted under similar conditions. The N-BPPCF electrode offers high specific capacitance of 185.8 F/g at 5 mV/s and 210.6 F/g at 0.5 A/g in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte versus 125.5 F/g at 5 mV/s and 173.1 F/g at 0.5 A/g for the BPPCF electrode. The results indicate that the N-BPPCF is a binder-free electrode that can be used for high performance supercapacitors.

  20. Nitrogen-Doped Banana Peel–Derived Porous Carbon Foam as Binder-Free Electrode for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped banana peel–derived porous carbon foam (N-BPPCF successfully prepared from banana peels is used as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. The N-BPPCF exhibits superior performance including high specific surface areas of 1357.6 m2/g, large pore volume of 0.77 cm3/g, suitable mesopore size distributions around 3.9 nm, and super hydrophilicity with nitrogen-containing functional groups. It can easily be brought into contact with an electrolyte to facilitate electron and ion diffusion. A comparative analysis on the electrochemical properties of BPPCF electrodes is also conducted under similar conditions. The N-BPPCF electrode offers high specific capacitance of 185.8 F/g at 5 mV/s and 210.6 F/g at 0.5 A/g in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte versus 125.5 F/g at 5 mV/s and 173.1 F/g at 0.5 A/g for the BPPCF electrode. The results indicate that the N-BPPCF is a binder-free electrode that can be used for high performance supercapacitors.

  1. Facile synthesis of ultrathin manganese dioxide nanosheets arrays on nickel foam as advanced binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming

    2015-03-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets arrays on Ni foam have been fabricated by a facile hydrothermal approach and further investigated as the binder-free electrode for high-performance supercapacitors. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (595.2 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1), good rate capability (64.1% retention), and excellent cycling stability (89% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor is constructed using the as-prepared MnO2 nanosheets arrays as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide (MEGO) as the negative electrode. The optimized asymmetric supercapacitor displays excellent electrochemical performance with an energy density of 25.8 Wh kg-1 and a maximum power density of 223.2 kW kg-1. These impressive performances suggest that the MnO2 nanosheet array is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  2. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  3. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Banana Peel–Derived Porous Carbon Foam as Binder-Free Electrode for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bingzhi Liu; Lili Zhang; Peirong Qi; Mingyuan Zhu; Gang Wang; Yanqing Ma; Xuhong Guo; Hui Chen; Boya Zhang; Zhuangzhi Zhao; Bin Dai; Feng Yu

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped banana peel?derived porous carbon foam (N-BPPCF) successfully prepared from banana peels is used as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. The N-BPPCF exhibits superior performance including high specific surface areas of 1357.6 m2/g, large pore volume of 0.77 cm3/g, suitable mesopore size distributions around 3.9 nm, and super hydrophilicity with nitrogen-containing functional groups. It can easily be brought into contact with an electrolyte to facilitate electron and io...

  5. Fabrication of low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) chip couplers for high frequencies : I. Effect of binder burnout process on the formation of electrode line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, N.T.; Shim, K.B.; Lee, S.W. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Koo, K.D. [K-Cera Inc., Yongin (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    In the fabrication of ceramic chip couplers for high frequency applications such as the mobile communication equipment, the formation of electrode lines and Ag diffusion were investigated with heat treatment conditions for removing organic binders. The deformation and densification of the electrode line greatly depended on the binder burnout process due to the overlapped temperature zone near 400{sup o} C of the binder dissociation and the solid phase sintering of the silver electrode. Ag ions were diffused into the glass ceramic substrate. The Ag diffusion was led by the glassy phase containing Pb ions rather than by the crystalline phase containing Ca ions. The fact suggests that the Ag diffusion could be controlled by managing the composition of the glass ceramic substrate. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of Fe2O3 and Binder on the Electrochemical Properties of Fe2O3/AB (Acetylene Black) Composite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Trinh Tuan; Thuan, Vu Manh; Thang, Doan Ha; Hang, Bui Thi

    2017-06-01

    In an effort to find the best anode material for Fe/air batteries, a Fe2O3/AB (Acetylene Black) composite was prepared by dry-type ball milling using Fe2O3 nanoparticles and AB as the active and additive materials, respectively. The effects of various binders and Fe2O3 content on the electrochemical properties of Fe2O3/AB electrodes in alkaline solution were investigated. It was found that the content of Fe2O3 strongly affected the electrochemical behavior of Fe2O3/AB electrodes; with Fe2O3 nanopowder content reaching 70 wt.% for the electrode and showing improvement of the cyclability. When the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was used, clear redox peaks were observed via cyclic voltammetry (CV), while polyvinylidene fluoride-containing electrodes provided CV curves with unobservable redox peaks. Increasing either binder content in the electrode showed a negative effect in terms of the cyclability of the Fe2O3/AB electrode.

  7. High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Long, Hu; Sun, Yongming; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Zirong

    2014-09-01

    A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1, and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial discharge capacitance after 7,000 cycles. The fabricated binder-free hierarchical composite electrode with superior electrochemical performance is a promising candidate for high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Binder-free manganese oxide/carbon nanomaterials thin film electrode for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Chuxin; Li, Jiaxin; Dong, Guofa; Guan, Lunhui

    2011-11-01

    A ternary thin film electrode was created by coating manganese oxide onto a network composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon nanohorns. The electrode exhibited a porous structure, which is a promising architecture for supercapacitors applications. The maximum specific capacitances of 357 F/g for total electrode at 1 A/g were achieved in 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) aqueous solution.

  9. Fabrication of Si negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) using cross-linked polymer binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2016-12-19

    Currently, Si as an active material for LIBs has been attracting much attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3572 mAh g -1 ). However, a disadvantage when using a Si negative electrode for LIBs is the abrupt drop of its capabilities during the cycling process. Therefore, there have been a few studies of polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) given that the robust structure of a polymeric binder to LIBs anodes is a promising means by which to enhance the performance of high-capacity anodes. These studies essentially focused mainly on modifying of the linear-polymer component or on copolymers dissolved in solvents. Cross-linking polymers as a binder may be preferred due to their good scratch resistance, excellent chemical resistance and high levels of adhesion and resilience. However, because these types of polymers (with a rigid structure and cross-linking points) are also insoluble in general organic solvents, applying these types in this capacity is virtually impossible.

  10. Probing the characteristics of casein as green binder for non-aqueous electrochemical double layer capacitors' electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Raccichini, Rinaldo; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Casein from bovine milk is evaluated in this work as binding agent for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) electrodes. It is demonstrated that casein provides excellent adhesion strength to the current collector (1187 kPa compared to 51 kPa achieved with PVdF), thus leading to mechanically stable electrodes. At the same time, it offers high thermal stability (above 200 °C) and electrochemical stability in organic electrolytes. Apparently though, the casein-based electrodes offer lower electronic conductivity than those based on other state-of-the-art binders, which can limit the rate performance of the resulting EDLC. In the attempt of improving the electrochemical performance, it is found that the application of a pressing step can solve this issue, leading to excellent rate capability (up to 84% capacitance retention at 50 mA cm-2) and cycling stability (96.8% after 10,000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2) in both PC- and ACN-based electrolytes. Although the adhesive power casein is known since ancient times, this report presents the first proof of concept of its employment in electrochemical power sources.

  11. A review on cellulose and lignin based binders and electrodes: Small steps towards a sustainable lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmale, Trupti C; Kale, Bharat B; Varma, Anjani J

    2017-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIB) are the most promising energy storage systems for portable electronics and future electric or hybrid-electric vehicles. However making them safer, cost effective and environment friendly is the key challenge. In this regard, replacing petro-derived materials by introducing renewable biomass derived cellulose derivatives and lignin based materials into the battery system is a promising approach for the development of green materials for LIB. These biomaterials introduce sustainability as well as improved safety in the final disposal of LIB batteries. In this review we introduce LIB materials technology in brief and recent developments in electrodes and binders based on cellulose and their derivatives and lignin for lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Binary cobalt ferrite nanomesh arrays as the advanced binder-free electrode for applications in oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Mu, Yanping; Bai, Yuanjuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    The porous CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays are successfully synthesized on nickel foam substrate through a high temperature and pressure hydrothermal method, following by the thermal post-treatment in air. The CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays own numerous pores and large specific surface area, which is in favor of exposing more active sites. In consideration of the structural preponderances and versatility of the materials, the CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays have been researched as the binder-free electrode materials for electrocatalysis and supercapacitors. When the CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays on nickel foam (CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni) directly act as the free-binder catalyst toward catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of electrochemical water splitting, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni exhibits an admirable OER property with a low onset potential of 1.47 V(corresponding to the onset overpotential of 240 mV), a minimal overpotential (η10 = 253 mV), a small Tafel slope (44 mV dec-1), large anodic currents and long-term durability for 35 h in alkaline media. In addition, as an electrode of supercapacitors, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni obtains a desired specific capacitance (1426 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g), remarkable rate capability (1024 F/g at the current density of 20 A/g) and eminent capacitance retention (92.6% after 3000 cycles). The above results demonstrate the CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni possesses great potential application in electrocatalysis and supercapacitors.

  13. Ultra-light Hierarchical Graphene Electrode for Binder-Free Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zicheng; Kim, Tae Young; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Li, Huifeng; Chou, Harry; Li, Yuliang

    2015-10-07

    A mild and environmental-friendly method is developed for fabricating a 3D interconnected graphene electrode with large-scale continuity. Such material has interlayer pores between reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and in-plane pores. Hence, a specific surface area up to 835 m(2) g(-1) and a high powder conductivity up to 400 S m(-1) are achieved. For electrochemical applications, the interlayer pores can serve as "ion-buffering reservoirs" while in-plane ones act as "channels" for shortening the mass cross-plane diffusion length, reducing the ion response time, and prevent the interlayer restacking. As binder-free supercapacitor electrode, it delivers a specific capacitance up to 169 F g(-1) with surface-normalized capacitance close to 21 μF cm(-2) (intrinsic capacitance) and power density up to 7.5 kW kg(-1), in 6 m KOH aqueous electrolyte. In the case of lithium-ion battery anode, it shows remarkable advantages in terms of the initiate reversible Coulombic efficiency (61.3%), high specific capacity (932 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)), and robust long-term retention (93.5% after 600 cycles at 2000 mAh g(-1)). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrodeposited nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers: a binder-free electrode for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran Sami, Syed; Siddiqui, Saqib; Tajmeel Feroze, Muhammad; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2017-11-01

    To pursue high-performance energy storage devices with both high energy density and power density, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures play a key role in the development of functional devices including energy conversion, energy storage, and environmental devices. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by the versatile electrospinning method. An ultra-thin nickel-cobalt sulfide (NiCoS) layer was conformably electrodeposited on a self-standing PAN nanofibers by cyclic voltammetry to fabricate the light-weighted porous electrodes for supercapacitors. The porous web of PAN nanofibers acts as a high-surface-area scaffold with significant electrochemical performance, while the electrodeposition of metal sulfide nanosheet further enhances the specific capacitance. The fabricated NiCoS on PAN (NiCoS/PAN) nanofibers exhibits a very high capacitance of 1513 F g-1 at 5 A g-1 in 1 M potassium chloride (KCl) aqueous electrolyte with superior rate capability and excellent electrochemical stability as a hybrid electrode. The high capacitance of the NiCoS is attributed to the large surface area of the electrospun PAN nanofibers scaffold, which has offered a large number of active sites for possible redox reaction of ultra-thin NiCoS layer. Benefiting from the compositional features and electrode architectures, the hybrid electrode of NiCoS/PAN nanofibers shows greatly improved electrochemical performance with an ultra-high capacitance (1124 F g-1 at 50 A g-1). Moreover, a binder-free asymmetric supercapacitor device is also fabricated by using NiCoS/PAN nanofibers as the positive electrode and activated carbon (MSP-20) on PAN nanofibers as the negative electrode; this demonstrates high energy density of 56.904 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1.445 kW kg-1, and it still delivers the energy density of 33.3923 W h kg-1 even at higher power density of 16.5013 kW kg-1.

  15. Binder-free carbon nanotube electrode for electrochemical removal of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Na, Chongzheng

    2014-11-26

    Electrochemical treatment of chromium-containing wastewater has the advantage of simultaneously reducing hexavalent chromium (CrVI) and reversibly adsorbing the trivalent product (CrIII), thereby minimizing the generation of waste for disposal and providing an opportunity for resource reuse. The application of electrochemical treatment of chromium is often limited by the available electrochemical surface area (ESA) of conventional electrodes with flat surfaces. Here, we report the preparation and evaluation of carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes consisting of vertically aligned CNT arrays directly grown on stainless steel mesh (SSM). We show that the 3-D organization of CNT arrays increases ESA up to 13 times compared to SSM. The increase of ESA is correlated with the length of CNTs, consistent with a mechanism of roughness-induced ESA enhancement. The increase of ESA directly benefits CrVI reduction by proportionally accelerating reduction without compromising the electrode's ability to adsorb CrIII. Our results suggest that the rational design of electrodes with hierarchical structures represents a feasible approach to improve the performance of electrochemical treatment of contaminated water.

  16. Hierarchical ZnO@MnO2 Core-Shell Pillar Arrays on Ni Foam for Binder-Free Supercapacitor Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming; Li, Fei; Zhao, Xiao Li; Luo, Da; You, Xue Qiu; Zhang, Yu Xin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Hierarchical ZnO@MnO2 core-shell pillar arrays on Ni foam have been fabricated by a facile two-step hydrothermal approach and further investigated as the binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. The core-shell hybrid nanostructure is achieved by decorating ultrathin self-standing MnO2 nanosheets on ZnO pillar arrays grown radically on Nickel foam. This unique well-designed binder-free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (423.5 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability (92% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles). The improved electrochemical results show that the ZnO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure electrode is promising for high-performance supercapacitors. The facile design of the unique core-shell array architectures provides a new and effective approach to fabricate high-performance binder-free electrode for supercapacitors.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Binder-Based Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Mei Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitosan binder-based TiO2 photoelectrode is used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM images revealed that the grain size, thickness, and distribution of TiO2 films are affected by the chitosan content. With addition of 2.0 wt% chitosan to the TiO2 film (D2, the surface pore size became the smallest, and the pores were fairly evenly distributed. The electron transit time, electron recombination lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and diffusion length were analyzed by IMVS and IMPS. The best DSSC, with 2.0 wt% chitosan addition to the TiO2 film, had a shorter electron transit time, longer electron recombination lifetime, and larger diffusion coefficient and diffusion length than the other samples. The results of 2.0 wt% chitosan-added TiO2 DSSCs are an electron transit time of  s, electron recombination lifetime of  s, diffusion coefficient of  cm2 s−1, diffusion length of 14.81 μm, and a solar conversion efficiency of 4.18%.

  18. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells with gel-coated binder-free carbon nanotube films as counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaoguang; Cho, Swee Jen; Fan, Benhu; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2010-10-01

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with binder-free films of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), as the counter electrode are reported. The CNT films were fabricated by coating gels, which were prepared by dispersing CNTs in low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through mechanical grinding and subsequent ultrasonication, on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass. PEG was removed from the CNT films through heating. These binder-free CNT films were rough and exhibited good adhesion to substrates. They were used as the counter electrode of DSCs. The DSCs with SWCNT or MWCNT counter electrodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency comparable with that with the conventional platinum (Pt) counter electrode, when the devices were tested immediately after device fabrication. The DSCs with an SWCNT counter electrode exhibited good stability in photovoltaic performance. The efficiency did not decrease after four weeks. On the other hand, DSCs with the MWCNT or Pt counter electrode exhibited a remarkable decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency after four weeks. The high photovoltaic performance of these DSCs is related to the excellent electrochemical catalysis of CNTs on the redox of the iodide/triiodide pair, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance spectroscopy.

  19. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells with gel-coated binder-free carbon nanotube films as counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xiaoguang; Cho, Swee Jen; Fan Benhu; Ouyang Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with binder-free films of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), as the counter electrode are reported. The CNT films were fabricated by coating gels, which were prepared by dispersing CNTs in low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through mechanical grinding and subsequent ultrasonication, on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass. PEG was removed from the CNT films through heating. These binder-free CNT films were rough and exhibited good adhesion to substrates. They were used as the counter electrode of DSCs. The DSCs with SWCNT or MWCNT counter electrodes exhibited a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency comparable with that with the conventional platinum (Pt) counter electrode, when the devices were tested immediately after device fabrication. The DSCs with an SWCNT counter electrode exhibited good stability in photovoltaic performance. The efficiency did not decrease after four weeks. On the other hand, DSCs with the MWCNT or Pt counter electrode exhibited a remarkable decrease in the photovoltaic efficiency after four weeks. The high photovoltaic performance of these DSCs is related to the excellent electrochemical catalysis of CNTs on the redox of the iodide/triiodide pair, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance spectroscopy.

  20. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  1. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  2. Improved electrochemical performances of binder-free CoMoO4 nanoplate arrays@Ni foam electrode using redox additive electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we are successfully prepared cobalt molybdate (CoMoO4) grown on nickel foam as a binder free electrode by hydrothermal approach for supercapacitors and improved their electrochemical performances using potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) as redox additive. The formation of CoMoO4 on Ni foam with high crystallinity is confirmed using XRD, Raman, and XPS measurements. The nanoplate arrays (NPAs) of CoMoO4 are uniformly grown on Ni foam which is confirmed by FE-SEM analysis. The prepared binder-free CoMoO4 NPAs achieved maximum areal capacity of 227 μAh cm-2 with KOH electrolyte at 2.5 mA cm-2. This achieved areal capacity is further improved about three times using the addition of K3Fe(CN)6 as redox additive. The increased electrochemical performances of CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam electrode via redox additive are discussed in detail and the mechanism has been explored. Moreover, the assembled CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor device with an extended operating voltage window of 1.5 V exhibits an excellent performances such as high energy density and cyclic stability. The overall performances of binder-free CoMoO4 NPAs on Ni foam with redox additives suggesting their potential use as positive electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  3. Binder free MnO2/PIn electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purty, B.; Choudhary, R. B.; Kandulna, R.; Singh, R.

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemically stable MnO2/PIn nanocomposite was synthesized via in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization process. The structural and morphological properties were studied through FTIR and FESEM characterizing techniques. Sphere like PIn and MnO2 nanorods offers interacting surface for charge transfer action. The electrochemical properties were investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The significant enhancement in capacitance value with 95% coulombic efficiency and relatively low equivalent series resistance (ESR)˜0.4 Ω proved that MnO2/PIn nanocomposite is an excellent performer as an electrode material in the spectrum of supercapcitors and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Fabrication of binder-free graphene-SnO{sub 2} electrodes by laser introduced conversion of precursors for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoxiao, E-mail: xlu@zjut.edu.cn [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Guolong [Institute of Laser Advanced Manufacturing, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Xiong, Qinqin; Qin, Haiying [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Weibin [Institute of Laser Advanced Manufacturing, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Luo, Fang, E-mail: luofang@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Advanced Manufacturing, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); College of Zhijiang, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310001 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Binder-free graphene-SnO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared by a laser irradiation method. • Laser irradiation can well control the conversion of precursors. • As-prepared electrodes present high lithium storage capacity with good cyclablity. - Abstract: Binder-free graphene-SnO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared by laser introduced conversion of precursor (mixture of graphene oxide and stannic oxide sol) coatings on a copper film. The evolution of the microstructure, thermal stability, morphologies and sheet resistance has been studied as a function of laser fluences. It was shown that the conversion of precursors is mainly attributed to the photothermic effect, and a laser fluence of 69.3 J cm{sup −2} is the best condition for sample preparation. When the as-prepared electrode used as an anode for lithium ion batteries, it has been demonstrated with a high lithium storage capacity and good cycling stability. A high capacity of around 700 mAh g{sup −1} can be retained after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}, and even after 400 cycles the specific capacity steadied to around 690 mAh g{sup −1}. Such electrodes have a short preparing procedure and good electrochemical performance, so the fabrication method adopted here could be referable for industrial continuous production.

  5. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  6. Synthesis of nanoporous carbons from mixtures of coal tar pitch and furfural and their application as electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, B.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Ania, C.O.; Parra, J.B.; Mladenov, M.; Tzvetkov, P.

    2010-11-15

    Synthetic nanoporous carbons are prepared by polymerization of mixtures containing coal tar pitch and furfural in different proportions, followed by carbonization of obtained solid product and steam activation of the carbonizate. The chemical composition of the initial mixture significantly affects the physicochemical properties (surface area, pore structure, electro resistance and amount of oxygen-containing groups on the surface) of the obtained materials. The incorporation of oxygen in the precursor mixture by means of furfural, has a strong influence in the synthetic step; increasing the furfural content facilitates the formation of a solid product characterized by a large oxygen content. Moreover, the solid product is more reactive towards activation as the furfural content increases, giving rise to nanoporous carbons with large surface areas and unique chemical features (high density of oxygen functionalities of basic nature). These nanoporous carbons have been investigated as electrodes in electrochemical applications. (author)

  7. Preparation of nitrogen-doped biomass-derived carbon nanofibers/graphene aerogel as a binder-free electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Hao; Zhou, Lincheng; Zheng, Xinliang; Li, Xinghua; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dandan; Pan, Duo

    2017-12-01

    Carbon materials derived from various biomasses have aroused forceful interest from scientific community based on their abundant resource, low cost, environment friendly and easy fabrication. Herein, the method has been developed to prepare nitrogen-doped biomass-derived carbon nanofibers/graphene aerogel (NCGA) as the binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. Ethylenediamine (EDA) is select as nitrogen source for its high nitrogen content and strong interaction with graphene oxide (GO) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) via hydrothermal self-assembly method to form hybrid hydrogel, and finally converts to NCGA by freeze-drying and carbonization. After carbonization the insulated CNFs converted to high conductivity carbon nanofibers. The NCGA electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 289 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 and high stability of 90.5% capacitance retention ratio after 5000 cycles at 3 A g-1. This novel biomass electrode could be potential candidate for high performance supercapacitors.

  8. Facilely scraping Si nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide sheets onto nickel foam as binder-free electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyuan; Xie, Wenhe; Gu, Lili; Liu, Zhengjiao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Liu, Boli; Wang, Qi; He, Deyan

    2016-01-01

    Binder-free electrodes of Si nanoparticles@reducedgrapheneoxidesheets(Si@rGO) for lithium ion batteries were facilely fabricated by scraping the mixture of commercial Si powder, graphene oxide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) onto nickel foam and following a heat treatment. It was shown that the Si@rGO electrode performs an excellent electrochemical behavior. Even at a current density as high as 4 A/g, a reversible capacity of 792 mAh/g was obtained after 100 cycles. A small amount of PVP additive plays important roles, it not only increases the viscosity of the mixture paint in the coating process, but also improves the conductivity of the overall electrode after carbonization.

  9. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1975-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  10. Flexible Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as binder-free electrodes for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Niu, Hao; Yang, Xue; Sun, Zhiqin; Li, Fuzhi; Wang, Qian; Qu, Fengyu

    2018-04-16

    Flexible highly porous Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers are synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by calcination treatment and directly used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. These Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers interconnect with each other and construct three-dimensional hierarchical porous films with high specific surface area. Benefiting from the unique structural features, the intriguing binder-free Fe2O3 and V2O5 porous nanofiber electrodes possess high specific capacitance of 255 F g-1 and 256 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be operated up to 1.8 V attributed to the wide and opposite potential window of both electrodes. The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor achieves a high energy density up to 32.2 Wh kg-1 at an average power density of 128.7 W kg-1 as well as excellent cycling stability and power capability. The effective and facile synthesis method and superior electrochemical performance provided in this work make electrospun Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers promising electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of a highly efficient 3D graphene-CNT-MnO2-PANI nanocomposite as a binder free electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Tan, Yi; Pan, Lujun; Rashad, Muhammad; Li, Jiayan; Fu, Xin; Cui, Ruixue

    2016-09-29

    Graphene based nanocomposites have been investigated intensively, as electrode materials for energy storage applications. In the current work, a graphene-CNT-MnO 2 -PANI (GCM@PANI) nanocomposite has been synthesized on 3D graphene grown on nickel foam, as a highly efficient binder free electrode material for supercapacitors. Interestingly, the specific capacitance of the synthesized electrode increases up to the first 1500 charge-discharge cycles, and is thus referred to as an electrode activation process. The activated GCM@PANI nanocomposite electrode exhibits an extraordinary galvanostatic specific capacitance of 3037 F g -1 at a current density of 8 A g -1 . The synthesized nanocomposite exhibits an excellent cyclic stability with a capacitance retention of 83% over 12 000 charge-discharge cycles, and a high rate capability by retaining a specific capacitance of 84.6% at a current density of 20 A g -1 . The structural and electrochemical analysis of the synthesized nanocomposite suggests that the astonishing electrochemical performance might be attributed to the growth of a novel PANI nanoparticle layer and the synergistic effect of CNT/MnO 2 nanostructures.

  12. A Facile Electrophoretic Deposition Route to the Fe3O4/CNTs/rGO Composite Electrode as a Binder-Free Anode for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Jiaqi; Chen, Dingqiong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-10-12

    Fe 3 O 4 is regarded as an attractive anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity, natural abundance, and low cost. However, the poor cyclic performance resulting from the low conductivity and huge volume change during cycling impedes its application. Here we have developed a facile electrophoretic deposition route to fabricate the Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs (carbon nanotubes)/rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composite electrode, simultaneously achieving material synthesis and electrode assembling. Even without binders, the adhesion and mechanical firmness of the electrode are strong enough to be used for LIB anode. In this specific structure, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (NPs) interconnected by CNTs are sandwiched by rGO layers to form a robust network with good conductivity. The resulting Fe 3 O 4 /CNTs/rGO composite electrode exhibits much improved electrochemical performance (high reversible capacity of 540 mAh g -1 at a very high current density of 10 A g -1 , and a remarkable capacity of 1080 mAh g -1 can be maintained after 450 cycles at 1 A g -1 ) compared with that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 NPs electrode.

  13. Iron-Based Electrodes Meet Water-Based Preparation, Fluorine-Free Electrolyte and Binder: A Chance for More Sustainable Lithium-Ion Batteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvo, Mario; Liivat, Anti; Eriksson, Henrik; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Edström, Kristina

    2017-06-09

    Environmentally friendly and cost-effective Li-ion cells are fabricated with abundant, non-toxic LiFePO 4 cathodes and iron oxide anodes. A water-soluble alginate binder is used to coat both electrodes to reduce the environmental footprint. The critical reactivity of LiPF 6 -based electrolytes toward possible traces of H 2 O in water-processed electrodes is overcome by using a lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) salt. The absence of fluorine in the electrolyte and binder is a cornerstone for improved cell chemistry and results in stable battery operation. A dedicated approach to exploit conversion-type anodes more effectively is also disclosed. The issue of large voltage hysteresis upon conversion/de-conversion is circumvented by operating iron oxide in a deeply lithiated Fe/Li 2 O form. Li-ion cells with energy efficiencies of up to 92 % are demonstrated if LiFePO 4 is cycled versus such anodes prepared through a pre-lithiation procedure. These cells show an average energy efficiency of approximately 90.66 % and a mean Coulombic efficiency of approximately 99.65 % over 320 cycles at current densities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mA cm -2 . They retain nearly 100 % of their initial discharge capacity and provide an unmatched operation potential of approximately 2.85 V for this combination of active materials. No occurrence of Li plating was detected in three-electrode cells at charging rates of approximately 5C. Excellent rate capabilities of up to approximately 30C are achieved thanks to the exploitation of size effects from the small Fe nanoparticles and their reactive boundaries. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. New insights into the effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modifier on the structure, properties, and performance of asphalt binder: The case of AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nciri, Nader, E-mail: nader.nciri@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namho [Department of Architectural Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namjun, E-mail: njuncho@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the poorly understood effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer on the bitumen performance. It focuses on determining the impact of various concentrations (e.g., 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt. %) of SBS on the attributes of two types of asphalt namely AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting (SDA) pitch. The unmodified and modified binders were investigated in terms of their chemical compositions, microstructures, thermo-analytical behaviors, and physical properties. The intricate chemical compositions were evaluated by elemental analysis and thin layer chromatography-ionization detection (TLC-FID). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to examine the microstructures. Whereas, thermal characteristics were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physical behaviors were monitored through the softening point, penetration, viscosity, and ductility tests. The findings showed that the blending of asphalt with different amounts of SBS resulted into different rheological behaviors. This was reflected from the difference in the SARA (i.e., saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes) compositions and colloidal instability indexes of the modified asphalts. SEM exhibited a continuous asphalt phase with distributed SBS particles, a continuous polymer phase with distributed asphalt globules, or two interconnected continuous phases. FT-IR, {sup 1}H {sup 13}C NMR, and XRD data revealed that the AP-5 asphalt and SDA pitch experienced a number of distinct structural changes. TGA/DSC studies determined the occurrence of diverse events during thermal treatment. It is concluded that the degree of SBS modification depends strongly on SARA composition and polymer content. If the polymers are molded at higher concentrations along with aromatics-rich SDA pitches, then the mixtures

  15. In situ preparation of MgCo2O4 nanosheets on Ni-foam as a binder-free electrode for high performance hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2018-05-15

    A binder-free, MgCo2O4 nanosheet-like architecture was prepared on Ni-foam using a hydrothermal method. MgCo2O4/Ni-foam was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The FESEM image revealed a nanosheet array-like architecture. The MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam exhibited the maximum specific capacity of 947 C g-1 at a specific current of 2 A g-1. Approximately 96% of the specific capacity was retained from the maximum specific capacity after 5000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. This hybrid device exhibited a maximum specific capacity of 52 C g-1 at a specific current of 0.5 A g-1, and also exhibited a maximum specific energy of 12.99 W h kg-1 at a specific power of 448.7 W kg-1. These results confirmed that the binder-free MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam are a suitable positive electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors.

  16. Centrifugal spinning: A novel approach to fabricate porous carbon fibers as binder-free electrodes for electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Jiadeng; Yanilmaz, Meltem; Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), among various carbonaceous candidates for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes, draw extensive attention because their one-dimensional architecture offers both shortened electron pathways and high ion-accessible sites. Creating porous structures on CNFs yields larger surface area and enhanced capacitive performance. Herein, porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) were synthesized via centrifugal spinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions combined with thermal treatment and were used as binder-free EDLC electrodes. Three precursor fibers with PAN/PMMA weight ratios of 9/1, 7/3 and 5/5 were prepared and carbonized at 700, 800, and 900 °C, respectively. The highest specific capacitance obtained was 144 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a rate capability of 74% from 0.1 to 2 A g-1 by PCNFs prepared with PAN/PMMA weight ratio of 7/3 at 900 °C. These PCNFs also showed stable cycling performance. The present work demonstrates that PCNFs are promising EDLC electrode candidate and centrifugal spinning offers a simple, cost-effective strategy to produce PCNFs.

  17. Two – step approach of fabrication of three – dimensional reduced graphene oxide – carbon nanotubes – nickel foams hybrid as a binder – free supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Chuanyin; Li, Tiehu; Zhao, Tingkai; Shang, Yudong; Dang, Alei; Ji, Xianglin; Li, Hao; Wang, Jungao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D rGO-CNTs-NF electrode is fabricated by combination of EPD and FCCVD. • EPD with excellent uniformity is an economical processing technique. • FCCVD is beneficial to obtain more compact and uniform VACNTs. • The hybrid shows a high specific capacitance of 236.18 F g −1 and a high energy density of 19.24 Wh kg −1 . • This work provides various assumptions for designing hierarchical rGO-based architecture. - Abstract: A facile method is designed to prepare 3D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) - carbon nanotubes (CNTs) - nickel foams (NF). In this research, the 3D rGO-CNTs-NF electrode is fabricated by combination of electrophoretic deposition and floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. The vertically-aligned CNTs forests not only effectively prevent stacking of rGO sheets but also facilitate the electron transfer during the charge/discharge process and contribute to the whole capacitance. Moreover, the 3D rGO-CNTs-NF hybrid can be used directly as electrodes of supercapacitor without binder. Additionally, the hybrid shows a specific capacitance of 236.18 F g −1 which is much higher than that of the rGO - NF electrode (100.23 F g −1 ). Importantly, the energy density and power density of 3D rGO-CNTs-NF are respectively as high as 19.24 Wh kg −1 and 5398 W kg −1 , indicating that our work provides a way to design hierarchical rGO-based architecture composed of rGO, CNTs and various electroactive materials for high-performance energy storage devices.

  18. A combined approach for high-performance Li–O2 batteries: A binder-free carbon electrode and atomic layer deposition of RuO2 as an inhibitor–promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Seop Shin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A rechargeable lithium–oxygen (Li–O2 battery is considered as a promising technology for electrochemical energy storage systems because its theoretical energy density is much higher than those of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The cathode (positive electrode for Li–O2 batteries is made of carbon and polymeric binders; however, these constituents undergo parasitic decomposition reactions during battery operation, which in turn causes considerable performance degradation. Therefore, the rational design of the cathode is necessary for building robust and high-performance Li–O2 batteries. Here, a binder-free carbon nanotube (CNT electrode surface-modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD of dual acting RuO2 as an inhibitor–promoter is proposed for rechargeable Li–O2 batteries. RuO2 nanoparticles formed directly on the binder-free CNT electrode by ALD play a dual role to inhibit carbon decomposition and to promote Li2O2 decomposition. The binder-free RuO2/CNT cathode with the unique architecture shows outstanding electrochemical performance as characterized by small voltage gaps (∼0.9 V as well as excellent cyclability without any signs of capacity decay over 80 cycles.

  19. A combined approach for high-performance Li-O2 batteries: A binder-free carbon electrode and atomic layer deposition of RuO2 as an inhibitor-promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Seop; Seo, Gi Won; Kwon, Kyoungwoo; Jung, Kyu-Nam; Lee, Sang Ick; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Hansung; Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong-Won

    2018-04-01

    A rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery is considered as a promising technology for electrochemical energy storage systems because its theoretical energy density is much higher than those of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The cathode (positive electrode) for Li-O2 batteries is made of carbon and polymeric binders; however, these constituents undergo parasitic decomposition reactions during battery operation, which in turn causes considerable performance degradation. Therefore, the rational design of the cathode is necessary for building robust and high-performance Li-O2 batteries. Here, a binder-free carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode surface-modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of dual acting RuO2 as an inhibitor-promoter is proposed for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. RuO2 nanoparticles formed directly on the binder-free CNT electrode by ALD play a dual role to inhibit carbon decomposition and to promote Li2O2 decomposition. The binder-free RuO2/CNT cathode with the unique architecture shows outstanding electrochemical performance as characterized by small voltage gaps (˜0.9 V) as well as excellent cyclability without any signs of capacity decay over 80 cycles.

  20. Bacterial-cellulose-derived interconnected meso-microporous carbon nanofiber networks as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Wang, Ya; Chang, Zhi; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a typical biomass prepared from the microbial fermentation process, has been proved that it can be an ideal platform for design of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanomaterials in energy storage and conversion field. Here we developed a simple and general silica-assisted strategy for fabrication of interconnected 3D meso-microporous carbon nanofiber networks by confine nanospace pyrolysis of sustainable BC, which can be used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. The synthesized carbon nanofibers exhibited the features of interconnected 3D networks architecture, large surface area (624 m2 g-1), mesopores-dominated hierarchical porosity, and high graphitization degree. The as-prepared electrode (CN-BC) displayed a maximum specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, high-rate capability and good cyclicity in 6 M KOH electrolyte. This work, together with cost-effective preparation strategy to make high-value utilization of cheap biomass, should have significant implications in the green and mass-producible energy storage.

  1. MoS2 anchored free-standing three dimensional vertical graphene foam based binder-free electrodes for enhanced lithium-ion storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zheng; Rawat, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    The vertical graphene with hierarchical three-dimensional network architecture is a promising substrate for high energy and power density Li-ion battery due to its large surface area, inherent three-dimensional network and excellent ion transport property. Three dimensional vertical graphene (3DVG) is synthesized via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using cost-effective and environment-friendly natural oil of M. alternifolia as precursor. The MoS 2 nanosheets are then anchored on free-standing 3DVG by hydrothermal method to make the binder free MoS 2 @3DVG anode of a Li-ion battery. The MoS 2 @3DVG electrodes deliver an enhanced capacity of 670 mAh g −1 with the capacity retention of 99% after 30 cycles at 100 mA g −1 , much better than that of the reference sample of MoS 2 @3DG (550 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 ) which uses 3D planar graphene. Superior performance of the vertical graphene based electrode is attributed to the unique hierarchical structure and densely packed reactive edges of the as-synthesized 3DVG. The versatility of plasma-assisted natural precursor based vertical graphene as functional nano-structured substrate for MoS 2 , as active material, for advanced energy storage devices is demonstrated.

  2. Facile synthesis of ultrathin manganese dioxide nanosheets arrays on nickel foam as advanced binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ming; Zhao, Xiao Li; Li, Fei; Zhang, Li Li; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2015-01-01

    -free electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance (595.2 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1), good rate capability (64.1% retention), and excellent cycling stability (89% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor

  3. Freestanding hierarchically porous carbon framework decorated by polyaniline as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fujun; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Wang, Kexin; Lu, Na; Liu, Yichun

    2016-10-01

    Freestanding hierarchically porous carbon electrode materials with favorable features of large surface areas, hierarchical porosity and continuous conducting pathways are very attractive for practical applications in electrochemical devices. Herein, three-dimensional freestanding hierarchically porous carbon (HPC) materials have been fabricated successfully mainly by the facile phase separation method. In order to further improve the energy storage ability, polyaniline (PANI) with high pseudocapacitance has been decorated on HPC through in situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. Benefiting from the synergistic effects between HPC and PANI, the resulting HPC/PANI composites as electrode materials present dramatic electrochemical performance with high specific capacitance up to 290 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and good rate capability with ∼86% (248 F g-1) capacitance retention at 64 A g-1 of initial capacitance in three-electrode configuration. Moreover, the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor based on HPC/PANI composites also demonstrates good capacitive properties with high energy density of 9.6 Wh kg-1 at 223 W kg-1 and long-term cycling stability with 78% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles. Therefore, this work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional electrochemical performance, which are very promising for practical application in the energy storage field.

  4. Binder-Free Graphene Organogels as Cost-Efficient Counter Electrodes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Dengyu; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Liang; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Zhiwen; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Graphene organogels (GOGs) filled with organic electrolytes may function as high-activity, low-cost electrodes for energy conversion and storage devices such as Li ion batteries, supercapacitors, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), because of their ideal electron-transport and ion-diffusion pathways through an interconnected 3D porous framework self-assembled from highly conductive and high-specific-area graphene sheets. Here, graphene hydrogels prepared by a modified hydrothermal method are converted into organogels with a specific surface area up to ∼1298 m 2 g −1 by a simple solvent-exchange approach, and pressed onto titanium meshes to form GOG films as economical, wearable counter electrodes for DSSCs. Without optimizing TiO 2 photoanodes, GOG-based DSSCs show a markedly enhanced short-circuit current density (16.34 mA cm −2 ) and thus an impressive power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, higher than those using graphene aerogels (11.6 mA cm −2 , 5.9%) and commercial Pt films (10.2 mA cm −2 , 5.9%) as counter electrodes under otherwise identical conditions. The improved efficiency is ascribed to a substantial reduction in charge-transfer resistance and series resistance, which is correlated with the high conductivity and high specific area of GOGs.

  5. In-situ synthesis of 3D GA on titanium wire as a binder- free electrode for electro-Fenton removing of EDTA-Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shulong; Niu, Zhuyu; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Yuancai

    2018-01-05

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could form stable complexes with toxic metals such as nickel due to its strong chelation. The three-dimensional (3D) macroporous graphene aerogels (GA), which was in-situ assembled by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets on titanium wire as binder-free electrode, was presented as cathode for the degradation of EDTA-Ni in Electro-Fenton process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results indicated 3D GA formed three dimensional architecture with large and homogenous macropore structure and surface area. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Rotating Ring-disk Electrode (RRDE) results showed that the 3D GA cathode at pH 3 displayed the highest current density and electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), and better two-electron selectivity for ORR than other pH value, confirming the 3D-GA cathode at pH 3 has the highest electrocatalytic activity and generates more H 2 O 2 . The factors such as pH, applied current density, concentration of Fe 2+ , Na 2 SO 4, and aeration rates of air were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, 73.5% of EDTA-Ni was degraded after reaction for 2h. Mechanism analysis indicated that the production of OH on the 3D GA cathode played an important role in the removal of EDTA-Ni in the 3D GA-EF process, where the direct regeneration of Fe 2+ on the cathode would greatly reduce the consumption of H 2 O 2 . Therefore, it is of great promise for 3D-GA catalyst to be developed as highly efficient, cost-effective and durable cathode for the removal of EDTA-Ni. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Stable and Binder-Free Electrodes of TiO2 Nanofibers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phontip Tammawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrospinning technique was used to fabricate TiO2 nanofibers for use as binder-free electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The as-electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 400–1,000°C and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. SEM and TEM images showed that the fibers have an average diameter of ~100 nm and are composed of nanocrystallites and grains, which grow in size as the calcination temperature increases. The electrochemical properties of the nanofibers were evaluated using galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C showed higher electronic conductivity, higher discharge capacity, and better cycling performance than the nanofibers calcined at 600, 800, and 1,000°C. The TiO2 nanofibers calcined at 400°C delivered an initial reversible capacity of 325 mAh·g−1 approaching their theoretical value at 0.1 C rate and over 175 mAh·g−1 at 0.3 C rate with limited capacity fading and Coulombic efficiency between 96 and 100%.

  7. Spinel FeCo2S4 nanoflower arrays grown on Ni foam as novel binder-free electrodes for long-cycle-life supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cuifen; Yang, Lishan; Yang, Chunming; Shen, Ping; Zhao, Liping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Junhua; Qian, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Spinel FeCo2S4 nanoflower arrays grown on Ni foam (FeCo2S4@Ni) have been successfully fabricated via a facile hydrothermal sulfurization of the corresponding FeCo2O4 precursor. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations affirm that partial Co2+/Co3+ ions in Co3S4 have been substituted by Fe2+/Fe3+ ions to form FeCo2S4. The obtained FeCo2S4@Ni exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance (1644.07 mF cm-2 at 50 mA cm-2) and a supreme cycling stability (∼100% after 10,000 cycles at 50 mA cm-2) as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The cycling stability of the fabricated product is the highest among the documented ternary metallic sulfides so far. The excellent supercapacitive performance of FeCo2S4@Ni emanates from the unique architectures of Fe2Co2S4 nanoflower arrays constituted by ultrathin nanoflakes, three-dimensional porous and conductive Ni foam, and solid skeleton of Ni foam for robust connections to the Fe2Co2S4.

  8. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  9. ZnO template strategy for the synthesis of 3D interconnected graphene nanocapsules from coal tar pitch as supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaojing; Ma, Hao; Han, Jiufeng; Zhang, Hao; Yu, Chang; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2017-02-01

    3D interconnected graphene nanocapsules (GNCs) were prepared from diverse aromatic hydrocarbons by a nano-ZnO-template strategy coupled with in-situ KOH activation technique. The as-made graphene networks feature thin carbonaceous shells with well-balanced micropores and mesopores. Such 3D porous networks provide freeways for good electron conduction, short pores for ion fast transport, and abundant micropores for ion adsorption. As the electrodes in supercapacitors, the unique 3D GNCs show a high capacitance of 277 F g-1 at 0.05 A g-1, a good rate performance of 194 F g-1 at 20 A g-1, and an excellent cycle stability with over 97.4% capacitance retention after 15000 cycles in 6 M KOH electrolyte. This synthesis strategy paves a universal way for mass production of 3D graphene materials from diverse aromatic hydrocarbon sources including coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch for high performance supercapacitors as well as support and sorbent.

  10. Lectin binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudiger, H.; Gebauer, G.; Gansera, R.; Schurz, H.; Schimpl, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced

  11. Microstructural characteristics of toluene and quinoline-insolubles from coal-tar pitch and their cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaitescu, C. [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Fuel Laboratory, Polizu St. 1, Sector 1, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Predeanu, G. [Metallurgical Research Institute, Department of Raw Materials, Mehadia St. 39, Sector 6, 060543 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-08-01

    The structural composition of coal-tar pitch used in the preparation of the special binder-pitch, was determined with special emphasis on the optical properties of the {beta}-resins, as typical components necessary to obtain electrodes of best quality through the pyrogenetic processes of baking and graphitization. In addition to raw toluene- and quinoline-insolubles (TI, QI), the corresponding cokes were analysed to evaluate, by structural composition and microtexture, the behaviour of pitch fractions during carbonization. The results suggest the dependence of the texture development on the type of toluene- and quinoline-insolubles and {beta}-resins during processing conditions, which influence the mesophase formation. An original and important result of the carbopetrographical study is represented by the identification and evaluation of {beta}-resins in the coke texture. (author)

  12. 3D hierarchical dandelion-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam for an effective binder-free supercapacitor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huilin; Song, Yahui; Qiu, Haixia, E-mail: haixiaqiuls@163.com; Gao, Jianping

    2017-01-15

    In this work, the 3D hierarchical dandelion-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam has been developed by introducing PANI as the precursor of N-doped carbon. Meanwhile, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam with a novel 3D hierarchical dandelion-like structure was verified by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In addition, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam was directly used as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode and its performances were investigated by cycle voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam electrode owns good electrochemical performances, such as high specific capacitance (864 F/g at 1 A/g) and good cycling stability, owing to the porous feature from its novel 3D hierarchical dandelion-like structure. - Highlights: • The 3D hierarchical dandelion-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/N-doped carbon/Ni foam was prepared. • It can be directly used as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode. • It owns good electrochemical performances.

  13. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks as binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sainan; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Liang, Shuquan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mesoporous NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction with subsequent annealing treatment. Significantly, as a binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, the hybrid exhibits high specific capacity/capacitance and excellent cycling stability over long-term cycling. - Highlights: • Mesoporous NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles grown on 3D graphene networks are successfully prepared. • The NiCo 2 O 4 /3DGN hybrid is directly used as binder-free electrode for LIBs and SCs. • The hybrid exhibits superior long-term cycling stability up to 2000 cycles for LIBs application. • The hybrid delivers a high specific capacitance of 970 F g −1 at 20 A g −1 . • The hybrid demonstrates excellent capacitance retention of ∼96.5% after 3000 cycles for SCs application. - Abstract: Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) nanoneedles grown on three dimensional graphene networks have been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal reaction with subsequent annealing treatment. The NiCo 2 O 4 /3DGN hybrid is then used as binder-free electrode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The three dimensional graphene based binder-free electrode is considered more desirable than powder nanostructures in terms of shorter Li + ion diffusion and electron transportation paths, good strain accommodation, better interfacial/chemical distributions and high electrical conductivity. As a result, when used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), it exhibits high specific discharge capacity as well as superior cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. When it is used for supercapacitor application, this hybrid delivers a high specific capacitance of 970 F g −1 at a high current density of 20 A g −1 with excellent capacitance retention of ∼96.5% after 3000 cycles. Moreover, this synthesis strategy is simple

  14. Free-standing and mechanically flexible mats consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers made from a natural product of alkali lignin as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuilin; Zhou, Zhengping; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Qixin; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Yechun; Wu, Xiang-Fa; Zhu, Zhengtao; Fong, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Mechanically flexible mats consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) were prepared by first electrospinning aqueous mixtures containing a natural product of alkali lignin together with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into composite nanofiber mats followed by stabilization in air and carbonization in an inert environment. Morphological and structural properties, as well as specific surface area, total pore volume, average pore size, and pore size distribution, of the lignin-based ECNF mats were characterized; and their electrochemical performances (i.e., capacitive behaviors) were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The lignin-based ECNF mats exhibited outstanding performance as free-standing and/or binder-free electrodes of supercapacitors. For example, the ECNFs made from the composite nanofibers with mass ratio of lignin/PVA being 70/30 (i.e., ECNFs (70/30)) had the average diameter of ∼100 nm and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of ∼583 m2 g-1. The gravimetric capacitance of ECNFs (70/30) electrode in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte exhibited 64 F g-1 at current density of 400 mA g-1 and 50 F g-1 at 2000 mA g-1. The ECNFs (70/30) electrode also exhibited excellent cycling durability/stability, and the gravimetric capacitance merely reduced by ∼10% after 6000 cycles of charge/discharge.

  15. High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Long, Hu; Sun, Yongming; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Zirong

    2014-01-01

    A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g-1 at the current density of 10 A g-1, and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial d...

  16. Three-dimensional cotton-like nickel nanowire@Ni-Co hydroxide nanosheet arrays as binder-free electrode for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Houzhao; Li, Lang; Xu, Yang; Tan, Qiuyang; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Hao

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cotton-like Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays/nickel nanowires (3D Ni-Co LDH/NiNw) were successfully fabricated through a facile chemical bath deposition method. The 3D nickel nanowires are used as a conductive substrate with robust adhesion for high-pseudocapacitance Ni-Co LDH. The 3D Ni-Co LDH/NiNw electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance of 14 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 and quality specific capacitance of 466.6 F g-1 at 0.125 A g-1 with respect to the whole quality of the electrode. The fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a remarkable energy density of 0.387 mWh cm-2 using Ni-Co LDH/NiNw as the negative electrode. This high-performance composite electrode presents a new and affordable general approach for supercapacitors.

  17. Hierarchically MnO2-Nanosheet Covered Submicrometer-FeCo2O4-Tube Forest as Binder-Free Electrodes for High Energy Density All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baogang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-02-01

    The current problem of the still relatively low energy densities of supercapacitors can be effectively addressed by designing electrodes hierarchically on micro- and nanoscale. Herein, we report the synthesis of hierarchically porous, nanosheet covered submicrometer tube forests on Ni foam. Chemical deposition and thermal treatment result in homogeneous forests of 750 nm diameter FeCo2O4 tubes, which after hydrothermal reaction in KMnO4 are wrapped in MnO2-nanosheet-built porous covers. The covers' thickness can be adjusted from 200 to 800 nm by KMnO4 concentration. An optimal thickness (380 nm) with a MnO2 content of 42 wt % doubles the specific capacitance (3.30 F cm(-2) at 1.0 mA cm(-2)) of the bare FeCo2O4-tube forests. A symmetric solid-state supercapacitor made from these binder-free electrodes achieves 2.52 F cm(-2) at 2 mA cm(-2), much higher than reported for capacitors based on similar core-shell nanowire arrays. The large capacitance and high cell voltage of 1.7 V allow high energy and power densities (93.6 Wh kg(-1), 10.1 kW kg(-1)). The device also exhibits superior rate capability (71% capacitance at 20 mA cm(-2)) and remarkable cycling stability with 94% capacitance retention being stable after 1500 cycles.

  18. Porous worm-like NiMoO4 coaxially decorated electrospun carbon nanofiber as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaodong; Li, Xiao; Yang, Tao; Wang, Kai; Wang, Hongbao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-03-01

    The peculiar architectures consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers coaxially decorated by porous worm-like NiMoO4 were successfully fabricated for the first time to address the poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability of the state-of-the-art NiMoO4-based electrodes caused by the insufficient structural stability, dense structure and low conductivity. The porous worm-like structure endows the electrode high capacitance/capacity due to large effective specific surface area and short electron/ion diffusion channels. Moreover, the robust integrated electrode with sufficient internal spaces can self-accommodate volume variation during charge/discharge processes, which is beneficial to the structural stability and integrity. By the virtue of rational design of the architecture, the hybrid electrode delivered high specific capacitance (1088.5 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), good rate capability (860.3 F g-1 at 20 A g-1) and long lifespan with a capacitance retention of 73.9% after 5000 cycles when used as supercapacitor electrode. For lithium-ion battery application, the electrode exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1132.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. Notably, 689.7 mAh g-1 can be achieved even after 150 continuous cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. In the view of their outstanding electrochemical performance and the cost-effective fabrication process, the integrated nanostructure shows great promising applications in energy storage.

  19. Binder-induced surface structure evolution effects on Li-ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, S. J.; Pasqualini, M.; Witkowska, A.; Gunnella, R.; Birrozzi, A.; Minicucci, M.; Rajantie, H.; Copley, M.; Nobili, F.; Di Cicco, A.

    2018-03-01

    A comparative investigation on binder induced chemical and morphological evolution of Li4Ti5O12 electrodes was performed via X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical measurements. Composite electrodes were obtained using three different binders (PAA, PVdF, and CMC) with 80:10:10 ratio of active material:carbon:binder. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes, were found to be intimately correlated with the evolution of the microstructure of the electrodes, probed by XPS and SEM analysis. Our analysis shows that the surface chemistry, thickness of the passivation layers and the morphology of the electrodes are strongly dependent on the type of binders that significantly influence the electrochemical properties of the electrodes. These results point to a key role played by binders in optimization of the battery performance and improve our understanding of the previously observed and unexplained electrochemical properties of these electrodes.

  20. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  1. Anionic surface binders

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja; Hočevar Nežka

    2004-01-01

    The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When opt...

  2. Three-dimensional sulphur/nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide as high-performance supercapacitor binder-free electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinghao; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-06-01

    Sulphur/nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (SNG) aerogels were prepared by a simple solvothermal method with l-cysteine-assisted in ethylene glycol. The morphology and composition tests showed that the S/N heteroatoms were evenly distributed on SNG microsheets, and these microsheets were further composed of SNG aerogels with three-dimensional (3D) porous structure. The cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests illustrated the SNG bind-free electrode possessed electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, and had a capacitance of 254 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. After the 5000 cycles tests, the capacitance retained 83.54% at a current density of 2 A g-1. Meanwhile, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data shown the electrode materials had excellent capacity and good conductivity. Hence, the SNG aerogel prepared by l-cysteine-assisted solvothermal method is a great material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  3. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqin Zou; Shuangyin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are us...

  4. Facile Synthesis of Flower-Like Copper-Cobalt Sulfide as Binder-Free Faradaic Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Improved Electrochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianlei; Liu, Meitang; Ma, Hongwen

    2017-01-01

    Supercapacitors have been one of the highest potential candidates for energy storage because of their significant advantages beyond rechargeable batteries in terms of large power density, short recharging time, and long cycle lifespan. In this work, Cu–Co sulfides with uniform flower-like structure have been successfully obtained via a traditional two-step hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated Cu–Co sulfide vulcanized from precursor (P–Cu–Co sulfide) is able to deliver superior specific capacitance of 592 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and 518 F g−1 at 10 A g−1 which are surprisingly about 1.44 times and 2.39 times higher than those of Cu–Co oxide electrode, respectively. At the same time, excellent cycling stability of P–Cu–Co sulfide is indicated by 90.4% capacitance retention at high current density of 10 A g−1 after 3000 cycles. Because of the introduction of sulfur during the vulcanization process, these new developed sulfides can get more flexible structure and larger reaction surface area, and will own richer redox reaction sites between the interfaces of active material/electrolyte. The uniform flower-like P–Cu–Co sulfide electrode materials will have more potential alternatives for oxides electrode materials in the future. PMID:28590417

  5. Facile Synthesis of Flower-Like Copper-Cobalt Sulfide as Binder-Free Faradaic Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Improved Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianlei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors have been one of the highest potential candidates for energy storage because of their significant advantages beyond rechargeable batteries in terms of large power density, short recharging time, and long cycle lifespan. In this work, Cu–Co sulfides with uniform flower-like structure have been successfully obtained via a traditional two-step hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated Cu–Co sulfide vulcanized from precursor (P–Cu–Co sulfide is able to deliver superior specific capacitance of 592 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and 518 F g−1 at 10 A g−1 which are surprisingly about 1.44 times and 2.39 times higher than those of Cu–Co oxide electrode, respectively. At the same time, excellent cycling stability of P–Cu–Co sulfide is indicated by 90.4% capacitance retention at high current density of 10 A g−1 after 3000 cycles. Because of the introduction of sulfur during the vulcanization process, these new developed sulfides can get more flexible structure and larger reaction surface area, and will own richer redox reaction sites between the interfaces of active material/electrolyte. The uniform flower-like P–Cu–Co sulfide electrode materials will have more potential alternatives for oxides electrode materials in the future.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Flower-Like Copper-Cobalt Sulfide as Binder-Free Faradaic Electrodes for Supercapacitors with Improved Electrochemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianlei; Liu, Meitang; Ma, Hongwen

    2017-06-07

    Supercapacitors have been one of the highest potential candidates for energy storage because of their significant advantages beyond rechargeable batteries in terms of large power density, short recharging time, and long cycle lifespan. In this work, Cu-Co sulfides with uniform flower-like structure have been successfully obtained via a traditional two-step hydrothermal method. The as-fabricated Cu-Co sulfide vulcanized from precursor (P-Cu-Co sulfide) is able to deliver superior specific capacitance of 592 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 and 518 F g -1 at 10 A g -1 which are surprisingly about 1.44 times and 2.39 times higher than those of Cu-Co oxide electrode, respectively. At the same time, excellent cycling stability of P-Cu-Co sulfide is indicated by 90.4% capacitance retention at high current density of 10 A g -1 after 3000 cycles. Because of the introduction of sulfur during the vulcanization process, these new developed sulfides can get more flexible structure and larger reaction surface area, and will own richer redox reaction sites between the interfaces of active material/electrolyte. The uniform flower-like P-Cu-Co sulfide electrode materials will have more potential alternatives for oxides electrode materials in the future.

  7. Amorphous V-O-C composite nanofibers electrospun from solution precursors as binder- and conductive additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors with outstanding performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhao, Bote; Cai, Yong; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2013-11-01

    Flexible V-O-C composite nanofibers were fabricated from solution precursors via electrospinning and were investigated as free-standing and additive-free film electrodes for supercapacitors. Specifically, composite nanofibers (V0, V5, V10 and V20) with different vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac)2) contents of 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% with respect to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were prepared. The composite nanofibers were comparatively studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, FE-SEM, TEM and S-TEM. The vanadium element was found to be well-dispersed in the carbon nanofibers, free from the formation of an aggregated crystalline phase, even in the case of V20. A specific surface area of 587.9 m2 g-1 was reached for V10 after calcination, which is approximately twice that of the vanadium-free carbon nanofibers (V0, 300.9 m2 g-1). To perform as an electrode for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte, the V10 film delivered a specific capacitance of 463 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. V10 was also able to retain a specific capacitance of 380 F g-1, even at a current density of 10 A g-1. Additionally, very stable cycling stability was achieved, maintaining an outstanding specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at 5 A g-1 after charge-discharge cycling 5000 times. Thus, V-O-C composite nanofibers are highly attractive electrode materials for flexible, high-power, thin film energy storage devices and applications.Flexible V-O-C composite nanofibers were fabricated from solution precursors via electrospinning and were investigated as free-standing and additive-free film electrodes for supercapacitors. Specifically, composite nanofibers (V0, V5, V10 and V20) with different vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac)2) contents of 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% with respect to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were prepared. The composite nanofibers were comparatively studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, FE-SEM, TEM and S-TEM. The vanadium element was found to be well

  8. One-pot electrochemical growth of sponge-like polyaniline-intercalated phosphorous-doped graphene oxide on nickel foam as binder-free electrode material of supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Hadise; Moradi, Morteza; Borhani, Saeid; Jafari, Elnaz Abbasi; Hajati, Shaaker; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In this work, phosphor-doped graphene oxide (PGO) was synthesized by chemical technique. Also, the sponge-like PGO@polyaniline nanocomposite (PGO@PANI) film was coated on the nickel foam by one-step electropolymerization. The active materials were then characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller technique. When PANI/PGO was used as supercapacitor electrode, under current density of 1 A/g, the specific capacitance of the prepared PGO@PANI was measured as 603 F/g, which is 6.0 times higher than that of pure PANI (102 F/g). Moreover, capacity stability of the PANI/PGO increased significantly as compared to PANI (65% vs. 44%) after increasing the current density from 1 to 15 A/g. The clear electrochemical performance of PANI/PGO was enhanced owing to the synergistic effect of PGO and PANI. Our results demonstrate that PANI/PGO nanosheet arrays are promising candidate for electrode supercapacitor applications.

  9. Effect of binder properties on electrochemical performance for silicon-graphite anode: Method and application of binder screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Taeeun; Choi, Soo Jung; Jo, Yong Nam; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binder properties are systematically characterized to estimate their suitability. • Interpretation of binder properties in connection with binding affinity, electrode properties, and degree of phase separation in slurry. • According to the screening results, hybridization of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(amide imide) is recommended. • The modified binder showed improved cycle performance based on enhanced binder properties. - Abstract: With increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high energy density, silicon-based negative electrode material has attracted much interest because of its high specific capacity. Practical utilization of Si remains unattainable, however, owing to severe volume expansion in the electrode, resulting in a loss of the electrical Si network, which is directly connected to drastic capacity fading of the cell. Therefore, there have been systematic studies on the characterization of fundamental binder properties to estimate the suitability of various binder materials. The binder properties are subdivided into mechanical and adhesion characteristics, electrode properties (rigidity and recovery), and phase separation behavior of slurry to correlate with the electrochemical performance and practical acceptance of candidate materials. Systematic screening showed that hybridization of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(amide imide) (PAI) could complement each other's properties and the hybridized PAA–PAI was synthesized by a one-step, acid-catalyzed reaction. The PAA–PAI hybrid showed enhancement in overall properties as a result of co-polymerization and exhibited remarkable cycling performance after 300 cycles. Based on these results, it can be concluded that an understanding of binder characteristics provides useful insight into the search for a more efficient binder material, and fine tuning of fundamental binder properties through screening will be advantageous to the construction of more efficient LIB

  10. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic p...... properties as a control signal for aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output signal is carried out with Pure Data Extended....

  11. MODIFIED GYPSUM BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONDRATEVA N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Statement of the problem. A disadvantage of the gypsum binder is the limited water resistance of products that historically led to the use of gypsum products mostly for internal construction and finishing works. To regulate the process of hydration and structure formation of the use of chemical additives that are introduced with the mixing water or in the production of the binder. As a rule, substances that increase the solubility of the gypsum binder referred to as the hardening accelerator, and substances which retard the solubility of the inhibitors of hardening of the mixture. Most accelerators and retarders hardening affect adversely on the final strength of the mixture. More effective impact on gypsum binder additives have plasticizers. The purpose of the article. Getting gypsum binder modified with the aim of improving its water resistance and improvement of some technological factors (the time of hardening, water gypsum ratio, etc. would reduce its shortcomings and expand the scope of application of the binder. Conclusion. The result of the research reviewed changes in the basic properties of the gypsum binder with the introduction of additives, plasticizers, and selected the most effective supplements to significantly reduce water gypsum ratio, to improve strength properties and to obtain gypsum binder more dense structure.

  12. Binaural Pitch Fusion in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Fowler, Jennifer R; Hartling, Curtis L; Oh, Yonghee

    Binaural pitch fusion is the fusion of stimuli that evoke different pitches between the ears into a single auditory image. Individuals who use hearing aids or bimodal cochlear implants (CIs) experience abnormally broad binaural pitch fusion, such that sounds differing in pitch by as much as 3-4 octaves are fused across ears, leading to spectral averaging and speech perception interference. The goal of this study was to determine if adult bilateral CI users also experience broad binaural pitch fusion. Stimuli were pulse trains delivered to individual electrodes. Fusion ranges were measured using simultaneous, dichotic presentation of reference and comparison stimuli in opposite ears, and varying the comparison stimulus to find the range that fused with the reference stimulus. Bilateral CI listeners had binaural pitch fusion ranges varying from 0 to 12 mm (average 6.1 ± 3.9 mm), where 12 mm indicates fusion over all electrodes in the array. No significant correlations of fusion range were observed with any subject factors related to age, hearing loss history, or hearing device history, or with any electrode factors including interaural electrode pitch mismatch, pitch match bandwidth, or within-ear electrode discrimination abilities. Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.

  13. Electrochemical lithiation performance and characterization of silicon-graphite composites with lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium polyacrylate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Ji; Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Son, Jin-Young; Cui, Yi-Tao; Oji, Hiroshi; Kogure, Akinori; Harada, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Sumihisa; Aoki, Yasuhito; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-02-07

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAH), which is a water soluble polycarboxylic acid, is neutralized by adding different amounts of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and ammonia (NH4OH) aqueous solutions to fix neutralization degrees. The differently neutralized polyacid, alkali and ammonium polyacrylates are examined as polymeric binders for the preparation of Si-graphite composite electrodes as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The electrode performance of the Si-graphite composite depends on the alkali chemicals and neutralization degree. It is found that 80% NaOH-neutralized polyacrylate binder (a pH value of the resultant aqueous solution is ca. 6.7) is the most efficient binder to enhance the electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation performance of the Si-graphite composite electrode compared to that of conventional PVdF and the other binders used in this study. The optimum polyacrylate binder highly improves the dispersion of active material in the composite electrode. The binder also provides the strong adhesion, suitable porosity, and hardness for the composite electrode with 10% (m/m) binder content, resulting in better electrochemical reversibility. From these results, the factors of alkali-neutralized polyacrylate binders affecting the electrode performance of Si-graphite composite electrodes are discussed.

  14. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  15. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries.

  16. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang; Wei, Bin; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Effect of varying the amount of binder on the electrochemical characteristics of palm shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam Maarof, Hawaiah; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Kheireddine Aroua, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is among the most common binders used in the fabrication of an electrode, which is used for various electrochemical applications such as desalination, water purification, and wastewater treatment. In this study, the amount of the binder was varied at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt% of the total mass of palm shell activated carbon (PSAC). The PSAC was used as the active material and carbon black was used as the conductive agent. The effect of different amounts of binder was observed by evaluating the electrochemical characteristics of the electrode through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and potentio electrochemical spectroscopy (PEIS). The CV analysis was employed to determine the geometric area normalised electrode double layer capacitance, CE , and the electrode reaction of the prepared electrode. Meanwhile, the common redox probe, ferro/ferricyanide in 0.5 M NaCl, was employed to estimate the electron transfer resistance through PEIS. The electrochemical characterisation proved that the optimum amount of PTFE was 20 wt% for the 4:1 ratio of active material to conductive agent. On increasing the amount of the binder to 30 wt% and 40 wt%, the estimated value of CE decreased and remained almost equivalent. Adding more than 30 wt% of binder resulted in pore blockage and reduced the available active site on the PSAC electrode. In addition, the electron transfer resistance of the prepared electrode was found to be in the range of 4-5 Ω·cm2.

  18. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  19. Perfect pitch reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Calum

    2014-10-01

    Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  20. A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Matthew J; Österlund, Viking; Bergfelt, Andreas; Jeschull, Fabian; Bowden, Tim; Brandell, Daniel

    2017-07-10

    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAh cm -2 capacity and 97-98 % coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65 % total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide):poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO:PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  2. Influence of binder solvent on carbon-layer structure in electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This has a direct influence on the distribution of resistance and capacitance values within the electrode. As a result, preparation of electrodes remains a vital issue in realising high-performance EDLCs. Generally, carbon materials along with some binders are dispersed into a solvent and coated onto the current collectors.

  3. Factors affecting relative pitch perception

    OpenAIRE

    McClaskey, Carolyn Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sounds that evoke a sense of pitch are ubiquitous in our environment and important for speech, music, and auditory scene analysis. The frequencies of these sounds rarely remain constant, however, and the direction and extent of pitch change is often more important than the exact pitches themselves. This dissertation examines the mechanisms underlying how we perceive relative pitch distance, focusing on two types of stimuli: continuous pitch changes and discrete pitch changes. In a series of e...

  4. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  5. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur, E-mail: putri.nur.anggraini@gmail.com [Research Center for Electronics and Telecommunications Indonesian Institute of Sciences (PPET-LIPI) Kampus LIPI, Jl. Sangkuriang, Bandung 40135 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO{sub 2} powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO{sub 2} paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO{sub 2} paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm{sup 2} by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  6. Graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-11-19

    A composite composition for electrochemical cell electrode applications, the composition comprising multiple solid particles, wherein (a) a solid particle is composed of graphene platelets dispersed in or bonded by a first matrix or binder material, wherein the graphene platelets are not obtained from graphitization of the first binder or matrix material; (b) the graphene platelets have a length or width in the range of 10 nm to 10 .mu.m; (c) the multiple solid particles are bonded by a second binder material; and (d) the first or second binder material is selected from a polymer, polymeric carbon, amorphous carbon, metal, glass, ceramic, oxide, organic material, or a combination thereof. For a lithium ion battery anode application, the first binder or matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon or polymeric carbon. Such a composite composition provides a high anode capacity and good cycling response. For a supercapacitor electrode application, the solid particles preferably have meso-scale pores therein to accommodate electrolyte.

  7. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  8. Switching between pitch surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Vincenzo; Silva, João R; Brito, João

    2018-01-01

    Soccer training and completion is conventionally practiced on natural grass (NG) or artificial turf (AT). Recently, AT pitches for training / competition, and of unstable surfaces for injury prevention training has increased. Therefore, soccer players are frequently exposed to variations in pitch...... surface during either training or competition. These ground changes may impact physical and physiological responses, adaptations as well as the injury. The aim of this review was to summarize the acute physical and physiological responses, chronic adaptations, and injury risk associated with exercising...... on different pitch surfaces in soccer. Eligible studies were published in English, had pitch surface as an independent variable, and had physical, physiological or epidemiological information as outcome variables. Specific data extracted from the articles included the training response, training adaptations...

  9. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, J.D.; Kamen, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3 H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  11. A binder-free NiCo2O4 nanosheet/3D elastic N-doped hollow carbon nanotube sponge electrode with high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Yue, Shihong; Lu, Liang; Jin, Fengqiao; Han, Qiwei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liu, Jie

    2017-11-09

    To increase the volumetric and gravimetric capacitances of supercapacitors, a new class of electrode materials with high electrochemical activity and favorable structures is extremely desired. In this work, a hollow novel nitrogen-doped 3D elastic single-walled carbon nanotube sponge (NSCS) which is ultra lightweight with the lowest density of 0.8 mg cm -3 , and has a high open surface structure for electrolyte accessibility and excellent compressible properties as the electrode scaffold has been successfully fabricated by the pyrolysis method which could produce the carbon nanotube sponge easily on a large scale without high-cost and time-consuming processes. Moreover, a NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheet supported on the NSCS has been successfully fabricated. The highest volumetric and gravimetric capacitance of this electrode is 790 F cm -3 at 1.43 g cm -3 and 1618 F g -1 at 0.54 g cm -3 with excellent cycling stability. The density of NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS electrode was adjusted by mechanical compression and the most favorable density of the film for both high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances obtained was 1.21 g cm -3 . The thick NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS film of 72 μm has been fabricated at this favorable density, presenting both high volumetric and gravimetric capacitances of 597 F cm -3 and 1074 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , respectively, indicating that the structure of the NSCS is extremely feasible for obtaining a thick film electrode with excellent volumetric and gravimetric capacitances. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor of NiCo 2 O 4 /NSCS//NGN/CNTs was fabricated, exhibiting a high gravimetric energy density of 47.65 W h kg -1 at 536 W kg -1 and a volumetric energy density of 33.44 W h L -1 at 376.16 W L -1 .

  12. Comparison of cathode catalyst binders for the hydrogen evolution reaction in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2017-06-02

    Nafion is commonly used as a catalyst binder in many types of electrochemical cells, but less expensive binders are needed for the cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) which are operated in neutral pH buffers, and reverse electrodialysis stacks (RED),which use thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate. Six different binders were examined based on differences in ion exchange properties (anionic: Nafion, BPSH20, BPSH40, S-Radel; cationic: Q-Radel; and neutral: Radel, BAEH) and hydrophobicity based on water uptake (0%, Radel; 17–56% for the other binders). BPSH40 had similar performance to Nafion based on steady-state polarization single electrode experiments in a neutral pH phosphate buffer, and slightly better performance in ammonium bicarbonate. Three different Mo-based catalysts were examined as alternatives to Pt, with MoB showing the best performance under steady-state polarization. In MECs, MoB/BPSH40 performed similarly to Pt with Nafion or Radel binders. The main distinguishing feature of the BPSH40 was that it is very hydrophilic, and thus it had a greater water content (56%) than the other binders (0–44%). These results suggest the binders for hydrogen evolution in MECs should be designed to have a high water content without sacrificing ionic or electronic conductivity in the electrode.

  13. Comparison of cathode catalyst binders for the hydrogen evolution reaction in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ahn, YongTae; Poirson, Thibault; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Nafion is commonly used as a catalyst binder in many types of electrochemical cells, but less expensive binders are needed for the cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) which are operated in neutral pH buffers, and reverse electrodialysis stacks (RED),which use thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate. Six different binders were examined based on differences in ion exchange properties (anionic: Nafion, BPSH20, BPSH40, S-Radel; cationic: Q-Radel; and neutral: Radel, BAEH) and hydrophobicity based on water uptake (0%, Radel; 17–56% for the other binders). BPSH40 had similar performance to Nafion based on steady-state polarization single electrode experiments in a neutral pH phosphate buffer, and slightly better performance in ammonium bicarbonate. Three different Mo-based catalysts were examined as alternatives to Pt, with MoB showing the best performance under steady-state polarization. In MECs, MoB/BPSH40 performed similarly to Pt with Nafion or Radel binders. The main distinguishing feature of the BPSH40 was that it is very hydrophilic, and thus it had a greater water content (56%) than the other binders (0–44%). These results suggest the binders for hydrogen evolution in MECs should be designed to have a high water content without sacrificing ionic or electronic conductivity in the electrode.

  14. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  15. Metal–organic frameworks-derived honeycomb-like Co3O4/three-dimensional graphene networks/Ni foam hybrid as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaoyang; Li, Jiajun; Zhu, Shan

    2017-01-01

    . The Co3O4/three-dimensional graphene networks/Ni foam (Co3O4/3DGN/NF) hybrid as the electrode for supercapacitor can deliver high specific capacitance (321 F g−1 at 1 A g−1) and excellent long-cycling stability (88% of the maximum capacitance after 2000 charge-discharge cycles). Furthermore, the Co3O4....../3DGN/NF hybrid exhibits the maximum energy density of 7.5 W h kg−1 with the power density of 794 W kg−1 and remain 4.1 W h kg−1 with the power density of 15 kW kg−1 in the two-electrode system. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique nanostructure of Co3O4 with admirable...

  16. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  17. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  18. Aqueous Binder Enhanced High-Performance GeP5 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GeP5 is a recently reported new anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs, it holds a large theoretical capacity about 2300 mAh g−1, and a high rate capability due to its bi-active components and superior conductivity. However, it undergoes a large volume change during its electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, a suitable binder is necessary to stable the electrode integrity for improving cycle performance. In this work, we tried to apply aqueous binders LiPAA and NaCMC to GeP5 anode, and compared the difference in electrochemical performance between them and traditional binder PVDF. As can be seen from the test result, GeP5 can keep stable in both common organic solvents and proton solvents such as water and alcohol solvents, it meets the application requirements of aqueous binders. The electrochemistry results show that the use of LiPAA binder can significantly improve the initial Coulombic efficiency, reversible capacity, and cyclability of GeP5 anode as compared to the electrodes based on NaCMC and PVDF binders. The enhanced electrochemical performance of GeP5 electrode with LiPAA binder can be ascribed to the unique high strength long chain polymer structure of LiPAA, which also provide numerous uniform distributed carboxyl groups to form strong ester groups with active materials and copper current collector. Benefit from that, the GeP5 electrode with LiPAA can also exhibit excellent rate capability, and even at low temperature, it still shows attractive electrochemical performance.

  19. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  20. Sandwich-type electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  1. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  3. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  4. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  5. Multifunctional SA-PProDOT Binder for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min; Qiu, Jingxia; Li, Sheng; Yan, Cheng; Kiefel, Milton J; Liu, Gao; Zhang, Shanqing

    2015-07-08

    An environmentally benign, highly conductive, and mechanically strong binder system can overcome the dilemma of low conductivity and insufficient mechanical stability of the electrodes to achieve high performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at a low cost and in a sustainable way. In this work, the naturally occurring binder sodium alginate (SA) is functionalized with 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (ProDOT) via a one-step esterification reaction in a cyclohexane/dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)/water microemulsion system, resulting in a multifunctional polymer binder, that is, SA-PProDOT. With the synergetic effects of the functional groups (e.g., carboxyl, hydroxyl, and ester groups), the resultant SA-PProDOT polymer not only maintains the outstanding binding capabilities of sodium alginate but also enhances the mechanical integrity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient in the LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode during the operation of the batteries. Because of the conjugated network of the PProDOT and the lithium doping under the battery environment, the SA-PProDOT becomes conductive and matches the conductivity needed for LiFePO4 LIBs. Without the need of conductive additives such as carbon black, the resultant batteries have achieved the theoretical specific capacity of LiFePO4 cathode (ca. 170 mAh/g) at C/10 and ca. 120 mAh/g at 1C for more than 400 cycles.

  6. Routine Testing of Bitumen Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Michal; Remišová, Eva

    2017-12-01

    The quality of bituminous binders used in the construction and maintenance of road surfaces is currently assessed by empirical testing based on obtaining one value for specific boundary conditions, which were designed about 100 years ago. Basic empirical tests include the softening point and penetration, but the practice shows that these tests appear to be inadequate. The evaluation of changes of bitumen properties during the production and paving process of bituminous mixture is also important. The paper points out how the "traditional" tests as softening point and penetration and viscosity are sufficient to evaluate properties of bitumen binders.

  7. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua

    2017-01-01

    Developing high-performance battery systems requires the optimization of every battery component, from electrodes and electrolyte to binder systems. However, the conventional strategy to fabricate battery electrodes by casting a mixture of active materials, a nonconductive polymer binder, and a conductive additive onto a metal foil current collector usually leads to electronic or ionic bottlenecks and poor contacts due to the randomly distributed conductive phases. When high-capacity electrode materials are employed, the high stress generated during electrochemical reactions disrupts the mechanical integrity of traditional binder systems, resulting in decreased cycle life of batteries. Thus, it is critical to design novel binder systems that can provide robust, low-resistance, and continuous internal pathways to connect all regions of the electrode. Here in this Account, we review recent progress on material and structural design of novel binder systems. Nonconductive polymers with rich carboxylic groups have been adopted as binders to stabilize ultrahigh-capacity inorganic electrodes that experience large volume or structural change during charge/discharge, due to their strong binding capability to active particles. To enhance the energy density of batteries, different strategies have been adopted to design multifunctional binder systems based on conductive polymers because they can play dual functions of both polymeric binders and conductive additives. We first present that multifunctional binder systems have been designed by tailoring the molecular structures of conductive polymers. Different functional groups are introduced to the polymeric backbone to enable multiple functionalities, allowing separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties of the binders without detrimental effect on electronic property. Then, we describe the design of multifunctional binder systems via rationally controlling their nano- and molecular structures, developing

  8. Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Cornell, Ann; Alvarado, Fernando; Behm, Mårten; Leijonmarck, Simon; Li, Jiebing; Tomani, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAh·g−1 for the positive electrode and 305 mAh·g−1 for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAh·g−1 and the negative electrode with 160 mAh·g−1 at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries. PMID:28773252

  9. Polyimide Binder: A Facile Way to Improve Safety of Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Guannan; Wang, Li; Shang, Yuming; He, Xiangming; Tang, Shuangfeng; Liu, Ming; Li, TuanWei; Zhang, Gaoqiang; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    A soluble polyimide (PI) is attempted to be a binder for transition metal oxide cathode in lithium ion batteries. It is synthesized from 2,2-Bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane, 4,4′-Oxydianiline and 4,4′-Oxydiphthalic anhydride, and characterized by FT-IR and 1 H NMR techniques. To be a binder, the synthesized PI is applied to fabricate the electrodes, showing binding property and electrochemical performance as good as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) that is conventional binder widely used in lithium ion batteries. The 2 Ah pouch full cells with PI and PVDF binders are assembled to compare their performances. As a result, the batteries with PI binder display 91.4% capacity retention after 500 cycles, which is almost the same as the cells withPVDF binder. The overcharge safetytests are carried by 2 Ah pouch full cells, indicating that PI cells can pass the test, no fire and no explosion, but the PVDF cells fail the test, catching fire. The result shows that the PI binder can enhance the safety of Li-ion batteries. This study paves a new way to improve the safety performance of lithium ion batteries.

  10. Epoxidized Natural Rubber/Chitosan Network Binder for Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ha; Lee, Jeong Hun; Nam, Dong Ho; Cho, Misuk; Kim, Jaehoon; Chanthad, Chalathorn; Lee, Youngkwan

    2018-05-16

    Polymeric binder is extremely important for Si-based anode in lithium-ion batteries due to large volume variation during charging/discharging process. Here, natural rubber-incorporated chitosan networks were designed as a binder material to obtain both adhesion and elasticity. Chitosan could strongly anchor Si particles through hydrogen bonding, while the natural rubber could stretch reversibly during the volume variation of Si particles, resulting in high cyclic performance. The prepared electrode exhibited the specific capacities of 1350 mAh/g after 1600 cycles at the current density of 8 A/g and 2310 mAh/g after 500 cycles at the current density of 1 A/g. Furthermore, the cycle test with limiting lithiation capacity was conducted to study the optimal binder properties at varying degree of the volume expansion of silicon, and it was found that the elastic property of binder material was strongly required when the large volume expansion of Si occurred.

  11. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  12. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  13. Binder-free Si nanoparticles@carbon nanofiber fabric as energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuping; Huang, Kai; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Sun, Fu; Gao, Tian; Wang, Zhongzheng; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    A nonwoven nanofiber fabric with paper-like qualities composed of Si nanoparticles and carbon as binder-free anode electrode is reported. The nanofiber fabrics are prepared by convenient electrospinning technique, in which, the Si nanoparticles are uniformly confined in the carbon nanofibers. The high strength and flexibility of the nanofiber fabrics are beneficial for alleviating the structural deformation and facilitating ion transports throughout the whole composited electrodes. Due to the absence of binder, the less weight, higher energy density, and excellent electrical conductivity anodes can be attained. These traits make the composited nanofiber fabrics excellent used as a binder-free, mechanically flexible, high energy storage anode material in the next generation of rechargeable lithium ions batteries

  14. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  15. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  16. Lung studies with spiral CT. pitch 1 versus pitch 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoni Galloni, S.; Miceli, M.; Lipparino, M.; Burzi, M.; Gigli, F.; Rossi, M.S.; Santoli, G.; Guidarelli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In Spiral CT, the pitch is the ratio of the distance to tabletop travels per 360 degrees rotation to nominal slice width, expressed in mm. Performing Spiral CT examination with pitch 2 allows to reduce examination time, exposure and contrast dose, and X-ray tube overload. The authors investigated the yield of pitch 2 in lung parenchyma studies, particular relative to diagnostic image quality [it

  17. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  18. Porous electrode preparation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  19. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory (LTM), long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch" (AP), is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly-discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well establishe...

  20. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Language-dependent changes in pitch-relevant neural activity in the auditory cortex reflect differential weighting of temporal attributes of pitch contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Xu, Yi; Suresh, Chandan H.

    2016-01-01

    There remains a gap in our knowledge base about neural representation of pitch attributes that occur between onset and offset of dynamic, curvilinear pitch contours. The aim is to evaluate how language experience shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch-specific response components. Responses were elicited from three nonspeech, bidirectional (falling-rising) pitch contours representative of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in location of the turning point with fixed onset and offset. At the frontocentral Fz electrode site, Na–Pb and Pb–Nb amplitude of the Chinese group was larger than the English group for pitch contours exhibiting later location of the turning point relative to the one with the earliest location. Chinese listeners’ amplitude was also greater than that of English in response to those same pitch contours with later turning points. At lateral temporal sites (T7/T8), Na–Pb amplitude was larger in Chinese listeners relative to English over the right temporal site. In addition, Pb–Nb amplitude of the Chinese group showed a rightward asymmetry. The pitch contour with its turning point located about halfway of total duration evoked a rightward asymmetry regardless of group. These findings suggest that neural mechanisms processing pitch in the right auditory cortex reflect experience-dependent modulation of sensitivity to weighted integration of changes in acceleration rates of rising and falling sections and the location of the turning point. PMID:28713201

  3. Graphene Oxides Used as a New "Dual Role" Binder for Stabilizing Silicon Nanoparticles in Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Changsheng; Wu, Kaifeng; Yen, Hung-Ju; Narvaez Villarrubia, Claudia; Nakotte, Tom; Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Wu, Gang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2018-05-09

    For the first time, we report that graphene oxide (GO) can be used as a new "dual-role" binder for Si nanoparticles (SiNPs)-based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). GO not only provides a graphene-like porous 3D framework for accommodating the volume changes of SiNPs during charging/discharging cycles, but also acts as a polymer-like binder that forms strong chemical bonds with SiNPs through its Si-OH functional groups to trap and stabilize SiNPs inside the electrode. Leveraging this unique dual-role of GO binder, we fabricated GO/SiNPs electrodes with remarkably improved performances as compared to using the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. Specifically, the GO/SiNPs electrode showed a specific capacity of 2400 mA h g -1 at the 50th cycle and 2000 mA h g -1 at the 100th cycle, whereas the SiNPs/PVDF electrode only showed 456 mAh g -1 at the 50th cycle and 100 mAh g -1 at 100th cycle. Moreover, the GO/SiNPs film maintained its structural integrity and formed a stable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) film after 100 cycles. These results, combined with the well-established facile synthesis of GO, indicate that GO can be an excellent binder for developing high performance Si-based LIBs.

  4. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  5. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  6. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Polyamidoamine dendrimer-based binders for high-loading lithium–sulfur battery cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  8. Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, G.V. [Amoco Performance Products, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-27

    Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

  9. Binder effect on seashell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Hatta, Mohamed Nasrul Mohamed; Baba, Noor Wahida Ab; Hussin, Rosniza; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-10-01

    Self-protection or known as defensive covering can be alluded to something that can secure body, building, or vehicles from harm or assault. As the evolution going on, the material utilized as a part of plate armour continue changing, from steel, Kevlar, ceramic and the materials that can give better impact and benefit to the user. A study has been led to distinguish either seashell can be one of the fundamental source to produce protective material due to the properties of seashell that consist of calcium chloride. Seashell is crushed and chipped using variable speed rotor mill and is compressed into specimen shape followed the ASTM C1211-13. Three different samples is tested made from seashells that mix with three different binder i.e. water, kaolin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) each. The specimens then were sintered at elevated controlled temperature 400°C before run for three point bending test to determine their mechanical properties results. Result shows that specimen with water gives highest value for Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to sample with binder of kaolin and PEG. This proved that seashell powder remain intact even at higher temperature.

  10. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  11. On the microstructure of bituminous binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.; Hermse, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the common features and the evolution of microstructures of bituminous binders regardless of their grade (PEN 10/20 to 160/220) and source/origin using the atomic force microscope operated in phase contrast mode. All bituminous binders show the same

  12. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  13. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  14. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  15. Fugitive binder for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallivan, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    A compound consisting of ammonium cations and carbonate, bicarbonate, or carbamate anions, or a mixture of such compounds, is useful as a binder for uranium dioxide fuel pellets for which it is desired to maintain a certain degree of porosity, uniformity of pore size, a lack of interconnections between the pores, and the shape or configuration of the base material particles in the final article after sintering. Upon heating, these binders decompose into gases and leave substantially no impurities. A process for sintering green nuclear fuel pellets using these binders is provided. (LL)

  16. VLSI implementation of an AMDF pitch detector

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony; Gittel, Falko; Schwarzbacher, Andreas; Hilt, E.; Timoney, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Pitch detectors are used in a variety of speech processing applications such as speech recognition systems where the pitch of the speaker is used as one parameter for identification purposes. Furthermore, pitch detectors are also sued with adaptive filters to achieve high quality adaptive noise cancellation of speech signals. In voice conversion systems, pitch detection is an essential step since the pitch of the modified signal is altered to model the target voice. This paper describes a ...

  17. Alkali-activated binders: a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  18. Nominal completion for rewrite systems with binders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Maribel; Rubio Gimeno, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We design a completion procedure for nominal rewriting systems, based on a generalisation of the recursive path ordering to take into account alpha equivalence. Nominal rewriting generalises first-order rewriting by providing support for the specification of binding operators. Completion of rewriting systems with binders is a notably difficult problem; the completion procedure presented in this paper is the first to deal with binders in rewrite rules. Peer Reviewed

  19. Using mine waste mud to produce environmentally friendly new binders

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2007-01-01

    It is now accepted that new binders, such as alkali-activated binders, are needed to replace portland cement for enhanced environmental and durability performance. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary portland cement ) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact.This paper reports results of a research project on the development of an alkali-activated binders using mineral waste mud from the Panasqueira tungsten mine in Portugal...

  20. Tinnitus pitch and acoustic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahani, M; Paul, G; Shahar, A

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-six subjects complaining of tinnitus underwent an audiometric test and a test for identifying the analogous pitch of their tinnitus. All of the subjects reported that they had been exposed to noise in the past. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of their audiometric test results. Group P was composed of subjects who showed a sensorineural hearing loss typical of acoustic trauma. Group N was composed of subjects whose hearing was within normal limits. The pitch of the tinnitus in group P was concentrated in the high-frequency range, whereas in group N tinnitus pitch values were distributed over the low and mid-audiometric frequency spectrum. It was deduced that different processes are involved in the generation of tinnitus in the two groups.

  1. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  2. Difficulties with Pitch Discrimination Influences Pitch Memory Performance: Evidence from Congenital Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to crea...

  3. Enhanced electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode using the carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) as novel binder in lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Wang, Daxiong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-10-13

    Novel water-based binder CMC-Li is synthesized using cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li as a binder is reported. Electrochemical properties of batteries cathodes based on commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and CMC-Li as a water-soluble binder are investigated. CMC-Li is a novel lithium-ion binder. Compare with conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, and the battery with CMC-Li as the binder retained 97.8% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 176 mAh g(-1), which is beyond the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrate that the LFP electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has the highest rate capability, follow closely by that using PVDF binder. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free and excellent stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The intensity-pitch relation revisited: monopolar versus bipolar cochlear stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Kaider, Alexandra; Mair, Alois; Wagenblast, Jens; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstöttner, Wolfgang; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan

    2008-09-01

    The very high speech perception scores now being achieved with cochlear implants have led to demands for similar levels of achievement in music perception and perception in noisy environments. One of the crucial factors in these fields is pitch perception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which pitch perception is influenced by the intensity of the stimulus, through the use of different stimulation modes (monopolar, bipolar) and different electrodes (lateral and perimodiolar). Sixteen postlingually deafened patients with an average implant use of 3.1 years were included in this study. All patients were using a Cochlear (CI24M, CI24R, CI24RE) cochlear implant. Subjects were asked to compare the pitch of an intensity-constant reference tone with the pitch of a test tone of varying intensity. The test was repeated for apical, mediocochlear, and basal channel locations, and also for monopolar and bipolar stimulation. It was found that in monopolar stimulation 87.5% and in bipolar stimulation 85.7% of the patients perceived a clear pitch change with changing intensity of the stimulus (Spearman correlation coefficients r 0.3, respectively). A total of 73.1% of these patients perceived lower pitches with increasing intensity, 26.9% reported the opposite effect. No statistically significant difference in the intensity-pitch correlation could be found between mono- and bipolar stimulation. Neither the mean dynamic range nor the type of electrode used was found to be related to the correlation coefficient. Although the majority of today's cochlear implant recipients perform well and the intensity-pitch relation in cochlear implant recipients is still poorly understood, rising demands on speech-coding strategies may soon make a compensation of the pitch shifts desirable. Although the results of our study tend to argue against a peripheral mechanism, the exact origin of this phenomenon remains unclear.

  5. Measurement and investigation of effects of coal tar pitch fractions in nuclear graphite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, K.; Fatoorehchian, S.; Ahari Hashemi, F.; Ahmadi, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Coal tar pitch has a complex chemical structure. Determination of α, β, γ fractions, is one of the methods to get information about its properties. In graphite fabrication it plays a role as a binder for coke particles. During the thermal treatment it carbonizes and changes to a secondary coke. This has considerable affects on the graphite properties. In this paper, determination of α, β, γ-1 fraction in three different types of pitches have been carried out. Graphite specimens have been fabricated by using these pitches and anisotropy coke in laboratory scale. The graphite properties have been compared with the nuclear graphite prototype. The comparison of the results showed that the density and compression strength are appreciable while the anisotropy factor of properties is about one. The linear thermal expansion in graphite from Iranian pitch had a better, result, where it stands in the nuclear range of usage. As a result, our studies showed that the graphite properties are affected by properties of pitch fractions, where it can be used as a proper sample for the graphite fabrication

  6. Poly vinyl acetate used as a binder for the fabrication of a LiFePO4-based composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Carewska, Maria; Cento, Cinzia; Masci, Amedeo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the preparation of composite cathodes for lithium ion-batteries by using poly vinyl acetate (PVAc) as a binder. PVAc is a non-fluorinated water dispersible polymer commonly used in a large number of industrial applications. The main advantages for using of this polymer are related to its low cost and negligible toxicity. Furthermore, since the PVAc is water processable, its use allows to replace the organic solvent, employed to dissolve the fluorinated polymer normally used as a binder in lithium battery technology, with water. In such a way it is possible to decrease the hazardousness of the preparation process as well as the production costs of the electrodes. In the paper the preparation, characterization and electrochemical performance of a LiFePO 4 electrode based on PVAc as the binder is described. Furthermore, to assess the effect of the PVAc binder on the electrode properties, its performance is compared to that of a conventional electrode employing PVdF-HFP as a binder

  7. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems accou...

  8. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  9. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  10. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  11. Insight into capacitive performance of polyaniline/graphene oxide composites with ecofriendly binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Salma; Fahim, Muhammad; Firdous, Irum; Ali Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of gold electrode modified with polyaniline/graphene oxide composites (PGO) was studied for electrochemical and charge storage properties in aqueous acidic media. The surface of gold electrode was modified with aqueous slurry of PGO by using Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as binder. The intercalation of polyaniline in the GO layers, synthesized by in situ polymerization was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behaviour and charge storing properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A high specific capacitance of 1721 F g-1 was obtained for PGO with 69.8% retention of capacitance even after 1000 voltammetric cycles in the potential range of 0-0.9 V at 20 mV s-1. EIS indicated low charge transfer resistance (Rct) and solution resistance (Rs) values of 0.51 Ω and 0.07 Ω, respectively. This good performance of PGO coated electrode is attributed to the use of CMC binder which generate a high electrode/ electrolyte contact area and short path lengths for electronic transport and electrolyte ion.

  12. New Aqueous Binders for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Trask, Stephen E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Polzin, Bryant J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lu, Wenquan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Kahvecioglu Feridun, Ozge [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Hellring, Stuart D. [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Stewart, Matthew [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final report summarizes the research effort of the CRADA between PPG Industries and Argonne National Laboratory (CRADA # C1400501 and Amendment 1 - ACK 85C11, Rev. 1), and completes the requirements of Task #5 in the CRADA. The results from Argonne represent a combined effort between the MERF and CAMP Facility (Materials Engineering Research Facility and the Cell Analysis, Modeling and Prototyping Facility). The key points of this report can be briefly summarized as: The multicomponent aqueous binder for NCM cathodes developed by PPG shows promising results when used on the CAMP Facility’s pilot-scale coater; NCM523 cathode electrodes exposed to water exhibit a voltage anomaly in the first two formation cycles that appears to have little effect on the material capacity, but needs to be explored further; the experimental LFP electrode produced by PPG does cycle electrochemically, but with reduced capacity and an uncharacteristic voltage profile; there is no obvious correlation between the pH and zeta-potential of materials that are commonly used in the lithium-ion battery; lithium ions are more readily dissolved out of NCM523 by water than the transition metals (by two orders of magnitude), and suggests that the plating bath may need to be spiked with a lithium salt; the approach of creating sub-micron size NCM523 particles via ball milling results in a cathode material with poor electrochemical performance.

  13. Pitching Airfoil Boundary Layer Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Raffel, Markus; Richard, Hugues; Richter, Kai; Bosbach, Johannes; Geißler, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes an experiment performed in a transonic wind tunnel facility where a new test section has been developed especially for the investigation of the unsteady flow above oscillating airfoils under dynamic stall conditions. Dynamic stall is characterized by the development, movement and shedding of one or more concentrated vortices on the airfoils upper surface. The hysteresis loops of lift-, drag- and pitching moment are highly influenced by these vortices. To understand...

  14. Evaluation of hybrid binder for use in surface mixtures in Florida : final report, June 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Binder and mixture tests were performed to evaluate the relative performance of a PG 67-22 base binder and six other commercially available binders produced by modifying the same base binder with the following modifiers: one Styrene Butadiene Styrene...

  15. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  16. Absolute pitch: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, P E

    1977-11-01

    The auditory skill known as 'absolute pitch' is discussed, and it is shown that this differs greatly in accuracy of identification or reproduction of musical tones from ordinary discrimination of 'tonal height' which is to some extent trainable. The present writer possessed absolute pitch for almost any tone or chord over the normal musical range, from about the age of 17 to 52. He then started to hear all music one semitone too high, and now at the age of 71 it is heard a full tone above the true pitch. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions, in which 68 to 95 per cent of notes were identified as one semitone or one tone higher than they should be. Changes with ageing seem more likely to occur in the elasticity of the basilar membrane mechanisms than in the long-term memory which is used for aural analysis of complex sounds. Thus this experience supports the view that some resolution of complex sounds takes place at the peripheral sense organ, and this provides information which can be incorrect, for interpretation by the cortical centres.

  17. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  18. Studies on The Renewability of Polymeric Binders for Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowska B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of studies of polymeric binders on the example of the new BioCo2 binder, including the problem of its renewability, are presented. The results of structural studies (FT-IR for the BioCo2 binder before and after crosslinking, and bending strength tests Rg u fresh and renewed cured molding sands with BioCo2 binder are discussed. The cross-linking binder and curring of moulding sand was carried out by physical agents (microwave radiation, temperature. On the basis of obtained results was shown that it is possible to restore the initial properties of the adhesive of BioCo2 binder. The initial properties of moulding sand can be achieved, after the cross-linking binders and after curing in the moulding sands with bioCo2 binder , by supplementing the moulding sand composition by the appropriate amount of water.

  19. Texas cracking performance prediction, simulation, and binder recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies show some mixes with softer binders used outside of Texas (e.g., Minnesotas Cold Weather Road Research Facility mixes) have both good rutting and cracking performance. However, the current binder performance grading (PG) system fail...

  20. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  1. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  2. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10–15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,” has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language. PMID:21811479

  3. A novel and efficient water-based composite binder for LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yung-Ju [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Peng, Xing-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Wang, Fu-Ming; Yang, Chang-Rung [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu (China); Li, Chia-Chen [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China); Lee, Jyh-Tsung

    2007-11-15

    The dispersion, adhesion strength, electrical, and electrochemical properties of LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes in lithium-ion batteries with the addition of a new composite binder composed of two acrylic emulsions, poly(butyl acrylate)-based (PBA) and polyacrylonitrile-based (PA) latex in a ratio of 3:7, were evaluated. PBA binder has a low-glass transition temperature of 10 C, which can improve the flexibility of the electrode. This new composite binder has a very good binding ability as same as the typical organic solvent-based binder, poly(vinylidene fluoride). The dispersions of the water-based cathode slurries with the composite binder were measured by analyzing the viscosity and sedimentation behaviors. The results show that the new composite binder can well disperse the LiCoO{sub 2}. Moreover, using the new composite binder could greatly improve the rate capabilities and the cycle stability of water-based LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes. (author)

  4. Carboxymethyl chitosan/conducting polymer as water-soluble composite binder for LiFePO4 cathode in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haoxiang; He, Aiqin; Lu, Jidian; Sun, Minghao; He, Jiarong; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2016-12-01

    A water-soluble conductive composite binder consisting of carboxymethyl chitosan (CCTS) as a binder and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as a conduction-promoting agent is reported for the LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode in Li-ion batteries. The introduction of conductive PEDOT:PSS as a conductive composite binder facilitates the formation of homogeneous and continuous conducting bridges throughout the electrode and raises the compaction density of the electrode sheet by decreasing the amounts of the commonly used conducting agent of acetylene black. The optimized replacement ratios of acetylene black with PEDOT:PSS (acetylene black/PEDOT:PSS = 1:1, by weight) are obtained by measuring electrical conductivity, peel strength and compaction density of the electrode sheets. The LFP half-cell with the optimized conductive binder exhibits better cycling and rate performance and more favorable electrochemical kinetics than that using only acetylene black conducting agent. The pilot application of PEDOT:PSS/CCTS binder in 10 Ah CCTS-LFP prismatic cell exhibits a comparable cycling performance, retaining 89.7% of capacity at 1 C/2 C (charge/discharge) rate as compared with 90% for commercial PVDF-LFP over 1000 cycles, and better rate capability than that of commercial PVDF-LFP, retaining 98% capacity of 1 C at 7 C rate as compared with 95.4% for PVDF-LFP.

  5. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the...

  6. Fatigue behaviour of bituminous materials : from binders to mixes

    OpenAIRE

    SOENEN, H; DE LA ROCHE, C; REDELIUS, P

    2003-01-01

    Test procedures, aiming at measuring fatigue directly on bituminous binders, are increasingly used. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relevance of this type of binder fatigue tests and to compare the results with laboratory fatigue properties of the corresponding mixes, using one mix composition for all binders, and similar fatigue tests conditions. Eight binders were selected, derived from two crude sources, including an oxidised and two polymer modified samples. All fatigue te...

  7. Using oxygen plasma treatment to improve the performance of electrodes for capacitive water deionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Zou, Linda; Fabretto, Manrico; Short, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    An oxygen plasma treatment was employed to modify the surface of carbon electrodes used in capacitive deionization (CDI). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of samples showed that oxygen plasma is mainly attaching oxygenated groups on the PTFE binder used in these electrodes. By functionalizing the binder it can increase the hydrophilicity of the electrode surface and increase the available specific surface area. 2.5 min of plasma treatment resulted in the largest improvement of CDI performance of electrodes. Thermodynamic study of CDI performance showed that the modified electrodes followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms resulting from the increased interaction between the enhanced electrodes and water. The kinetic study showed that the CDI process followed a pseudo-first order adsorption kinetics. The calculated adsorption rate constants suggested that plasma modification can accelerate ion adsorption of electrodes

  8. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  9. Fugitive binder for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallivan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for fabricating a body of a nuclear fuel material has the steps of admixing the nuclear fuel material in powder form wih a binder of a compound or its hydration products containing ammonium cations and anions selected from the group consisting of carbonate anions, bicarbonate anions, carbamate anions and mixtures of such anions, forming the resulting mixture into a green body such as by die pressing, heating the green body to decompose substantially all of the binder into gases, further heating the body to produce a sintered body, and cooling the sintered body in a controlled atmosphere. Preferred binders used in the practice of this invention include ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate carbamate, ammonium sesquicarbonate, ammonium carbamate and mixtures thereof. This invention includes a composition of matter in the form of a compacted structure suitable for sintering comprising a mixture of a nuclear fuel material and a binder of a compound or its hydration products containing ammonium cations and anions selected from the group consisting of carbonate anions, bicarbonate anions, carbamate anions and mixtures of such anions. 9 claims, 4 figures

  10. Efficiency of Composite Binders with Antifreezing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurtsova, Y. N.; Zhernovsky, I. V.; Botsman, L. N.

    2017-11-01

    One of the non-heating methods of cold-weather concreting is using concretes hardening at negative temperatures. This method consists in using chemical additives which reduce the freezing temperature of the liquid phase and provide for concrete hardening at negative temperatures. The non-heating cold-weather concreting, due to antifreezing agents, allows saving heat and electric energy at the more flexible work performance technology. At selecting the antifreezing components, the possibility of concreting at temperatures up to minus 20 °C and combination with a plasticizer contained in the composite binder were taken into account. The optimal proportions of antifreezing and complex agents produced by MC-Bauchemie Russia for fine-grained concretes were determined. So, the introduction of antifreezing and complex agents allows obtaining a structure of composite characteristic for cement stone in the conditions of below zero temperatures at using different binders; the hydration of such composite proceeded naturally. Low-water-demand binders (LWDB) based composites are characterized by a higher density and homogeneity due to a high dispersity of a binder and its complicated surface providing for a lot of crystallization centers. LWDB contains small pores keeping water in a liquid form and promoting a more complete hydration process.

  11. IMPROVED SELECTIVE ELECTROCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF PHENOLS BY TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrodes are evaluated with respect to the viscosity and polarity of the binder liquids. The electrodes constructed using a lower viscosity mineral oil yielded a greater response to phenol and catechol than those using a higher viscosity oil of s...

  12. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Separation Behavior at the Interface between PVDF Binder and Copper Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Li-ion batteries, the mechanical strengths at the interfaces of binder/particle and binder/current collector play an important role in maintaining the mechanical integrity of the composite electrode. In this work, the separation behaviors between polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF binders and copper current collectors are studied in the opening and sliding modes using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The simulation shows that the separation occurs inside the PVDF rather than at the interface due to the strong adhesion between PVDF and copper. This fracture behavior is different from the behavior of the PVDF/graphite basal plane that shows a clear separation at the interface. The results suggest that the adhesion strength of the PVDF/copper is stronger than that of the PVDF/graphite basal plane. The methodology used in MD simulation can directly evaluate the adhesion strength at the interfaces of various materials between binders, substrates, and particles at the atomic scales. The proposed method can therefore provide a guideline for the design of the electrode in order to enhance the mechanical integrity for better battery performance.

  13. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  14. Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Guccini, Valentina; Kim, Hyeyun; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2017-11-01

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO 4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (1550 μmol g -1 ) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g -1 even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

  15. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  16. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  17. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  18. Power output of microbial fuel cell emphasizing interaction of anodic binder with bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Liao, Bo; Xiong, Juan; Zhou, Xingwang; Zhi, Huozhen; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemically active biofilm is necessary for the electron transfer between bacteria and anodic electrode in microbial fuel cells and selecting the type of anodic electrode material that favours formation of electrochemically active biofilm is crucial for the microbial fuel cell operation. We report a new finding that the interaction of anodic binder with bacteria plays more important role than its hydrophilicity for forming an electrochemically active biofilm, which is emphasized by applying poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) as an anodic binder of the microbial fuel cell based on carbon nanotubes as anodic electrode and Escherichia coli as bacterium. The physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate that poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) exhibits a strong interaction with bacteria and thus provides the microbial fuel cell with excellent power density output. The MFC using poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) reaches a maximum power density output of 3.8 W m-2. This value is larger than that of the MFCs using polytetrafluoroethylene that has poorer hydrophilicity, or polyvinyl alcohol that has better hydrophilicity but exhibits weaker interaction with bacteria than poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin).

  19. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  20. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify......-of-plane blade root bending moments and a better transient response compared to a benchmark PI individual pitch controller....

  1. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  2. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  3. Speech perception with mono- and quadrupolar electrode configurations: a crossover study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, L.H.M.; Berenstein, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of two multipolar electrode configurations on speech perception, pitch perception, and the intracochlear electrical field. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover design; within subject. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Eight experienced adult cochlear implant users.

  4. Pitch Discrimination Learning: Specificity for Pitch and Harmonic Resolvability, and Electrophysiological Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed...

  5. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fediuk, R; Yushin, A

    2016-01-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m 2 , it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa). (paper)

  6. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones: dependence on pitch level and pitch contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, pitch level and pitch contour are two dimensions of lexical tones according to their acoustic features (i.e., pitch patterns). A change in pitch level features a step change whereas that in pitch contour features a continuous variation in voice pitch. Currently, relatively little is known about the hemispheric lateralization for the processing of each dimension. To address this issue, we made whole-head electrical recordings of mismatch negativity in native Chinese speakers in response to the contrast of Chinese lexical tones in each dimension. We found that pre-attentive auditory processing of pitch level was obviously lateralized to the right hemisphere whereas there is a tendency for that of pitch contour to be lateralized to the left. We also found that the brain responded faster to pitch level than to pitch contour at a pre-attentive stage. These results indicate that the hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones depends on the pitch level and pitch contour, and suggest an underlying inter-hemispheric interactive mechanism for the processing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrode spanning with partial tripolar stimulation mode in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The perceptual effects of electrode spanning (i.e., the use of nonadjacent return electrodes) in partial tripolar (pTP) mode were tested on a main electrode EL8 in five cochlear implant (CI) users. Current focusing was controlled by σ (the ratio of current returned within the cochlea), and current steering was controlled by α (the ratio of current returned to the basal electrode). Experiment 1 tested whether asymmetric spanning with α = 0.5 can create additional channels around standard pTP stimuli. It was found that in general, apical spanning (i.e., returning current to EL6 rather than EL7) elicited a pitch between those of standard pTP stimuli on main electrodes EL8 and EL9, while basal spanning (i.e., returning current to EL10 rather than EL9) elicited a pitch between those of standard pTP stimuli on main electrodes EL7 and EL8. The pitch increase caused by apical spanning was more salient than the pitch decrease caused by basal spanning. To replace the standard pTP channel on the main electrode EL8 when EL7 or EL9 is defective, experiment 2 tested asymmetrically spanned pTP stimuli with various α, and experiment 3 tested symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli with various σ. The results showed that pitch increased with decreasing α in asymmetric spanning, or with increasing σ in symmetric spanning. Apical spanning with α around 0.69 and basal spanning with α around 0.38 may both elicit a similar pitch as the standard pTP stimulus. With the same σ, the symmetrically spanned pTP stimulus was higher in pitch than the standard pTP stimulus. A smaller σ was thus required for symmetric spanning to match the pitch of the standard pTP stimulus. In summary, electrode spanning is an effective field-shaping technique that is useful for adding spectral channels and handling defective electrodes with CIs.

  9. Solvolytic Degradation of Polymeric Propellant Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    propcllant! can be -carried, ou-t pi_,th surpriising jease- in- 60 -_ sca-le’.with- subsequenzr recovery -of constitu - s -in- high - yield -. the. kilproach...distillation of the ammonia yields about 84% -recovery of tile ammonium chloride. The aluminum powder remains behind in the degradedfpolyuruthane gel...msolvent. .n his experiment a 0.14- g- sample of -binder I having,, z, 50-80 mesh particle size was placed in a Soxhlet apparatus and the extraction

  10. Colloid Zirconia Binder of Improved Wetting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Para

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of colloid zirconia aqueous sol, used as a binder in the investment casting industry, werethoroughly determined. The size of the particles was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the zeta potential of theparticles was measured by microelectrophoresis. The average size of the particles was 13 nm and the zeta potential waspositive, equal to 30 mV. The size distribution of particles deposited on mica surface was also determined using AFMmeasurements. The wetting properties of the binder suspension were determined for the paraffin/air interface using the shapeanalysis of pendant and sessile drops. The perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, an anionic surfactant, the non-ionic fluorinatedsurfactants Zonyl FSO-100 and Rokafenol RN8, and the mixtures of the surfactants were studied. Our investigations showedthat the Zonyl-FSO surfactant and its mixture with Rokafenol effectively reduced the dynamic contact angle from the initialvalue of 94° to the value of 30°. Such low contact angles represent an essential improvement of zirconia binder wettability,thus widen the range of applicability in investment casting of finely shaped details.

  11. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  13. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  14. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  15. Ideomotor effects of pitch on continuation tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirante, Paolo; Thompson, William F; Russo, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    The ideomotor principle predicts that perception will modulate action where overlap exists between perceptual and motor representations of action. This effect is demonstrated with auditory stimuli. Previous perceptual evidence suggests that pitch contour and pitch distance in tone sequences may elicit tonal motion effects consistent with listeners' implicit awareness of the lawful dynamics of locomotive bodies. To examine modulating effects of perception on action, participants in a continuation tapping task produced a steady tempo. Auditory tones were triggered by each tap. Pitch contour randomly and persistently varied within trials. Pitch distance between successive tones varied between trials. Although participants were instructed to ignore them, tones systematically affected finger dynamics and timing. Where pitch contour implied positive acceleration, the following tap and the intertap interval (ITI) that it completed were faster. Where pitch contour implied negative acceleration, the following tap and the ITI that it completed were slower. Tempo was faster with greater pitch distance. Musical training did not predict the magnitude of these effects. There were no generalized effects on timing variability. Pitch contour findings demonstrate how tonal motion may elicit the spontaneous production of accents found in expressive music performance.

  16. Characterization of pitches by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrburger, P.; Martin, C.; Lahaye, J.; Saint-Romain, J.L.; Couderc, P.

    1988-12-01

    Pitch materials have generally a very complex composition with molecular mass ranging from a few hundred to several thousands units. In order to characterize these materials their properties related to the glassy transformation, in particular to enthalpy relaxation, have been investigated. Solvent soluble fractions have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As with polymeric materials, enthalpy relaxation can provide information about pitches and the interactions occurring between the different types of molecules present in the pitch: mean molecular size, structural factor, molecular-size distribution. The determination of glass transition properties provides a useful means for the characterization of pitch and of their solvent extracts. It also permits insight into the complex reactions which occur when pitch materials are heat-treated. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  18. Modified binders on the basis of flotation tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, N. A.; Zagorodnyuk, L. Kh; Shchekina, A. Yu; Gorodov, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The article proposes compositions of efficient modified composite binders on the basis of portland cement and flotation tailings; the new binders attain the ultimate compressive stress that is twice as high as that of the cement stone. At that, use of annually growing volume of flotation tailings in the production of the composite binder is a rational way for recycling this type of waste and allows saving the planet's natural resources.

  19. Screening of Low Clinker Binders, Compressive Strength and Chloride Ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; De Weerdt, Klaartje; Garzón, Sergio Ferreiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an initial screening of potential new binders for concrete with reduced CO2-emission. Mortars cured saturated for 90 days are compared with regard to a) compressive strength of mortars with similar water-to-binder ratio, and b) chloride ingress in similar design strength mortar...... compromising the 90 days compressive strength and resistance to chloride ingress in marine exposure by using selected alternative binders....

  20. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  1. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for nickel-hydrogen storage battery use; Nikkeru-suiso chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, H.; Tadokoro, M.

    1995-06-16

    In the conventional hydrogen storage alloy electrode, water soluble polymer is employed as for the binder. Employing the water soluble polymer as for the binder may cause the film formation on the surface of the hydrogen storage alloy to hinder the hydrogen absorption at the alloy surface, resulting in the decrease in activity of electrode and in the discharge characteristic at a low temperature. This invention proposes the addition of Vinylon fiber in the binder of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode made by kneading the hydrogen storage alloy and the binder. The Vinylon fiber improves the strength of the electrode, as it forms a network in the electrode. Furthermore, the point contact between the alloy and the Vinylon fiber in the electrode prevents the film formation which hinders the oxygen absorption and chemical reaction on the surface of the alloy. As for the binder, carboxymethyl cellulose is used. The preferable size of Vinylon fiber is fiber diameter of 0.1 - 0.5 denier and fiber length of 0.5 - 5.0 mm. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A Neuronal Network Model for Pitch Selectivity and Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chengcheng; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among c...

  3. Sol-gel additive for systems with inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstinat, M.; Antenen, D.; Suter, W.

    1996-01-01

    A sol-gel additive for inorganic binder systems and sol-gel process for producing air-placed concrete and mortar by using such sol-gel additives are disclosed. Sol-gel additives for gel-derived inorganic binder systems (for example plaster, cement, lime, special slags, etc.) marked improve the consistency of such binder systems during processing or allow their consistency to be regulated. In addition, these sol-gel additives regulate setting times and substantially improve durability (chemical resistance, reduced permeability) and the mechanical properties of the set binder system. (author)

  4. Pitch memory, labelling and disembedding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2003-05-01

    Autistic musical savants invariably possess absolute pitch ability and are able to disembed individual musical tones from chords. Enhanced pitch discrimination and memory has been found in non-savant individuals with autism who also show superior performance on visual disembedding tasks. These experiments investigate the extent that enhanced disembedding ability will be found within the musical domain in autism. High-functioning children with autism, together with age- and intelligence-matched controls, participated in three experiments testing pitch memory, labelling and chord disembedding. The findings from experiment 1 showed enhanced pitch memory and labelling in the autism group. In experiment 2, when subjects were pre-exposed to labelled individual tones, superior chord segmentation was also found. However, in experiment 3, when disembedding performance was less reliant on pitch memory, no group differences emerged and the children with autism, like controls, perceived musical chords holistically. These findings indicate that pitch memory and labelling is superior in autism and can facilitate performance on musical disembedding tasks. However, when task performance does not rely on long-term pitch memory, autistic children, like controls, succumb to the Gestalt qualities of chords.

  5. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  6. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  7. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  8. Pitch-to-Pitch Correlation in Location, Velocity, and Movement ant Its Role in Predicting Strikeout Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shiyuan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate a model for pitch sequencing in baseball that is defined by pitch-to-pitch correlation in location, velocity, and movement. The correlations quantify the average similarity of consecutive pitches and provide a measure of the batter's ability to predict the properties of the upcoming pitch. We examine the characteristics of the model for a set of major league pitchers using PITCHf/x data for nearly three million pitches thrown over seven major league seasons. After partitioning the...

  9. Imperfect pitch: Gabor's uncertainty principle and the pitch of extremely brief sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2016-02-01

    How brief must a sound be before its pitch is no longer perceived? The uncertainty tradeoff between temporal and spectral resolution (Gabor's principle) limits the minimum duration required for accurate pitch identification or discrimination. Prior studies have reported that pitch can be extracted from sinusoidal pulses as brief as half a cycle. This finding has been used in a number of classic papers to develop models of pitch encoding. We have found that phase randomization, which eliminates timbre confounds, degrades this ability to chance, raising serious concerns over the foundation on which classic pitch models have been built. The current study investigated whether subthreshold pitch cues may still exist in partial-cycle pulses revealed through statistical integration in a time series containing multiple pulses. To this end, we measured frequency-discrimination thresholds in a two-interval forced-choice task for trains of partial-cycle random-phase tone pulses. We found that residual pitch cues exist in these pulses but discriminating them requires an order of magnitude (ten times) larger frequency difference than that reported previously, necessitating a re-evaluation of pitch models built on earlier findings. We also found that as pulse duration is decreased to less than two cycles its pitch becomes biased toward higher frequencies, consistent with predictions of an auto-correlation model of pitch extraction.

  10. Sustainable binders for concrete: A structured approach from waste screening to binder composition development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinai, R.; Panagiotopoulou, C.; Soutsos, M.; Taxiarchou, M.; Zervaki, M.; Valcke, S.L.A.; Ligero, V.C.; Couto, S.; Gupta, A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Alvarez, I.L.; Coelho, D.; Branquinho, J.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the building sector requires the production of 4 billion tonnes of cement annually, consuming more than 40% of global energy. Alkali activated “cementless” binders have recently emerged as a novel eco-friendly construction material with a promising potential to replace ordinary Portland

  11. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  12. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-06-08

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. © 2015 Helma et al.

  13. Al nanogrid electrode for ultraviolet detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, G; Deng, J; Zhou, L; Gan, Q; Hwang, J C M; Dierolf, V; Bartoli, F J; Mazuir, C; Schoenfeld, W V

    2011-09-15

    Optical properties of Al nanogrids of different pitches and gaps were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation predicted that surface plasmons at the air/Al interface would enhance ultraviolet transmission through the subwavelength gaps of the nanogrid, making it an effective electrode on GaN-based photodetectors to compensate for the lack of transparent electrode and high p-type doping. The predicted transmission enhancement was verified by confocal scanning optical microscopy performed at 365 nm. The quality of the nanogrids fabricated by electron-beam lithography was verified by near-field scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the pitch and gap of the nanogrids can be optimized for the best trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmission at different wavelengths. Based on different cutoff wavelengths, the nanogrids can also double as a filter to render photodetectors solar-blind.

  14. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Govender ngovender@csir.co.za, Etienne Barnard ebarnard@csir.co.za, Marelie Davel mdavel@csir.co.za by varying the levels of pitch, intensity and duration in the voice. An overview of intonation as observed in a variety of languages is provided in [1... nature of laryngograph data in voiced speech) and thus either could be used as the basis for the experiments. The pitch values extracted by Yin for all the laryngograph databases was consequently used as the basis for our comparisons. Pitch...

  15. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  16. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leble, V; Barakos, G

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. (paper)

  17. Electrochemical behavior of pitch-based activated carbon fibers for electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kwac, Lee-Ku; An, Kay-Hyeok; Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. • Activated carbon fibers showed enhanced specific surface area from 1520 to 3230 m 2 /g. • The increase in the specific capacitance of the samples was determined by charged pore structure during charging and discharging. - Abstract: In the present study, electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors were developed using pitch-based activated carbon fibers with steam activation. The surface and structural characteristics of activated carbon fibers were observed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Pore characteristics were investigated using N 2 /77 K adsorption isotherms. The activated carbon fibers were applied as electrodes for electrical double-layer capacitors and analyzed in relation to the activation time. The specific surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbon fibers were determined to be 1520–3230 m 2 /g and 0.61–1.87 cm 3 /g, respectively. In addition, when the electrochemical characteristics were analyzed, the specific capacitance was confirmed to have increased from 1.1 F/g to 22.5 F/g. From these results, it is clear that the pore characteristics of pitch-based activated carbon fibers changed considerably in relation to steam activation and charge/discharge cycle; therefore, it was possible to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the activated carbon fibers.

  18. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  19. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  20. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  1. On the thermochemical conversions of hard coal pitches in the process of raising the softening point to 358-363 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1983-09-01

    High resolution paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy are used to obtain data on the nature of changes in hydrogen content of various groups in the substances of soluble functions in raw pitch and its thermoproducts during the process of producing binders with an increased softening point of 358-363 K. It was shown that thermal treatment of pitch during the process of raising the softening point leads to enrichment of the pitch structure with aromatic hydrogen and to reduction in the structure of the hydrogen in aliphatic bonds. The basis of these conversions is the splitting off of CH/SUB/3 groups and the formation of new structures containing CH/SUB/2 groups. (11 refs.)

  2. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper... asbestos paper (starch binder). ...

  3. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  4. What makes lithium substituted polyacrylic acid a better binder than polyacrylic acid for silicon-graphite composite anodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.; Ruther, Rose E.; Kukay, Alexander J.; Cao, Pengfei; Saito, Tomonori; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    Lithium substituted polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) has previously been demonstrated as a superior binder over polyacrylic acid (PAA) for Si anodes, but from where does this enhanced performance arise? In this study, full cells are assembled with PAA and LiPAA based Si-graphite composite anodes that dried at temperatures from 100 °C to 200 °C. The performance of full cells containing PAA based Si-graphite anodes largely depend on the secondary drying temperature, as decomposition of the binder is correlated to increased electrode moisture and a rise in cell impedance. Full cells containing LiPAA based Si-graphite composite electrodes display better Coulombic efficiency than those with PAA, because of the electrochemical reduction of the PAA binder. This is identified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and observed gassing during the electrochemical reaction. Coulombic losses from the PAA and Si SEI, along with depletion of the Si capacity in the anode results in progressive underutilization of the cathode and full cell capacity loss.

  5. Methods for the characterization of impregnating pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compin, S.; Ben Aim, R.; Couderc, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses modification of the impregnation performance of various pitches. The filtration ability, which expresses the impregnation performance, was studied using gel permeation chromatography and scanning electron microscopy. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Pitch Synchronous Segmentation of Speech Signals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pitch Synchronous Segmentation (PSS) that accelerates speech without changing its fundamental frequency method could be applied and evaluated for use at NASA....

  7. Major League Baseball pitch velocity and pitch type associated with risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Guest, John-Michael; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Jung, Edward K; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results. Eighty-three MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction were evaluated. Pitching velocity and percent of pitch type thrown (fastball, curve ball, slider, and change-up) were evaluated 2 years before and after surgery. Data were compared with control pitchers matched for age, position, size, innings pitched, and experience. The evaluation of pitch velocity compared with matched controls found no differences in pre-UCL reconstruction pitch velocities for fastballs (91.5 vs. 91.2 miles per hour [mph], P = .69), curveballs (78.2 vs. 77.9 mph, P = .92), sliders (83.3 vs. 83.5 mph, P = .88), or change-ups (83.9 vs. 83.8 mph, P = .96). When the percentage of pitches thrown was evaluated, UCL reconstructed pitchers pitch significantly more fastballs than controls (46.7% vs. 39.4%, P = .035). This correlated to a 2% increase in risk for UCL injury for every 1% increase in fastballs thrown. Pitching more than 48% fastballs was a significant predictor of UCL injury, because pitchers over this threshold required reconstruction (P = .006). MLB pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction do not pitch at higher velocities than matched controls, and pitch velocity does not appear to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. However, MLB pitchers who pitch a high percentage of fastballs may be at increased risk for UCL injury because pitching a higher percent of fastballs appears to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  9. Effects of Culture on Musical Pitch Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ha, Louisa Y. Y.; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association—the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders—remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means ‘teacher’ and ‘to try’ when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  10. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  11. Mechanical Behaviour of Soil Improved by Alkali Activated Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enza Vitale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of alkali activated binders to improve engineering properties of clayey soils is a novel solution, and an alternative to the widely diffused improvement based on the use of traditional binders such as lime and cement. In the paper the alkaline activation of two fly ashes, by-products of coal combustion thermoelectric power plants, has been presented. These alkali activated binders have been mixed with a clayey soil for evaluating the improvement of its mechanical behaviour. One-dimensional compression tests on raw and treated samples have been performed with reference to the effects induced by type of binder, binder contents and curing time. The experimental evidences at volume scale of the treated samples have been directly linked to the chemo-physical evolution of the binders, investigated over curing time by means of X Ray Diffraction. Test results showed a high reactivity of the alkali activated binders promoting the formation of new mineralogical phases responsible for the mechanical improvement of treated soil. The efficiency of alkali activated binders soil treatment has been highlighted by comparison with mechanical performance induced by Portland cement.

  12. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to formulate metronidazole tablets using starch from Xanthosoma sagittifolium as binder and disintegrant in metronidazole tablets. Metronidazole tablets were produced by wet granulation method using X. sagittifolium starch as binder at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w, and as disintegrant ...

  13. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays ...

  14. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.B

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  15. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  16. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  17. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  19. Development of a green binder system for paper products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Ashley R; Vicuna Requesens, Deborah; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Mansfield, Shawn D; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-03-26

    It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of "green" binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found.

  20. Development of a green binder system for paper products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important for industries to find green chemistries for manufacturing their products that have utility, are cost-effective and that protect the environment. The paper industry is no exception. Renewable resources derived from plant components could be an excellent substitute for the chemicals that are currently used as paper binders. Air laid pressed paper products that are typically used in wet wipes must be bound together so they can resist mechanical tearing during storage and use. The binders must be strong but cost-effective. Although chemical binders are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency, the public is demanding products with lower carbon footprints and that are derived from renewable sources. Results In this project, carbohydrates, proteins and phenolic compounds were applied to air laid, pressed paper products in order to identify potential renewable green binders that are as strong as the current commercial binders, while being organic and renewable. Each potential green binder was applied to several filter paper strips and tested for strength in the direction perpendicular to the cellulose fibril orientation. Out of the twenty binders surveyed, soy protein, gelatin, zein protein, pectin and Salix lignin provided comparable strength results to a currently employed chemical binder. Conclusions These organic and renewable binders can be purchased in large quantities at low cost, require minimal reaction time and do not form viscous solutions that would clog sprayers, characteristics that make them attractive to the non-woven paper industry. As with any new process, a large-scale trial must be conducted along with an economic analysis of the procedure. However, because multiple examples of “green” binders were found that showed strong cross-linking activity, a candidate for commercial application will likely be found. PMID:23531016

  1. Pitch discrimination learning: specificity for pitch and harmonic resolvability, and electrophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Multiple-hour training on a pitch discrimination task dramatically decreases the threshold for detecting a pitch difference between two harmonic complexes. Here, we investigated the specificity of this perceptual learning with respect to the pitch and the resolvability of the trained harmonic complex, as well as its cortical electrophysiological correlates. We trained 24 participants for 12 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of four different harmonic complexes. The complexes differed in pitch and/or spectral resolvability of their components by the cochlea, but were filtered into the same spectral region. Cortical-evoked potentials and a behavioral measure of pitch discrimination were assessed before and after training for all the four complexes. The change in these measures was compared to that of two control groups: one trained on a level discrimination task and one without any training. The behavioral results showed that learning was partly specific to both pitch and resolvability. Training with a resolved-harmonic complex improved pitch discrimination for resolved complexes more than training with an unresolved complex. However, we did not find evidence that training with an unresolved complex leads to specific learning for unresolved complexes. Training affected the P2 component of the cortical-evoked potentials, as well as a later component (250-400 ms). No significant changes were found on the mismatch negativity (MMN) component, although a separate experiment showed that this measure was sensitive to pitch changes equivalent to the pitch discriminability changes induced by training. This result suggests that pitch discrimination training affects processes not measured by the MMN, for example, processes higher in level or parallel to those involved in MMN generation.

  2. Cermet electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  3. Hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wei; Luo, Jian; Pan, Baoyou; Qiu, Zhiqiang; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The composite anode is composed of CuO nanowire shell and carbon fiber core. •The composite anode avoids completely the use of binders. •Synergistic effect of carbon fibers and CuO nanowires enhances performance. •Carbon fibers improve electrical conductivity and buffer volume change. •CuO nanowires shorten diffusion length and alleviate structural strain. -- Abstract: Developing high-performance electrode structures is of great importance for advanced lithium-ion batteries. This study reports an efficient method to fabricate hierarchical shell/core CuO nanowire/carbon fiber composites via electroless plating and thermal oxidation processes. With this method, a binder-free CuO nanowire/carbon fiber shell/core hierarchical network composite anode for lithium-ion batteries is successfully fabricated. The morphology and chemical composition of the anode are characterized, and the electrochemical performance of the anode is investigated by standard electrochemical tests. Owing to the superior properties of carbon fibers and the morphological advantages of CuO nanowires, this composite anode still retains an excellent reversible capacity of 598.2 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention rate above 86%, even after 50 cycles, which is much higher than the CuO anode without carbon fibers. Compared to the typical CuO/C electrode systems, the novel binder-free anode yields a performance close to that of the typical core/shell electrode systems and a much higher reversible capacity and capacity retention than the similar shell/core patterns as well as the anodes with binders. It is believed that this novel anode will pave the way to the development of binder-free anodes in response to the increasing demands for high-power energy storage.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of pitches by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L.; Couderc, P.

    1987-11-01

    The glass transition characterization of pitches has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Experimental results and theoretical considerations indicate that: (1) the average molecular mass of pitches can be characterized by the apparent activation energy of the relaxation phenomenon of pitch molecules; (2) the molecular polydispersity is correlated with the width of the glass transition. Characterization of pitch by d.s.c. is well adapted to follow pitch transformation during heat treatment. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  7. A Neuronal Network Model for Pitch Selectivity and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    Pitch is a perceptual correlate of periodicity. Sounds with distinct spectra can elicit the same pitch. Despite the importance of pitch perception, understanding the cellular mechanism of pitch perception is still a major challenge and a mechanistic model of pitch is lacking. A multi-stage neuronal network model is developed for pitch frequency estimation using biophysically-based, high-resolution coincidence detector neurons. The neuronal units respond only to highly coincident input among convergent auditory nerve fibers across frequency channels. Their selectivity for only very fast rising slopes of convergent input enables these slope-detectors to distinguish the most prominent coincidences in multi-peaked input time courses. Pitch can then be estimated from the first-order interspike intervals of the slope-detectors. The regular firing pattern of the slope-detector neurons are similar for sounds sharing the same pitch despite the distinct timbres. The decoded pitch strengths also correlate well with the salience of pitch perception as reported by human listeners. Therefore, our model can serve as a neural representation for pitch. Our model performs successfully in estimating the pitch of missing fundamental complexes and reproducing the pitch variation with respect to the frequency shift of inharmonic complexes. It also accounts for the phase sensitivity of pitch perception in the cases of Schroeder phase, alternating phase and random phase relationships. Moreover, our model can also be applied to stochastic sound stimuli, iterated-ripple-noise, and account for their multiple pitch perceptions.

  8. Pitch-verticality and pitch-size cross-modal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on cross-modal matching between pitch and sound source localization on the vertical axis, and pitch and size. In the first study 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 600 Hz, and 800 Hz tones were emitted by a loudspeaker positioned 60 cm above or below to the participant’s ear level. Using...

  9. Measurement of pitch in speech : an implementation of Goldstein's theory of pitch perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.; Willems, L.F.; Sluyter, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in hearing theory have resulted in the rather general acceptance of the idea that the perception of pitch of complex sounds is the result of the psychological pattern recognition process. The pitch is supposedly mediated by the fundamental of the harmonic spectrum which fits the

  10. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  11. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, I.; Kamal, M.A.; Shahzad, Q.; Bashir, N.; Ahadi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  12. Method of producing pitch (distillation residue)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, M.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Krysin, V.P.

    1979-08-15

    A method is proposed for producing pitch by mixing hard coal pitch with anthracene fraction and thermal treatment of the mixture. The method is distinguished in that in order to increase the quality of the pitch, the anthracene fraction is subjected to thermal treatment at 250-300/sup 0/ for 10-13 hours in the presence of air. This duration of heat treatment allows one to build up in the anthracene fraction up to 20-24% of material which is not soluble and toluene, without the formation of products which are not soluble in quinoline. The fraction prepared in this manner is inserted into the initial pitch in the ratio 1:2 up to 1:9, the mixture is subject to heat treatment at temperature 360-380/sup 0/ and air consumption 7-91/kgX hours until the production of pitch with softening temperature of 85-90/sup 0/. As the initial raw material we used pitch with softening temperature of 60/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in quinoline, 2.0% which are not soluble and toluene 20.6% and coking residue of 49.2%. Example. 80 grams of anthracene fraction is added to 320 grams of pitch. The anthracene fraction is subjected previously to heat treatment at 300/sup 0/ for 13 hours in the presence of air, supplied in the amount of 9 liters per hour. As a result of the heat treatment of the content of materials which are not soluble in toluence in the anthracene fraction is 24.0%, in quinoline it is 0.1%. The ratio of a pitch and thermally treated anthracene fraction in the mixture was 4:l. The produced mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 360/sup 0/ for 1.5 hours with air supply in the amount of 7 liters/ kilograms/hours. Pitch is produced with the following characteristics: softening temperature 88/sup 0/, content of substances which are not soluble in toluene 32.5%, in quinilone, 6.0%, coking residue, 56.7%. The invention can be used in the chemical coking and petrochemical industry.

  13. Limitations of fixed pitch Darrieus hydrokinetic turbines and the challenge of variable pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirke, B.K. [Sustainable Energy Centre, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Lazauskas, L. [Cyberiad, 25/65 King William Street, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Small Darrieus hydrokinetic turbines with fixed pitch blades typically suffer from poor starting torque, low efficiency and shaking due to large fluctuations in both radial and tangential force with azimuth angle. Efficiency improves as size increases, since adequate blade chord Reynolds numbers can be maintained with low solidity. Shaking can be eliminated by using helical blades, or reduced by using multiple blades. Starting torque can be marginally improved by the use of cambered blade profiles but may still be inadequate to overcome drive train friction for self-starting. Variable pitch can generate high starting torque, high efficiency and reduced shaking but active pitch control systems add considerably to complexity and cost, while passive systems must have effective pitch control to achieve higher efficiency than fixed pitch systems. (author)

  14. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  16. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  17. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  18. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... that could be used to quantify the internal noise and provide strong constraints for physiologically inspired models of pitch perception....

  19. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns a case study in the context of risk-based operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. For wind turbines with electrical pitch systems, deterioration can generally be observed at the pitch gear teeth; especially at the point where the blades are located during normal...... of the damage, and can be used for Bayesian updating of a damage model used for risk-based decision making. For this decision problem, the risk of failure should be compared to the cost of preventive maintenance. The hypothesis that the maximum pitch motor torque is an indicator of the damage size is supported...... changes in the temperature are the primary cause of the decrease. A model is established to remove the effect of the explained variation, and it is investigated if deterioration can be detected as changes in the peak torque. A small increase could be detected after the maintenance, but before...

  20. Multi-pitch Estimation using Semidefinite Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    assuming a Nyquist sampled signal by adding an additional semidefinite constraint. We show that the proposed estimator has superior performance compared to state- of-the-art methods for separating two closely spaced fundamentals and approximately achieves the asymptotic Cramér-Rao lower bound.......Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via...... a semidefinite programming representation of an atomic decomposition over a continuous dictionary of complex exponentials and extend this to real-valued data via a real semidefinite pro-ram with the same dimensions (i.e. half the size). We further impose a continuous frequency constraint naturally occurring from...

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF PITCH AND LOAD DEFECTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method, system and computer readable code for diagnosis of pitch and/or load defects of e.g. wind turbines as well as wind turbines using said diagnosis method and/or comprising said diagnosis system.......The invention relates to a method, system and computer readable code for diagnosis of pitch and/or load defects of e.g. wind turbines as well as wind turbines using said diagnosis method and/or comprising said diagnosis system....

  2. Electrode Processes in Porous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-26

    F104470 2.0 MASS SPECTROMETRY One part of activity for this year is an investigation of the behavior of silver electrodes through the distribution of...al. (2)). These, in some cases, involve tedious and time comsuming procedures and discrepencies of as much as 15% have been observed in the results. As

  3. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  4. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  5. effects of different grain starches as feed binders for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEY WORDS: Grain Starches; Feed Binder, AQUA-Feed, Pelletability Water ... in their incorporation in on farm aqua feed and thus. 19 ..... International Seminar on Advanced Extrusion. Technology in Food Application, Sao Paulo. Brazil pp.

  6. Determination of usable residual asphalt binder in RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of : working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is : unclear if this assu...

  7. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  8. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  9. (Methacrylic Acid-Co-Divinylbenzene) Resin as Filler- Binder for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand. Abstract ... Methods: Powder properties of PMD and MCC were characterized. Tablets ... with the widely used filler-binder, ... Gravimetric swelling was determined by.

  10. Binderless electrodes for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Santiago Martin; Li, Qingfeng; Steenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A new electrode concept was proved with no polymeric binder in the catalyst layer for acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane fuel cells. It shows that a stable interface between the membrane and the catalyst layer can be retained when a proton conducting acid phase is established. The absenc...

  11. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Felty, A.; Momigliano, A.; Pientka, B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repo...

  12. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  14. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  15. De-agglomeration and homogenisation of nanoparticles in coal tar pitch-based carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubernat, Maciej; Tomala, Janusz; Frohs, Wilhelm; Fraczek-Szczypta, Aneta; Blazewicz, Stanislaw

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the work was to characterise coal tar pitch (CTP) modified with selected nanoparticles as a binder precursor for the manufacture of synthetic carbon materials. Different factors influencing the preliminary preparative steps in the preparation of homogenous nanoparticle/CTP composition were studied. Graphene flakes, carbon black and nano-sized silicon carbide were used to modify CTP. Prior to introducing them into liquid CTP, nanoparticles were subjected to sonication. Various dispersants were used to prepare the suspensions, i.e. water, ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP).The results showed that proper dispersant selection is one of the most important factors influencing the de-agglomeration process of nanoparticles. DMF and NMP were found to be effective dispersants for the preparation of homogenous nanoparticle-containing suspensions. The presence of SiC and carbon black nanoparticles in the liquid pitch during heat treatment up to 2000 °C leads to the inhibition of crystallite growth in carbon residue.

  16. De-agglomeration and homogenisation of nanoparticles in coal tar pitch-based carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubernat, Maciej [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics (Poland); Tomala, Janusz [SGL Carbon Polska S.A. (Poland); Frohs, Wilhelm [SGL CARBON GmbH (Germany); Fraczek-Szczypta, Aneta; Blazewicz, Stanislaw, E-mail: blazew@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the work was to characterise coal tar pitch (CTP) modified with selected nanoparticles as a binder precursor for the manufacture of synthetic carbon materials. Different factors influencing the preliminary preparative steps in the preparation of homogenous nanoparticle/CTP composition were studied. Graphene flakes, carbon black and nano-sized silicon carbide were used to modify CTP. Prior to introducing them into liquid CTP, nanoparticles were subjected to sonication. Various dispersants were used to prepare the suspensions, i.e. water, ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP).The results showed that proper dispersant selection is one of the most important factors influencing the de-agglomeration process of nanoparticles. DMF and NMP were found to be effective dispersants for the preparation of homogenous nanoparticle-containing suspensions. The presence of SiC and carbon black nanoparticles in the liquid pitch during heat treatment up to 2000 °C leads to the inhibition of crystallite growth in carbon residue.

  17. Nanofiber Anisotropic Conductive Films (ACF) for Ultra-Fine-Pitch Chip-on-Glass (COG) Interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Suk, Kyung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Nanofiber anisotropic conductive films (ACF) were invented, by adapting nanofiber technology to ACF materials, to overcome the limitations of ultra-fine-pitch interconnection packaging, i.e. shorts and open circuits as a result of the narrow space between bumps and electrodes. For nanofiber ACF, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) polymers were used as nanofiber polymer materials. For PVDF and PBS nanofiber ACF, conductive particles of diameter 3.5 μm were incorporated into nanofibers by electrospinning. In ultra-fine-pitch chip-on-glass assembly, insulation was significantly improved by using nanofiber ACF, because nanofibers inside the ACF suppressed the mobility of conductive particles, preventing them from flowing out during the bonding process. Capture of conductive particles was increased from 31% (conventional ACF) to 65%, and stable electrical properties and reliability were achieved by use of nanofiber ACF.

  18. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  19. Protein kinase activity associated with the corticosteroid binder IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujicic, M.; Djordjevic-Markovic, R.; Radic, O.; Krstic, M.; Kanazir, D.

    1997-01-01

    The physiological effects elicited by glucocorticoids are mediated via glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Analysis of specific glucocorticoid binding to radioactively labelled [ 3 H] triamcinolone acetonide in rat liver cytosol and analysis by ion exchange chromatography have revealed the presence of two distinct molecular species. The major form, designated as binder II appears to correspond to the well characterized glucocorticoid receptor by virtue of its size, charge, steroid binding characteristics and ability to bind to DNA.The second form, designated as corticosteroid binder IB, is a minor binding component in the liver. The binder IB differs from the binder II receptor by virtue of its lower molecular weight and its elution in the pre gradient of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column which retains the un activated binder II receptor complexes. We examined the kinase activity of partially purified corticosteroid binder IB. Using (γ 3 2 P) ATP we detected kinase activity associated with the IB fraction from the rat liver. This kinase phosphorylate mixed histones and and dose not phosphorylate IB protein in vitro. The kinase activity is completely inhibited by the addition of Mg 2 + ions and is partially inhibited by the addition of Ca 2 +ions. (author)

  20. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  1. Effect of Tempo on Pitch Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Robert A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study which investigated the perception of music majors and nonmusic majors concerning their ability to discriminate the way in which altered musical excerpts differed in pitch or tempo (or both) from preceding presentations. Concludes that both groups responded similarly across conditions and replications, and that tempo changes were…

  2. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  3. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  4. Pitch and timbre : definition, meaning and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pitch and timbre are terms frequently used in studies on sound perception. Despite the existence of formal definitions, these terms are often used ambiguously in the literature. This paper is intended as a review of the ANSI definitions and their shortcomings, of modern ways to define the concepts

  5. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  6. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  7. Hybrid graphene electrodes for supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-10-01

    We describe a process of co-reduction to reduce dispersed graphene oxide (GO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) simultaneously for preparation of hybrid electrodes for graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs are in between the inter-layer space of graphene sheets as a spacer to prevent effectively restacking of graphene that often limits seriously the electrochemical performance of graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs also act as conductive binders to improve the electrical conduction of the electrode. A high specific capacitance of 261 F g-1 for a single electrode and specific energy density of 123 W h kg-1 measured in the two-electrode configuration have been obtained in ionic liquid (EMI-TFSI). For interpretation of color in Fig. 6, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

  8. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  9. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in – a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer (http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively. PMID:28453368

  10. Flexible robust binder-free carbon nanotube membranes for solid state and microcapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, Kofi; Ma, Danhao; Wang, Yuxiang; Spencer, Michael; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Wang, C.-Yu; Randall, Clive

    2018-01-01

    We present a liquid phase post synthesis self-assemble protocol that transforms trillions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in powder form into densely packed flexible, robust and binder-free macroscopic membranes with a hierarchical pore structure. We employ charge transfer engineering to spontaneously disperse the CNTs in a liquid medium. The processing protocol has limited or no impact on the intrinsic properties of the CNTs. As the thickness of the CNT membrane is increased, we observed a gradual transition from high flexibility to buckling and brittleness in the flexural properties of the membranes. The binder-free CNT membranes have bulk mass density greater than that of water (1.0 g cm-3). We correlate the mass of the CNTs in the membrane to the thickness of the membrane and obtained a bulk mass density of ˜1.11 g cm-3 ± 0.03 g cm-3. We demonstrate the use of the CNT membranes as electrode in a pristine and oxidized single/stacked solid-state capacitor as well as pristine interdigitated microcapacitor that show time constant of ˜32 ms with no degradation in performance even after 10 000 cycles. The capacitors show very good temperature dependence over a wide range of temperatures with good cycling performance up to 90 °C. The specific capacitance of the pseudocapacitive CNT electrode at room temperature was 72 F g-1 and increased to 100 F g-1 at 70 °C. The leakage current of bipolar stacked solid state capacitor was ˜100 nA cm-2 at 2.5 V when held for 72 h.

  11. UJI FISIK PAKAN IKAN YANG MENGGUNAKAN BINDER TEPUNG GAPLEK PHYSICAL TEST OF FISH FEED USING CASSAVA FLOUR BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Siswani Mulia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pakan ikan dibuat selain memiliki kandungan nutrisi yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan ikan budidaya, juga secara fisik harus kompak dan stabil di dalam air. Kelemahan yang sering terjadi, sebagian besar kandungan nutrisi sudah terpenuhi tetapi pakan mudah tenggelam di dalam air dan cepat terurai sebelum semuanya dimakan ikan. Langkah strategis adalah menambahkan binder (bahan perekat dalam pembuatan pakan ikan agar bahan pakan tercampur dengan baik, kompak, serta memiliki daya apung yang baik pula. Salah satu bahan yang berpotensi sebagai binder pakan ikan adalah tepung gaplek. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji uji fisik pakan ikan yang menggunakan binder tepung gaplek. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL 4 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan, yaitu P0 : pakan komersial (kontrol; P1 : pakan dengan binder tepung gaplek 5 %; P2 : pakan dengan binder tepung gaplek 7,5 %; dan P3 : pakan dengan binder tepung gaplek 10%. Bahan baku pakan adalah tepung bulu ayam yang difermentasi dengan Bacillus licheniformis B2560, ampas tahu yang difermentasi dengan Aspergillus niger, dan tepung ikan rucah. Parameter yang diamati adalah uji fisik pakan ikan meliputi daya apung, tingkat kekerasan, tingkat homogenitas, dan kecepatan pecah pakan ikan serta sebagai data pendukung adalah kadar protein dan kadar air pakan ikan. Parameter uji fisik pakan ikan dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analysis of Variance (ANOVA dan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT dengan taraf uji 5%, sedangkan data kadar protein dan kadar air dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian binder tepung gaplek berpengaruh nyata terhadap hasil uji fisik pakan ikan. Perlakuan dengan binder tepung gaplek dengan konsentrasi 10% memiliki kualitas pakan yang paling baik dan mampu menyamai kualitas pakan komersial. Kadar protein yang dihasilkan pakan uji dapat memenuhi kriteria kebutuhan nutrisi pakan yang berkualitas, yaitu

  12. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    in listeners with SNHL, it is likely that HI listeners rely on the enhanced envelope cues to retrieve the pitch of unresolved harmonics. Hence, the relative importance of pitch cues may be altered in HI listeners, whereby envelope cues may be used instead of TFS cues to obtain a similar performance in pitch......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... that are necessary for the auditory system to retrieve the pitch of complex sounds. The existence of different pitch-coding mechanisms for low-numbered (spectrally resolved) and high-numbered (unresolved) harmonics was investigated by comparing pitch-discrimination performance across different cohorts of listeners...

  13. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathryn E [Boulder, CO; Fingersh, Lee Jay [Westminster, CO

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  14. Subcortical plasticity following perceptual learning in a pitch discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Practice can lead to dramatic improvements in the discrimination of auditory stimuli. In this study, we investigated changes of the frequency-following response (FFR), a subcortical component of the auditory evoked potentials, after a period of pitch discrimination training. Twenty-seven adult listeners were trained for 10 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of three different complex tone stimuli. One had a static pitch contour, one had a rising pitch contour, and one had a falling pi...

  15. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  17. Solar Radiation effect on the bituminous binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadeo Rico, A.; Torres Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt, used as binder in road construction, becomes more brittle and harder during working life on the surface of the road pavement, conducting toward their deterioration. This is caused by the oxidation of the molecular functional groups of the asphalt molecular structure. Moreover, it is observed that ultraviolet radiation increases the oxidation process. However, the effect of solar light on the asphalt degradation has been poorly researched. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by effect of solar radiation, by using standard test. Four commercial asphalts from different companies were selected: two with penetration number 50/70, and the other two polymer modified asphalts. From each of the asphalts forty samples were taken off and placed in four different aging conditions of temperature and radiation for a period ranging from 40 to 500 days. Ring and Ball test, and Fraass breaking Point test, were used to analyse the changes of asphalt properties after exposition to solar radiation. The results of the four analyzed asphalts showed a distinct behaviour; not only in the test temperature increase but also in the rate. Another experiment was carried out. Samples from a hot mix asphalt batch were placed under solar radiation, and were compacted by the Marshall procedure after increasing periods of time. Density and resistance to plastic flow using Marshall Apparatus were measured. Results showed an increase in the stability of samples under radiation. Both experiments show that the solar radiation is enough to cause changes in the asphalt molecular structure due to oxidation. So that, the study of the effect of the solar radiation on the asphalt properties could be a good tool to asses the performances of asphalt pavement. (Author) 26 refs.

  18. FINELY DISPERSED COMPOSITE BINDER FOR REINFORCING SOILS BY INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: we consider the problem of supplying the construction industry, in particular underground construction, with mineral binder for diluted aqueous suspensions that meet the requirements for reinforcement of low-strength sand and clastic soils by injections into the reinforced soil mass. Research objectives: substantiating possibility of using amorphous biosilica in combination with carbide sludge, whose particles size does not exceed 10 mm on average, as a binder for aqueous suspensions being injected. Materials and methods: as raw materials we used: common construction hydrated lime from “Stroimaterialy” JSC, Belgorod, hydrated lime in the form of carbide sludge from the dumps of Protvino plant (carbide sludge, hereafter, active mineral admixture biosilica from the group of companies “DIAMIX” and a plasticizer Sika viscocrete 5 new. Test methods are in accordance with applicable standards. To obtain samples of impregnated soils, a specially developed technique was used in the form of a unidirectional model. Results: properties of the composite binder prepared with different compositions are presented. The optimal component ratios are determined. The following properties of aqueous suspensions are studied: conditional viscosity, sedimentation and penetrating ability. Conditional viscosity is no more than 40 sec on average. Sedimentation does not exceed 1.2 %. Soil-concrete obtained by injection of a dilute aqueous suspension based on this composite binder has a compressive strength in the range from 4.44 to 12.5 MPa. Conclusions: utilization of finely dispersed composite mineral binder, which is based on interaction of amorphous silica with calcium hydroxide, as a binder for high penetration aqueous suspensions has been substantiated. This binder is not inferior to foreign analogues in terms of its strength and technological parameters and can be used for reinforcement of loose and low-strength soils. In case of using carbide

  19. The addition effects of macro and nano clay on the performance of asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the addition effect of macro and organically modified nanoclay on the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt binders. Both macroclay and modified nanoclay were blended in an asphalt binder in various percentages (starting from 2% to 8%. The blended asphalt binders were characterized using kinematic viscosity (C.st, softening point (°C, and penetration and compared with anunmodified binder. The tensile strength of the asphalt binders was also tested as a function of clay types and content%. The results of the study indicated an increase in softening point; kinematics viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. The tensile strength of modified clay binders was enhanced at all percentages by a comparison with both macroclay and unmodified binders. The best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 6% nanoclay.

  20. Optimization of NiFe2O4/rGO composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Xia; Li, Shandong; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changkun; Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2017-09-01

    The combination of carbon compositing and the proper choice of binders in one system offer an effective strategy for improving electrode performance for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we focus on the optimization of reduced graphene oxide content in NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (abbreviated to NiFe2O4/rGO) composites and the proper choice of binders to enhance the cycling stability of the NiFe2O4 electrode. The NiFe2O4/rGO composites were fabricated by a hydrothermal-annealing method, in which the mean size of spinel NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was approximately 20 nm. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, the NiFe2O4/rGO electrodes with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binder exhibited excellent lithium-storage performance including high reversible capacity, good cycling durability and high-rate capability. The capacity could be retained as high as 1105 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 for over 50 cycles, even cycled at higher current density of 1000 mA g-1, a capacity of 800 mAh g-1can be obtained, whereas the electrode with the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder suffered from rapid capacity decay under the same test conditions. As a result, the NiFe2O4/rGO composites with CMC binder electrode in this work are promising as anodes for high-performance LIBs, resulting from the synergistic effect of optimal graphene content and proper choice of binder.

  1. Attending to pitch information inhibits processing of pitch information: the curious case of amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Robitaille, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-04

    In normal listeners, the tonal rules of music guide musical expectancy. In a minority of individuals, known as amusics, the processing of tonality is disordered, which results in severe musical deficits. It has been shown that the tonal rules of music are neurally encoded, but not consciously available in amusics. Previous neurophysiological studies have not explicitly controlled the level of attention in tasks where participants ignored the tonal structure of the stimuli. Here, we test whether access to tonal knowledge can be demonstrated in congenital amusia when attention is controlled. Electric brain responses were recorded while asking participants to detect an individually adjusted near-threshold click in a melody. In half the melodies, a note was inserted that violated the tonal rules of music. In a second task, participants were presented with the same melodies but were required to detect the tonal deviation. Both tasks required sustained attention, thus conscious access to the rules of tonality was manipulated. In the click-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in both groups. In the pitch-detection task, the pitch deviants evoked an ERAN and P600 in controls but not in amusics. These results indicate that pitch regularities are represented in the cortex of amusics, but are not consciously available. Moreover, performing a pitch-judgment task eliminated the ERAN in amusics, suggesting that attending to pitch information interferes with perception of pitch. We propose that an impaired top-down frontotemporal projection is responsible for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353815-10$15.00/0.

  2. ARBOLITCONCRETE ON SILICATESODIUM COMPOSITE BINDER AND SCRAPS OF VINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Manturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The results of experimental studies produce siliсatеsodium composite binder of calcareous stone sawing waste, anhydrous sodium silicate, and based on them wood concrete using as an organic filler vine cuttings for the production of heat-insulating, heat-insulating, structural and structural wall material.Methods.The main technological operations of the developed arbalitconcrete are given : preparation of a composite binder; production of organic filler from the vine; preparation of arbolit concrete mass; formation of arbolit concrete mass; low-temperature treatment (drying.Results. It is found that the composite binder derived from waste stone sawing and anhydrous sodium silicate at their joint fine grinding (Ssp = 3000 cm2 / g, acquires binding properties and with the appropriate seal and heat treatment hardens and gains strength characteristics sufficient for making arbolitconcrete using crushed vine.Conclusion. It was determined that arbolitobeton obtained on the basis of the crushed vine and silikatnatrievogo composite binder strength exceeds arbolitobetona from other types of binders and organic fillers of vegetable origin.

  3. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  4. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  5. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing adherent' as missing adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  6. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  7. Single organic microtwist with tunable pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bo; Zhou, Yan; Yin, Jie; Yan, Jing; Ma, Yuguo; Wang, Lei; Cao, Yong; Wang, Jian; Pei, Jian

    2009-05-19

    A facile synthesis of previously unknown, well-separated, uniform chiral microstructures from achiral pi-conjugated organic molecules was developed by simple solution process. Detailed characterization and formation mechanism were presented. By simple structure modification or temperature change, the pitch of the chiral structure can be fine tuned. Our result opens new possibilities for novel materials in which structure chirality is coupled to device performance.

  8. Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam composite as binder-free anode for a direct glucose fuel cell unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi Him A.; Leung, D. Y. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fabrication of electrocatalyst for direct glucose fuel cell (DGFC) operation involves destructive preparation methods with the use of stabilizer like binder, which may cause activity depreciation. Binder-free electrocatalytic electrode becomes a possible solution to the above problem. Binder-free bimetallic Pd-Pt loaded graphene aerogel on nickel foam plates with different Pd/Pt ratios (1:2.32, 1:1.62, and 1:0.98) are successfully fabricated through a green one-step mild reduction process producing a Pd-Pt/GO/nickel form plate (NFP) composite. Anode with the binder-free electrocatalysts exhibit a strong activity in a batch type DGFC unit under room temperature. The effects of glucose and KOH concentrations, and the Pd/Pt ratios of the electrocatalyst on the DGFC performance are also studied. Maximum power density output of 1.25 mW cm-2 is recorded with 0.5 M glucose/3 M KOH as the anodic fuel, and Pd1Pt0.98/GA/NFP as catalyst, which is the highest obtained so far among other types of electrocatalyst.

  9. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  10. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  11. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  12. Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.

  13. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  14. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navalkar, S T; Van Wingerden, J W; Van Kuik, G A M

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame of reference, the yaw error of a turbine can be appended to generate IPC actions that are able to achieve turbine yaw control for a turbine in free yaw. In this paper, IPC for yaw control is tested on a high-fidelity numerical model of a commercially produced wind turbine in free yaw. The tests show that yaw control using IPC has the distinct advantage that the yaw system loads and support structure loading are substantially reduced. However, IPC for yaw control also shows a reduction in IPC blade load reduction potential and causes a slight increase in pitch activity. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the concept demonstration of IPC for yaw control. Further, using IPC for yaw as a tuning parameter, it is shown how the best trade-off between blade loading, pitch activity and support structure loading can be achieved for wind turbine design

  15. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  16. Pitch Counts in Youth Baseball and Softball: A Historical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Brian T; Schisel, Jessica; Agel, Julie

    2018-07-01

    Pitching injuries are getting increased attention in the mass media. Many references are made to pitch counts and the role they play in injury prevention. The original purpose of regulating the pitch count in youth baseball was to reduce injury and fatigue to pitchers. This article reviews the history and development of the pitch count limit in baseball, the effect it has had on injury, and the evidence regarding injury rates on softball windmill pitching. Literature search through PubMed, mass media, and organizational Web sites through June 2015. Pitch count limits and rest recommendations were introduced in 1996 after a survey of 28 orthopedic surgeons and baseball coaches showed injuries to baseball pitchers' arms were believed to be from the number of pitches thrown. Follow-up research led to revised recommendations with more detailed guidelines in 2006. Since that time, data show a relationship between innings pitched and upper extremity injury, but pitch type has not clearly been shown to affect injury rates. Current surveys of coaches and players show that coaches, parents, and athletes often do not adhere to these guidelines. There are no pitch count guidelines currently available in softball. The increase in participation in youth baseball and softball with an emphasis on early sport specialization in youth sports activities suggests that there will continue to be a rise in injury rates to young throwers. The published pitch counts are likely to positively affect injury rates but must be adhered to by athletes, coaches, and parents.

  17. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  18. Study of radionuclides migration in hydraulic binders. Influence of binder alteration on transfer mechanisms and kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, C.

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of low and medium activity wastes surface storage, hydraulic binders materials are usually used as containment barrier. The safety analysis of this storage mode involves the knowledge of their behaviour and of their retention capacity towards radionuclides, at short and long-term. The knowledge of diffusional processes inside their liquid phase and those of the interactions existing between the diffusing element and the cement matrix, as well as their kinetics, are essential elements for the study of their durability on 300 years. An experimental methodology has been defined, allowing the characterization of the transfer of an element j in a porous material by the determination of the diffusion coefficient of j in the pores of the material x and the determination of the local equilibrium constant characterizing the interaction of j with the material x. This can be made from the analytical expressions coming from the Fick laws. These parameters have been studied from diffusion and leaching experiments of radionuclides in pure cement pastes. A modelling of the leaching processes is proposed here. The decomposition of the hydraulic binders, by their leaching in a demineralized solution at 'aggressive' pH, leads essentially to their decalcification - whose kinetics answers to a pure diffusion law in √t - and an increase of their porosity. In these attack conditions, it seems that it exists a decalcification limit condition, from which a lattice of interconnected microcracks is developed in all the material. In consequence, the retention capacity of these degraded materials towards radionuclides decreases. The cesium transfer appears more sensitive to the degradation of the material than of those of the tritium. (O.M.)

  19. Materials and fabrication of electrode scaffolds for deposition of MnO2 and their true performance in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianyun; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yaming; Walsh, Frank C.; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-10-01

    MnO2 is a promising electrode material for high energy supercapacitors because of its large pseudo-capacitance. However, MnO2 suffers from low electronic conductivity and poor cation diffusivity, which results in poor utilization and limited rate performance of traditional MnO2 powder electrodes, obtained by pressing a mixed paste of MnO2 powder, conductive additive and polymer binder onto metallic current collectors. Developing binder-free MnO2 electrodes by loading nanoscale MnO2 deposits on pre-fabricated device-ready electrode scaffolds is an effective way to achieve both high power and energy performance. These electrode scaffolds, with interconnected skeletons and pore structures, will not only provide mechanical support and electron collection as traditional current collectors but also fast ion transfer tunnels, leading to high MnO2 utilization and rate performance. This review covers design strategies, materials and fabrication methods for the electrode scaffolds. Rational evaluation of the true performance of these electrodes is carried out, which clarifies that some of the electrodes with as-claimed exceptional performances lack potential in practical applications due to poor mass loading of MnO2 and large dead volume of inert scaffold materials/void spaces in the electrode structure. Possible ways to meet this challenge and bring MnO2 electrodes from laboratory studies to real-world applications are considered.

  20. Coke briquets for metallurgy based on a thermoreactive binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjutjunnikov, J.B.; Florinskij, V.N.; Orechov, V.N.; Nefedov, P.J.; Sasmurin, V.I.; Kirenskij, V.N. (Khar' kovskii Inzhenerno-Ehkonomicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1992-02-01

    Describes a process for production of briquets for metallurgy with binder and coke fines or anthracite. The suggested binder is waste phenol resin from the production of phenol (cumene method). Resin properties are given. Possible reaction mechanisms yielding solidified matter are discussed. The production process requires 10-15% binder and applies charge heating up to 200 C over 30 min. Catalytic amounts of sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid were also employed. The production process is shown in a flowsheet. Properties of produced briquets are tabulated. The briquets were used in a 8 t/h cupola furnace and their performance was compared to that of KL-1 coke. Performance was found to be comparable; the cost of coke briquets was less than that of heating coke. 2 refs.

  1. Lectin binders. A new group of plant proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudiger, H; Gebauer, G; Gansera, R; Schurz, H; Schimpl, A [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1982-09-01

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced.

  2. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  3. Hierarchical porous carbon materials derived from petroleum pitch for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudu, Patiman; Wang, Luxiang; Xu, Mengjiao; Jia, Dianzeng; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Lixia

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a honeycomb-like carbon material derived from petroleum pitch was synthesized by a simple one-step carbonization/activation method using silica nanospheres as the hard templates. The obtained hierarchical porous carbon materials (HPCs) with a large specific surface area and uniform macropore distribution provide abundant active sites and sufficient ion migration channels. When used as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the HPCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 341.0 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate capability with a capacitance retention of 55.6% at 50 A g-1 (189.5 F g-1), and outstanding cycling performance in the three-electrode system.

  4. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  5. Binders and Hosts for High-Capacity Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin Kyle

    ≤ 20 wt% tin result in small tin (metallic and tin oxide) particles (≤ 15 nm) within the composite-CNF matrix, which yield long cycle-lives; large reversible capacities of ˜ 600 mAh g-1 are observed at 0.2-C rates, while capacities of ˜ 400 mAh g-1 (double the capacity of CNFs) are observed after hundreds of cycles at 2-C rates. The second method comprises an approach to enhance the cycle life of silicon anodes. Many researchers believe that Si is the future anode material of LIBs, and Si is capable of providing a much needed boost in overall cell performance. Silicon has the highest known charge capacity at ˜ 3579 mAh g-1, nearly an order of magnitude larger than graphite (372 mAh g-1). In attempt to realize the entire capacity of Si anodes, we use binding agents to prolong cycle life. Binding agents enhance capacity retention via favorable interactions with cell components such as active materials and electrolytes. In this study, we introduce galactomannans (specifically, guar) as viable, inexpensive, biopolymer binders for Si electrodes. In attempt to elucidate the role of the binder in Si electrodes, we study guar-electrode and -electrolyte interactions that lead to electrochemical performance enhancements. We recognize that there are deficiencies in guar-silicon systems, which we address in our following approach. Notably, we develop a guar-derived binder to increase the strength and conductivity of Si-based electrodes by crosslinking guar and carbon black dispersions. The crosslinked binders, in effect, enhance electrode adhesion and hinder electrode cracking by self-healing. This study monitors gelation via rheological methods and assesses effects of crosslinking density on physical and electrochemical properties. Lastly, we consider a vacancy-induced manganese vanadate as high-capacity, high-power anodes for LIBs. Rather than assessing nanoparticles, we tailored molecular structure to enhance electrochemical performances. X-ray diffraction studies

  6. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  7. Binders of intravenously administered zinc 65 in rat liver cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortenbeek, A.J.; Hamer, C.J.A. van den.

    1976-01-01

    The fate of intravenously injected trace amounts of 65 Zn 2+ in the rat was studied over a period of ten days after injection. Tissue distributions were determined and a special study was made of 65 Zn-binders in liver cytoplasm. A total of six 65 Zn-binding fractions was found and a tentative identification of the main 65 Zn-binders in these six fractions is given using the collected data regarding their apparent molecular weight, time dependent prominence and content of stable zinc

  8. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  9. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in th...

  10. Computer-aided design of new metal binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnek, A.; Fourches, D.; Klimchuk, O.; Marcou, G.; Kireeva, N.; Tsivadze, A.; Solov'ev, V.

    2008-01-01

    Chemoinformatics approaches open new opportunities for computer-aided design of new efficient metal binders. Here, we demonstrate performances of ISIDA and COMET software tools to predict stability constants (log K) of the metal ion/organic ligand complexes in solution and to design in silico new molecules possessing desirable properties. The predictive models for log K of lanthanides complexation in water have been developed. Some new uranyl binders based on monoamides and on phosphoryl-containing podands were suggested theoretically, then synthesized and tested experimentally. Reasonable agreement between experimental uranyl distribution coefficients and theoretically predicted values has been observed. (orig.)

  11. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  12. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Brancucci

    Full Text Available The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization. Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  14. Evaluation of the Texas tier system for seal coat binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) instituted a change in their seal coat binder specification in 2010 which allowed districts to select multiple binders within specified traffic levels or tiers for the purposes of allowing contractors to...

  15. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  16. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  17. Properies of binder systems containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittiya Kaewmanee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash and limestone powder are two major widely available cement replacing materials in Thailand. However, the current utilization of these materials is still not optimized due to limited information on properties of multi-binder systems. This paper reports on the mechanical and durability properties of mixtures containing cement, fly ash, and limestone powder as single, binary, and ternary binder systems. The results showed that a single binder system consisting of only cement gave the best carbonation resistance. A binary binder system with fly ash exhibited superior performances in long-term compressive strength and many durability properties except carbonation and magnesium sulfate resistances, while early compressive strength of a binary binder system with limestone powder was excellent. The ternary binder system, taking the most benefit of selective cement replacing materials, yielded, though not the best, satisfactory performances in almost all properties. Thus, the optimization of binders can be achieved through a multi-binder system.

  18. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  19. Effect of food binders on the textual and sensory characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... On the basis of the textural and sensory characteristics of the local binders studied, D. microcarpum at. 0.7% concentration was ... known as local food binders are mainly tuber starches ... refrigeration storage. The samples ...

  20. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  1. [Factors influencing the pitch and loudness of tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, S; Asoh, S; Watanabe, Y

    1992-11-01

    Pitch match and loudness balance tests were given to 397 cases with tinnitus. The factors which influenced tinnitus pitch and loudness were analyzed statistically from the clinical point of view. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Onomatopoeia of tinnitus, either [Keeeen] or [Jeeeen], were observed in a majority of cases. 2) Significantly sharp sounding onomatopoeia such as [Keeeen] or [Meeeen] had high pitches, over 4kHz, and dull sounds like [Gooooh] or [Buuuun] had low pitches, below 500Hz. 3) Acute stage tinnitus, within one month of onset, had a significantly depressed pitch and walked loudness, above 6dB. 4) The pitches observed in cases with Meniere's disease and chronic otitis media were distributed evenly from low frequencies to high. In other cases, especially presbyacusis and noise deafness, high pitch tinnitus (above 4kHz) was frequently noted. The loudness of tinnitus without hearing loss was significantly greater than in other diseases. 5) As a rule the more deteriorated the hearing level was, the lower the frequency of the pitch, and the smaller the loudness in tinnitus. 6) A high pitch of tinnitus nearly corresponded with hearing type, that is, the pitch of tinnitus was also in accordance with the disturbed frequency in the hearing threshold.

  2. Alkali – activated binders: a review part 1. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    The disintegration of concrete structures made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a worrying topic of increasing significance. The development of new binders with longer durability is therefore needed. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to OPC binders, which seems to have superior durability and environmental impact. This paper reviews current knowledge about alkali-activated binders. The subjects of Part 1 in this paper are historical background, terminology a...

  3. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nida Chaimoon; Krit Chaimoon

    2014-01-01

    For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB) and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historica...

  4. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelyubova, V; Pavlenko, N; Netsvet, D

    2015-01-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier. (paper)

  5. Effect of type of binder on growth, digestibility, and energetic balance of Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, C; Tut, J; Baeza, J; Sanchez, A; Sosa, V; Pascual, C; Arena, L; Domingues, P; Cuzon, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, total apparent digestibility, and some elements of the energetic balance of early O. maya juveniles. Two experiments were performed. One was aimed at evaluating the effect of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, and energetic balance and the other at knowing the effect of the binder on total apparent digestibility of O. maya. Binder type affected growth and survival of early O....

  6. Coaxial silver nanowire network core molybdenum oxide shell supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-01-01

    We present a new hybrid material composed of molybdenum (IV) oxide (MoO 2 ) shell on highly conducting silver nanowire (Ag NW) core in the network form for the realization of coaxial Ag NW/MoO 2 nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Ag NWs were simply spray coated onto glass substrates to form conductive networks and conformal MoO 2 layer was electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to create binder-free coaxial supercapacitor electrodes. Combination of Ag NWs and pseudocapacitive MoO 2 generated an enhanced electrochemical energy storage capacity and a specific capacitance of 500.7 F/g was obtained at a current density of 0.25 A/g. Fabricated supercapacitor electrodes showed excellent capacity retention after 5000 cycles. The methods and the design investigated herein open a wide range of opportunities for nanowire based coaxial supercapacitors.

  7. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscope study on graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, K.A.; Sato, Tomohiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on graphite electrodes has increased recently in the quest to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Topographic and frictional changes on the surface of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1 M LiCiO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1) electrolyte were examined during charge and discharge by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy simultaneously in real-time. Solid electrolyte interphase film formation commenced at approximately 2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and stable film formation with an island-like morphology was observed below approximately 0.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Further experiments on a KS-44 graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride binder composite electrode showed similar phenomena.

  8. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Yuanyuan [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (China)

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part ''how to design superior electrode architectures''. In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Recent advances in metal oxide-based electrode architecture design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping; Huang, Xintang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-10-02

    Metal oxide nanostructures are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors because of their high specific capacity/capacitance, typically 2-3 times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials. However, their cycling stability and rate performance still can not meet the requirements of practical applications. It is therefore urgent to improve their overall device performance, which depends on not only the development of advanced electrode materials but also in a large part "how to design superior electrode architectures". In the article, we will review recent advances in strategies for advanced metal oxide-based hybrid nanostructure design, with the focus on the binder-free film/array electrodes. These binder-free electrodes, with the integration of unique merits of each component, can provide larger electrochemically active surface area, faster electron transport and superior ion diffusion, thus leading to substantially improved cycling and rate performance. Several recently emerged concepts of using ordered nanostructure arrays, synergetic core-shell structures, nanostructured current collectors, and flexible paper/textile electrodes will be highlighted, pointing out advantages and challenges where appropriate. Some future electrode design trends and directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Recent Progress in Self-Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder-free electrodes for LIBs, self-supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self-supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder-free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full-cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self-supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  11. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  12. Comparative investigation on electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone at carbon ionic liquid electrode, ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jian Bin

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquid, 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6 ), has been used to fabricate two new electrodes, carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) and ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE), using graphite powder mixed with HMIMPF 6 or the mixture of HMIMPF 6 /paraffin liquid as the binder, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of hydroquinone at the CILE, the IL/CPE and the CPE were investigated in phosphate buffer solution. At all these electrodes, hydroquinone showed a pair of redox peaks. The order of the current response and the standard rate constant of hydroquinone at these electrodes were as follows: CILE > IL/CPE > CPE, while the peak-to-peak potential separation was in an opposite sequence: CILE < IL/CPE < CPE. The results show the superiority of CILE to IL/CPE and CPE, and IL/CPE to CPE in terms of promoting electron transfer, improving reversibility and enhancing sensitivity. The CILE was chosen as working electrode to determine hydroquinone by differential pulse voltammetry, which can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of hydroquinone in medicated skin cosmetic cream

  13. Three-dimensional carbon cloth-supported ZnO nanorod arrays as a binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lanyan; Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxin@scnu.edu.cn [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Yin, Fuxing [Synergy Innovation Institute of GDUT (China); Zhang, Chengwei [Hebei University of Technology, Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology (China); Gao, Jinwei; Liu, Junming [South China Normal University, Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Zhou, Guofu [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics (China); Zhang, Yongguang, E-mail: yongguangzhang@hebut.edu.cn; Bakenov, Zhumabay [Synergy Innovation Institute of GDUT (China)

    2017-02-15

    Three-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible high surface area carbon cloth were successfully synthesized and directly used as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries without using any binder additive. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared hybrid ZnO electrode were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When tested as anodes in a lithium cell, the hybrid electrode demonstrated a high discharge capacity along with excellent rate capability and good cycling stability, delivering a reversible capacity of 891 mAh g{sup −1} at the second cycle and retaining a capacity of 469 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles.

  14. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Atsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Micromegas with resistive anodes will be used for the NSW upgrades of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Resistive electrodes are used in MPGD devices to prevent sparks in high-rate operation. Large-area resistive electrodes for Micromegas have been developed using two different technologies: screen printing and carbon sputtering. The maximum resistive foil size is 45 × 220 cm with a printed pattern of 425-μm pitch strips. These technologies are also suitable for mass production. Prototypes of a production model series have been successfully produced. In this paper, we report the development, the production status, and the test results of resistive Micromegas.

  15. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. Historic lime-binders : An example of the 19th century Dutch military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Nijland, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  17. Historic lime-binders: An example of 19th Century Dutch Military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Copuroglu, O.; Heinemann, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  18. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  19. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A.; Larson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. PMID:24355545

  20. Oil-Acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, E.M.S.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  1. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  2. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature.

  3. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in the granulation of the same materials for the sake of comparison. The granulations were evaluated with regard to particle size and particle size distribution, granule strength, bulk density, flowability, moisture content and compression behavior. In addition, tablets prepared and evaluated from these granules. Taste and flavor of the prepared tablet have been tested by seven healthy volunteers. Within the scope of this work, dates syrup showed excellent properties as a tablet binder in comparison to starch paste or sucrose syrup for the granulation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble materials. Also, better flavoring and masking taste have been noticed from an evaluation by human volunteers demonstrating the usefulness of the date syrup as sweetener and flavoring the tablets in addition to its use as binder.

  4. Binder Development for Metal Injection Moulding: A CSIR Perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the CSIR’s progress and challenges concerning the development of a wax-based binder system suitable for metal injection moulding (MIM). It reports on a consolidation study wherein different widely used wax-based feedstock...

  5. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  6. Composite Gypsum Binders with Silica-containing Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, N. V.; Lesovik, V. S.; Drebezgova, M. Yu; Shatalova, S. V.; Alaskhanov, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    New types of fine mineral additives are proposed for designing water-resistant Composite Gypsum Binders (CGB); these additives significantly differ from traditional quartz feed: wastes from wet magnetic separation of Banded Iron Formation (BIF WMS waste), nanodispersed silica powder (NSP), chalk. Possibility of their combined use has been studied as well.

  7. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...

  8. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  9. Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitable addition of mineral admixtures like fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), metakaolin (MK) etc., in concrete improves strength and durability characteristics of concrete. This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study ...

  10. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived from Xanthosoma sagittifolium in metronidazole tablets. Onyishi Ikechukwu V., Chime Salome A.* and Ugwu Jonathan C. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, ...

  11. Interactions Of Binder, Disintegrant And Compression Pressure In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Binders, disintegrants and compression pressures play important roles in producing good tablets. The interactions between these three factors were analyzed to observe how they contribute to tablet properties. The concentration levels of the factors were determined using 23 factorial study designs by wet granulation ...

  12. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori; Roberts, Timothy H.; Long, Timothy E.; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes

  13. Optimization of binder, disintegrant and compression pressure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was done by studying the contributions of variable factors of binder concentration, disintegrant concentration and compression pressure to tablet friability, hardness and disintegration time under factor combinations given by 23 factorial experimental designs. The effect of every factor was determined by finding the ...

  14. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  15. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  16. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  17. Combined use of a field-plate and narrow p-barriers for a wide-pitch ohmic-side readout of the BELLE double-sided SVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, H.; Matsuda, T.

    1997-01-01

    We explored wide-pitch ohmic-side structures for the BELLE SVD, where we proposed a field-plate structure combined with narrow p-barriers in between the readout electrodes of 90, 113, 180, and 226 μm-pitch detectors. The effect of the p-barriers was studied with a numerical model to trace the carrier trajectories. The charge collection and sharing properties were examined in practice for prototype small-size detectors with an IR pulse shining from either the junction side or the ohmic side. The channel separation capabilities were also shown to be appropriate under nominal operation conditions. (orig.)

  18. Intensive Hemodialysis, Mineral and Bone Disorder, and Phosphate Binder Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Weinhandl, Eric D; McCullough, Peter A; Morfin, Jose A

    2016-11-01

    Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome. Dialysis patients consume a mean of 19 pills per day, half of which are phosphate binders. Medicare Part D expenditures on binders for dialysis patients approached $700 million in 2013. Phosphorus removal with thrice-weekly HD (4 hours per session) is ∼3,000mg/wk. However, clearance is unlikely to counterbalance dietary intake, which varies around a mean of 7,000mg/wk. Dietary restriction and phosphate binders are important interventions, but each has limitations. Dietary control is complicated by limited access to healthy food choices and unclear labeling. Meanwhile, adherence to phosphate binders is poor, especially in younger patients and those with high pill burden. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces serum phosphorus levels. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial, short daily and nocturnal schedules reduced serum phosphorus levels by 0.6 and 1.6mg/dL, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. A similar effect of nocturnal HD was observed in an earlier trial. In the daily arm of the FHN trial, intensive HD significantly lowered estimated phosphate binder dose per day, whereas in the nocturnal arm, intensive HD led to binder discontinuation in 75% of patients. However, intensive HD appears to have no meaningful effects on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. In conclusion, intensive HD, especially nocturnal HD, lowers serum phosphorus levels and decreases the need for

  19. Shoulder and Scapular Kinematics during the Windmill Softball Pitch

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Sherry I.; Kraszewski, Andrew; Kontaxis, Andreas; Gibbons, Mandi; Bido, Jennifer; Graziano, Jessica; Hafer, Jocelyn; Jones, Kristofer J.; Hillstrom, Howard; Fealy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pitch count has been studied extensively in the overhand throwing athlete. However, pitch count and fatigue have not been systematically evaluated in the female windmill (underhand) throwing athlete. Direct kinematic measurements of the glenohumeral and scapulo-thoracic joint have not to be correlated and determined. The purpose is to measure scapular kinematics for the high school female windmill softball pitcher and identify kinematic adaptions and changes in pitching performanc...

  20. Kinematics changes in technique of a softball pitch

    OpenAIRE

    Tomášek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Headline: Kinematic changes in technique of a softball pitch. Aims of thesis: I will compare the pitches ofprofessinal european softball wonam pitchers and then I will compare their technique with professional czech woman pitcher. Methods: Results: Key words: For examination of different techniques, I choosed thease professinal european softball wonam pitchers 3 Italians and 2 Greeks. Videotape was taken on European championship 2005 in Prague. For description of softball pitch I used a metho...

  1. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-09

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362986-09$15.00/0.

  2. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  3. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.

    2013-01-01

    -ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to identify the chemical changes occurring in the PUF binder coated mineral fibres and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres during that ageing. The samples were aged in a climate......Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...... chamber for 7 days at 70 °C and 95% relative humidity. In the case of the PUF binder coated fibres, quantitative XPS measurements showed some significant changes in the atomic composition of the PUF binder coated mineral fibres after ageing, including decreased urea and carbonyl groups concentrations...

  4. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  5. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  6. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  7. Study of the electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of green anodes for Lithium ion batteries prepared with anatase TiO2 and water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water soluble CMC and PVDF binders are used to prepare anatase TiO 2 electrodes. ► The electrochemical behavior of the different electrodes is studied between 20 and −30 °C. ► CMC/TiO 2 anodes show lower ICL, lower polarization and higher low-temperature capacity at high rates than PVDF/TiO 2 anodes. ► Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results show better kinetics for CMC/TiO 2 electrodes. - Abstract: The electrochemical behavior at low temperatures of anatase TiO 2 electrodes for Lithium ion batteries have been evaluated by galvanostatic cycles in the temperature range 20 to −30 °C. Two different manufacturing processes have been used to prepare anatase anodes containing water soluble sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or poly(vinilydene fluoride) (PVDF) as binder. The low temperature performances at different charge/discharge rates of TiO 2 /CMC and TiO 2 /PVDF electrodes are compared and discussed in terms of irreversible capacity loss (ICL) at the first cycle, capacity retention and reversible capacity. The kinetics of the electrodes containing CMC or PVDF is evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

  8. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  9. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  10. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  11. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistically Efficient Methods for Pitch and DOA Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    , it was recently considered to estimate the DOA and pitch jointly. In this paper, we propose two novel methods for DOA and pitch estimation. They both yield maximum-likelihood estimates in white Gaussian noise scenar- ios, where the SNR may be different across channels, as opposed to state-of-the-art methods......Traditionally, direction-of-arrival (DOA) and pitch estimation of multichannel, periodic sources have been considered as two separate problems. Separate estimation may render the task of resolving sources with similar DOA or pitch impossible, and it may decrease the estimation accuracy. Therefore...

  13. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  14. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  15. Impact of non-binder ingredients and molecular weight of polymer binders on heat assisted twin screw dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Thompson, M R; O'Donnell, K P

    2018-01-30

    Two grades of commercial AFFINISOL™ HPMC HME were used as polymer binders to explore the influence of polymer viscosity and concentration on a novel heat assisted dry granulation process with a twin screw extruder. Contributions of other non-binder ingredients in the formulations were also studied for lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and an active pharmaceutical ingredient of caffeine. As sensitive indicators of processing conditions that expose the drug to high internally generated heat, dehydration of α-lactose monohydrate and polymorphic transformation of caffeine were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, any decomposition of caffeine was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Granular samples were characterized by particle size, circularity, fracture strength and their temperature on the exit of extruder. Higher screw speed and lower feed rate were found to help particles agglomerate by allowing feed particles a greater opportunity to increase in temperature. Lower binder molecular weight and higher binder concentration enable granules to build stronger strength and thereby lead to higher particle size. This new twin screw dry granulation was demonstrated as offering advantages over conventional hot melt granulation by minimizing thermal degradation of the tested ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  17. Formic Acid Electrooxidation by a Platinum Nanotubule Array Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Broaddus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional metallic nanostructures such as nanowires, rods, and tubes have drawn much attention for electrocatalytic applications due to potential advantages that include fewer diffusion impeding interfaces with polymeric binders, more facile pathways for electron transfer, and more effective exposure of active surface sites. 1D nanostructured electrodes have been fabricated using a variety of methods, typically showing improved current response which has been attributed to improved CO tolerance, enhanced surface activity, and/or improved transport characteristics. A template wetting approach was used to fabricate an array of platinum nanotubules which were examined electrochemically with regard to the electrooxidation of formic acid. Arrays of 100 and 200 nm nanotubules were compared to a traditional platinum black catalyst, all of which were found to have similar surface areas. Peak formic acid oxidation current was observed to be highest for the 100 nm nanotubule array, followed by the 200 nm array and the Pt black; however, CO tolerance of all electrodes was similar, as were the onset potentials of the oxidation and reduction peaks. The higher current response was attributed to enhanced mass transfer in the nanotubule electrodes, likely due to a combination of both the more open nanostructure as well as the lack of a polymeric binder in the catalyst layer.

  18. Process analysis of the technology for the production of graphite electrodes by the aid of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1986-01-01

    Products of technical carbon are made of cokes of different origin, ash content and grain size and of different binders (pitch, tar). For the full understanding of the technical carbon production process analyses are necessary. Investigations were performed by aid of the radioindicator method. One coke component was labelled by 140 La. From the specific radioactivity of samples of a 36 ton mixed coke charge it could be shown that some of the technological steps, i.e. mixing at the coke storage place, calcination, milling, sieving, and mixing with the binder give good mixing effects. Continuous radioactivity measurements (on stream) of the coke mixture showed different streaming velocities of the coke through the furnaces and the furnace chambers, i.e. charges of different composition following each other are mixed together over some hours. (author)

  19. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode and the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery using the electrode; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku to sorewo mochiita nikkeru/suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-02-14

    With respect to the conventional nickel-hydrogen secondary battery, pulverization of the hydrogen storage alloy due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles can be prevented by using a fluorocarbon resin as a binder in manufacture of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode; however, the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging can not be fully controlled. The invention relates to control of the inner pressure increase of the nickel-hydrogen secondary battery in case of overcharging. As to the hydrogen storage alloy electrode, the compound comprising the hydrogen storage alloy powder as a main ingredient is supported by a current collector; further, the compound particularly comprises a fluororubber as a binder. The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery equipped with the hydrogen storage alloy electrode can control the inner pressure increase of the battery in case of overcharging, and lessen decrease of the battery capacity due to repetition of charging-discharging cycles over long time. The effects are dependent on the use of the fluororubber as a binder which has good flexibility, and strong binding capacity as well as water repellency. 1 tab.

  20. Engineering one-dimensional and two-dimensional birnessite manganese dioxides on nickel foam-supported cobalt–aluminum layered double hydroxides for advanced binder-free supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Xiaodong

    2014-11-19

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report a facile decoration of the hierarchical nickel foam-supported CoAl layered double hydroxides (CoAl LDHs) with MnO2 nanowires and nanosheets by a chemical bath method and a hydrothermal approach for high-performance supercapacitors. We demonstrate that owing to the sophisticated configuration of binder-free LDH@MnO2 on the conductive Ni foam (NF), the designed NF/LDH@MnO2 nanowire composites exhibit a highly boosted specific capacitance of 1837.8 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, a good rate capability, and an excellent cycling stability (91.8% retention after 5000 cycles). By applying the hierarchical NF/LDH@MnO2 nanowires as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide activated graphene as the negative electrode, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor produces an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg-1 with a maximum power density of 9 kW kg-1. Such strategies with controllable assembly capability could open up a new and facile avenue in fabricating advanced binder-free energy storage electrodes. This journal is

  1. Improvement of interface property for membrane electrode assembly in fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Sato, Y.; Kakigi, T.; Matsuura, A.; Mitani, N.; Muto, F.; Li Jingye; Miura, T.; Oshima, A.; Washio, M.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) is consisted of proton exchange membrane (PEM), binder and Pt/C electrodes. In our previous work, partial-fluorinated sulfonic acid membranes were synthesized for PEMs using pre-EB grafting method. In the fuel cell (FC) operation, the dispersion of per-fluorinated sulfonic acid such as Nafion (DuPont de Nemours LTD.) was used for binder material. So, it is found that the trouble on conditions at three phase interface would occur at high temperature FC operation due to the differences of thermal properties. Thus, the control of interface property is important. In this study, in order to improve the interface properties, proton exchange membrane was synthesized from poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoroalkylvinylether) (PFA), and then the obtained sulfonated PFA (s-PFA) was applied for binder material. PFA membranes were grafted in liquid styrene after EB irradiation under nitrogen atmosphere, and then sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid solutions. The s-PFA membranes were milled to the powder in the mortar, and the average diameter was about 13 μm. S-PFA / Nafion blend dispersion was prepared by s-PFA mixed with Nafion dispersion with various ratios. MEAs were fabricated by using obtained binders, s-PFA membranes and Pt / C electrodes, followed by hot pressing at 110 degree C and at 8 MPa during 3 min. The properties of MEAs were measured by electrochemical analyses. In consequence, ion conductivities in MEA using obtained binders were about 1.3 times higher than those using Nafion dispersion. And, both power densities at 500 mA/cm 2 and maximum power densities were 1.1 times higher than those of Nafion dispersion. These are due to the improvement of the proton transfer at interface. (authors)

  2. Subcortical plasticity following perceptual learning in a pitch discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Plack, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Practice can lead to dramatic improvements in the discrimination of auditory stimuli. In this study, we investigated changes of the frequency-following response (FFR), a subcortical component of the auditory evoked potentials, after a period of pitch discrimination training. Twenty-seven adult listeners were trained for 10 h on a pitch discrimination task using one of three different complex tone stimuli. One had a static pitch contour, one had a rising pitch contour, and one had a falling pitch contour. Behavioral measures of pitch discrimination and FFRs for all the stimuli were measured before and after the training phase for these participants, as well as for an untrained control group (n = 12). Trained participants showed significant improvements in pitch discrimination compared to the control group for all three trained stimuli. These improvements were partly specific for stimuli with the same pitch modulation (dynamic vs. static) and with the same pitch trajectory (rising vs. falling) as the trained stimulus. Also, the robustness of FFR neural phase locking to the sound envelope increased significantly more in trained participants compared to the control group for the static and rising contour, but not for the falling contour. Changes in FFR strength were partly specific for stimuli with the same pitch modulation (dynamic vs. static) of the trained stimulus. Changes in FFR strength, however, were not specific for stimuli with the same pitch trajectory (rising vs. falling) as the trained stimulus. These findings indicate that even relatively low-level processes in the mature auditory system are subject to experience-related change.

  3. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (f m =4Hz) and fast (f m =20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  5. Phosphorization boosts the capacitance of mixed metal nanosheet arrays for high performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yingying; Zhao, Hongyang; Zong, Yan; Li, Xinghua; Sun, Yong; Feng, Juan; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xinliang; Du, Yaping

    2018-05-01

    Binary transition metal phosphides hold immense potential as innovative electrode materials for constructing high-performance energy storage devices. Herein, porous binary nickel-cobalt phosphide (NiCoP) nanosheet arrays anchored on nickel foam (NF) were rationally designed as self-supported binder-free electrodes with high supercapacitance performance. Taking the combined advantages of compositional features and array architectures, the nickel foam supported NiCoP nanosheet array (NiCoP@NF) electrode possesses superior electrochemical performance in comparison with Ni-Co LDH@NF and NiCoO2@NF electrodes. The NiCoP@NF electrode shows an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2143 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and retained 1615 F g-1 even at 20 A g-1, showing excellent rate performance. Furthermore, a binder-free all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device is designed, which exhibits a high energy density of 27 W h kg-1 at a power density of 647 W kg-1. The hierarchical binary nickel-cobalt phosphide nanosheet arrays hold great promise as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance.

  6. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  7. High performance cermet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  8. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  9. Preparation of binder-free porous ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanoleafs using ZnO as pore forming agent displaying both high mass loading and excellent electrochemical energy storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Panpan; Miao, Chenxu; Cheng, Kui; Ye, Ke; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling; Zhang, Xianfa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous Ni(OH) 2 nanoleaf is prepared by using ZnO as pore forming agent. • The mass loading of active material on binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode is as high as 10 mg. • The porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode displays high specific capacitance of 1142C g −1 . - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 has been reported widely as one of the most promising supercapactior electrode materials due to its high specific capacitance, yet which were only based on low mass loading. Thus, it is desirable to promote supercapacitor performance for high mass loading Ni(OH) 2 through optimizing microstructure. In this work, we first prepared crossed ultrathin Ni(OH) 2 /ZnO nanoleafs directly grown on nickel foam via hydrothermal method, and then we produced pores on the nanoleafs by dissolving ZnO in alkaline solution. Definitely, this unique structure design for high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 electrode could benefit the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of electrons, efficiently improving the supercapacitor performance. The obtained porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode exhibits a mass specific capacity of 1142C g −1 based on 10 mg active materials, equating to a areal specific capaciy of 11.4C cm −2 , and pleasant cycling stability with retention of 85% of initial capacity after 10000 charge-discharge cycles. The fabricated asymmetric device shows a high energy density of 42 Wh kg −1 (4.73 mWh cm −3 ) at power density of 105 W kg −1 (17 mW cm −3 ). These results demonstrate the optimized structure makes the high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode could also display excellent supercapacitor performance.

  10. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    with a theoretical model based on aeroelastic simulations. The blade moment is found to have only minor influence on the friction in the blade bearing. The main factors affecting the static friction are the temperature and time after the latest pitch movement. Pitch motor current and torque are proportional...

  11. Pitch Systems and Curwen Hand Signs: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Clark, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Learning to sing from notation is a complex task, and accurately performing pitches without an external reference can be particularly challenging. As such, the use of mnemonic devices to reinforce tonal relationships is a long-standing practice among musicians. Chief among these mnemonic devices are pitch syllable systems and Curwen hand signs.…

  12. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. (paper)

  13. Autistic Traits and Enhanced Perceptual Representation of Pitch and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Grube, Manon

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced basic perceptual discrimination has been reported for pitch in individuals with autism spectrum conditions. We test whether there is a correlational pattern of enhancement across the broader autism phenotype and whether this correlation occurs for the discrimination of pitch, time and loudness. Scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient…

  14. Pointed and plateau-shaped pitch accents in North Frisian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Hoekstra, Jarich

    2015-01-01

    for language documentation and conservation purposes. We selected a small part of this corpus – interviews of 10 elderly speakers – and conducted multiparametric F0 and duration measurements, focusing on nuclear rising-falling pitch accent patterns. We found strong evidence for a phonological pitch...

  15. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch conditions with injury incidence and severity.

  16. Sparse Multi-Pitch and Panning Estimation of Stereophonic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvall, Ted; Jakobsson, Andreas; Hansen, Martin Weiss

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present in the mix...

  17. Pitch identification and discrimination for complex tones with many harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.; Smurzyński, J.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing up to 11 successive harmonics. In particular, the question is raised whether the pitch percept of the missing fundamental is mediated only by low-order resolvable harmonics, or whether it can also be

  18. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  19. Estimates of pitch strength for musicians and nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Marsha G.; Zettler, Cynthia M.; Follmer, Michelle J.; Faulk, Margaret; Takagi, Michael J.

    2003-04-01

    To measure the strength of the pitch of iterated rippled noise (IRN), 19 adults were tested in an operant conditioning procedure. Seven adults had music training and currently played an instrument; 12 adults had no training and did not currently play an instrument. To generate IRN, a 500-ms Gaussian noise stimulus was delayed by 5 or 6 ms (pitches of 200 or 166 Hz) and added to the original for 16 iterations. IRN stimuli having one delay were presented repeatedly. On signal trials the delay changed for 6 s. Stimulus level roved from 63-67 dBA (background of 28 dBA). Adults learned to press a button when the stimulus changed. Testing started with IRN stimuli having 0-dB attenuation (i.e., maximal pitch strength). Stimuli having weaker pitches (i.e., progressively greater attenuation applied to the delayed noise) followed. Strength of pitch was quantified as the maximum attenuation for which pitch was discerned. For each subject, threshold attenuation for pitch strength was extrapolated as the 71% point on a psychometric function depicting percent correct performance as a function of attenuation. Mean thresholds revealed that the pitch percept was similar for both nonmusically trained (18.70 dB) and musically trained adults (18.73 dB).

  20. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-19

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint.

  1. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  2. Shoulder joint velocity during fastball pitching in baseball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasparutto, X.; van der Graaff, E; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Colloud, F.; Domalain, M.; Monnet, T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the rotation and translation velocity of the shoulder complex during fastball pitching in baseball. 8 pitchers from the Dutch AAA team performed each 3 fastball pitches. Their motion was recorded by an opto-electronic device. Kinematic computation was

  3. Electrochemical characterisation of novel screen-printed carbon paste electrodes for voltammetric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sýs Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the homemade screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing basically graphite powder (or glassy carbon powder, poly(vinylbchloride (PVC and paraffin oil. It compares the electrochemical properties of conventional carbon-based electrodes and prepared screen-printed carbon paste electrodes towards [Fe(CN6]3-/[Fe(CN6]4- and quinone/hydroquinone redox couples. Significant attention is paid to the development of the corresponding carbon inks, printing and the surface characterisation of the resulting electrodes by the scanning electron microscopy. An optimization consisted of the selection of the organic solvent, the optimal content of the used polymer with the chosen paste binder, appropriate isolation of electric contact, etc. Very similar properties of the prepared screen-printed electrodes, containing only corresponding carbon powder and 3 % PVC, with their conventional carbon paste electrode and glassy carbon-based electrodes, were observed during their characterisation. Screen-printed electrodes, with the pasting liquid usually provided satisfactory analytical data. Moreover, they can be used in the flow injection analysis and could undoubtedly replace the carbon paste grooved electrodes. It can be assumed that certain progress in the development of electrode materials was achieved by this research.

  4. Fabricating method of gas diffusion electrode for fuel cell. Nenryo denchiyo gas kakusan denkyoku no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H [Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-01-28

    When the cation exchange film of the solid high polymer electrolyte fuel cell which uses the cation exchange film as the electrolyte (PEMFC) is bonded with the electrode catalyst layers for the anode and cathode, the hot-press conditions are severe and satisfactory bonding is hard to be achieved because the softening temperature of polytetrafluoroethylene used as the binder for the bonding is higher than that of the cation exchange film. This invention is concerned with a means of obtaining PEMFC which can generate high cell voltage, wherein perfluorosulfonic acid system copolymer solution or dispersed solution similar to that used for the cation exchange film is used as the binder when bonding carbon cloth or carbon paper coated with electrode catalyst layers for anode and cathode to the cation exchange film, setting of hot-pressing conditions is made easier, and the adhesion and bonding of the cation exchange film surface and the electrode catalyst layers are improved. 1 fig.

  5. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  6. Unsteady force characteristics on foils undergoing pitching motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chang Jo

    2006-01-01

    In the present study the unsteady forces acting on the pitching foils such as a flat plate, NACA0010, NACA0020, NACA65-0910 and BTE have been measured by using a six-axis sensor in a circulating water tunnel at a low Reynolds number region. The unsteady characteristics of the dynamic drag and lift have been compared to the quasi-steady ones which are measured under the stationary condition. The pitching motion is available for keeping the lift higher after the separation occurs. Especially, the characteristics of the dynamic lift are quite different from the quasi-steady one at high pitching frequency regions. As the pitching frequency deceases, the amplitude of the dynamic lift becomes closer to the quasi-steady one. However, the phase remains different between the steady and unsteady conditions even at low pitching frequencies. On the other hand, the dynamic drag is governed strongly by the angle of attack

  7. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...... with ICPSO-PID algorithm has a smaller overshoot, a shorter tuning time and better robustness. The design method proposed in the paper can be applied in a practical electro-hydraulic pitch control system for WTG....

  8. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  9. OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES AS THE INDICATORS OF SULFUR BINDERS NANOMODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both computed dependence and theoretical estimation of the variation range for generalized material’s quality criterion are presented. It is shown that first of all realization of nanotechnology should be held in respect to the properties which determine the area of material’s application. As the particular criteria of the material’s quality, it is most appropriate to use the attributes which are closely connected to the intrinsic features of the process or property being analyzed. The technology of sulfur-based binders was the area of application of nanoscale improvement of disperse phases. It was found that sulfur-based binders are chemically resistant materials (according to RU GOST 25246–82**. Fillers nanomodification increases resistance of materials within the predicted range of values.

  10. Binder-free Na-mordenite pellets for tritium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toci, F.; Viola, A.; Edwards, R.A.H.; Mencarelli, T.; Brossa, P.

    1995-01-01

    Gas separation systems based on adsorption on zeolites are used in various applications involving tritium: air and inert gas detritiation, purification of Q 2 and Q 2 O, and isotope separation. Differential adsorption processes are attractive because efficient separation can be combined with small plant dimensions, low energy consumption and a small tritium inventory. Zeolites are the usual choice for the adsorbate because they combine high adsorption capacity with high selectivity and stability. However, commercial pellets show appreciable tritium retention due to inappropriate activation procedures or the presence of a binder. In this paper we report a research study aimed at producing a pelletized zeolite without binder (self-bound) with low tritium retention. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  12. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  13. Binder extrusion of sliding wear of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen-Basse, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has previously been proposed that preferential removal of the cobalt binder is an important mechanism in the abrasive wear of cemented carbides in the WC-Co family. It is here demonstrated that binder extrusion occurs also in metal-to-metal sliding wear contacts. The wear scar generated by sliding a hardened steel ball repeatedly over a polished WC-Co surface was studied by SEM. The extruded cobalt fragments accumulate by surface defects, such as cracks caused by the sliding loaded ball, and gradual microfragmentation of the carbide grains follows. The energy required to extrude the cobalt and cause the gradual change in surface layer microstructure is provided by the frictional forces

  14. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Wu, Fu; Hao-Shen, Zhou; Ming-Qing, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders. The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8–14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Organic-mineral binder for molybdenum concentrate granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guro, Vitaliy P.; Ibragimova, Matluba A.; Safarov, Edgorjon T.

    2016-01-01

    Process of pyrite cinders production from Mo middlings consists of molybdenite concentrate granulation, firing to oxidize sulfide minerals and to recover Re-oxide. If kaolin binder is used a pyrite cinders dilution with Mo takes place. So, the development of organic binding agents, alternative to kaolin, is an actual issue. The approach is based on the comparison of the hydrophilic, strength and technological features of the hydrometallurgical processing of pellets. The new batch is developed. It differs from the traditional mixture by polymer burning and minimizing Mo dilution, thus aiming to maximize Re, Au, Ag recovery. The composition of the new organic-mineral batch is as follows: 97.3 % of molybdenite concentrate, 2 % of kaolin and 0.7 % of SK polymer. Keywords: molybdenum middlings, binder, organic additive, batch, granulation.

  16. Binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 quantum dots core-shell nanorod array anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsiang; Cho, Hsun-Wei; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-06-01

    In this work, ZnSnO3 quantum dots (QDs), instead of commonly used conductive carbon, are grown on the ZnO nanorod (NR) array to construct the binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode on carbon cloth for lithium-ion battery. The ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with an improved cycling performance and superior rate capability compared to the ZnO NR array electrode. At a current density of 200 mAg-1, 15.8% capacity loss is acquired in the ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode after 110 cycles with capacity retention of 1073 mAhg-1. Significant increases in reversible capacities from 340 to 545 mAhg-1 and from 95 to 390 mAhg-1 at current densities of 1000 and 2000 mAg-1, respectively, are achieved as the ZnO NR arrays are coated with the ZnSnO3 QD shells. The remarkably improved electrochemical performances result from that the configuration of binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode not only facilitates the charge transfer through the solid electrolyte interface and the electronic/ionic conduction boundary as well as lithium ion diffusion but also effectively accommodates the volume change during repeated charge/discharge processes.

  17. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ˜124% (237 F g-1) with excellent cycling stability (˜93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors.

  18. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Christine H J; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ∼124% (237 F g −1 ) with excellent cycling stability (∼93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors. (paper)

  19. Additive manufacturing of ceramics: Stereolithography versus binder jetting

    OpenAIRE

    Nachum, Sarig; Vogt, Joachim; Raether, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Stereolithography and Binder Jetting are two promising Additive Manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of complex ceramics components. The Fraunhofer Center for High Temperature Material and Design HTL/DE has experience in the fabrication and development of ceramic and metallic components with both technologies. This paper describes and compares the respective process setups as well as the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, and discusses future challenges and developments ...

  20. High temperature zirconia binders for ex-vessel catcher brickwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.N.; Borovkova, L.B.; Akopov, F.A.; Akopyan, A.A.; Barykin, B.M.; Borodina, T.I.; Val'yano, G.E.; Bel'maz, N.S.; Bel'maz, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    The studies on selection of compositions of binding materials (mortars) on the zirconium dioxide basis with two types of binders - the barium monoaluminate and zirconium dioxide binding suspension - are accomplished. The bases of technology for their fabrication and application are developed; the density, porosity, shrinkage and behavior in contact with the steel melts and iron oxide are specified. The mortars developed are recommended for application in the external trap fireproof protection on the basis of the zirconium dioxide refractory materials [ru

  1. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  2. Comparative evaluation of an experimental binder in hot-mix asphalt: correlating the predicted performance of the binder with asphalt testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The binder is an important constituent of an asphalt mix and it affects the overall performance of the mix, especially with regards to permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. The stiffest binder available from the Chevron refinery in the Western...

  3. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  4. A study of binder materials subjected to isentropic compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Clint Allen; Orler, E. Bruce; Sheffield, Steve A.; Gustavsen, Rick L.; Sutherland, Gerrit; Baer, Melvin R.; Hooks, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Binders such as Estane, Teflon, Kel F and HTPB are typically used in heterogeneous explosives to bond polycrystalline constituents together as an energetic composite. Combined theoretical and experimental studies are underway to unravel the mechanical response of these materials when subjected to isentropic compression loading. Key to this effort is the determination of appropriate constitutive and EOS property data at extremely high stress-strain states as required for detailed mesoscale modeling. The Sandia Z accelerator and associated diagnostics provides new insights into mechanical response of these nonreactive constituents via isentropic ramp-wave compression loading. Several thicknesses of samples, varied from 0.3 to 1.2 mm, were subjected to a ramp load of ∼42 Kbar over 500 ns duration using the Sandia Z-machine. Profiles of transmitted ramp waves were measured at window interfaces using conventional VISAR. Shock physics analysis is then used to determine the nonlinear material response of the binder materials. In this presentation we discuss experimental and modeling details of the ramp wave loading ICE experiments designed specifically for binder materials.

  5. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increas...

  6. Long-term memory for pitch in six-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    We examined 6-month-old infants' long-term memory representations for the pitch of familiar melodies. Infants remembered the relative pitch of the melodies, but the absolute pitch was either not remembered or not a particularly salient attribute.

  7. Growth of TiO2-ZrO2 Binary Oxide Electrode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Than Win; Aye Myint Myat Kywe; Shwe Yee Win; Honey Thaw; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    TiO2-ZrO2 fine binary oxide was prepared by mechanochemical milling process to be homogeneous binary oxide powder. TiO2-ZrO2 paste was deposited on microscopic glass slide by rolling. It was immersed in the henna solution and annealed at 100C for 2h. It was deposited onto another glass slide and used as counter electrode (second electrode). Two glass slides were offset and two binder clips were used to hold the electrodes together. Photovoltaic properties of TiO2-ZrO2 cell were measured and it was expected to utilize the dye sensitized solar cells application.

  8. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  9. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  10. Near-Electrode Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, Rex E.,II

    1999-05-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager use the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  11. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances of binder-free flexible graphene/acetylene black sandwich film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Juan; Wei, Xicheng; Cao, Jianyu; Dong, Yuanzhu; Wang, Guoxin; Xue, Yufei; Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene/acetylene black sandwich film was fabricated by a simple vacuum filtration procedure using a stable complex suspension of graphene oxide (GO) and acetylene black followed by a hydroiodic acid (HI) immersion process to fully reduce the GO to graphene sheets. The self-restacking of individual graphene sheets were greatly alleviated and electric conductivity was obviously improved using the acetylene black nanoparticles as both effective spacers to expand the inter-layer interval of the individual graphene sheets during the film assembly course and highly conducting bridges to facilitate the electron/ion transfer between the upper and lower graphene sheets. The flexible graphene/acetylene black film was utilized as supercapacitor electrode without additional conductive additives, binders and current collectors, which achieved an obviously higher specific capacitance (ca. 136.6 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 ) and much better specific capacitance retention at high current densities than that of the pure graphene film electrode, indicating that such a novel sandwich film structure allows for a higher charge storage capability. More importantly, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor device displayed a satisfactory specific capacitance of 59.2 F g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 , 47.6 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 and 42.8 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 , and only negligible 4.05% capacitance degradation have been found after 1000 continuous charge-discharge cycles at 0.5 A g −1 , revealing outstanding rate capability, excellent electrochemical reversibility and long-term cyclability. These results proved that such a flexible and highly conductive graphene/acetylene black film can be promising electroactive materials in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage devices

  12. Interconnected Ni_2P nanorods grown on nickel foam for binder free lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qin; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a moderate and simple approach to synthesize nickel phosphide nanorods on nickel foam (Ni_2P/NF), which was employed as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, interconnected Ni_2P nanorods were fabricated through hydrothermal treatment of NF and subsequently by high temperature phosphating. NF is not only regarded as nickel source and metal current collector, but also as a support to grow electro-active material (Ni_2P). Therefore, Ni_2P/NF could act as a self-supported working electrode for LIBs without any extra addition of cohesive binders. Moreover, benefiting from the conductive capacity of Ni_2P/NF, the active compound behaved superior lithium storage performance and cycling reversibility during electrochemical cycling process. The Ni_2P/NF delivered excellent reversibility of 507 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This work may provide a potential method for preparation of metal phosphides as promising materials for LIBs, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or other fields.

  13. Tune That Beer! Listening for the Pitch of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments designed to assess the key sensory drivers underlying people’s association of a specific auditory pitch with Belgian beer. In particular, we assessed if people would rely mostly on the differences between beers in terms of their relative alcohol strength, or on the contrast between the most salient taste attributes of the different beers. In Experiment 1, the participants rated three bitter beers (differing in alcohol content, using a narrow range of pitch choices (50–500 Hz. The results revealed that the beers were all rated around the same pitch (Mean = 232 Hz, SD = 136 Hz. In Experiment 2, a wider range of pitch choices (50–1500 Hz, along with the addition of a much sweeter beer, revealed that people mostly tend to match beers with bitter-range profiles at significantly lower pitch ranges when compared to the average pitch of a much sweeter beer. These results therefore demonstrate that clear differences in taste attributes lead to distinctly different matches in terms of pitch. Having demonstrated the robustness of the basic crossmodal matching, future research should aim to uncover the basis for such matches and better understand the perceptual effects of matching/non-matching tones on the multisensory drinking experience.

  14. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  15. Kinematics and kinetics of elite windmill softball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sherry L; Jones, Deryk G; Guido, John A; Brunet, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    A significant number of time-loss injuries to the upper extremity in elite windmill softball pitchers has been documented. The number of outings and pitches thrown in 1 week for a softball pitcher is typically far in excess of those seen in baseball pitchers. Shoulder stress in professional baseball pitching has been reported to be high and has been linked to pitching injuries. Shoulder distraction has not been studied in an elite softball pitching population. The stresses on the throwing shoulder of elite windmill pitchers are similar to those found for professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional, high-speed (120 Hz) video data were collected on rise balls from 24 elite softball pitchers during the 1996 Olympic Games. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing shoulder were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate shoulder stress and pitching mechanics. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 80% of body weight for the Olympic pitchers. Sixty-nine percent of the variability in shoulder distraction can be explained by a combination of 7 parameters related to pitching mechanics. Excessive distraction stress at the throwing shoulder is similar to that found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries. Normative information regarding upper extremity kinematics and kinetics for elite softball pitchers has been established.

  16. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Grzybowski, Bartosz A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  17. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  18. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  19. Decoring Behaviour of Chosen Moulding Materials with Alkali Silicate Based Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conev M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains basic information about new processes for cores for cylinder heads production with alkali silicate based inorganic binders. Inorganic binders are coming back to the foreground due to their ecologically friendly nature and new technologies for cores production and new binder systems were developed. Basically these binder systems are modified alkali silicates and therefore they carry some well-known unfavourable properties with their usage. To compensate these disadvantages, the binder systems are working with additives which are most often in powder form and are added in the moulding material. This paper deals with decoring behaviour of different moulding sands as well as the influence of chosen additives on knock-out properties in laboratory terms. For this purpose, specific methods of specimen production are described. Developed methods are then used to compare decoring behaviour of chosen sands and binder systems.

  20. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.